The table below looks at the statistics for SQL skills in IT jobs advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the salaries offered in IT jobs that have cited SQL over the 3 months to 21 January 2017 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

3 months to
21 Jan 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
Rank 4 4 3
Rank change year-on-year
0 -1
Permanent jobs citing SQL 17069 21853 22312
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 20.57% 21.89% 21.26%
As % of the Programming Languages category 38.14% 41.90% 42.10%
Number of salaries quoted 14655 18702 19439
Median salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year
- +5.88%
90% offered a salary of more than £30,000 £29,500 £28,500
10% offered a salary of more than £70,000 £65,000 £65,000
UK excluding London median salary £40,000 £40,000 £40,000

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Programming Languages category in permanent jobs advertised across the UK.

Programming Languages Category
UK
Permanent IT job ads with a match in the
Programming Languages category
44754 52155 52993
As % of all permanent IT jobs located in the UK 53.93% 52.24% 50.49%
Number of salaries quoted 38413 44983 45468
Median salary £47,500 £45,000 £44,500
Median salary % change year-on-year
+5.55% +1.12%
90% offered a salary of more than £31,086 £30,000 £30,000
10% offered a salary of more than £72,500 £65,000 £70,000
UK excluding London median salary £42,500 £41,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year
+3.65% +2.50%

SQL
Jobs Demand Trend

The demand trend of job ads citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs with a match in the Programming Languages category.

SQL Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing SQL within the UK.

SQL Salary Trend in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

This chart provides a salary histogram for IT jobs citing SQL over the 3 months to 21 January 2017 within the UK.

SQL Salary Histogram in the UK

SQL
Top 30 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 3 months to 21 January 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Last 3 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 15969 £45,000 - 2310
London 0 6433 £55,000 +4.76% 833
South East -1 3061 £42,500 - 432
North West 0 1408 £39,000 +1.26% 253
East of England 0 1331 £43,000 +7.50% 154
City of London 0 1221 £55,000 - 202
Yorkshire 0 1169 £40,000 +6.66% 194
South West -3 984 £40,000 +6.66% 149
West Midlands -2 864 £38,500 -3.75% 172
West Yorkshire 0 807 £40,000 - 122
Manchester 0 803 £42,500 +6.25% 133
Berkshire 0 678 £45,000 - 88
Hampshire -1 648 £40,000 - 100
Leeds 0 631 £42,500 +6.25% 90
East Midlands -1 624 £40,000 +6.66% 95
Surrey -2 526 £45,000 - 57
Scotland 0 459 £40,000 - 63
Hertfordshire -1 456 £45,000 +5.88% 59
Cambridgeshire -2 345 £45,000 +12.50% 35
Birmingham 0 314 £42,500 +6.25% 63
Buckinghamshire -1 296 £37,500 - 43
Bristol -6 283 £42,500 +7.59% 48
Oxfordshire +1 282 £40,000 -11.11% 61
Wales 0 282 £40,000 +14.97% 24
West Sussex 0 273 £42,500 - 27
Cheshire 0 248 £37,500 - 54
Nottinghamshire +2 241 £40,000 +6.66% 41
Cambridge -4 238 £40,000 - 26
Reading +2 232 £45,000 +5.88% 23
Nottingham +2 216 £40,000 +6.66% 32

SQL
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 21 January 2017, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 12690 (35.24%) SQL Server
2 11243 (31.22%) .NET
3 11114 (30.86%) C#
4 10818 (30.04%) Agile Software Development
5 9130 (25.35%) Finance
6 8536 (23.70%) JavaScript
7 8424 (23.39%) Microsoft
8 7697 (21.37%) Java
9 7685 (21.34%) HTML
10 6400 (17.77%) Oracle
11 5972 (16.58%) T-SQL
12 5967 (16.57%) CSS
13 5834 (16.20%) ASP.NET
14 5676 (15.76%) Windows
15 5566 (15.46%) MVC
16 5181 (14.39%) Degree
17 4923 (13.67%) Business Intelligence
18 4552 (12.64%) Linux
19 4501 (12.50%) MS Excel
20 4166 (11.57%) SQL Server Integration Services
21 4015 (11.15%) XML
22 3974 (11.04%) SQL Server Reporting Services
23 3914 (10.87%) Web Services
24 3812 (10.59%) Analytical Skills
25 3596 (9.99%) Scrum
26 3559 (9.88%) jQuery
27 3414 (9.48%) TDD
28 3299 (9.16%) Software Engineering
29 3150 (8.75%) Data Warehouse
30 3113 (8.64%) Python

SQL
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1802 (5.00%) IIS
2 1449 (4.02%) SharePoint
3 1056 (2.93%) Tomcat
4 1018 (2.83%) Apache
5 862 (2.39%) WebSphere
6 827 (2.30%) SAS
7 804 (2.23%) JBoss
8 694 (1.93%) MS Exchange
9 674 (1.87%) WebLogic
10 569 (1.58%) CMS
11 536 (1.49%) Apache Spark
12 462 (1.28%) Elasticsearch
13 400 (1.11%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 341 (0.95%) BizTalk Server
15 297 (0.82%) Exchange Server 2010
16 290 (0.81%) Umbraco
17 287 (0.80%) Confluence
18 209 (0.58%) SharePoint 2013
19 204 (0.57%) Exchange Server 2013
20 188 (0.52%) nginx
Applications
1 4501 (12.50%) MS Excel
2 1115 (3.10%) MS Office
3 294 (0.82%) SPSS
4 287 (0.80%) MS PowerPoint
5 277 (0.77%) MS Visio
6 126 (0.35%) MS Project
7 86 (0.24%) Photoshop
8 58 (0.16%) Spreadsheet
9 41 (0.11%) Adobe Illustrator
10 38 (0.11%) InfoPath
11 17 (0.047%) InDesign
12 9 (0.025%) EViews
12 9 (0.025%) GNU Octave
12 9 (0.025%) Stata
13 8 (0.022%) Simulink
14 6 (0.017%) Adobe Captivate
14 6 (0.017%) MicroStation
15 5 (0.014%) Adobe Creative Suite
15 5 (0.014%) SOLIDWORKS
16 4 (0.011%) S-PLUS
Business Applications
1 565 (1.57%) Dynamics CRM
2 359 (1.00%) Oracle EBS
3 237 (0.66%) Oracle EBS R12
4 219 (0.61%) Dynamics AX
5 184 (0.51%) Oracle Applications
6 159 (0.44%) Dynamics NAV
7 151 (0.42%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 143 (0.40%) Oracle Financials
9 136 (0.38%) Oracle Payables
10 102 (0.28%) Cognos Business Intelligence
11 100 (0.28%) Unit4 Business World
12 92 (0.26%) Oracle Receivables
13 89 (0.25%) Magento
14 80 (0.22%) Oracle Assets
15 78 (0.22%) Oracle 11i
16 69 (0.19%) Markit EDM
17 65 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
18 64 (0.18%) Oracle ASCP
19 63 (0.17%) Adobe Campaign
19 63 (0.17%) Oracle iProcurement
Cloud Services
1 2093 (5.81%) Microsoft Azure
2 1773 (4.92%) Amazon AWS
3 678 (1.88%) SaaS
4 562 (1.56%) Office 365
5 327 (0.91%) GitHub
6 259 (0.72%) PaaS
7 221 (0.61%) Amazon EC2
8 212 (0.59%) IaaS
9 189 (0.52%) Google Analytics
10 181 (0.50%) Cloud Computing
11 174 (0.48%) Google Cloud Platform
12 118 (0.33%) Amazon S3
13 72 (0.20%) Amazon SQS
14 71 (0.20%) Adobe Analytics
15 53 (0.15%) AWS CloudFormation
16 50 (0.14%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 50 (0.14%) Azure Active Directory
17 40 (0.11%) Amazon ELB
18 34 (0.094%) Amazon EMR
19 30 (0.083%) Google App Engine
Communications & Networking
1 988 (2.74%) Firewall
2 742 (2.06%) DNS
3 722 (2.00%) Internet
4 719 (2.00%) TCP/IP
5 621 (1.72%) HTTP
6 593 (1.65%) SAN
7 394 (1.09%) LAN
8 390 (1.08%) WAN
9 375 (1.04%) DHCP
10 304 (0.84%) SSL
11 301 (0.84%) VPN
12 276 (0.77%) Intranet
13 271 (0.75%) VoIP
14 201 (0.56%) FTP
15 181 (0.50%) NAS
16 170 (0.47%) LDAP
17 141 (0.39%) VLAN
18 132 (0.37%) Network Security
19 126 (0.35%) Wireless
20 120 (0.33%) iSCSI
Database & Business Intelligence
1 12690 (35.24%) SQL Server
2 4166 (11.57%) SQL Server Integration Services
3 3974 (11.04%) SQL Server Reporting Services
4 3150 (8.75%) Data Warehouse
5 2735 (7.60%) Relational Database
6 2513 (6.98%) MySQL
7 2223 (6.17%) SQL Server 2008
8 2205 (6.12%) NoSQL
9 2101 (5.83%) SQL Server Analysis Services
10 1769 (4.91%) SQL Server 2012
11 1691 (4.70%) Big Data
12 1622 (4.50%) Oracle Database
13 1322 (3.67%) MongoDB
14 1083 (3.01%) RDBMS
15 1053 (2.92%) Hadoop
16 1007 (2.80%) SQL Server 2014
17 849 (2.36%) SQL Server 2005
18 729 (2.02%) QlikView
19 719 (2.00%) PostgreSQL
20 716 (1.99%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 2282 (6.34%) Git (software)
2 1918 (5.33%) Team Foundation Server
3 1834 (5.09%) Visual Studio
4 1486 (4.13%) JIRA
5 1401 (3.89%) Selenium
6 1285 (3.57%) Subversion
7 1216 (3.38%) Jenkins
8 904 (2.51%) Maven
9 765 (2.12%) JUnit
10 706 (1.96%) TeamCity
11 665 (1.85%) NUnit
12 565 (1.57%) Cucumber
13 405 (1.12%) Eclipse
14 354 (0.98%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 342 (0.95%) WebDriver
16 339 (0.94%) Oracle Forms
17 332 (0.92%) Octopus Deploy
18 312 (0.87%) MSTest
19 280 (0.78%) Ant
20 267 (0.74%) SoapUI
General
1 9130 (25.35%) Finance
2 2699 (7.50%) Banking
3 1580 (4.39%) Marketing
4 1533 (4.26%) Retail
5 858 (2.38%) Advertising
6 823 (2.29%) Telecoms
7 784 (2.18%) Front Office
8 722 (2.00%) Legal
9 643 (1.79%) Manufacturing
10 603 (1.67%) Investment Banking
11 579 (1.61%) Back Office
12 439 (1.22%) Financial Institution
13 424 (1.18%) Games
14 364 (1.01%) Law
15 307 (0.85%) Publishing
16 242 (0.67%) Electronics
17 177 (0.49%) Pharmaceutical
18 174 (0.48%) Billing
19 149 (0.41%) Automotive
20 113 (0.31%) German Language
Job Titles
1 16675 (46.31%) Developer
2 6617 (18.38%) Analyst
3 5217 (14.49%) .NET Developer
4 4733 (13.14%) C# Developer
5 3945 (10.96%) SQL Developer
6 3334 (9.26%) C# .NET Developer
7 2973 (8.26%) Senior Developer
8 2800 (7.78%) Java Developer
9 2108 (5.85%) Software Developer
10 1942 (5.39%) Applications Support
11 1901 (5.28%) DBA
12 1825 (5.07%) Support Analyst
13 1609 (4.47%) ASP.NET Developer
14 1445 (4.01%) SQL Analyst
15 1442 (4.00%) SQL DBA
16 1390 (3.86%) Consultant
17 1373 (3.81%) Junior
18 1371 (3.81%) C# ASP.NET Developer
19 1362 (3.78%) Software Engineer
20 1209 (3.36%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 11243 (31.22%) .NET
2 7685 (21.34%) HTML
3 5967 (16.57%) CSS
4 5834 (16.20%) ASP.NET
5 4015 (11.15%) XML
6 3914 (10.87%) Web Services
7 3559 (9.88%) jQuery
8 2865 (7.96%) AngularJS
9 2815 (7.82%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2500 (6.94%) .NET Framework
11 2190 (6.08%) WCF
12 2185 (6.07%) HTML5
13 1965 (5.46%) Spring
14 1666 (4.63%) REST
15 1563 (4.34%) ASP.NET Web API
16 1481 (4.11%) SOAP
17 1366 (3.79%) WPF
18 1357 (3.77%) Entity Framework
19 1303 (3.62%) Ajax
20 1174 (3.26%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 3812 (10.59%) Analytical Skills
2 2894 (8.04%) Computer Science
3 1205 (3.35%) Mathematics
4 913 (2.54%) Visualisation
5 844 (2.34%) Management Information System
6 840 (2.33%) Enterprise Software
7 709 (1.97%) Mobile App
8 688 (1.91%) Replication
9 666 (1.85%) Fintech
10 658 (1.83%) Clustering
11 648 (1.80%) Statistics
12 635 (1.76%) User Experience
13 576 (1.60%) Algorithms
14 549 (1.52%) Data Structures
15 513 (1.42%) Data Integration
16 495 (1.37%) Data Centre
17 445 (1.24%) Derivative
18 440 (1.22%) Hedge funds
19 421 (1.17%) Fixed Income
20 412 (1.14%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
Operating Systems
1 5676 (15.76%) Windows
2 4552 (12.64%) Linux
3 2756 (7.65%) Unix
4 2165 (6.01%) Windows Server
5 962 (2.67%) Windows Server 2012
6 827 (2.30%) Windows Server 2008
7 543 (1.51%) Android
8 482 (1.34%) Apple iOS
9 362 (1.01%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 352 (0.98%) Windows Server 2003
11 346 (0.96%) Windows 7
12 271 (0.75%) Solaris
13 230 (0.64%) CentOS
14 174 (0.48%) Windows 10
15 171 (0.47%) Windows 8
16 132 (0.37%) Ubuntu
17 95 (0.26%) Windows XP
18 89 (0.25%) Mac OS X
19 76 (0.21%) AIX
20 60 (0.17%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 10818 (30.04%) Agile Software Development
2 5566 (15.46%) MVC
3 4923 (13.67%) Business Intelligence
4 3596 (9.99%) Scrum
5 3414 (9.48%) TDD
6 3299 (9.16%) Software Engineering
7 2896 (8.04%) OO
8 2848 (7.91%) ETL
9 2733 (7.59%) Analytics
10 2558 (7.10%) SDLC
11 2530 (7.03%) Web Development
12 2343 (6.51%) Continuous Integration
13 2121 (5.89%) ITIL
14 1709 (4.75%) Performance Tuning
15 1639 (4.55%) CRM
15 1639 (4.55%) Unit Testing
16 1612 (4.48%) Data Modelling
17 1608 (4.47%) E-Commerce
18 1562 (4.34%) Mentoring
19 1511 (4.20%) DevOps
Programming Languages
1 11114 (30.86%) C#
2 8536 (23.70%) JavaScript
3 7697 (21.37%) Java
4 5972 (16.58%) T-SQL
5 3113 (8.64%) Python
6 2542 (7.06%) PL/SQL
7 1774 (4.93%) C++
8 1613 (4.48%) PHP
9 1596 (4.43%) VB.NET
10 1398 (3.88%) PowerShell
11 987 (2.74%) Perl
12 984 (2.73%) VB
13 948 (2.63%) Shell Script
14 878 (2.44%) VBA
15 868 (2.41%) C
16 831 (2.31%) R
17 796 (2.21%) Ruby
18 749 (2.08%) Bash Shell
19 613 (1.70%) Scala
20 326 (0.91%) TypeScript
Qualifications
1 5181 (14.39%) Degree
2 982 (2.73%) Microsoft Certification
3 799 (2.22%) ISEB
4 731 (2.03%) Security Cleared
5 654 (1.82%) ISTQB
6 367 (1.02%) SC Cleared
7 324 (0.90%) MCSE
8 285 (0.79%) Cisco Certification
9 259 (0.72%) PhD
10 238 (0.66%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 237 (0.66%) CCNA
12 197 (0.55%) MCSA
13 189 (0.52%) ITIL Certification
14 182 (0.51%) PMI Certification
15 166 (0.46%) DV Cleared
16 164 (0.46%) MCITP
17 115 (0.32%) PMP
18 113 (0.31%) MCTS
18 113 (0.31%) Oracle Certification
19 107 (0.30%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 2015 (5.60%) QA
2 668 (1.86%) SLA
3 545 (1.51%) Data Quality
4 251 (0.70%) PCI DSS
5 136 (0.38%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 103 (0.29%) MiFID
7 96 (0.27%) ISO 9001
8 56 (0.16%) SDET
9 46 (0.13%) HL7
10 43 (0.12%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 42 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
12 40 (0.11%) COBIT
13 39 (0.11%) ISO 14001
14 35 (0.097%) EMIR
15 29 (0.081%) DICOM
16 24 (0.067%) WAI
17 23 (0.064%) Basel II
17 23 (0.064%) Basel III
18 16 (0.044%) Dodd-Frank
19 14 (0.039%) ISO 9000
System Software
1 1769 (4.91%) Active Directory
2 1100 (3.05%) VMware Infrastructure
3 627 (1.74%) Hyper-V
4 500 (1.39%) Docker
5 308 (0.86%) vSphere
6 214 (0.59%) Virtual Machines
7 210 (0.58%) Oracle RAC
8 205 (0.57%) XenApp
9 154 (0.43%) Xen
10 148 (0.41%) Virtual Servers
11 135 (0.37%) XenServer
12 121 (0.34%) VMware ESX
13 97 (0.27%) NFS
14 92 (0.26%) Firmware
14 92 (0.26%) Terminal Services
15 91 (0.25%) XenDesktop
16 87 (0.24%) VMware ESXi
17 78 (0.22%) HDFS
18 68 (0.19%) VMware Workstation
19 64 (0.18%) Apache Flume
Systems Management
1 732 (2.03%) Puppet
2 521 (1.45%) Opscode Chef
3 377 (1.05%) Ansible
4 311 (0.86%) SCCM
5 268 (0.74%) SCOM
6 267 (0.74%) Nagios
7 177 (0.49%) HP Quality Center
8 176 (0.49%) Control-M
9 131 (0.36%) Oracle RMAN
10 129 (0.36%) Tivoli
11 116 (0.32%) Data Guard
12 114 (0.32%) Microsoft Clustering
13 96 (0.27%) NetBackup
14 92 (0.26%) Backup Exec
15 88 (0.24%) SCVMM
16 84 (0.23%) Kubernetes
17 83 (0.23%) Cobbler
18 74 (0.21%) Failover Clustering
18 74 (0.21%) Kibana
19 68 (0.19%) WSUS
Vendors
1 8424 (23.39%) Microsoft
2 6400 (17.77%) Oracle
3 1729 (4.80%) VMware
4 1114 (3.09%) Tableau
5 839 (2.33%) Cisco
6 817 (2.27%) IBM
7 805 (2.24%) SAP
8 735 (2.04%) HP
9 714 (1.98%) Citrix
10 652 (1.81%) Google
11 587 (1.63%) Sybase
12 544 (1.51%) Red Hat
13 492 (1.37%) Cognos
14 356 (0.99%) Informatica
15 333 (0.92%) Salesforce.com
16 287 (0.80%) NetApp
17 244 (0.68%) EMC
18 239 (0.66%) Adobe
19 220 (0.61%) Talend
20 193 (0.54%) Juniper
Swindon, Wiltshire
Ascend Consulting
Salary: Up to £26,000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £35000 - £55000 per annum + Benefits + Bonus
Posted: 22 hours ago
Burnley, Lancashire
Energize Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Salary: £28000 - £35000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Isleworth, Middlesex
Ashdown IT
Salary: £50000 - £60000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
London
Durlston Partners
Salary: Up to £70,000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 20 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £35000 - £50000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £45000 - £60000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
East London
onezeero.
Salary: £28000 - £35000 per annum + excellent benefits
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £25000 - £35000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £50000 - £60000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £50000 - £70000 per annum + Benefits + Bonus
Posted: 22 hours ago
London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £35000 - £45000 per annum + bonus + benefits
Posted: 13 hours ago
Wokingham, Berkshire
Spectrum IT Recruitment (South) Ltd
Salary: £30000 - £35000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Nottinghamshire
Ashdown IT
Salary: £40000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Reading, Berkshire
Harrington Starr
Salary: £30000 - £35000 per annum + bonus + benefits
Posted: 19 hours ago
London
Durlston Partners
Salary: Up to £120,000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 20 hours ago
Edinburgh, Midlothian
Search Consultancy
Posted: Yesterday
Fareham, Hampshire
IT Executive Ltd
Salary: £40000 - £55000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Surrey
Harrington Starr
Salary: £35000 - £50000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £45000 - £60000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
Bolton, Lancashire
Applause IT Innovation
Salary: £25000 - £35000 per annum
Posted: 17 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £50000 - £75000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
Redditch, Worcestershire
Senitor Associates
Salary: £28000 - £34000 per annum + Benefits
Posted: Yesterday
Southampton, Hampshire
Spectrum IT Recruitment (South) Ltd
Salary: £35000 - £45000 per annum + Excellent Benefits
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Harrington Starr
Salary: £40000 - £50000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
Diss, Norfolk
Pure Resourcing Solutions
Salary: £25000 - £30000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
Northampton, Northamptonshire
Interact Consulting
Salary: 20-30k
Posted: Yesterday
Surrey
Harrington Starr
Salary: £30000 - £60000 per annum + Bonus + Benefits
Posted: 22 hours ago
Shipley, West Yorkshire
X4 Group
Salary: £35k - 45k per year
Posted: Yesterday
Winsford, Cheshire
Searchability
Salary: £35000 - £45000 per annum
Posted: Yesterday