Period
to 2 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Linux skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Linux over the 6 months to 2 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Linux
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 30 20 23
Rank change year-on-year -10 +3 -5
Permanent jobs citing Linux 9,902 5,335 12,818
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 7.68% 9.58% 9.54%
As % of the Operating Systems category 44.12% 45.12% 41.93%
Number of salaries quoted 6,712 4,417 9,971
10th Percentile £34,000 £35,000 £31,000
25th Percentile £43,375 £41,750 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% -0.94%
75th Percentile £76,250 £72,000 £71,250
90th Percentile £92,500 £85,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £49,500 £45,500
% change year-on-year +1.01% +8.79% +1.11%

Linux is in the Operating Systems category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills.

All Operating Systems
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for operating system skills 22,442 11,823 30,570
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 17.40% 21.23% 22.76%
Number of salaries quoted 16,215 9,956 24,720
10th Percentile £26,250 £27,750 £25,000
25th Percentile £35,000 £36,250 £31,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
Median % change year-on-year - +11.11% -5.26%
75th Percentile £70,000 £65,000 £63,750
90th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £40,500
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -1.22%

Linux
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Linux as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Linux.

Salary trend for Linux in the UK

Linux
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Linux over the 6 months to 2 December 2021.

Salary histogram for Linux in the UK

Linux
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Linux within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 8,689 £60,000 +9.09% 2,019
UK excluding London -3 5,431 £50,000 +1.01% 1,389
London -18 3,653 £72,500 +3.57% 740
Work from Home -9 2,133 £57,500 +9.52% 372
South East -3 1,772 £52,500 +5.00% 327
North of England -2 1,242 £50,000 +2.04% 308
South West -3 812 £47,500 - 229
Midlands -10 679 £50,000 - 211
North West -8 597 £50,000 - 157
Yorkshire -2 495 £50,000 +5.26% 110
West Midlands -19 431 £50,000 -4.76% 125
East of England -13 373 £55,000 +10.00% 187
Scotland -15 351 £50,000 +5.26% 87
East Midlands +5 250 £46,000 -3.16% 85
Wales +7 160 £45,000 - 24
North East +8 152 £50,000 - 41
Northern Ireland -19 81 £40,000 -11.11% 16
Channel Islands -4 4 £50,000 +38.89%

For the 6 months to 2 December 2021, IT jobs citing Linux also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Linux.

1 3,972 (40.11%) AWS
2 3,528 (35.63%) DevOps
3 3,459 (34.93%) Python
4 3,364 (33.97%) Agile Software Development
5 3,073 (31.03%) Windows
6 2,923 (29.52%) Azure
7 2,730 (27.57%) Docker
8 2,320 (23.43%) Kubernetes
9 2,184 (22.06%) Java
10 2,142 (21.63%) Software Engineering
11 2,086 (21.07%) Ansible
12 2,063 (20.83%) Terraform
13 1,978 (19.98%) SQL
14 1,950 (19.69%) Social Skills
15 1,917 (19.36%) Finance
15 1,917 (19.36%) Git (software)
16 1,799 (18.17%) JavaScript
17 1,743 (17.60%) Jenkins
18 1,686 (17.03%) Unix
19 1,654 (16.70%) Problem-Solving
20 1,497 (15.12%) Degree
21 1,430 (14.44%) Bash Shell
22 1,427 (14.41%) Microsoft
23 1,359 (13.72%) VMware
24 1,246 (12.58%) Computer Science
25 1,207 (12.19%) Infrastructure as Code
26 1,194 (12.06%) Microservices
27 1,160 (11.71%) PowerShell
28 1,156 (11.67%) MySQL
29 1,137 (11.48%) C++

Linux
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 669 (6.76%) Apache
2 334 (3.37%) Confluence
3 331 (3.34%) Elasticsearch
4 305 (3.08%) Apache Spark
5 247 (2.49%) nginx
6 228 (2.30%) Tomcat
7 196 (1.98%) IIS
8 194 (1.96%) SharePoint
9 155 (1.57%) WebLogic
10 138 (1.39%) GemFire
11 124 (1.25%) MS Exchange
12 114 (1.15%) OpenStack
13 104 (1.05%) WordPress
14 97 (0.98%) CMS
15 95 (0.96%) GeoServer
16 89 (0.90%) JBoss
17 76 (0.77%) WebSphere
18 49 (0.49%) Cloud Foundry
19 43 (0.43%) Apache Airflow
20 39 (0.39%) Jupyter
Applications
1 126 (1.27%) Microsoft Office
2 82 (0.83%) MS Visio
3 33 (0.33%) Simulink
4 31 (0.31%) Microsoft Excel
5 15 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 14 (0.14%) Photoshop
7 13 (0.13%) Adobe Illustrator
8 10 (0.10%) GIMP
9 9 (0.091%) Microsoft Project
10 8 (0.081%) Spreadsheet
11 7 (0.071%) Sketch
12 6 (0.061%) Figma
12 6 (0.061%) InVision
13 4 (0.040%) EngageOne
13 4 (0.040%) OmniGraffle
14 3 (0.030%) Adobe XD
14 3 (0.030%) Campfire
15 2 (0.020%) Adobe Creative Suite
15 2 (0.020%) Weka
15 2 (0.020%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 83 (0.84%) Sentinel
2 44 (0.44%) Oracle Applications
3 37 (0.37%) Magento
4 29 (0.29%) Payment Gateway
5 23 (0.23%) Distributed Ledger
6 21 (0.21%) Shopify
7 19 (0.19%) Dynamics CRM
8 15 (0.15%) Oracle EBS
9 13 (0.13%) Oracle EBS R12
10 7 (0.071%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 7 (0.071%) Workfront
11 6 (0.061%) Dynamics NAV
11 6 (0.061%) SAP Business One
12 5 (0.050%) Oracle 11i
13 4 (0.040%) Oracle Retail
13 4 (0.040%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
13 4 (0.040%) Remedy ITSM
13 4 (0.040%) Staffware
13 4 (0.040%) WebTrends
14 3 (0.030%) Siebel CRM
Cloud Services
1 3,972 (40.11%) AWS
2 2,923 (29.52%) Azure
3 1,006 (10.16%) GCP
4 632 (6.38%) AWS CloudFormation
5 624 (6.30%) SaaS
6 596 (6.02%) Microsoft 365
7 584 (5.90%) GitHub
8 544 (5.49%) Serverless
9 439 (4.43%) PaaS
10 394 (3.98%) IaaS
11 375 (3.79%) OpenShift
12 364 (3.68%) Amazon EC2
13 332 (3.35%) AWS Lambda
14 295 (2.98%) Amazon S3
15 262 (2.65%) Cloud Computing
16 234 (2.36%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 187 (1.89%) Amazon Kinesis
18 182 (1.84%) Amazon EKS
19 181 (1.83%) Amazon ECS
20 178 (1.80%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 867 (8.76%) Firewall
2 603 (6.09%) DNS
3 511 (5.16%) TCP/IP
4 470 (4.75%) HTTP
5 421 (4.25%) VPN
6 287 (2.90%) LAN
7 283 (2.86%) WAN
8 279 (2.82%) DHCP
9 232 (2.34%) SAN
10 230 (2.32%) Broadband
11 227 (2.29%) Network Security
12 210 (2.12%) SSL
13 206 (2.08%) Internet
14 192 (1.94%) Wi-Fi
15 158 (1.60%) Wireless
16 127 (1.28%) VoIP
17 112 (1.13%) BGP
18 109 (1.10%) VLAN
19 103 (1.04%) OSPF
20 97 (0.98%) Bluetooth
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,156 (11.67%) MySQL
2 876 (8.85%) PostgreSQL
3 683 (6.90%) NoSQL
4 661 (6.68%) Relational Database
5 660 (6.67%) SQL Server
6 491 (4.96%) MongoDB
7 389 (3.93%) Big Data
8 384 (3.88%) Redis
9 326 (3.29%) Oracle Database
10 314 (3.17%) MariaDB
11 232 (2.34%) Amazon RDS
12 221 (2.23%) Hadoop
13 213 (2.15%) RDBMS
14 198 (2.00%) HBase
15 142 (1.43%) Oracle Database 11g
16 133 (1.34%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 123 (1.24%) Apache Cassandra
17 123 (1.24%) Data Warehouse
18 105 (1.06%) Oracle Database 12c
19 97 (0.98%) QGIS
Development Applications
1 1,917 (19.36%) Git (software)
2 1,743 (17.60%) Jenkins
3 921 (9.30%) JIRA
4 457 (4.62%) GitLab
5 317 (3.20%) Maven
6 304 (3.07%) Bitbucket
7 266 (2.69%) JUnit
8 243 (2.45%) Eclipse
9 228 (2.30%) Gradle
10 227 (2.29%) Sonatype Nexus
11 223 (2.25%) Cucumber
12 193 (1.95%) IntelliJ
12 193 (1.95%) TeamCity
13 178 (1.80%) Subversion
14 169 (1.71%) Mockito
15 164 (1.66%) Selenium
16 159 (1.61%) Artifactory
17 156 (1.58%) Cypress.io
18 152 (1.54%) Storybook
19 149 (1.50%) SonarQube
General
1 1,950 (19.69%) Social Skills
2 1,917 (19.36%) Finance
3 794 (8.02%) Analytical Skills
4 603 (6.09%) Banking
5 447 (4.51%) Inclusion and Diversity
6 382 (3.86%) Law
7 308 (3.11%) Retail
8 280 (2.83%) Public Sector
9 275 (2.78%) Telecoms
10 271 (2.74%) Marketing
11 217 (2.19%) Games
12 168 (1.70%) Presentation Skills
13 148 (1.49%) Electronics
14 138 (1.39%) Organisational Skills
15 127 (1.28%) Documentation Skills
16 121 (1.22%) Advertising
16 121 (1.22%) Legal
17 119 (1.20%) Back Office
18 109 (1.10%) Manufacturing
19 104 (1.05%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 2,133 (21.54%) Developer
2 1,567 (15.83%) DevOps Engineer
3 1,067 (10.78%) Software Engineer
4 518 (5.23%) AWS Engineer
5 506 (5.11%) Linux Engineer
6 485 (4.90%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 469 (4.74%) Analyst
8 452 (4.56%) Senior Developer
9 439 (4.43%) Cloud Engineer
10 419 (4.23%) Architect
11 377 (3.81%) PHP Developer
12 373 (3.77%) AWS DevOps
13 368 (3.72%) Java Developer
14 366 (3.70%) Administrator
15 363 (3.67%) Software Developer
16 362 (3.66%) AWS DevOps Engineer
17 349 (3.52%) Senior DevOps
18 342 (3.45%) Senior DevOps Engineer
19 335 (3.38%) Platform Engineer
20 331 (3.34%) Support Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,041 (10.51%) CSS
2 1,022 (10.32%) React
3 936 (9.45%) HTML
4 806 (8.14%) REST
5 793 (8.01%) Node.js
6 764 (7.72%) Spring
7 717 (7.24%) AngularJS
8 691 (6.98%) Kafka
9 646 (6.52%) Web Services
10 550 (5.55%) .NET
11 539 (5.44%) RESTful
12 511 (5.16%) JSON
13 440 (4.44%) LAMP
14 384 (3.88%) Elastic Stack
15 383 (3.87%) RabbitMQ
16 371 (3.75%) Spring Boot
17 341 (3.44%) HTML5
18 314 (3.17%) Middleware
19 311 (3.14%) XML
20 248 (2.50%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 567 (5.73%) Data Centre
2 515 (5.20%) Linux Command Line
3 470 (4.75%) Self-Motivation
4 459 (4.64%) User Experience
5 397 (4.01%) Public Cloud
6 388 (3.92%) Management Information System
7 344 (3.47%) Algorithms
8 236 (2.38%) Greenfield Project
9 204 (2.06%) Enterprise Software
10 198 (2.00%) Virtual Team
11 196 (1.98%) Data Structures
12 178 (1.80%) Mobile App
13 174 (1.76%) Cloud Native
14 167 (1.69%) Hybrid Cloud
15 163 (1.65%) Embedded Systems
16 162 (1.64%) Clustering
17 137 (1.38%) PKI
18 118 (1.19%) Equities
19 107 (1.08%) Private Cloud
20 104 (1.05%) Data Protection Act
Operating Systems
1 3,073 (31.03%) Windows
2 1,686 (17.03%) Unix
3 810 (8.18%) Windows Server
4 677 (6.84%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 585 (5.91%) CentOS
6 509 (5.14%) Ubuntu
7 276 (2.79%) Android
8 241 (2.43%) Apple iOS
9 233 (2.35%) Mac OS
10 186 (1.88%) Windows Server 2016
11 183 (1.85%) Debian
12 159 (1.61%) Windows Server 2012
13 147 (1.48%) Windows 10
14 145 (1.46%) Windows Server 2019
15 144 (1.45%) Embedded Linux
16 125 (1.26%) Solaris
17 102 (1.03%) AIX
18 68 (0.69%) SUSE
18 68 (0.69%) Windows Server 2008
19 65 (0.66%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,528 (35.63%) DevOps
2 3,364 (33.97%) Agile Software Development
3 2,142 (21.63%) Software Engineering
4 1,654 (16.70%) Problem-Solving
5 1,246 (12.58%) Computer Science
6 1,207 (12.19%) Infrastructure as Code
7 1,194 (12.06%) Microservices
8 1,003 (10.13%) Scrum
9 913 (9.22%) Continuous Integration
10 902 (9.11%) Configuration Management
11 807 (8.15%) Mentoring
12 795 (8.03%) OO
13 774 (7.82%) Full Stack Development
14 773 (7.81%) Test Automation
15 772 (7.80%) TDD
16 708 (7.15%) Open Source
17 704 (7.11%) Analytics
18 702 (7.09%) Infrastructure Engineering
19 623 (6.29%) ITIL
20 514 (5.19%) Cybersecurity
Programming Languages
1 3,459 (34.93%) Python
2 2,184 (22.06%) Java
3 1,978 (19.98%) SQL
4 1,799 (18.17%) JavaScript
5 1,430 (14.44%) Bash Shell
6 1,160 (11.71%) PowerShell
7 1,137 (11.48%) C++
8 931 (9.40%) PHP
9 843 (8.51%) C#
10 774 (7.82%) C
11 701 (7.08%) Shell Script
12 618 (6.24%) Go
13 520 (5.25%) Perl
14 474 (4.79%) Ruby
15 356 (3.60%) TypeScript
16 260 (2.63%) Groovy
17 193 (1.95%) PL/SQL
18 149 (1.50%) Scala
19 128 (1.29%) Java 8
19 128 (1.29%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 1,497 (15.12%) Degree
2 816 (8.24%) Security Cleared
3 487 (4.92%) SC Cleared
4 482 (4.87%) Computer Science Degree
5 227 (2.29%) Cisco Certification
6 209 (2.11%) AWS Certification
7 198 (2.00%) Microsoft Certification
8 159 (1.61%) Oracle Certification
9 158 (1.60%) OCP
10 151 (1.52%) CCNA
11 119 (1.20%) MCSE
12 116 (1.17%) DV Cleared
13 94 (0.95%) CCNP
14 85 (0.86%) Master's Degree
14 85 (0.86%) PhD
15 81 (0.82%) MCSA
16 75 (0.76%) SANS
17 64 (0.65%) CISSP
18 57 (0.58%) GCFE
19 55 (0.56%) GCIH
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 412 (4.16%) QA
2 223 (2.25%) SLA
3 198 (2.00%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 124 (1.25%) PCI DSS
5 90 (0.91%) GDPR
6 74 (0.75%) MISRA
7 60 (0.61%) NIST
8 47 (0.47%) PSD2
9 43 (0.43%) Accessibility
10 38 (0.38%) Cyber Essentials
11 37 (0.37%) Def Stans
11 37 (0.37%) ECSS
11 37 (0.37%) MISRA C
12 34 (0.34%) PMO
13 28 (0.28%) COBIT
14 27 (0.27%) Sarbanes-Oxley
15 26 (0.26%) Data Quality
16 22 (0.22%) GRC
17 20 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
18 19 (0.19%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 2,730 (27.57%) Docker
2 925 (9.34%) VMware Infrastructure
3 763 (7.71%) Active Directory
4 296 (2.99%) Hyper-V
5 215 (2.17%) Virtual Machines
6 208 (2.10%) vSphere
7 188 (1.90%) Firmware
8 162 (1.64%) VMware ESXi
9 151 (1.52%) HDFS
10 81 (0.82%) Virtual Servers
11 64 (0.65%) KVM
12 59 (0.60%) NFS
13 50 (0.50%) Apache ZooKeeper
14 42 (0.42%) iptables
14 42 (0.42%) Virtual Desktop
15 41 (0.41%) XenApp
16 37 (0.37%) VMware NSX
17 35 (0.35%) Oracle RAC
18 30 (0.30%) XenDesktop
19 18 (0.18%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 2,320 (23.43%) Kubernetes
2 2,086 (21.07%) Ansible
3 2,063 (20.83%) Terraform
4 1,054 (10.64%) Puppet
5 765 (7.73%) Opscode Chef
6 327 (3.30%) Prometheus
7 301 (3.04%) Grafana
8 180 (1.82%) SCCM
9 167 (1.69%) Nagios
10 141 (1.42%) Packer
11 104 (1.05%) Consul
12 91 (0.92%) Kibana
13 86 (0.87%) Rancher
14 71 (0.72%) Istio
15 68 (0.69%) ZABBIX
16 62 (0.63%) Microsoft Intune
17 59 (0.60%) Icinga
18 57 (0.58%) HAProxy
18 57 (0.58%) Salt
19 56 (0.57%) Graphite
Vendors
1 1,427 (14.41%) Microsoft
2 1,359 (13.72%) VMware
3 1,080 (10.91%) Oracle
4 854 (8.62%) Red Hat
5 527 (5.32%) Cisco
6 498 (5.03%) Google
7 307 (3.10%) Splunk
8 229 (2.31%) IBM
9 168 (1.70%) Atlassian
10 153 (1.55%) Okta
11 146 (1.47%) Citrix
12 143 (1.44%) HP
13 139 (1.40%) ServiceNow
14 137 (1.38%) Apple
15 126 (1.27%) SaltStack
16 125 (1.26%) Zend
17 116 (1.17%) F5
18 103 (1.04%) Dell
19 98 (0.99%) EMC
20 93 (0.94%) SAP