The table below looks at the statistics for TDD skills in IT jobs advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the salaries offered in IT jobs that have cited TDD over the 3 months to 27 July 2016 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

3 months to
27 Jul 2016
Same period 2015 Same period 2014
Test-Driven Development (TDD)
Rank 22 25 32
Rank change year-on-year
+3 +7
Permanent jobs citing TDD 8044 8435 7891
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 8.21% 7.66% 6.77%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 9.35% 8.78% 7.93%
Number of salaries quoted 7246 7365 6979
Median salary £51,500 £49,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year
+4.04% -1.00%
90% offered a salary of more than £35,000 £35,000 £35,000
10% offered a salary of more than £75,000 £70,000 £67,500
UK excluding London median salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,000
% change year-on-year
+5.88% +1.19%

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Processes & Methodologies category in permanent jobs advertised across the UK.

Processes & Methodologies Category
UK
Permanent IT job ads with a match in the
Processes & Methodologies category
86074 96066 99488
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 87.83% 87.26% 85.40%
Number of salaries quoted 71841 78584 80267
Median salary £50,000 £50,000 £48,000
Median salary % change year-on-year
- +4.16%
90% offered a salary of more than £32,500 £32,000 £31,000
10% offered a salary of more than £77,500 £72,500 £75,000
UK excluding London median salary £45,000 £44,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year
+2.27% +3.52%

TDD
Jobs Demand Trend

The demand trend of job ads citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs with a match in the Processes & Methodologies category.

TDD Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

TDD
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing TDD within the UK.

TDD Salary Trend in the UK

TDD
Salary Histogram

This chart provides a salary histogram for IT jobs citing TDD over the 3 months to 27 July 2016 within the UK.

TDD Salary Histogram in the UK

TDD
Top 30 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 3 months to 27 July 2016. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location
(Click see detailed
statistics and trends)
Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Last 3 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 7668 £52,500 +5.00% 1119
London +4 4186 £60,000 +4.34% 641
South East +10 1308 £45,000 - 158
City of London +8 689 £61,500 +6.49% 139
North West +4 522 £42,960 +7.40% 92
East of England -1 379 £45,000 -5.26% 48
South West -8 364 £42,500 +6.25% 47
Manchester 0 363 £45,000 +5.88% 64
Yorkshire 0 356 £45,000 +9.75% 56
West Midlands -14 292 £42,500 - 35
Hampshire -3 255 £40,000 -11.11% 48
West Yorkshire +1 246 £45,000 +5.88% 44
Scotland -1 227 £45,000 +12.50% 30
Berkshire +28 225 £50,000 -4.76% 24
Surrey +27 217 £50,000 -9.09% 22
Leeds +5 196 £47,500 +5.55% 34
East Midlands -12 186 £44,000 +10.00% 24
Glasgow +4 165 £45,000 +5.88% 13
Oxfordshire -1 161 £48,750 +8.33% 20
West Sussex +17 160 £44,000 -12.00% 9
Cambridgeshire +6 130 £45,000 -3.22% 16
Reading +31 122 £50,000 -4.76% 13
Buckinghamshire +31 113 £44,000 -2.22% 10
Bristol -15 110 £40,750 -9.44% 17
Nottinghamshire +7 108 £45,000 +5.88% 15
Nottingham +7 107 £45,000 +5.88% 14
Hertfordshire -15 103 £47,500 - 13
Milton Keynes +33 99 £42,500 -5.55% 8
Cheshire +5 90 £40,000 - 18
East Sussex -5 90 £42,500 -5.55% 12

TDD
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 27 July 2016, IT jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 13454 (82.73%) Agile Software Development
2 7257 (44.63%) C#
3 6798 (41.80%) .NET
4 6615 (40.68%) JavaScript
5 6292 (38.69%) BDD
6 5896 (36.26%) Scrum
7 5843 (35.93%) MVC
8 5569 (34.25%) Java
9 5248 (32.27%) HTML
10 4783 (29.41%) SQL Server
11 4656 (28.63%) ASP.NET
12 4580 (28.16%) CSS
13 4198 (25.81%) Continuous Integration
14 3867 (23.78%) SQL
15 3791 (23.31%) AngularJS
16 3737 (22.98%) ASP.NET MVC
17 3334 (20.50%) OO
18 3184 (19.58%) Git (software)
19 2994 (18.41%) Finance
20 2907 (17.88%) Software Engineering
21 2694 (16.57%) HTML5
22 2604 (16.01%) Web Services
23 2502 (15.39%) WCF
24 2489 (15.31%) jQuery
25 2480 (15.25%) RESTful
26 2479 (15.24%) Node.js
27 2263 (13.92%) Kanban
28 2239 (13.77%) Spring
29 2151 (13.23%) ASP.NET Web API
30 2113 (12.99%) NoSQL

TDD
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 612 (3.76%) Elasticsearch
2 512 (3.15%) CMS
3 455 (2.80%) Tomcat
4 330 (2.03%) Apache
5 300 (1.84%) IIS
6 289 (1.78%) Apache Spark
7 279 (1.72%) JBoss
8 275 (1.69%) Apache Solr
9 230 (1.41%) WebSphere
10 192 (1.18%) Umbraco
11 182 (1.12%) Confluence
12 144 (0.89%) SharePoint
13 133 (0.82%) Sitecore CMS
14 111 (0.68%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 106 (0.65%) nginx
15 106 (0.65%) WebLogic
16 102 (0.63%) Mule
17 97 (0.60%) Jetty
18 90 (0.55%) BizTalk Server
19 81 (0.50%) GlassFish
Applications
1 512 (3.15%) MS Excel
2 105 (0.65%) Photoshop
3 81 (0.50%) MS Office
4 33 (0.20%) Adobe Illustrator
5 32 (0.20%) MS Visio
6 21 (0.13%) Gliffy
6 21 (0.13%) OmniGraffle
7 11 (0.068%) MS PowerPoint
8 6 (0.037%) MS Project
9 5 (0.031%) 3ds Max
10 4 (0.025%) InfoPath
10 4 (0.025%) S-PLUS
11 2 (0.012%) SPSS
12 1 (0.006%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.006%) GIMP
12 1 (0.006%) HipChat
12 1 (0.006%) Maya
Business Applications
1 113 (0.69%) Dynamics CRM
2 107 (0.66%) SAP Oil and Gas
3 67 (0.41%) Oracle Retail
4 65 (0.40%) Oracle Financials
4 65 (0.40%) PeopleSoft Financials
5 46 (0.28%) Magento
6 37 (0.23%) Oracle BPM
7 22 (0.14%) Shopify
8 21 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
9 11 (0.068%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
9 11 (0.068%) ReMetrica
10 10 (0.061%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 8 (0.049%) SAP CRM
12 7 (0.043%) Oracle EBS
13 6 (0.037%) Dynamics AX
13 6 (0.037%) Eloqua
13 6 (0.037%) RMDS
14 5 (0.031%) Oracle CRM
14 5 (0.031%) SAP Business One
14 5 (0.031%) VisionPLUS
Cloud Services
1 1234 (7.59%) Amazon AWS
2 906 (5.57%) Microsoft Azure
3 503 (3.09%) GitHub
4 393 (2.42%) SaaS
5 202 (1.24%) Amazon EC2
6 183 (1.13%) PaaS
7 130 (0.80%) Cloud Computing
8 103 (0.63%) Google Play
9 102 (0.63%) IaaS
10 78 (0.48%) Google Cloud Platform
11 74 (0.46%) Amazon S3
12 52 (0.32%) Heroku
13 34 (0.21%) AWS CloudFormation
14 33 (0.20%) Amazon CloudWatch
15 32 (0.20%) Amazon Kinesis
15 32 (0.20%) AWS Lambda
16 26 (0.16%) Google App Engine
17 24 (0.15%) Google Analytics
18 21 (0.13%) Amazon SQS
19 20 (0.12%) Google Compute Engine
Communications & Networking
1 678 (4.17%) Internet
2 299 (1.84%) HTTP
3 76 (0.47%) TCP/IP
4 66 (0.41%) Broadband
5 62 (0.38%) HTTPS
6 48 (0.30%) DNS
6 48 (0.30%) SMTP
7 37 (0.23%) SSH
8 34 (0.21%) Network Security
9 25 (0.15%) LDAP
10 24 (0.15%) Intranet
11 22 (0.14%) SSL
12 20 (0.12%) AMQP
13 17 (0.10%) Firewall
13 17 (0.10%) SMPP
14 15 (0.092%) VPN
15 14 (0.086%) Ethernet
15 14 (0.086%) IPv6
16 12 (0.074%) FTP
17 11 (0.068%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4783 (29.41%) SQL Server
2 2113 (12.99%) NoSQL
3 1823 (11.21%) SQL Server 2014
4 1462 (8.99%) MySQL
5 1253 (7.71%) MongoDB
6 866 (5.33%) Big Data
7 841 (5.17%) Relational Database
8 621 (3.82%) PostgreSQL
9 516 (3.17%) Hadoop
10 514 (3.16%) Apache Cassandra
11 388 (2.39%) RDBMS
12 382 (2.35%) Redis
13 287 (1.76%) SQL Server 2008
14 202 (1.24%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 180 (1.11%) Neo4j
16 172 (1.06%) SQL Server 2012
16 172 (1.06%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 151 (0.93%) Apache Hive
18 137 (0.84%) Data Warehouse
19 128 (0.79%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 3184 (19.58%) Git (software)
2 1612 (9.91%) Jenkins
3 1475 (9.07%) Selenium
4 1335 (8.21%) NUnit
5 1035 (6.36%) JIRA
6 1023 (6.29%) Maven
7 1012 (6.22%) JUnit
8 993 (6.11%) Cucumber
9 992 (6.10%) Subversion
10 914 (5.62%) Rhino Mocks
11 738 (4.54%) Visual Studio
12 710 (4.37%) Moq
13 705 (4.34%) Team Foundation Server
14 681 (4.19%) TeamCity
15 570 (3.51%) WebDriver
16 521 (3.20%) MSTest
17 419 (2.58%) Gradle
18 392 (2.41%) SpecFlow
19 382 (2.35%) Jasmine
20 371 (2.28%) Grunt
General
1 2994 (18.41%) Finance
2 1054 (6.48%) Games
3 812 (4.99%) Retail
4 766 (4.71%) Banking
5 716 (4.40%) Marketing
6 466 (2.87%) Law
7 449 (2.76%) Telecoms
8 401 (2.47%) Advertising
9 214 (1.32%) Publishing
10 183 (1.13%) Investment Banking
11 159 (0.98%) Front Office
12 142 (0.87%) Manufacturing
13 133 (0.82%) Electronics
14 124 (0.76%) Back Office
15 92 (0.57%) Legal
16 84 (0.52%) Music Industry
17 70 (0.43%) Online Betting
18 64 (0.39%) Financial Institution
19 53 (0.33%) Automotive
20 29 (0.18%) Billing
Job Titles
1 12200 (75.02%) Developer
2 4504 (27.70%) .NET Developer
3 3424 (21.06%) C# Developer
4 2855 (17.56%) Java Developer
5 2664 (16.38%) Senior Developer
6 2557 (15.72%) C# .NET Developer
7 1402 (8.62%) ASP.NET Developer
8 1297 (7.98%) C# ASP.NET Developer
9 1243 (7.64%) JavaScript Developer
10 1185 (7.29%) Agile Developer
11 1158 (7.12%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
12 1056 (6.49%) Software Engineer
13 871 (5.36%) Software Developer
14 838 (5.15%) Senior Java Developer
15 786 (4.83%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
16 730 (4.49%) Lead Developer
17 662 (4.07%) Web Developer
18 596 (3.66%) Senior .NET Developer
19 578 (3.55%) HTML Developer
20 572 (3.52%) Senior C# Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6798 (41.80%) .NET
2 5248 (32.27%) HTML
3 4656 (28.63%) ASP.NET
4 4580 (28.16%) CSS
5 3791 (23.31%) AngularJS
6 3737 (22.98%) ASP.NET MVC
7 2694 (16.57%) HTML5
8 2604 (16.01%) Web Services
9 2502 (15.39%) WCF
10 2489 (15.31%) jQuery
11 2480 (15.25%) RESTful
12 2479 (15.24%) Node.js
13 2239 (13.77%) Spring
14 2151 (13.23%) ASP.NET Web API
15 2055 (12.64%) ASP.NET MVC 5
16 1926 (11.84%) .NET Framework
17 1820 (11.19%) REST
18 1620 (9.96%) CSS3
19 1573 (9.67%) XML
20 1331 (8.18%) WPF
Miscellaneous
1 1409 (8.66%) Computer Science
2 933 (5.74%) User Experience
3 833 (5.12%) Mobile App
4 680 (4.18%) Enterprise Software
5 655 (4.03%) Analytical Skills
6 533 (3.28%) Inversion of Control
7 459 (2.82%) Fintech
8 340 (2.09%) Mathematics
9 254 (1.56%) iPad
10 205 (1.26%) iPhone
11 192 (1.18%) Tandem
12 189 (1.16%) Social Network
13 184 (1.13%) Visualisation
14 176 (1.08%) Algorithms
15 163 (1.00%) Hedge funds
16 161 (0.99%) Client/Server
17 155 (0.95%) Online Games
18 154 (0.95%) Data Structures
18 154 (0.95%) N-Tier
19 147 (0.90%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 1665 (10.24%) Linux
2 1512 (9.30%) Windows
3 833 (5.12%) Android
4 807 (4.96%) Apple iOS
5 686 (4.22%) Unix
6 96 (0.59%) Ubuntu
7 67 (0.41%) Windows Server
8 39 (0.24%) Windows Phone
9 36 (0.22%) Debian
10 34 (0.21%) Windows 8
11 33 (0.20%) FreeBSD
11 33 (0.20%) Mac OS X
11 33 (0.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 26 (0.16%) CentOS
13 23 (0.14%) Solaris
13 23 (0.14%) Windows 10
13 23 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
14 22 (0.14%) Windows Mobile
15 20 (0.12%) openSUSE
16 18 (0.11%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 13454 (82.73%) Agile Software Development
2 6292 (38.69%) BDD
3 5896 (36.26%) Scrum
4 5843 (35.93%) MVC
5 4198 (25.81%) Continuous Integration
6 3334 (20.50%) OO
7 2907 (17.88%) Software Engineering
8 2263 (13.92%) Kanban
9 1881 (11.57%) Web Application Development
10 1823 (11.21%) E-Commerce
11 1723 (10.60%) Web Development
12 1648 (10.13%) Unit Testing
13 1313 (8.07%) DevOps
14 1304 (8.02%) Open Source
15 1300 (7.99%) SDLC
16 1247 (7.67%) OOP
17 1214 (7.47%) Front End Development
18 1110 (6.83%) Pair Programming
19 1108 (6.81%) Mentoring
20 1040 (6.40%) Dependency Injection
Programming Languages
1 7257 (44.63%) C#
2 6615 (40.68%) JavaScript
3 5569 (34.25%) Java
4 3867 (23.78%) SQL
5 1943 (11.95%) Ruby
6 1604 (9.86%) Python
7 1365 (8.39%) PHP
8 1031 (6.34%) Scala
9 959 (5.90%) C++
10 786 (4.83%) T-SQL
11 444 (2.73%) Groovy
12 433 (2.66%) VB.NET
13 332 (2.04%) Objective-C
14 300 (1.84%) Perl
15 294 (1.81%) Bash Shell
16 277 (1.70%) C
17 263 (1.62%) VB
18 246 (1.51%) Clojure
19 240 (1.48%) ES6
20 229 (1.41%) PowerShell
Qualifications
1 1910 (11.75%) Degree
2 295 (1.81%) ISEB
3 265 (1.63%) ISTQB
4 209 (1.29%) Security Cleared
5 164 (1.01%) Microsoft Certification
6 117 (0.72%) SC Cleared
7 77 (0.47%) DV Cleared
8 74 (0.46%) PhD
9 63 (0.39%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 44 (0.27%) MCSD
11 42 (0.26%) MCAD
12 41 (0.25%) MCTS
13 38 (0.23%) MCP
14 36 (0.22%) PMI Certification
15 20 (0.12%) Sun Certification
16 18 (0.11%) Oracle Certification
17 16 (0.098%) OCP
18 14 (0.086%) CITP
19 13 (0.080%) PMP
20 12 (0.074%) MCPD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1384 (8.51%) QA
2 120 (0.74%) SDET
3 33 (0.20%) ISO 9001
4 29 (0.18%) ISO13485
5 22 (0.14%) DICOM
6 19 (0.12%) SLA
7 10 (0.061%) HL7
7 10 (0.061%) ISO 14001
7 10 (0.061%) PCI DSS
8 9 (0.055%) Data Quality
9 4 (0.025%) MiFID
9 4 (0.025%) SEPA
9 4 (0.025%) TickIT
10 3 (0.018%) HIPAA
10 3 (0.018%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 2 (0.012%) ISO 9000
12 1 (0.006%) Disclosure Scotland
12 1 (0.006%) MISRA
12 1 (0.006%) MISRA C
System Software
1 567 (3.49%) Docker
2 63 (0.39%) VMware Infrastructure
3 61 (0.38%) HDFS
4 50 (0.31%) Virtual Machines
5 39 (0.24%) Apache Flume
6 29 (0.18%) Varnish
7 20 (0.12%) Active Directory
7 20 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 18 (0.11%) Firmware
9 10 (0.061%) Hyper-V
9 10 (0.061%) VMware ESX
10 9 (0.055%) Veritas Cluster Server
11 8 (0.049%) VirtualBox
12 7 (0.043%) vSphere
13 6 (0.037%) iptables
14 4 (0.025%) VMware ESXi
15 2 (0.012%) KVM
15 2 (0.012%) Microsoft App-V
15 2 (0.012%) Virtual Servers
16 1 (0.006%) LXC
Systems Management
1 470 (2.89%) Puppet
2 296 (1.82%) Opscode Chef
3 246 (1.51%) Ansible
4 102 (0.63%) Kubernetes
5 84 (0.52%) HP Quality Center
6 79 (0.49%) Kibana
7 67 (0.41%) Salt
8 64 (0.39%) Mesos
9 43 (0.26%) Nagios
10 40 (0.25%) logstash
11 35 (0.22%) yum
12 33 (0.20%) Terraform
13 26 (0.16%) Business Desktop Deployment
13 26 (0.16%) WMI
14 23 (0.14%) ZABBIX
15 20 (0.12%) WSUS
16 18 (0.11%) Packer
17 17 (0.10%) Grafana
17 17 (0.10%) StatsD
18 16 (0.098%) Graphite
Vendors
1 1673 (10.29%) Microsoft
2 1096 (6.74%) Oracle
3 524 (3.22%) Google
4 370 (2.28%) Facebook
5 212 (1.30%) Adobe
6 200 (1.23%) Apple
7 179 (1.10%) Zend
8 178 (1.09%) Sitecore
9 164 (1.01%) Twitter
10 146 (0.90%) Atlassian
11 134 (0.82%) IBM
12 133 (0.82%) SAP
13 123 (0.76%) hybris
14 110 (0.68%) HP
15 108 (0.66%) Xamarin
16 100 (0.61%) Yahoo!
17 96 (0.59%) EPiServer
18 92 (0.57%) MuleSoft
18 92 (0.57%) Sony
19 85 (0.52%) ATG
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Hotfoot Recruitment
Salary: From £35,000 to £60,000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 16 hours ago
London
Arrows Group
Posted: 16 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
CPS Group UK
Salary: £35000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
Brighton, East Sussex
IT Executive Ltd
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 14 hours ago
West London
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Salary: £45000 - £50000 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
City, London
First Point
Salary: £45000.00 - £50000.00 per annum
Posted: 11 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Hotfoot Recruitment
Salary: From £30,000 to £50,000 per annum
Posted: 16 hours ago
Cheshire
HAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Posted: 11 hours ago
Kent
Greywood Associates Limited
Salary: £30000 - £40000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 10 hours ago
Surrey
Greywood Associates Limited
Salary: £30000 - £40000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 19 hours ago
Warrington, Cheshire
Circle Recruitment
Salary: £35000 - £50000 per annum + benefits
Posted: 11 hours ago
Farnborough, Hampshire
Rullion IT Plus
Salary: £30000 - £45000 per annum + benefits
Posted: Yesterday
Telford, Shropshire
Ascend Consulting
Salary: From £28,000 to £35,000 per annum
Posted: 10 hours ago
Hayes, Middlesex
Hanover IT Recruitment
Salary: From £55,000 to £65,000 per annum + bonus up to 17% and car allowance
Posted: 14 hours ago
City, London
Client Server
Salary: £65k to £90k + bonus + benefits
Posted: 16 hours ago
London
onezeero.
Salary: £53000 - £57000 per annum + 20% bonus + other benefits
Posted: Yesterday
London
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £30000 - £50000 per annum + Bonus + Pension + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
West London
Coded People
Salary: £55000 - £60000 per annum
Posted: 18 hours ago
London
Oliver Bernard
Salary: £60000 - £70000 per annum + bonus & benefits
Posted: 18 hours ago
South West London
Blue Glue
Posted: 13 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Applause IT Innovation
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum + Benefits, Pension & Training
Posted: 11 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Hotfoot Recruitment
Salary: From £55,000 to £60,000 per annum 10% Bonus + Fantastic Benefits + Fle
Posted: 15 hours ago
London
Lorien Resourcing
Salary: £65000 - £75000 per annum + Car Allow + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 20 hours ago
City, London
Vantage Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Salary: From £55,000 to £60,000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
Computer People
Salary: £45000.00 - £55000.00 per annum + 10% bonus
Posted: 12 hours ago
London
Dawson & Walsh
Salary: £30000 - £40000 per annum + Bonus + Pension + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £40000 - £60000 per annum + bonus + benefits
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
AdRoc Group
Salary: £50000 - £90000 per annum + pension, bonus c15%, travel allowance,
Posted: 18 hours ago
Glasgow, Lanarkshire
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Salary: 35k - 45k + bonus and benefits
Posted: Yesterday
Reading, Berkshire
Coal IT Services
Salary: £33,000 per annum + Excellent Bens and Bonus
Posted: 13 hours ago