Period
to 27 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Web Services skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Web Services over the 6 months to 27 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Web Services
UK
6 months to
27 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 77 44 54
Rank change year-on-year -33 +10 -7
Contract jobs citing Web Services 2,457 1,462 3,755
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.06% 5.01% 4.28%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 10.26% 16.07% 13.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,791 1,155 2,261
10th Percentile £400 £410 £360
25th Percentile £450 £463 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £563 £500
Median % change year-on-year -6.67% +12.50% +5.26%
75th Percentile £638 £700 £575
90th Percentile £700 £763 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 21 8 31
10th Percentile £31.25 £32.76 £42.50
25th Percentile £42.75 £46.00 £45.13
Median hourly rate £49.66 £51.75 £52.50
Median % change year-on-year -4.05% -1.43% +23.53%
75th Percentile £62.00 £55.00 £71.25
90th Percentile £63.25 £58.30 £82.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £53.75 £53.75 £53.75

Web Services is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 23,958 9,099 27,525
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.85% 31.15% 31.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,165 6,407 19,321
10th Percentile £363 £319 £334
25th Percentile £425 £406 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £495
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +1.01% +4.21%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £450 £440
% change year-on-year +2.78% +2.27% +3.53%
Number of hourly rates quoted 229 72 269
10th Percentile £17.13 £21.28 £17.48
25th Percentile £27.73 £30.00 £31.18
Median hourly rate £49.00 £42.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +15.29% -5.56% +7.54%
75th Percentile £63.25 £50.10 £53.00
90th Percentile £72.10 £60.88 £64.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.00 £46.45 £45.00
% change year-on-year +5.49% +3.22% +8.43%

Web Services
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Web Services as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Web Services in the UK

Web Services
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Web Services.

Daily rate trend for Web Services in the UK

Web Services
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Web Services over the 6 months to 27 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Web Services in the UK

Web Services
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Web Services.

Hourly rate trend for Web Services in the UK

Web Services
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Web Services over the 6 months to 27 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Web Services in the UK

Web Services
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Web Services within the UK over the 6 months to 27 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -32 2,071 £526 -8.61% 732
London -39 1,366 £550 -8.33% 310
Work from Home -13 795 £525 +5.00% 172
UK excluding London -40 673 £475 - 463
North of England +7 183 £475 +1.06% 134
South East -23 177 £510 +4.62% 74
North West +3 104 £475 +2.43% 87
South West -43 91 £507 -3.52% 57
Midlands -54 76 £450 +28.57% 81
Scotland -43 71 £450 -12.20% 29
East of England -44 56 £475 -3.06% 68
Yorkshire -23 48 £450 -2.70% 35
West Midlands -53 47 £450 +24.14% 51
North East +12 32 £475 -6.17% 12
East Midlands -34 24 £409 +29.76% 28
Wales -23 15 £438 -12.50% 17
Northern Ireland -8 5 £433 -1.76% 3

For the 6 months to 27 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Web Services also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Web Services.

1 1,257 (51.16%) Agile Software Development
2 1,086 (44.20%) AWS
3 960 (39.07%) JavaScript
4 893 (36.35%) Java
5 710 (28.90%) Finance
6 627 (25.52%) DevOps
7 600 (24.42%) SQL
8 572 (23.28%) Docker
9 570 (23.20%) Software Engineering
10 567 (23.08%) Azure
11 544 (22.14%) REST
12 537 (21.86%) React
13 484 (19.70%) Python
14 473 (19.25%) Node.js
15 453 (18.44%) Full Stack Development
16 449 (18.27%) Kubernetes
17 436 (17.75%) Git (software)
18 428 (17.42%) Terraform
19 398 (16.20%) Microservices
20 396 (16.12%) HTML
21 394 (16.04%) Social Skills
22 391 (15.91%) Jenkins
23 390 (15.87%) Serverless
24 375 (15.26%) RESTful
25 362 (14.73%) Asset Management
26 356 (14.49%) Scrum
27 351 (14.29%) TypeScript
28 348 (14.16%) CSS
29 341 (13.88%) AngularJS
30 337 (13.72%) TDD

Web Services
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 86 (3.50%) Confluence
2 82 (3.34%) CMS
3 70 (2.85%) Apache
4 62 (2.52%) Tomcat
5 58 (2.36%) SharePoint
6 47 (1.91%) JBoss
7 45 (1.83%) Apache Spark
8 41 (1.67%) Elasticsearch
8 41 (1.67%) Mule
9 32 (1.30%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 29 (1.18%) WebSphere
11 27 (1.10%) Red Hat Fuse
12 26 (1.06%) Apache Airflow
13 24 (0.98%) IIS
14 20 (0.81%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 19 (0.77%) WebLogic
16 17 (0.69%) BizTalk Server
16 17 (0.69%) nginx
17 16 (0.65%) Anypoint
18 13 (0.53%) Oracle Workflow
Applications
1 18 (0.73%) Microsoft Excel
2 17 (0.69%) Microsoft Office
3 13 (0.53%) MS Visio
4 7 (0.28%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 5 (0.20%) Microsoft Project
6 4 (0.16%) Chatbot
7 3 (0.12%) XMetaL
8 2 (0.081%) Spreadsheet
8 2 (0.081%) SPSS
9 1 (0.041%) Adobe Illustrator
9 1 (0.041%) Adobe XD
9 1 (0.041%) Figma
9 1 (0.041%) InDesign
9 1 (0.041%) Photoshop
9 1 (0.041%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 43 (1.75%) Dynamics CRM
2 14 (0.57%) Magento
3 13 (0.53%) Oracle ERP
4 8 (0.33%) SAP Hybris
5 7 (0.28%) Dynamics AX
6 5 (0.20%) NetSuite
6 5 (0.20%) Payment Gateway
6 5 (0.20%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 5 (0.20%) SAP MDG
6 5 (0.20%) SAP MDG-F
6 5 (0.20%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 5 (0.20%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 5 (0.20%) VisionPLUS
7 4 (0.16%) Oracle BPM
7 4 (0.16%) Oracle EBS
8 3 (0.12%) BusinessWorks
8 3 (0.12%) Exchequer
8 3 (0.12%) Shopify
8 3 (0.12%) Workday HCM
9 2 (0.081%) SAP R/3
Cloud Services
1 1,086 (44.20%) AWS
2 567 (23.08%) Azure
3 390 (15.87%) Serverless
4 308 (12.54%) Amazon S3
5 294 (11.97%) AWS Lambda
6 214 (8.71%) Amazon SQS
7 212 (8.63%) GCP
8 184 (7.49%) AWS Step Functions
9 147 (5.98%) GitHub
10 134 (5.45%) PaaS
11 116 (4.72%) Amazon EC2
12 109 (4.44%) IaaS
13 103 (4.19%) SaaS
14 101 (4.11%) AWS CloudFormation
15 72 (2.93%) Power Platform
16 68 (2.77%) Microsoft 365
17 50 (2.04%) Cloud Computing
18 42 (1.71%) Dynamics 365
18 42 (1.71%) OpenShift
19 39 (1.59%) Amazon EKS
Communications & Networking
1 119 (4.84%) HTTP
2 58 (2.36%) TCP/IP
3 47 (1.91%) Internet
4 45 (1.83%) DNS
5 40 (1.63%) SSL
6 39 (1.59%) Firewall
7 21 (0.85%) VPN
8 20 (0.81%) SAN
9 18 (0.73%) Kerberos
10 16 (0.65%) Ethernet
10 16 (0.65%) FTP
11 14 (0.57%) Network Security
12 13 (0.53%) IPsec
13 9 (0.37%) NAS
14 8 (0.33%) DHCP
14 8 (0.33%) WAN
15 7 (0.28%) HTTPS
15 7 (0.28%) Intranet
15 7 (0.28%) LAN
15 7 (0.28%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 335 (13.63%) SQL Server
2 266 (10.83%) Amazon DynamoDB
3 215 (8.75%) Amazon RDS
4 174 (7.08%) Relational Database
5 146 (5.94%) NoSQL
6 143 (5.82%) MongoDB
7 128 (5.21%) MySQL
8 92 (3.74%) PostgreSQL
9 84 (3.42%) Big Data
10 58 (2.36%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 54 (2.20%) Power BI
12 49 (1.99%) RDBMS
13 44 (1.79%) Amazon Athena
14 42 (1.71%) Redis
15 38 (1.55%) Data Warehouse
16 37 (1.51%) Apache Cassandra
17 35 (1.42%) Hadoop
18 34 (1.38%) Oracle Database
19 28 (1.14%) Amazon Redshift
20 25 (1.02%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 436 (17.75%) Git (software)
2 391 (15.91%) Jenkins
3 198 (8.06%) JIRA
4 161 (6.55%) Maven
5 140 (5.70%) JUnit
6 127 (5.17%) Cucumber
7 125 (5.09%) Selenium
8 90 (3.66%) GitLab
9 75 (3.05%) Visual Studio
10 66 (2.69%) Mockito
11 63 (2.56%) SoapUI
12 60 (2.44%) Postman
13 57 (2.32%) Eclipse
14 54 (2.20%) Bitbucket
14 54 (2.20%) TeamCity
15 53 (2.16%) Subversion
16 46 (1.87%) CircleCI
17 43 (1.75%) Gradle
18 38 (1.55%) Team Foundation Server
19 37 (1.51%) webpack
General
1 710 (28.90%) Finance
2 394 (16.04%) Social Skills
3 326 (13.27%) Front Office
4 179 (7.29%) Public Sector
5 178 (7.24%) Banking
6 153 (6.23%) Analytical Skills
7 80 (3.26%) Marketing
8 65 (2.65%) Retail
9 64 (2.60%) Investment Banking
10 62 (2.52%) Presentation Skills
11 39 (1.59%) Telecoms
12 23 (0.94%) Influencing Skills
12 23 (0.94%) Manufacturing
12 23 (0.94%) Military
13 21 (0.85%) Documentation Skills
14 19 (0.77%) Legal
15 18 (0.73%) Law
16 17 (0.69%) Billing
17 15 (0.61%) Aerospace
17 15 (0.61%) German Language
Job Titles
1 1,282 (52.18%) Developer
2 306 (12.45%) Software Engineer
3 261 (10.62%) Java Developer
4 258 (10.50%) Architect
5 240 (9.77%) React Developer
6 194 (7.90%) AWS Engineer
7 178 (7.24%) Senior Developer
8 175 (7.12%) Developer/Software Engineer
9 161 (6.55%) Full Stack Developer
10 138 (5.62%) AWS Developer
11 132 (5.37%) JavaScript Developer
12 123 (5.01%) DevOps Engineer
13 108 (4.40%) Python Developer
14 103 (4.19%) Analyst
15 93 (3.79%) JavaScript Engineer
16 87 (3.54%) Solutions Architect
17 86 (3.50%) .NET Developer
18 85 (3.46%) Cloud Engineer
19 80 (3.26%) AWS Software Engineer
20 78 (3.17%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 544 (22.14%) REST
2 537 (21.86%) React
3 473 (19.25%) Node.js
4 396 (16.12%) HTML
5 375 (15.26%) RESTful
6 348 (14.16%) CSS
7 341 (13.88%) AngularJS
8 327 (13.31%) .NET
9 324 (13.19%) SOAP
10 321 (13.06%) Spring
11 304 (12.37%) XML
12 287 (11.68%) JSON
13 245 (9.97%) Material-UI
14 171 (6.96%) Spring Boot
15 146 (5.94%) HTML5
16 110 (4.48%) Vue.js
17 100 (4.07%) Hibernate
18 99 (4.03%) .NET Framework
18 99 (4.03%) CSS3
19 92 (3.74%) ASP.NET
Miscellaneous
1 132 (5.37%) User Experience
2 92 (3.74%) Equities
2 92 (3.74%) Fixed Income
3 81 (3.30%) Derivative
4 67 (2.73%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 65 (2.65%) Public Cloud
6 64 (2.60%) Legacy Systems
7 63 (2.56%) Mobile App
8 52 (2.12%) Cloud Native
9 48 (1.95%) Data Structures
10 46 (1.87%) Data Protection Act
11 39 (1.59%) Management Information System
12 36 (1.47%) Enterprise Software
13 33 (1.34%) Virtual Team
14 32 (1.30%) CMDB
15 30 (1.22%) Social Media
16 29 (1.18%) Data Centre
17 28 (1.14%) Greenfield Project
17 28 (1.14%) Hybrid Cloud
17 28 (1.14%) Self-Motivation
Operating Systems
1 298 (12.13%) Linux
2 203 (8.26%) Windows
3 134 (5.45%) Unix
4 63 (2.56%) Windows Server
5 42 (1.71%) Apple iOS
6 41 (1.67%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 36 (1.47%) Android
8 15 (0.61%) Ubuntu
9 13 (0.53%) Mac OS
10 10 (0.41%) Solaris
11 8 (0.33%) tvOS
11 8 (0.33%) Windows 10
12 7 (0.28%) CentOS
12 7 (0.28%) Windows Server 2012
12 7 (0.28%) Windows Server 2016
13 6 (0.24%) Mac OS X
14 3 (0.12%) Windows Server 2019
15 2 (0.081%) AIX
15 2 (0.081%) Oracle Linux
15 2 (0.081%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,257 (51.16%) Agile Software Development
2 627 (25.52%) DevOps
3 570 (23.20%) Software Engineering
4 453 (18.44%) Full Stack Development
5 398 (16.20%) Microservices
6 362 (14.73%) Asset Management
7 356 (14.49%) Scrum
8 337 (13.72%) TDD
9 320 (13.02%) Test Automation
10 311 (12.66%) Continuous Integration
11 268 (10.91%) Investment Management
12 219 (8.91%) Problem-Solving
13 213 (8.67%) MVC
14 187 (7.61%) SDLC
15 183 (7.45%) Unit Testing
16 179 (7.29%) Migration
17 176 (7.16%) BDD
18 165 (6.72%) OO
19 163 (6.63%) SOA
20 140 (5.70%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 960 (39.07%) JavaScript
2 893 (36.35%) Java
3 600 (24.42%) SQL
4 484 (19.70%) Python
5 351 (14.29%) TypeScript
6 300 (12.21%) C#
7 122 (4.97%) Java 8
8 121 (4.92%) PowerShell
9 114 (4.64%) Scala
10 105 (4.27%) Kotlin
11 97 (3.95%) Bash Shell
12 80 (3.26%) Ruby
13 74 (3.01%) PHP
14 59 (2.40%) Shell Script
15 58 (2.36%) T-SQL
16 57 (2.32%) PL/SQL
17 56 (2.28%) C++
18 47 (1.91%) C
19 45 (1.83%) Apex Code
20 36 (1.47%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 224 (9.12%) Security Cleared
2 194 (7.90%) SC Cleared
3 155 (6.31%) Degree
4 40 (1.63%) AWS Certification
5 37 (1.51%) Computer Science Degree
6 34 (1.38%) DV Cleared
7 23 (0.94%) BPSS Clearance
8 18 (0.73%) TOGAF Certification
9 16 (0.65%) ISTQB
10 15 (0.61%) Microsoft Certification
11 13 (0.53%) Master's Degree
12 10 (0.41%) CISSP
13 8 (0.33%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 6 (0.24%) ISEB
14 6 (0.24%) MCSE
15 5 (0.20%) CCA
16 4 (0.16%) ITIL Certification
16 4 (0.16%) MCSA
16 4 (0.16%) PMP
16 4 (0.16%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 122 (4.97%) QA
2 54 (2.20%) Accessibility
3 26 (1.06%) Data Quality
4 14 (0.57%) GDPR
5 13 (0.53%) WCAG
6 11 (0.45%) PCI DSS
6 11 (0.45%) SLA
7 10 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 9 (0.37%) Disclosure Scotland
9 7 (0.28%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 4 (0.16%) NIST
11 3 (0.12%) ISO 20022
11 3 (0.12%) ISO 9001
11 3 (0.12%) PMO
12 2 (0.081%) Cyber Essentials
12 2 (0.081%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
12 2 (0.081%) DICOM
12 2 (0.081%) HMG Security Policy Framework
12 2 (0.081%) MiFID
13 1 (0.041%) GLBA
System Software
1 572 (23.28%) Docker
2 82 (3.34%) Active Directory
3 32 (1.30%) VMware Infrastructure
4 15 (0.61%) RACF
5 14 (0.57%) Virtual Machines
6 9 (0.37%) vSphere
7 6 (0.24%) Hyper-V
7 6 (0.24%) vCloud
8 4 (0.16%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 4 (0.16%) KVM
8 4 (0.16%) Postfix
8 4 (0.16%) VMware ESXi
9 3 (0.12%) Virtual Desktop
9 3 (0.12%) VMware NSX
10 1 (0.041%) Firmware
10 1 (0.041%) HDFS
10 1 (0.041%) NDS
10 1 (0.041%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 1 (0.041%) Varnish
10 1 (0.041%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 449 (18.27%) Kubernetes
2 428 (17.42%) Terraform
3 146 (5.94%) Ansible
4 63 (2.56%) Grafana
5 52 (2.12%) Prometheus
6 40 (1.63%) Single Sign-On
7 34 (1.38%) Puppet
8 31 (1.26%) Opscode Chef
9 21 (0.85%) Kibana
10 17 (0.69%) Packer
11 16 (0.65%) logstash
12 15 (0.61%) Microsoft Intune
13 10 (0.41%) CloudHub
14 9 (0.37%) Graylog
14 9 (0.37%) HP ALM
14 9 (0.37%) SCCM
15 8 (0.33%) Graphite
15 8 (0.33%) Nagios
16 6 (0.24%) Failover Clustering
17 5 (0.20%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 292 (11.88%) Microsoft
2 279 (11.36%) Oracle
3 106 (4.31%) Salesforce.com
4 72 (2.93%) SAP
5 71 (2.89%) ServiceNow
6 70 (2.85%) Google
7 51 (2.08%) VMware
8 45 (1.83%) Atlassian
9 44 (1.79%) MuleSoft
10 40 (1.63%) IBM
11 39 (1.59%) Splunk
12 32 (1.30%) Informatica
13 26 (1.06%) Adobe
14 24 (0.98%) Sybase
15 22 (0.90%) hybris
16 18 (0.73%) Dell
17 16 (0.65%) Cloudera
17 16 (0.65%) webMethods
17 16 (0.65%) Workday
18 15 (0.61%) Palo Alto