Period
to 18 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 18 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Linux
UK
6 months to
18 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 28 21 22
Rank change year-on-year -7 +1 -5
Permanent jobs citing Linux 9,991 4,998 14,249
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 8.26% 9.88% 10.06%
As % of the Operating Systems category 46.61% 46.09% 43.93%
Number of salaries quoted 6,651 4,092 10,892
10th Percentile £33,750 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,000 £42,000 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £53,450
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +2.90% +1.81%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £72,500
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £49,000 £45,100
% change year-on-year +2.04% +8.65% +0.22%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 21,435 10,843 32,435
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 17.72% 21.44% 22.90%
Number of salaries quoted 15,172 9,035 25,899
10th Percentile £26,250 £28,750 £25,000
25th Percentile £35,500 £36,855 £32,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
Median % change year-on-year - +11.11% -5.26%
75th Percentile £67,500 £67,500 £65,000
90th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £41,000
% change year-on-year - +9.76% -

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Salary trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 18 September 2021.

Salary histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 18 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 8,894 £57,500 +4.55% 1,899
UK excluding London -3 5,649 £50,000 +2.04% 1,222
London -16 3,626 £75,000 +8.30% 778
Work from Home -2 2,099 £55,000 - 397
South East 0 1,860 £50,000 - 297
North of England +1 1,259 £50,000 +2.04% 280
South West -6 898 £47,500 +5.56% 186
Midlands 0 718 £47,500 -5.00% 161
North West -5 591 £50,000 +2.04% 147
Yorkshire -1 475 £47,500 +4.40% 100
West Midlands -8 464 £50,000 -9.09% 81
East of England -13 358 £55,000 +10.00% 185
Scotland -12 341 £47,500 -5.00% 72
East Midlands +2 254 £45,000 - 79
North East +21 197 £47,500 -2.56% 33
Wales -3 161 £42,500 +6.25% 25
Northern Ireland -4 86 £37,500 -16.67% 18
Channel Islands - 4 £50,000 -
Isle of Man - 1 £35,000 -

For the 6 months to 18 September 2021, IT jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 4,026 (40.30%) AWS
2 3,633 (36.36%) DevOps
3 3,453 (34.56%) Python
4 3,425 (34.28%) Agile Software Development
5 3,001 (30.04%) Windows
6 2,859 (28.62%) Azure
7 2,844 (28.47%) Docker
8 2,394 (23.96%) Kubernetes
9 2,312 (23.14%) Java
10 2,195 (21.97%) Software Engineering
11 2,108 (21.10%) Terraform
12 2,084 (20.86%) SQL
13 2,073 (20.75%) Ansible
14 2,031 (20.33%) Git (software)
15 2,021 (20.23%) Social Skills
16 1,843 (18.45%) Finance
17 1,738 (17.40%) JavaScript
18 1,723 (17.25%) Unix
19 1,704 (17.06%) Jenkins
20 1,557 (15.58%) Problem-Solving
21 1,486 (14.87%) Microsoft
22 1,470 (14.71%) Degree
23 1,466 (14.67%) Bash Shell
24 1,367 (13.68%) VMware
25 1,357 (13.58%) Microservices
26 1,226 (12.27%) Computer Science
27 1,193 (11.94%) C++
28 1,190 (11.91%) Infrastructure as Code
29 1,176 (11.77%) Puppet
30 1,166 (11.67%) MySQL

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 689 (6.90%) Apache
2 377 (3.77%) Apache Spark
3 339 (3.39%) Elasticsearch
4 329 (3.29%) Confluence
5 269 (2.69%) nginx
6 202 (2.02%) Tomcat
7 196 (1.96%) GemFire
8 190 (1.90%) IIS
9 163 (1.63%) SharePoint
10 153 (1.53%) WebLogic
11 120 (1.20%) MS Exchange
12 111 (1.11%) OpenStack
13 95 (0.95%) WordPress
14 92 (0.92%) CMS
15 88 (0.88%) GeoServer
16 72 (0.72%) JBoss
17 70 (0.70%) Apache Airflow
18 62 (0.62%) Cloud Foundry
19 53 (0.53%) WebSphere
20 38 (0.38%) Tornado
Applications
1 134 (1.34%) Microsoft Office
2 62 (0.62%) MS Visio
3 36 (0.36%) Microsoft Excel
4 33 (0.33%) Simulink
5 23 (0.23%) Photoshop
6 20 (0.20%) Adobe Illustrator
6 20 (0.20%) Microsoft Project
7 17 (0.17%) GIMP
8 13 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 4 (0.040%) Maya
9 4 (0.040%) NUKE
10 3 (0.030%) EngageOne
10 3 (0.030%) Houdini
10 3 (0.030%) Spreadsheet
11 2 (0.020%) Sketch
12 1 (0.010%) Adobe After Effects
12 1 (0.010%) Adobe XD
12 1 (0.010%) Figma
12 1 (0.010%) GNU Octave
12 1 (0.010%) Weka
Business Applications
1 57 (0.57%) Sentinel
2 54 (0.54%) Magento
3 36 (0.36%) Payment Gateway
4 31 (0.31%) Oracle Applications
5 26 (0.26%) Distributed Ledger
6 17 (0.17%) Shopify
7 13 (0.13%) Oracle EBS
8 9 (0.090%) Oracle EBS R12
9 6 (0.060%) Dynamics NAV
9 6 (0.060%) SAP S/4HANA
10 5 (0.050%) Oracle 11i
11 4 (0.040%) Dynamics CRM
11 4 (0.040%) Remedy ITSM
11 4 (0.040%) SAP GTS
11 4 (0.040%) WebTrends
11 4 (0.040%) Workfront
12 3 (0.030%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
12 3 (0.030%) Siebel CRM
12 3 (0.030%) Staffware
13 2 (0.020%) Oracle CRM
Cloud Services
1 4,026 (40.30%) AWS
2 2,859 (28.62%) Azure
3 941 (9.42%) GCP
4 638 (6.39%) AWS CloudFormation
5 625 (6.26%) GitHub
6 617 (6.18%) SaaS
7 504 (5.04%) Microsoft 365
8 452 (4.52%) PaaS
9 432 (4.32%) Serverless
10 403 (4.03%) IaaS
11 377 (3.77%) Amazon EC2
12 325 (3.25%) OpenShift
13 267 (2.67%) AWS Lambda
14 243 (2.43%) Amazon S3
15 219 (2.19%) Amazon Kinesis
16 215 (2.15%) Cloud Computing
17 188 (1.88%) Azure Active Directory
18 181 (1.81%) Amazon EKS
19 180 (1.80%) Amazon CloudWatch
20 148 (1.48%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 979 (9.80%) Firewall
2 603 (6.04%) DNS
3 566 (5.67%) TCP/IP
4 471 (4.71%) VPN
5 446 (4.46%) HTTP
6 288 (2.88%) DHCP
7 274 (2.74%) WAN
8 271 (2.71%) LAN
9 221 (2.21%) Internet
10 210 (2.10%) Broadband
10 210 (2.10%) SSL
11 203 (2.03%) Network Security
12 199 (1.99%) SAN
13 169 (1.69%) Wireless
14 158 (1.58%) Wi-Fi
15 121 (1.21%) VoIP
16 119 (1.19%) VLAN
17 99 (0.99%) BGP
18 97 (0.97%) OSPF
19 94 (0.94%) Bluetooth
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,166 (11.67%) MySQL
2 855 (8.56%) PostgreSQL
3 836 (8.37%) NoSQL
4 764 (7.65%) Relational Database
5 727 (7.28%) SQL Server
6 504 (5.04%) MongoDB
7 444 (4.44%) Big Data
8 435 (4.35%) Redis
9 401 (4.01%) MariaDB
10 318 (3.18%) Oracle Database
11 260 (2.60%) HBase
12 248 (2.48%) Hadoop
13 219 (2.19%) Amazon RDS
14 203 (2.03%) RDBMS
15 154 (1.54%) Data Warehouse
16 143 (1.43%) Apache Cassandra
17 138 (1.38%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 122 (1.22%) Oracle Database 11g
19 110 (1.10%) Oracle Database 12c
20 97 (0.97%) GIS
Development Applications
1 2,031 (20.33%) Git (software)
2 1,704 (17.06%) Jenkins
3 901 (9.02%) JIRA
4 480 (4.80%) GitLab
5 370 (3.70%) JUnit
6 293 (2.93%) Maven
7 289 (2.89%) Eclipse
8 281 (2.81%) Cucumber
9 269 (2.69%) Gradle
9 269 (2.69%) Sonatype Nexus
10 259 (2.59%) Bitbucket
11 249 (2.49%) IntelliJ
12 221 (2.21%) Cypress.io
13 219 (2.19%) Mockito
14 206 (2.06%) Storybook
15 203 (2.03%) Protractor
16 200 (2.00%) TeamCity
17 180 (1.80%) Artifactory
18 173 (1.73%) Subversion
19 163 (1.63%) Selenium
General
1 2,021 (20.23%) Social Skills
2 1,843 (18.45%) Finance
3 719 (7.20%) Banking
4 684 (6.85%) Analytical Skills
5 504 (5.04%) Inclusion and Diversity
6 459 (4.59%) Law
7 336 (3.36%) Telecoms
8 303 (3.03%) Retail
9 285 (2.85%) Public Sector
10 277 (2.77%) Marketing
11 257 (2.57%) Games
12 218 (2.18%) Presentation Skills
13 209 (2.09%) Electronics
14 162 (1.62%) Legal
15 153 (1.53%) Organisational Skills
16 148 (1.48%) Manufacturing
17 145 (1.45%) Back Office
18 134 (1.34%) Advertising
19 124 (1.24%) Front Office
20 107 (1.07%) Documentation Skills
Job Titles
1 2,213 (22.15%) Developer
2 1,692 (16.94%) DevOps Engineer
3 1,162 (11.63%) Software Engineer
4 576 (5.77%) Linux Engineer
5 547 (5.47%) AWS Engineer
6 479 (4.79%) Senior Developer
7 478 (4.78%) Infrastructure Engineer
8 461 (4.61%) Software Developer
9 435 (4.35%) AWS DevOps
10 421 (4.21%) Cloud Engineer
11 418 (4.18%) AWS DevOps Engineer
11 418 (4.18%) Java Developer
12 408 (4.08%) PHP Developer
13 407 (4.07%) Analyst
14 384 (3.84%) Architect
15 370 (3.70%) Senior DevOps
16 364 (3.64%) Senior DevOps Engineer
17 350 (3.50%) Administrator
18 339 (3.39%) Platform Engineer
19 319 (3.19%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,110 (11.11%) CSS
2 1,048 (10.49%) React
3 969 (9.70%) HTML
4 870 (8.71%) REST
5 810 (8.11%) Node.js
6 803 (8.04%) Spring
7 786 (7.87%) AngularJS
8 761 (7.62%) Kafka
9 750 (7.51%) Web Services
10 669 (6.70%) RESTful
11 587 (5.88%) .NET
12 514 (5.14%) LAMP
13 477 (4.77%) JSON
14 459 (4.59%) RabbitMQ
15 422 (4.22%) Elastic Stack
16 327 (3.27%) Spring Boot
17 325 (3.25%) HTML5
18 305 (3.05%) Redux
19 283 (2.83%) Middleware
20 276 (2.76%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 587 (5.88%) Data Centre
2 578 (5.79%) Linux Command Line
3 428 (4.28%) Public Cloud
4 427 (4.27%) Self-Motivation
5 415 (4.15%) User Experience
6 334 (3.34%) Algorithms
7 287 (2.87%) Management Information System
8 239 (2.39%) Greenfield Project
9 204 (2.04%) Data Structures
10 202 (2.02%) Mobile App
11 190 (1.90%) Hybrid Cloud
12 175 (1.75%) Cloud Native
13 161 (1.61%) Embedded Systems
14 158 (1.58%) Virtual Team
15 151 (1.51%) Enterprise Software
16 132 (1.32%) PKI
17 129 (1.29%) Clustering
18 120 (1.20%) Derivative
19 118 (1.18%) Private Cloud
20 100 (1.00%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 3,001 (30.04%) Windows
2 1,723 (17.25%) Unix
3 839 (8.40%) Windows Server
4 655 (6.56%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 586 (5.87%) CentOS
6 517 (5.17%) Ubuntu
7 279 (2.79%) Android
8 237 (2.37%) Apple iOS
9 206 (2.06%) Windows Server 2016
10 187 (1.87%) Windows Server 2012
11 176 (1.76%) Embedded Linux
12 164 (1.64%) Windows 10
13 158 (1.58%) Windows Server 2019
14 146 (1.46%) Debian
14 146 (1.46%) Mac OS
15 101 (1.01%) Solaris
16 78 (0.78%) SUSE
17 75 (0.75%) Mac OS X
18 73 (0.73%) Windows Server 2008
19 68 (0.68%) AIX
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,633 (36.36%) DevOps
2 3,425 (34.28%) Agile Software Development
3 2,195 (21.97%) Software Engineering
4 1,557 (15.58%) Problem-Solving
5 1,357 (13.58%) Microservices
6 1,226 (12.27%) Computer Science
7 1,190 (11.91%) Infrastructure as Code
8 1,046 (10.47%) Scrum
9 944 (9.45%) Continuous Integration
10 924 (9.25%) Configuration Management
11 871 (8.72%) OO
12 819 (8.20%) TDD
13 812 (8.13%) Full Stack Development
14 807 (8.08%) Test Automation
15 778 (7.79%) Open Source
16 748 (7.49%) Mentoring
17 693 (6.94%) Infrastructure Engineering
18 638 (6.39%) Site Reliability Engineering
19 604 (6.05%) Analytics
20 582 (5.83%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 3,453 (34.56%) Python
2 2,312 (23.14%) Java
3 2,084 (20.86%) SQL
4 1,738 (17.40%) JavaScript
5 1,466 (14.67%) Bash Shell
6 1,193 (11.94%) C++
7 1,088 (10.89%) PowerShell
8 966 (9.67%) PHP
9 794 (7.95%) C
10 786 (7.87%) C#
11 691 (6.92%) Shell Script
12 659 (6.60%) Go
13 468 (4.68%) Ruby
14 456 (4.56%) Perl
15 386 (3.86%) TypeScript
16 288 (2.88%) Groovy
17 163 (1.63%) PL/SQL
18 154 (1.54%) Scala
19 138 (1.38%) Java 8
20 128 (1.28%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 1,470 (14.71%) Degree
2 907 (9.08%) Security Cleared
3 542 (5.42%) SC Cleared
4 446 (4.46%) Computer Science Degree
5 202 (2.02%) OCP
5 202 (2.02%) Oracle Certification
6 200 (2.00%) AWS Certification
7 193 (1.93%) Cisco Certification
8 152 (1.52%) Microsoft Certification
9 142 (1.42%) CCNA
10 122 (1.22%) DV Cleared
11 85 (0.85%) MCSE
12 81 (0.81%) CCNP
13 72 (0.72%) RHCE
14 66 (0.66%) Master's Degree
15 64 (0.64%) MCSA
16 59 (0.59%) CISSP
17 54 (0.54%) PhD
18 48 (0.48%) MCP
19 44 (0.44%) RHCSA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 421 (4.21%) QA
2 198 (1.98%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 195 (1.95%) SLA
4 121 (1.21%) PCI DSS
5 73 (0.73%) PSD2
6 72 (0.72%) MISRA
7 60 (0.60%) GDPR
8 47 (0.47%) Cyber Essentials
9 46 (0.46%) Accessibility
10 42 (0.42%) NIST
11 38 (0.38%) Def Stans
12 37 (0.37%) ECSS
12 37 (0.37%) MISRA C
13 31 (0.31%) PMO
14 29 (0.29%) COBIT
15 28 (0.28%) GRC
16 26 (0.26%) Data Quality
17 22 (0.22%) Sarbanes-Oxley
18 17 (0.17%) NCSC
19 15 (0.15%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 2,844 (28.47%) Docker
2 982 (9.83%) VMware Infrastructure
3 797 (7.98%) Active Directory
4 300 (3.00%) Hyper-V
5 238 (2.38%) Firmware
6 197 (1.97%) HDFS
7 188 (1.88%) vSphere
8 176 (1.76%) Virtual Machines
9 153 (1.53%) VMware ESXi
10 87 (0.87%) Virtual Servers
11 71 (0.71%) KVM
12 58 (0.58%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 57 (0.57%) iptables
14 54 (0.54%) NFS
15 33 (0.33%) Virtual Desktop
16 32 (0.32%) VMware NSX
16 32 (0.32%) XenApp
17 31 (0.31%) LXC
18 28 (0.28%) Oracle RAC
19 27 (0.27%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 2,394 (23.96%) Kubernetes
2 2,108 (21.10%) Terraform
3 2,073 (20.75%) Ansible
4 1,176 (11.77%) Puppet
5 796 (7.97%) Opscode Chef
6 366 (3.66%) Prometheus
7 336 (3.36%) Grafana
8 164 (1.64%) Nagios
9 143 (1.43%) SCCM
10 134 (1.34%) Packer
11 113 (1.13%) Consul
12 83 (0.83%) Rancher
13 81 (0.81%) Graphite
13 81 (0.81%) Kibana
14 74 (0.74%) Docker Swarm
14 74 (0.74%) HAProxy
15 73 (0.73%) ZABBIX
16 67 (0.67%) Istio
17 62 (0.62%) Microsoft Intune
18 56 (0.56%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 1,486 (14.87%) Microsoft
2 1,367 (13.68%) VMware
3 1,002 (10.03%) Oracle
4 778 (7.79%) Red Hat
5 495 (4.95%) Cisco
6 462 (4.62%) Google
7 273 (2.73%) Splunk
8 216 (2.16%) IBM
9 211 (2.11%) Okta
10 165 (1.65%) Atlassian
11 151 (1.51%) Zend
12 134 (1.34%) HP
13 128 (1.28%) Citrix
14 127 (1.27%) SAP
15 121 (1.21%) Apple
16 118 (1.18%) EMC
17 111 (1.11%) F5
18 109 (1.09%) SaltStack
19 99 (0.99%) Dell
20 98 (0.98%) Veeam