The table below looks at the statistics for Data Warehouse skills in IT jobs advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the average salaries offered in IT jobs that have cited Data Warehouse over the 3 months to 5 February 2016 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Location
3 months to
5 Feb 2016
Same period 2015 Same period 2014
Data Warehousing
Rank 77 100 93
Rank change year-on-year
+23 -7
Permanent jobs citing Data Warehouse 3536 3160 3212
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 3.48% 3.02% 3.12%
As % of the Database & Business Intelligence category 10.93% 9.77% 9.52%
Number of salaries quoted 2861 2632 2616
Average salary £50,000 £51,000 £50,000
Average salary % change year-on-year
-1.96% +2.00%
90% offered a salary of more than £35,000 £35,500 £35,000
10% offered a salary of more than £77,500 £75,000 £77,500
UK excluding London average salary £45,000 £45,000 £45,000

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Database & Business Intelligence category in permanent jobs advertised across the UK.

Database & Business Intelligence Category
UK
Permanent IT job ads with a match in the
Database & Business Intelligence category
32338 32339 33745
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 31.86% 30.93% 32.75%
Number of salaries quoted 27451 27751 28547
Average salary £47,500 £45,000 £45,000
Average salary % change year-on-year
+5.55% -
90% offered a salary of more than £32,500 £31,000 £30,000
10% offered a salary of more than £72,500 £70,000 £70,000
UK excluding London average salary £42,500 £40,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year
+6.25% -

Data Warehouse
Jobs Demand Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving total of permanent IT jobs citing Data Warehouse within the UK as a proportion of the total demand within the Database & Business Intelligence category.

Data Warehouse Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

Data Warehouse
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing Data Warehouse within the UK.

Data Warehouse Salary Trend in the UK

Data Warehouse
Salary Histogram

This chart provides a salary histogram for IT jobs citing Data Warehouse over the 3 months to 5 February 2016 within the UK.

Data Warehouse Salary Histogram in the UK

Data Warehouse
Top 30 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the average salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Data Warehouse within the UK over the 3 months to 5 February 2016. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location
(Use links below to see detailed
statistics and historical trends)
Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Average Salary
Last 3 Months
Average Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +24 3301 £50,000 -4.76% 507
London -2 1735 £57,500 - 268
South East +6 491 £45,000 -7.69% 69
City of London +15 303 £60,000 +8.10% 81
Yorkshire +43 260 £45,000 +12.50% 30
West Midlands +35 231 £47,032 +10.66% 27
West Yorkshire +35 216 £45,000 +12.50% 25
Berkshire +30 197 £50,000 -7.40% 22
Leeds +41 178 £45,000 +12.50% 22
South West +18 170 £39,085 -2.28% 28
North West +2 145 £42,500 - 41
East of England +7 133 £50,000 +5.26% 19
Scotland +30 129 £47,500 +11.76% 22
East Midlands +19 125 £45,000 +5.88% 17
Surrey -19 106 £47,500 - 6
Edinburgh +56 90 £47,500 +11.76% 13
Glasgow +28 87 £47,500 +18.75% 7
Hertfordshire +35 74 £60,000 +26.31% 4
Manchester +9 74 £44,750 +11.87% 21
Reading +1 66 £40,000 -27.27% 8
Buckinghamshire +20 63 £35,000 -17.64% 12
Bristol -12 59 £45,000 +28.57% 9
Birmingham +3 58 £47,032 -7.78% 8
Northamptonshire +22 53 £40,000 -11.11% 6
Slough +21 51 £55,000 +10.00% 4
Wiltshire +15 48 £47,304 +11.30% 7
Milton Keynes +15 42 £35,000 -17.64% 6
Warwickshire +9 40 £36,500 -14.11% 2
Nottinghamshire +1 40 £50,000 +20.48% 8
Nottingham -2 40 £50,000 +20.48% 8

Data Warehouse
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 5 February 2016, IT jobs within the UK citing Data Warehouse also mentioned the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number of jobs and their proportion against the total number of IT job ads sampled that cited Data Warehouse.

1 4787 (65.93%) Business Intelligence
2 4497 (61.93%) SQL
3 3322 (45.75%) SQL Server
4 2967 (40.86%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 2749 (37.86%) ETL
6 2576 (35.48%) SQL Server Reporting Services
7 2300 (31.68%) Finance
8 2122 (29.22%) SQL Server Analysis Services
9 1996 (27.49%) Microsoft
10 1703 (23.45%) T-SQL
11 1650 (22.72%) Oracle
12 1613 (22.21%) Agile Software Development
13 1430 (19.69%) Data Modelling
14 1250 (17.22%) Analytics
15 1204 (16.58%) Analytical Skills
16 1127 (15.52%) MS Excel
17 961 (13.24%) BusinessObjects
18 937 (12.90%) Degree
19 911 (12.55%) SQL Server 2008
20 828 (11.40%) SQL Server 2012
21 801 (11.03%) Data Quality
22 800 (11.02%) Relational Database
23 773 (10.65%) Big Data
24 748 (10.30%) Data Management
25 730 (10.05%) Banking
26 667 (9.19%) Data Integration
27 650 (8.95%) .NET
28 635 (8.75%) Data Analysis
29 617 (8.50%) Retail
30 578 (7.96%) Tableau

Data Warehouse
Top Related IT Skills by Category

For the 6 months to 5 February 2016, IT jobs within the UK citing Data Warehouse also mentioned the following IT skills grouped by category. The figures indicate the number of jobs and their proportion against the total number of IT job ads sampled that cited Data Warehouse. Up to 20 skills are shown per category.

Application Platforms
1 467 (6.43%) SAS
2 374 (5.15%) SharePoint
3 110 (1.51%) Apache Spark
4 90 (1.24%) Apache Pig
5 52 (0.72%) WebLogic
6 42 (0.58%) Apache
6 42 (0.58%) BizTalk Server
7 34 (0.47%) IIS
7 34 (0.47%) Node.js
8 31 (0.43%) Elasticsearch
9 30 (0.41%) CMS
10 26 (0.36%) JBoss
11 25 (0.34%) Tomcat
12 22 (0.30%) SharePoint 2010
13 19 (0.26%) WebSphere
14 17 (0.23%) Apache Solr
14 17 (0.23%) Oracle Application Server
14 17 (0.23%) SharePoint 2013
15 15 (0.21%) Oracle Spatial
16 14 (0.19%) JCAPS
Applications
1 1127 (15.52%) MS Excel
2 193 (2.66%) MS Office
3 147 (2.02%) PowerPivot
4 90 (1.24%) SPSS
5 84 (1.16%) MS Visio
6 71 (0.98%) MS PowerPoint
7 46 (0.63%) Spreadsheet
8 28 (0.39%) MS Project
9 2 (0.028%) CPLEX
9 2 (0.028%) InfoPath
9 2 (0.028%) S-PLUS
10 1 (0.014%) GNU Octave
Business Applications
1 73 (1.01%) Oracle EBS
2 47 (0.65%) Dynamics CRM
3 43 (0.59%) Cognos Business Intelligence
4 37 (0.51%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 32 (0.44%) Oracle Financials
6 30 (0.41%) Oracle 11i
7 28 (0.39%) Dynamics AX
7 28 (0.39%) Oracle ERP
8 26 (0.36%) Oracle Applications
9 25 (0.34%) FastStats
10 22 (0.30%) Markit EDM
11 21 (0.29%) Oracle EBS R12
12 20 (0.28%) HFM
13 17 (0.23%) Oracle Retail
14 14 (0.19%) Oracle General Ledger
14 14 (0.19%) Payment Gateway
15 12 (0.17%) Hyperion Planning
15 12 (0.17%) SAP FI
16 11 (0.15%) SAP BPC
16 11 (0.15%) SAP HR
Cloud Services
1 118 (1.63%) Microsoft Azure
2 88 (1.21%) Amazon AWS
3 79 (1.09%) SaaS
4 22 (0.30%) Google Analytics
5 20 (0.28%) Cloud Computing
6 17 (0.23%) IaaS
7 15 (0.21%) PaaS
8 13 (0.18%) Office 365
9 12 (0.17%) Google Cloud Platform
10 10 (0.14%) Azure Machine Learning
11 8 (0.11%) Amazon EMR
12 7 (0.096%) GitHub
13 6 (0.083%) Adobe Analytics
13 6 (0.083%) Amazon EC2
13 6 (0.083%) Amazon Kinesis
13 6 (0.083%) Google Compute Engine
14 4 (0.055%) Amazon S3
14 4 (0.055%) IBM SmartCloud
15 2 (0.028%) Google Tag Manager
16 1 (0.014%) AWS Lambda
Communications & Networking
1 89 (1.23%) Internet
2 46 (0.63%) SAN
3 34 (0.47%) LAN
4 32 (0.44%) NAS
5 27 (0.37%) TCP/IP
6 24 (0.33%) WAN
7 23 (0.32%) Intranet
8 22 (0.30%) Broadband
8 22 (0.30%) LDAP
9 21 (0.29%) FTP
9 21 (0.29%) HTTPS
10 15 (0.21%) Firewall
11 13 (0.18%) Ethernet
12 12 (0.17%) RTP
13 11 (0.15%) MVNO
13 11 (0.15%) Wi-Fi
14 10 (0.14%) PBX
15 9 (0.12%) Remote Desktop
16 8 (0.11%) HTTP
16 8 (0.11%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 3322 (45.75%) SQL Server
2 2967 (40.86%) SQL Server Integration Services
3 2576 (35.48%) SQL Server Reporting Services
4 2122 (29.22%) SQL Server Analysis Services
5 961 (13.24%) BusinessObjects
6 911 (12.55%) SQL Server 2008
7 828 (11.40%) SQL Server 2012
8 800 (11.02%) Relational Database
9 773 (10.65%) Big Data
10 559 (7.70%) OLAP
11 556 (7.66%) QlikView
12 529 (7.29%) Oracle Database
13 509 (7.01%) SQL Server 2014
14 455 (6.27%) Hadoop
15 449 (6.18%) RDBMS
16 430 (5.92%) Microsoft Analysis Services
17 385 (5.30%) Data Mining
18 339 (4.67%) Oracle Database 11g
19 302 (4.16%) Oracle BI EE
20 295 (4.06%) Enterprise Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 254 (3.50%) Team Foundation Server
2 136 (1.87%) Talend Open Studio
3 102 (1.40%) Visual Studio
4 101 (1.39%) Toad
5 100 (1.38%) Subversion
6 99 (1.36%) JIRA
7 93 (1.28%) ERwin
8 70 (0.96%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
9 62 (0.85%) Git (software)
10 41 (0.56%) HP UFT
11 38 (0.52%) Oracle APEX
12 31 (0.43%) Jenkins
12 31 (0.43%) Maven
13 29 (0.40%) Octopus Deploy
13 29 (0.40%) PowerDesigner
14 25 (0.34%) MSTest
15 24 (0.33%) Selenium
16 19 (0.26%) JUnit
17 18 (0.25%) Eclipse
18 16 (0.22%) Oracle Forms
General
1 2300 (31.68%) Finance
2 730 (10.05%) Banking
3 617 (8.50%) Retail
4 441 (6.07%) Marketing
5 196 (2.70%) Legal
6 179 (2.47%) Telecoms
7 159 (2.19%) Investment Banking
8 134 (1.85%) Games
9 121 (1.67%) Pharmaceutical
10 120 (1.65%) Advertising
11 107 (1.47%) Back Office
12 81 (1.12%) Manufacturing
13 70 (0.96%) Financial Institution
14 65 (0.90%) Law
15 60 (0.83%) Retail Banking
16 51 (0.70%) Front Office
17 46 (0.63%) Billing
18 41 (0.56%) Publishing
19 32 (0.44%) Electronics
19 32 (0.44%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 2875 (39.60%) Developer
2 1424 (19.61%) Analyst
3 1368 (18.84%) Business Intelligence Developer
4 1261 (17.37%) SQL Developer
5 820 (11.29%) Architect
6 653 (8.99%) Data Warehouse Developer
7 615 (8.47%) SQL BI Developer
8 523 (7.20%) SQL Server Developer
9 509 (7.01%) DBA
10 492 (6.78%) Consultant
11 491 (6.76%) Business Intelligence Analyst
12 477 (6.57%) Data Architect
13 364 (5.01%) Business Analyst
14 352 (4.85%) Senior Developer
15 335 (4.61%) SQL DBA
16 328 (4.52%) Business Developer
17 320 (4.41%) ETL Developer
18 317 (4.37%) SQL Analyst
19 297 (4.09%) Business Intelligence Manager
20 270 (3.72%) SQL Server BI Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 650 (8.95%) .NET
2 563 (7.75%) MDX
3 391 (5.38%) XML
4 226 (3.11%) HTML
5 195 (2.69%) Web Services
6 161 (2.22%) CSS
7 135 (1.86%) ASP.NET
8 131 (1.80%) Middleware
9 90 (1.24%) Oracle GoldenGate
10 72 (0.99%) J2EE
11 60 (0.83%) .NET Framework
12 56 (0.77%) jQuery
13 52 (0.72%) REST
14 48 (0.66%) JSON
14 48 (0.66%) SOAP
15 47 (0.65%) Kafka
16 41 (0.56%) D3.js
17 39 (0.54%) Oracle Fusion
17 39 (0.54%) XSLT
18 34 (0.47%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 1204 (16.58%) Analytical Skills
2 667 (9.19%) Data Integration
3 431 (5.94%) Management Information System
4 404 (5.56%) Visualisation
5 372 (5.12%) Computer Science
6 219 (3.02%) Data Structures
7 201 (2.77%) Replication
8 200 (2.75%) Mathematics
9 150 (2.07%) Statistics
10 142 (1.96%) NHS
11 137 (1.89%) Clustering
12 92 (1.27%) Data Extraction
13 86 (1.18%) Credit Risk
14 84 (1.16%) Enterprise Software
15 74 (1.02%) Equities
16 67 (0.92%) Derivative
17 65 (0.90%) Data Centre
18 61 (0.84%) Fixed Income
19 54 (0.74%) Hedge funds
20 50 (0.69%) Reference Data
Operating Systems
1 387 (5.33%) Unix
2 327 (4.50%) Linux
3 306 (4.21%) Windows
4 76 (1.05%) Windows Server
5 55 (0.76%) Solaris
6 45 (0.62%) AIX
6 45 (0.62%) Windows Server 2008
7 33 (0.45%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 24 (0.33%) Windows Server 2012
9 21 (0.29%) Android
9 21 (0.29%) Windows Server 2003
10 15 (0.21%) SUSE
11 10 (0.14%) Windows XP
12 9 (0.12%) Apple iOS
12 9 (0.12%) Oracle Linux
13 6 (0.083%) Windows 2000
14 5 (0.069%) CentOS
15 2 (0.028%) Windows Vista
16 1 (0.014%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 4787 (65.93%) Business Intelligence
2 2749 (37.86%) ETL
3 1613 (22.21%) Agile Software Development
4 1430 (19.69%) Data Modelling
5 1250 (17.22%) Analytics
6 748 (10.30%) Data Management
7 635 (8.75%) Data Analysis
8 572 (7.88%) Kimball Methodology
9 562 (7.74%) Stakeholder Management
10 542 (7.46%) Performance Tuning
11 470 (6.47%) Data Architecture
12 453 (6.24%) Business Analysis
13 417 (5.74%) Migration
14 413 (5.69%) Project Management
15 411 (5.66%) SDLC
16 403 (5.55%) Scrum
17 401 (5.52%) Dimensional Modelling
18 325 (4.48%) Data Analytics
19 324 (4.46%) CRM
20 314 (4.32%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 4497 (61.93%) SQL
2 1703 (23.45%) T-SQL
3 539 (7.42%) PL/SQL
4 510 (7.02%) C#
5 486 (6.69%) Java
6 251 (3.46%) Python
7 246 (3.39%) R
8 240 (3.31%) JavaScript
9 199 (2.74%) VBA
10 176 (2.42%) C
11 153 (2.11%) Shell Script
12 116 (1.60%) Perl
13 104 (1.43%) VB.NET
14 103 (1.42%) C++
15 99 (1.36%) VB
16 77 (1.06%) Data Analysis Expressions (DAX)
17 75 (1.03%) Bash Shell
18 62 (0.85%) PHP
19 59 (0.81%) PowerShell
19 59 (0.81%) Scala
Qualifications
1 937 (12.90%) Degree
2 172 (2.37%) Security Cleared
3 149 (2.05%) ISEB
4 128 (1.76%) Microsoft Certification
5 67 (0.92%) SC Cleared
6 62 (0.85%) Oracle Certification
7 53 (0.73%) ISTQB
8 52 (0.72%) PMI Certification
9 42 (0.58%) PhD
10 41 (0.56%) PRINCE2 Practitioner
11 40 (0.55%) DV Cleared
12 38 (0.52%) PMP
12 38 (0.52%) SAS Certification
13 36 (0.50%) MCDBA
14 29 (0.40%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
15 27 (0.37%) MCP
16 26 (0.36%) OCP
17 23 (0.32%) ITIL Certification
18 21 (0.29%) BPSS Clearance
18 21 (0.29%) MCITP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 801 (11.03%) Data Quality
2 265 (3.65%) QA
3 78 (1.07%) Solvency II
4 56 (0.77%) SLA
5 30 (0.41%) Basel II
6 29 (0.40%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 26 (0.36%) HL7
8 14 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 8 (0.11%) CRD IV
10 6 (0.083%) COBIT
10 6 (0.083%) FINREP
11 5 (0.069%) Dodd-Frank
11 5 (0.069%) EMIR
11 5 (0.069%) FATCA
12 3 (0.041%) COREP
12 3 (0.041%) IAS 39
12 3 (0.041%) ISO 9001
12 3 (0.041%) MiFID
12 3 (0.041%) PCI DSS
13 1 (0.014%) GAAP
System Software
1 87 (1.20%) Oracle RAC
2 54 (0.74%) HDFS
3 48 (0.66%) VMware Infrastructure
4 29 (0.40%) Active Directory
5 27 (0.37%) Apache Flume
6 16 (0.22%) Oracle Clusterware
7 12 (0.17%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 10 (0.14%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
9 7 (0.096%) Cronacle
10 4 (0.055%) Hyper-V
10 4 (0.055%) VMware ESX
11 2 (0.028%) Veritas Cluster Server
12 1 (0.014%) NFS
12 1 (0.014%) PowerHA
12 1 (0.014%) Veritas Volume Manager
12 1 (0.014%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 87 (1.20%) Data Guard
2 70 (0.96%) HP Quality Center
3 66 (0.91%) Oracle RMAN
4 52 (0.72%) Control-M
5 50 (0.69%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
6 28 (0.39%) Oozie
7 25 (0.34%) Opscode Chef
8 24 (0.33%) Puppet
9 22 (0.30%) Ansible
10 20 (0.28%) Tivoli
11 16 (0.22%) Oracle Flashback
12 13 (0.18%) Ambari
13 11 (0.15%) Hadoop YARN
14 10 (0.14%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
15 9 (0.12%) Dollar Universe
16 8 (0.11%) Kibana
16 8 (0.11%) logstash
16 8 (0.11%) OPNET
16 8 (0.11%) Salt
17 6 (0.083%) OpenView
Vendors
1 1996 (27.49%) Microsoft
2 1650 (22.72%) Oracle
3 578 (7.96%) Tableau
4 522 (7.19%) Informatica
5 445 (6.13%) Cognos
6 414 (5.70%) SAP
7 303 (4.17%) Teradata
8 279 (3.84%) IBM
9 136 (1.87%) Talend
10 130 (1.79%) Netezza
11 102 (1.40%) MicroStrategy
12 88 (1.21%) Ab Initio
13 83 (1.14%) Sybase
14 79 (1.09%) Google
15 77 (1.06%) Hyperion
16 65 (0.90%) Facebook
17 62 (0.85%) VMware
18 56 (0.77%) Trillium
19 53 (0.73%) Cloudera
20 43 (0.59%) Greenplum
City, London
Harris Rubbert Associates
Salary: £55,000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 5 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Salary: £45000 Per Annum + Benefits
Posted: 7 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Spring Technology
Salary: £45000 - £50000 per annum
Posted: 7 hours ago
Huddersfield, West Yorkshire
Spring Technology
Salary: £28000 - £32000 per annum
Posted: 7 hours ago
City, London
Redrock Consulting Ltd
Salary: £40000 - £70000 per annum
Posted: 7 hours ago
London
Hays Finance Technology
Salary: £50000.00 - £70000.00 per annum + Competitive Base + Bonus
Posted: 8 hours ago
Peterborough, Cambridgeshire
The One Group
Salary: £35k - 45k per year
Posted: 8 hours ago
City, London
First Point
Salary: £60000.00 - £65000.00 per annum
Posted: 8 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Fruition IT Resources Limited
Salary: £40000 - £50000 per annum + Bonus + benefits
Posted: 8 hours ago
Cardiff, South Glamorgan
CPS Group UK
Salary: £26000 - £32000 per annum + Pension & Benefits
Posted: 8 hours ago
Peterborough, Cambridgeshire
KDR
Salary: £30000 - £50000 per annum + Pension
Posted: 8 hours ago
London
Mahler Consulting
Salary: Bens
Posted: 9 hours ago
Surrey
BARCLAY ANDERSON LIMITED
Salary: From £30,000 to £35,000 per annum
Posted: 9 hours ago
Bristol, Avon
Robert Half
Salary: £30000 - £35000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Pioneer Search
Salary: £60000.00 - £65000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Pioneer Search
Salary: £70000 - £80000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Salt
Salary: £85000 - £100000 per annum + Excellent Benefits & Bonus
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Oxbridge Answers
Salary: 55-65k
Posted: 9 hours ago
Solihull, West Midlands (County)
Miller Maxwell Ltd
Salary: From £45,000 to £50,000 per annum
Posted: 10 hours ago
South West London
Opilio Recruitment
Salary: £40k - 50k per year
Posted: 11 hours ago
South West London
Opilio Recruitment
Salary: £25k - 30k per year
Posted: 11 hours ago
London
Eutopia Solutions Ltd
Salary: £80000 - £90000 per annum + bonus + benefits
Posted: 11 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Spring Technology
Salary: £45000.00 - £50000.00 per annum
Posted: 11 hours ago
Cambridgeshire
Churchill Frank
Salary: £40000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
London
Tech
Salary: From £40,000 to £55,000 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
Haywards Heath, West Sussex
Go IT Recruitment Ltd
Salary: From £60,000 to £65,000 per annum + bonuses + 25 days holiday
Posted: 13 hours ago
London
Churchill Frank
Salary: £45000 - £50000 per annum + Negotiable
Posted: 13 hours ago
Central London / West End
ANSON MCCADE
Salary: £65,000 - £80,000
Posted: 13 hours ago
City, London
Opus Resourcing Ltd
Salary: £27000 - £33000 per annum + Bens + Bonus
Posted: 13 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Langley James
Posted: 13 hours ago