Period
to 25 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 25 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Linux
UK
6 months to
25 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 25 23 20
Rank change year-on-year -2 -3 -3
Permanent jobs citing Linux 10,015 6,684 14,984
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 8.91% 9.45% 10.39%
As % of the Operating Systems category 48.70% 44.71% 45.42%
Number of salaries quoted 6,796 5,440 11,591
10th Percentile £33,618 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £41,250 £41,250 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £56,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +1.82% +4.76% -
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £71,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £87,500 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +1.05% +5.56% -

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 20,566 14,951 32,991
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 18.29% 21.13% 22.87%
Number of salaries quoted 14,971 12,330 26,432
10th Percentile £27,000 £27,500 £25,750
25th Percentile £36,250 £35,846 £32,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,000
Median % change year-on-year - +6.38% -1.05%
75th Percentile £67,500 £66,250 £65,000
90th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £41,500
% change year-on-year - +8.43% +2.47%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Salary trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 25 July 2021.

Salary histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 25 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 8,990 £57,500 +4.55% 1,916
UK excluding London +1 5,811 £48,000 +1.05% 1,301
London -7 3,585 £75,000 +11.11% 713
Work from Home -3 1,963 £55,000 - 377
South East -1 1,737 £50,000 - 321
North of England +6 1,323 £50,000 - 311
South West 0 1,020 £47,500 +5.56% 180
Midlands 0 740 £47,500 +0.26% 202
North West +3 615 £50,000 +2.04% 180
Yorkshire +8 494 £49,500 -1.00% 98
West Midlands -3 463 £50,000 +5.26% 122
East of England -7 399 £50,000 +5.26% 173
Scotland -2 393 £47,500 -5.00% 72
East Midlands +2 272 £45,000 +5.88% 79
North East +23 217 £49,500 +15.12% 33
Wales -6 118 £40,000 - 31
Northern Ireland -5 91 £40,000 -5.88% 12
Channel Islands - 3 - -
Isle of Man - 1 £35,000 -

For the 6 months to 25 July 2021, IT jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 3,813 (38.07%) AWS
2 3,567 (35.62%) DevOps
3 3,410 (34.05%) Python
4 3,223 (32.18%) Agile Software Development
5 3,062 (30.57%) Windows
6 2,804 (28.00%) Docker
7 2,760 (27.56%) Azure
8 2,338 (23.34%) Kubernetes
9 2,266 (22.63%) Java
10 2,120 (21.17%) Software Engineering
11 2,112 (21.09%) SQL
12 2,094 (20.91%) Git (software)
13 2,060 (20.57%) Terraform
14 1,981 (19.78%) Ansible
15 1,954 (19.51%) Social Skills
16 1,810 (18.07%) Finance
17 1,652 (16.50%) Unix
18 1,643 (16.41%) JavaScript
19 1,593 (15.91%) Jenkins
20 1,568 (15.66%) Problem-Solving
21 1,515 (15.13%) Microsoft
22 1,468 (14.66%) Bash Shell
23 1,422 (14.20%) Degree
24 1,349 (13.47%) VMware
25 1,286 (12.84%) Microservices
26 1,193 (11.91%) Puppet
27 1,157 (11.55%) MySQL
28 1,155 (11.53%) C++
29 1,151 (11.49%) Computer Science
30 1,138 (11.36%) Infrastructure as Code

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 603 (6.02%) Apache
2 386 (3.85%) Confluence
3 326 (3.26%) Apache Spark
4 308 (3.08%) Elasticsearch
5 254 (2.54%) nginx
6 195 (1.95%) IIS
7 191 (1.91%) Tomcat
8 175 (1.75%) GemFire
9 145 (1.45%) SharePoint
10 136 (1.36%) WebLogic
11 106 (1.06%) MS Exchange
12 98 (0.98%) CMS
13 96 (0.96%) Apache Airflow
13 96 (0.96%) OpenStack
14 92 (0.92%) WordPress
15 74 (0.74%) GeoServer
16 62 (0.62%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 56 (0.56%) JBoss
18 53 (0.53%) Cloud Foundry
19 36 (0.36%) Tornado
Applications
1 135 (1.35%) Microsoft Office
2 39 (0.39%) Microsoft Excel
3 30 (0.30%) MS Visio
4 26 (0.26%) Microsoft Project
5 24 (0.24%) Simulink
6 23 (0.23%) Photoshop
7 18 (0.18%) Adobe Illustrator
8 17 (0.17%) GIMP
9 13 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 10 (0.100%) Spreadsheet
11 6 (0.060%) Gephi
12 5 (0.050%) Stata
13 4 (0.040%) EngageOne
13 4 (0.040%) Maya
13 4 (0.040%) NUKE
14 3 (0.030%) Houdini
15 2 (0.020%) Sketch
16 1 (0.010%) Adobe XD
16 1 (0.010%) Figma
16 1 (0.010%) GNU Octave
Business Applications
1 46 (0.46%) Magento
2 35 (0.35%) Oracle Applications
2 35 (0.35%) Sentinel
3 31 (0.31%) Payment Gateway
4 27 (0.27%) Distributed Ledger
5 22 (0.22%) Oracle EBS
6 17 (0.17%) Oracle EBS R12
7 14 (0.14%) Dynamics NAV
8 13 (0.13%) R3 Corda
9 10 (0.100%) Oracle 11i
10 7 (0.070%) Shopify
11 6 (0.060%) SAP S/4HANA
12 4 (0.040%) SAP GTS
13 3 (0.030%) FLEXCUBE
13 3 (0.030%) Staffware
13 3 (0.030%) Temenos T24
14 2 (0.020%) Dynamics CRM
14 2 (0.020%) NetSuite
14 2 (0.020%) Oracle CRM
14 2 (0.020%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 3,813 (38.07%) AWS
2 2,760 (27.56%) Azure
3 885 (8.84%) GCP
4 622 (6.21%) SaaS
5 584 (5.83%) GitHub
6 569 (5.68%) AWS CloudFormation
7 501 (5.00%) Microsoft 365
8 459 (4.58%) PaaS
9 413 (4.12%) IaaS
10 351 (3.50%) Amazon EC2
11 342 (3.41%) Serverless
12 272 (2.72%) OpenShift
13 216 (2.16%) AWS Lambda
14 212 (2.12%) Amazon S3
15 210 (2.10%) Cloud Computing
16 201 (2.01%) Amazon EKS
17 188 (1.88%) Azure Active Directory
18 174 (1.74%) Amazon Kinesis
19 162 (1.62%) Amazon ECS
20 136 (1.36%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 1,001 (10.00%) Firewall
2 594 (5.93%) DNS
3 553 (5.52%) TCP/IP
4 466 (4.65%) VPN
5 427 (4.26%) HTTP
6 289 (2.89%) DHCP
7 285 (2.85%) WAN
8 280 (2.80%) LAN
9 237 (2.37%) Internet
10 220 (2.20%) Wireless
11 212 (2.12%) Network Security
12 198 (1.98%) SSL
13 197 (1.97%) SAN
14 159 (1.59%) VLAN
15 154 (1.54%) Broadband
16 134 (1.34%) Wi-Fi
17 126 (1.26%) OSPF
18 121 (1.21%) IPv4
19 119 (1.19%) VoIP
20 106 (1.06%) BGP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,157 (11.55%) MySQL
2 794 (7.93%) PostgreSQL
3 779 (7.78%) NoSQL
4 736 (7.35%) SQL Server
5 718 (7.17%) Relational Database
6 516 (5.15%) MongoDB
7 430 (4.29%) Big Data
8 410 (4.09%) Redis
9 347 (3.46%) MariaDB
10 316 (3.16%) Oracle Database
11 227 (2.27%) Hadoop
12 224 (2.24%) HBase
13 205 (2.05%) Amazon RDS
14 194 (1.94%) RDBMS
15 172 (1.72%) Data Warehouse
16 135 (1.35%) Apache Cassandra
17 123 (1.23%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 107 (1.07%) Oracle Database 11g
19 103 (1.03%) Oracle Database 12c
20 96 (0.96%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 2,094 (20.91%) Git (software)
2 1,593 (15.91%) Jenkins
3 901 (9.00%) JIRA
4 516 (5.15%) GitLab
5 366 (3.65%) JUnit
6 305 (3.05%) Maven
7 267 (2.67%) Cucumber
8 260 (2.60%) Eclipse
9 256 (2.56%) Sonatype Nexus
10 251 (2.51%) Bitbucket
11 250 (2.50%) Gradle
12 225 (2.25%) IntelliJ
13 224 (2.24%) TeamCity
14 213 (2.13%) Mockito
15 198 (1.98%) Cypress.io
16 192 (1.92%) Subversion
17 183 (1.83%) Protractor
18 181 (1.81%) Artifactory
19 176 (1.76%) Storybook
20 172 (1.72%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 1,954 (19.51%) Social Skills
2 1,810 (18.07%) Finance
3 680 (6.79%) Banking
4 659 (6.58%) Analytical Skills
5 432 (4.31%) Law
6 396 (3.95%) Inclusion and Diversity
7 370 (3.69%) Telecoms
8 291 (2.91%) Games
8 291 (2.91%) Retail
9 284 (2.84%) Marketing
10 272 (2.72%) Public Sector
11 263 (2.63%) Electronics
12 216 (2.16%) Presentation Skills
13 203 (2.03%) Manufacturing
14 187 (1.87%) Legal
15 154 (1.54%) Organisational Skills
16 151 (1.51%) Back Office
17 125 (1.25%) Front Office
18 114 (1.14%) Advertising
19 91 (0.91%) Documentation Skills
Job Titles
1 2,151 (21.48%) Developer
2 1,737 (17.34%) DevOps Engineer
3 1,110 (11.08%) Software Engineer
4 579 (5.78%) Linux Engineer
5 526 (5.25%) Infrastructure Engineer
6 522 (5.21%) AWS Engineer
7 471 (4.70%) Senior Developer
8 458 (4.57%) Software Developer
9 451 (4.50%) Java Developer
10 444 (4.43%) Cloud Engineer
11 421 (4.20%) Administrator
12 406 (4.05%) AWS DevOps
13 398 (3.97%) Senior DevOps
14 387 (3.86%) Senior DevOps Engineer
15 386 (3.85%) AWS DevOps Engineer
16 384 (3.83%) PHP Developer
17 368 (3.67%) Analyst
18 359 (3.58%) Architect
19 355 (3.54%) Support Engineer
20 289 (2.89%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,035 (10.33%) CSS
2 950 (9.49%) HTML
3 944 (9.43%) React
4 814 (8.13%) REST
5 779 (7.78%) Web Services
6 756 (7.55%) Node.js
7 745 (7.44%) Spring
8 711 (7.10%) AngularJS
9 666 (6.65%) Kafka
10 652 (6.51%) RESTful
11 586 (5.85%) .NET
12 460 (4.59%) LAMP
13 412 (4.11%) JSON
13 412 (4.11%) RabbitMQ
14 385 (3.84%) Elastic Stack
15 305 (3.05%) HTML5
16 293 (2.93%) Spring Boot
17 278 (2.78%) Redux
18 273 (2.73%) jQuery
19 261 (2.61%) Twitter Bootstrap
Miscellaneous
1 587 (5.86%) Linux Command Line
2 524 (5.23%) Data Centre
3 441 (4.40%) Public Cloud
4 396 (3.95%) Self-Motivation
5 348 (3.47%) User Experience
6 299 (2.99%) Algorithms
7 228 (2.28%) Hybrid Cloud
8 221 (2.21%) Management Information System
9 217 (2.17%) Greenfield Project
10 198 (1.98%) Mobile App
11 194 (1.94%) Data Structures
12 180 (1.80%) Cloud Native
13 152 (1.52%) Embedded Systems
14 148 (1.48%) Virtual Team
15 146 (1.46%) Enterprise Software
16 130 (1.30%) PKI
17 128 (1.28%) Clustering
18 120 (1.20%) Derivative
19 118 (1.18%) Private Cloud
20 100 (1.00%) Fixed Income
Operating Systems
1 3,062 (30.57%) Windows
2 1,652 (16.50%) Unix
3 868 (8.67%) Windows Server
4 674 (6.73%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 615 (6.14%) CentOS
6 575 (5.74%) Ubuntu
7 276 (2.76%) Android
8 215 (2.15%) Apple iOS
9 201 (2.01%) Windows Server 2016
10 195 (1.95%) Windows 10
11 187 (1.87%) Embedded Linux
12 156 (1.56%) Windows Server 2012
13 148 (1.48%) Debian
14 130 (1.30%) Windows Server 2019
15 100 (1.00%) Solaris
16 96 (0.96%) Mac OS
17 79 (0.79%) Windows Server 2008
18 76 (0.76%) SUSE
19 68 (0.68%) Mac OS X
20 62 (0.62%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,567 (35.62%) DevOps
2 3,223 (32.18%) Agile Software Development
3 2,120 (21.17%) Software Engineering
4 1,568 (15.66%) Problem-Solving
5 1,286 (12.84%) Microservices
6 1,151 (11.49%) Computer Science
7 1,138 (11.36%) Infrastructure as Code
8 1,005 (10.03%) Scrum
9 934 (9.33%) Configuration Management
10 912 (9.11%) Continuous Integration
11 811 (8.10%) Test Automation
12 768 (7.67%) OO
13 767 (7.66%) Open Source
14 763 (7.62%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 745 (7.44%) TDD
16 728 (7.27%) Mentoring
17 619 (6.18%) Site Reliability Engineering
18 598 (5.97%) SDLC
19 573 (5.72%) Software Testing
20 553 (5.52%) ITIL
Programming Languages
1 3,410 (34.05%) Python
2 2,266 (22.63%) Java
3 2,112 (21.09%) SQL
4 1,643 (16.41%) JavaScript
5 1,468 (14.66%) Bash Shell
6 1,155 (11.53%) C++
7 1,092 (10.90%) PowerShell
8 916 (9.15%) PHP
9 786 (7.85%) C
10 741 (7.40%) C#
11 661 (6.60%) Shell Script
12 616 (6.15%) Go
13 455 (4.54%) Ruby
14 425 (4.24%) Perl
15 345 (3.44%) TypeScript
16 282 (2.82%) Groovy
17 160 (1.60%) PL/SQL
18 150 (1.50%) Scala
19 142 (1.42%) Java 8
20 105 (1.05%) PHP 7
Qualifications
1 1,422 (14.20%) Degree
2 985 (9.84%) Security Cleared
3 588 (5.87%) SC Cleared
4 448 (4.47%) Computer Science Degree
5 242 (2.42%) Cisco Certification
6 186 (1.86%) AWS Certification
7 175 (1.75%) CCNA
8 173 (1.73%) OCP
8 173 (1.73%) Oracle Certification
9 152 (1.52%) Network+ Certification
10 150 (1.50%) DV Cleared
11 146 (1.46%) Linux+ Certification
12 127 (1.27%) CompTIA Security+
13 121 (1.21%) Microsoft Certification
14 92 (0.92%) A+ Certification
15 90 (0.90%) CCNP
16 87 (0.87%) Server+ Certification
17 80 (0.80%) CISSP
18 78 (0.78%) RHCE
19 61 (0.61%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 445 (4.44%) QA
2 187 (1.87%) SLA
3 171 (1.71%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 111 (1.11%) PCI DSS
5 65 (0.65%) MISRA
6 60 (0.60%) PSD2
7 49 (0.49%) NIST
8 47 (0.47%) GDPR
9 44 (0.44%) Accessibility
10 40 (0.40%) MISRA C
11 37 (0.37%) ECSS
12 33 (0.33%) Def Stans
13 31 (0.31%) PMO
14 30 (0.30%) Cyber Essentials
15 28 (0.28%) GRC
16 25 (0.25%) COBIT
17 20 (0.20%) ISO 9001
18 17 (0.17%) Data Quality
18 17 (0.17%) Sarbanes-Oxley
19 14 (0.14%) NCSC
System Software
1 2,804 (28.00%) Docker
2 957 (9.56%) VMware Infrastructure
3 824 (8.23%) Active Directory
4 309 (3.09%) Hyper-V
5 220 (2.20%) Firmware
6 181 (1.81%) Virtual Machines
7 174 (1.74%) HDFS
8 171 (1.71%) VMware ESXi
9 154 (1.54%) vSphere
10 81 (0.81%) KVM
11 73 (0.73%) Virtual Servers
12 60 (0.60%) iptables
13 52 (0.52%) Apache ZooKeeper
14 50 (0.50%) NFS
15 43 (0.43%) Oracle RAC
16 38 (0.38%) LXC
17 34 (0.34%) VMware NSX
18 32 (0.32%) XenDesktop
19 30 (0.30%) Virtual Desktop
20 28 (0.28%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 2,338 (23.34%) Kubernetes
2 2,060 (20.57%) Terraform
3 1,981 (19.78%) Ansible
4 1,193 (11.91%) Puppet
5 722 (7.21%) Opscode Chef
6 346 (3.45%) Prometheus
7 309 (3.09%) Grafana
8 152 (1.52%) Nagios
9 116 (1.16%) Packer
9 116 (1.16%) SCCM
10 106 (1.06%) Istio
11 102 (1.02%) ZABBIX
12 98 (0.98%) Consul
13 80 (0.80%) HAProxy
14 73 (0.73%) Rancher
15 71 (0.71%) Kibana
16 67 (0.67%) Docker Swarm
16 67 (0.67%) Graphite
17 63 (0.63%) Microsoft Intune
17 63 (0.63%) SCOM
Vendors
1 1,515 (15.13%) Microsoft
2 1,349 (13.47%) VMware
3 947 (9.46%) Oracle
4 805 (8.04%) Red Hat
5 534 (5.33%) Cisco
6 498 (4.97%) Google
7 277 (2.77%) Splunk
8 191 (1.91%) IBM
9 190 (1.90%) Okta
10 172 (1.72%) Atlassian
11 171 (1.71%) Citrix
12 161 (1.61%) HP
13 154 (1.54%) SAP
14 140 (1.40%) EMC
15 136 (1.36%) Zend
16 118 (1.18%) Veeam
17 103 (1.03%) Dell
18 100 (1.00%) F5
18 100 (1.00%) Juniper
19 98 (0.98%) ServiceNow