The table below looks at the statistics for the Developer role in IT contracts advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the average contractor rates offered in IT contracts that have cited Developer in their job title over the 3 months to 8 February 2016 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily contractor rates and hourly contractor rates are treated separately. When calculating average contractor rates, daily rates are not derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Location
3 months to
8 Feb 2016
Same period 2015 Same period 2014
Developer
Rank 1 1 1
Rank change year-on-year
0 0
Contract jobs requiring a Developer 12319 11663 11028
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 23.95% 22.61% 22.71%
As % of the Job Titles category 25.35% 23.93% 24.09%
Number of daily rates quoted 8758 8128 7235
Average daily rate £400 £400 £375
Average daily rate % change year-on-year
- +6.66%
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £275 £255
10% offered a daily rate of more than £575 £550 £550
UK excluding London average daily rate £375 £350 £325
% change year-on-year
+7.14% +7.69%
Number of hourly rates quoted 173 123 171
Average hourly rate £40.00 £35.18 £32.75
Average hourly rate % change year-on-year
+13.71% +7.40%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £20.50 £22.10 £15.25
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £58.61 £45.00 £45.00
UK excluding London average hourly rate £40.00 £35.09 £32.50
% change year-on-year
+14.00% +7.96%

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Job Titles category in contract jobs advertised across the UK. Most job vacancies include a discernible job title. As such the figures in the first row provide an indication of the total number of contract jobs in the overall sample.

Job Titles Category
UK
Contract IT job ads with a match in the
Job Titles category
48598 48731 45782
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 94.48% 94.46% 94.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 31271 30416 27107
Average daily rate £413 £400 £400
Average daily rate % change year-on-year
+3.12% -
90% offered a daily rate of more than £260 £238 £225
10% offered a daily rate of more than £575 £563 £575
UK excluding London average daily rate £375 £375 £350
% change year-on-year
- +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1757 1902 2013
Average hourly rate £17.50 £16.72 £17.50
Average hourly rate % change year-on-year
+4.66% -4.45%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £11.00 £11.00 £11.38
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £49.50 £40.00 £40.00
UK excluding London average hourly rate £17.50 £16.50 £16.50
% change year-on-year
+6.06% -

Developer
Jobs Demand Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving total of IT contractor jobs citing Developer in the job title within the UK as a proportion of the total demand within the Job Titles category.

Developer Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

Developer
Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in IT contract jobs citing Developer within the UK.

Developer Daily Rate Trend in the UK

Developer
Daily Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of daily rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Developer within the UK over the 3 months to 8 February 2016.

Developer Daily Rate Histogram in the UK

Developer
Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing Developer within the UK.

Developer Hourly Rate Trend in the UK

Developer
Hourly Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of hourly rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Developer within the UK over the 3 months to 8 February 2016.

Developer Hourly Rate Histogram in the UK

Developer
Top 30 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the average contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Developer within the UK over the 3 months to 8 February 2016. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location
(Use links below to see detailed
statistics and historical trends)
Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Average
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Average Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 11488 £413 +3.12% 4989
London 0 5836 £465 +3.33% 2021
South East 0 1626 £375 +7.14% 771
City of London 0 896 £500 +8.69% 483
North West 0 894 £355 +1.42% 506
South West 0 772 £375 - 347
Yorkshire -1 690 £350 +3.32% 417
West Midlands +1 606 £364 +7.38% 347
West Yorkshire 0 486 £368 +5.00% 256
Scotland -3 459 £375 - 140
East of England +3 445 £375 +7.14% 238
Manchester 0 444 £356 +9.61% 290
Leeds 0 396 £375 +7.14% 171
East Midlands +1 333 £328 +0.76% 246
Berkshire -1 326 £380 +8.57% 150
Hampshire 0 304 £350 - 154
Edinburgh -1 276 £391 +4.33% 42
Surrey 0 252 £400 +8.84% 145
North East -1 234 £350 - 84
Bristol 0 228 £350 -10.54% 130
Cheshire +1 223 £350 +5.66% 101
Buckinghamshire 0 201 £368 +5.00% 65
Wales 0 196 £364 +1.04% 68
Tyne and Wear +1 195 £361 +3.21% 76
Oxfordshire +1 175 £375 -6.25% 103
Newcastle upon Tyne +1 173 £368 +5.00% 62
Reading +2 168 £400 +10.34% 72
South Wales 0 162 £364 -3.00% 50
Birmingham +4 150 £325 -7.14% 116
Milton Keynes +2 149 £355 +1.42% 39

Developer
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 8 February 2016, IT contractor jobs within the UK that cited Developer in their job title mentioned the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number of jobs and their proportion against the total number of contract IT job ads sampled with Developer in their job title.

1 9282 (35.69%) Agile Software Development
2 9195 (35.36%) JavaScript
3 8276 (31.82%) HTML
4 7264 (27.93%) Java
5 7114 (27.35%) CSS
6 7066 (27.17%) SQL
7 5978 (22.99%) C#
8 5949 (22.87%) .NET
9 4918 (18.91%) SQL Server
10 4861 (18.69%) TDD
11 4312 (16.58%) Finance
12 4020 (15.46%) HTML5
13 3811 (14.65%) AngularJS
14 3772 (14.50%) MVC
15 3548 (13.64%) jQuery
16 3131 (12.04%) Scrum
17 3098 (11.91%) Web Services
18 2964 (11.40%) Oracle
19 2938 (11.30%) ASP.NET
20 2718 (10.45%) Git (software)
21 2675 (10.29%) OO
22 2548 (9.80%) CSS3
23 2509 (9.65%) Microsoft
24 2454 (9.44%) XML
25 2400 (9.23%) Linux
26 2391 (9.19%) Front End Development
27 2321 (8.92%) Banking
28 2221 (8.54%) Spring
29 2135 (8.21%) BDD
30 2024 (7.78%) Business Intelligence

Developer
Top Related IT Skills by Category

For the 6 months to 8 February 2016, IT contractor jobs within the UK that cited Developer in their job title mentioned the following IT skills grouped by category. The figures indicate the number of jobs and their proportion against the total number of contract IT job ads sampled with Developer in their job title. Up to 20 skills are shown per category.

Application Platforms
1 1787 (6.87%) Node.js
2 896 (3.45%) CMS
3 774 (2.98%) SharePoint
4 681 (2.62%) Apache
5 610 (2.35%) Tomcat
6 606 (2.33%) JBoss
7 456 (1.75%) IIS
8 421 (1.62%) SAS
9 400 (1.54%) WebSphere
10 361 (1.39%) Drupal
11 358 (1.38%) WebLogic
12 343 (1.32%) Elasticsearch
13 298 (1.15%) WordPress
14 265 (1.02%) Confluence
15 262 (1.01%) Apache Spark
16 256 (0.98%) SharePoint 2013
17 254 (0.98%) BizTalk Server
18 212 (0.82%) Umbraco
19 191 (0.73%) SharePoint 2010
20 144 (0.55%) Jetty
Applications
1 1000 (3.85%) MS Excel
2 334 (1.28%) Photoshop
3 252 (0.97%) MS Office
4 135 (0.52%) Adobe Illustrator
5 95 (0.37%) MS PowerPoint
6 92 (0.35%) MS Visio
7 66 (0.25%) Spreadsheet
8 42 (0.16%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 40 (0.15%) InfoPath
10 29 (0.11%) MS Project
11 21 (0.081%) OmniGraffle
12 17 (0.065%) Fireworks
13 9 (0.035%) Edge Animate
13 9 (0.035%) InDesign
14 8 (0.031%) GIMP
15 7 (0.027%) LaTeX
16 6 (0.023%) Doxygen
17 5 (0.019%) Adobe Captivate
17 5 (0.019%) Simulink
18 4 (0.015%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 362 (1.39%) Dynamics CRM
2 206 (0.79%) Magento
3 126 (0.48%) Oracle EBS
4 98 (0.38%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 89 (0.34%) Markit EDM
6 82 (0.32%) Oracle EBS R12
7 78 (0.30%) Dynamics AX
8 68 (0.26%) Oracle BPM
9 64 (0.25%) Payment Gateway
10 62 (0.24%) Oracle Applications
11 51 (0.20%) Cognos Business Intelligence
12 48 (0.18%) Dynamics NAV
13 43 (0.17%) Eloqua
14 41 (0.16%) BigMachines
15 32 (0.12%) BusinessWorks
15 32 (0.12%) Endur
16 27 (0.10%) Oracle Payables
17 24 (0.092%) OpenText Process Suite
18 22 (0.085%) Maximo
19 20 (0.077%) Oracle Receivables
Cloud Services
1 735 (2.83%) Amazon AWS
2 507 (1.95%) Microsoft Azure
3 450 (1.73%) GitHub
4 165 (0.63%) SaaS
5 110 (0.42%) Cloud Computing
6 102 (0.39%) Amazon EC2
7 90 (0.35%) Office 365
8 78 (0.30%) Heroku
9 69 (0.27%) Force.com
10 62 (0.24%) PaaS
11 60 (0.23%) Google Analytics
12 54 (0.21%) Amazon S3
13 35 (0.13%) Adobe Analytics
14 34 (0.13%) Google Cloud Platform
15 33 (0.13%) IaaS
16 31 (0.12%) AWS CloudFormation
17 24 (0.092%) Amazon SQS
18 20 (0.077%) Amazon Kinesis
18 20 (0.077%) Taleo
19 17 (0.065%) Google App Engine
Communications & Networking
1 819 (3.15%) HTTP
2 386 (1.48%) Internet
3 295 (1.13%) TCP/IP
4 158 (0.61%) Intranet
5 124 (0.48%) SSL
6 78 (0.30%) LDAP
7 71 (0.27%) FTP
8 55 (0.21%) DNS
9 49 (0.19%) Wi-Fi
10 47 (0.18%) Firewall
11 45 (0.17%) HTTPS
12 44 (0.17%) Bluetooth
13 39 (0.15%) DVB
14 36 (0.14%) Modbus
15 32 (0.12%) SMTP
16 31 (0.12%) SSH
17 30 (0.12%) 3G
18 29 (0.11%) 4G
19 25 (0.096%) SNMP
20 23 (0.088%) Skype
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4918 (18.91%) SQL Server
2 1658 (6.38%) SQL Server Integration Services
3 1462 (5.62%) SQL Server Reporting Services
4 1409 (5.42%) MySQL
5 1338 (5.14%) Data Warehouse
6 1259 (4.84%) MongoDB
7 1203 (4.63%) NoSQL
8 1155 (4.44%) Relational Database
9 973 (3.74%) SQL Server 2008
10 921 (3.54%) SQL Server Analysis Services
11 856 (3.29%) Oracle Database
12 696 (2.68%) SQL Server 2012
13 636 (2.45%) Big Data
14 614 (2.36%) PostgreSQL
15 576 (2.21%) Hadoop
16 469 (1.80%) Apache Cassandra
17 454 (1.75%) BusinessObjects
18 393 (1.51%) Oracle Database 11g
19 343 (1.32%) QlikView
20 325 (1.25%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 2718 (10.45%) Git (software)
2 1343 (5.16%) Subversion
3 1120 (4.31%) Jenkins
4 1034 (3.98%) Maven
5 1019 (3.92%) Visual Studio
6 917 (3.53%) JIRA
7 856 (3.29%) Team Foundation Server
8 619 (2.38%) JUnit
9 608 (2.34%) Cucumber
10 576 (2.21%) Selenium
11 571 (2.20%) Eclipse
12 534 (2.05%) Grunt
13 389 (1.50%) Jasmine
14 356 (1.37%) Mockito
15 349 (1.34%) gulp
16 323 (1.24%) Ant
17 299 (1.15%) Gradle
17 299 (1.15%) TeamCity
18 289 (1.11%) NUnit
19 213 (0.82%) SpecFlow
General
1 4312 (16.58%) Finance
2 2321 (8.92%) Banking
3 1011 (3.89%) Front Office
4 951 (3.66%) Investment Banking
5 643 (2.47%) Retail
6 539 (2.07%) Marketing
7 420 (1.61%) Telecoms
8 301 (1.16%) Games
9 270 (1.04%) Advertising
10 257 (0.99%) Publishing
11 254 (0.98%) Manufacturing
12 228 (0.88%) Back Office
13 213 (0.82%) Financial Institution
14 160 (0.62%) Electronics
15 148 (0.57%) Legal
16 75 (0.29%) Automotive
17 71 (0.27%) Pharmaceutical
18 61 (0.23%) Law
19 58 (0.22%) Retail Banking
20 52 (0.20%) Billing
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 8276 (31.82%) HTML
2 7114 (27.35%) CSS
3 5949 (22.87%) .NET
4 4020 (15.46%) HTML5
5 3811 (14.65%) AngularJS
6 3548 (13.64%) jQuery
7 3098 (11.91%) Web Services
8 2938 (11.30%) ASP.NET
9 2548 (9.80%) CSS3
10 2454 (9.44%) XML
11 2221 (8.54%) Spring
12 1956 (7.52%) REST
13 1730 (6.65%) RESTful
14 1453 (5.59%) .NET Framework
15 1442 (5.54%) ASP.NET MVC
16 1368 (5.26%) JSON
17 1233 (4.74%) SOAP
18 1119 (4.30%) Hibernate
19 1101 (4.23%) Sass
20 1097 (4.22%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 1384 (5.32%) User Experience
2 1053 (4.05%) Analytical Skills
3 747 (2.87%) Mobile App
4 707 (2.72%) Computer Science
5 526 (2.02%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 449 (1.73%) Derivative
7 351 (1.35%) Equities
8 342 (1.32%) Visualisation
9 326 (1.25%) Enterprise Software
10 302 (1.16%) Fixed Income
10 302 (1.16%) NHS
11 281 (1.08%) Data Structures
12 262 (1.01%) Algorithms
13 246 (0.95%) Mathematics
14 212 (0.82%) N-Tier
15 192 (0.74%) Data Integration
16 190 (0.73%) Fintech
17 189 (0.73%) iPad
18 157 (0.60%) Management Information System
19 156 (0.60%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 2400 (9.23%) Linux
2 1865 (7.17%) Unix
3 1310 (5.04%) Windows
4 856 (3.29%) Apple iOS
5 793 (3.05%) Android
6 312 (1.20%) Mac OS X
7 239 (0.92%) Windows Server
8 117 (0.45%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 95 (0.37%) CentOS
10 90 (0.35%) Mac OS
11 75 (0.29%) Solaris
12 74 (0.28%) AIX
12 74 (0.28%) Windows Server 2008
13 70 (0.27%) Ubuntu
14 62 (0.24%) Windows Server 2012
15 50 (0.19%) Windows Server 2003
16 49 (0.19%) Windows Phone
17 45 (0.17%) Windows 7
18 31 (0.12%) Windows 8
19 25 (0.096%) Windows Mobile
Processes & Methodologies
1 9282 (35.69%) Agile Software Development
2 4861 (18.69%) TDD
3 3772 (14.50%) MVC
4 3131 (12.04%) Scrum
5 2675 (10.29%) OO
6 2391 (9.19%) Front End Development
7 2135 (8.21%) BDD
8 2024 (7.78%) Business Intelligence
9 1880 (7.23%) Continuous Integration
10 1602 (6.16%) Unit Testing
11 1455 (5.59%) E-Commerce
12 1424 (5.48%) ETL
13 1421 (5.46%) Web Development
14 1370 (5.27%) Software Engineering
15 1129 (4.34%) Multithreading
16 1115 (4.29%) SDLC
17 981 (3.77%) Responsive Web Design
18 903 (3.47%) SOA
19 882 (3.39%) Pair Programming
20 880 (3.38%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 9195 (35.36%) JavaScript
2 7264 (27.93%) Java
3 7066 (27.17%) SQL
4 5978 (22.99%) C#
5 1879 (7.22%) PHP
6 1791 (6.89%) Python
7 1486 (5.71%) C++
8 1453 (5.59%) T-SQL
9 1093 (4.20%) PL/SQL
10 990 (3.81%) Scala
11 909 (3.50%) Ruby
12 632 (2.43%) C
13 576 (2.21%) Perl
14 564 (2.17%) VB.NET
15 544 (2.09%) VBA
16 470 (1.81%) Shell Script
17 468 (1.80%) Objective-C
18 424 (1.63%) VB
19 306 (1.18%) PowerShell
20 258 (0.99%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 1456 (5.60%) Security Cleared
2 1140 (4.38%) Degree
3 895 (3.44%) SC Cleared
4 265 (1.02%) DV Cleared
5 126 (0.48%) BPSS Clearance
6 101 (0.39%) Microsoft Certification
7 64 (0.25%) PhD
8 44 (0.17%) BC Cleared
8 44 (0.17%) Sun Certification
9 30 (0.12%) SAS Certification
10 27 (0.10%) Oracle Certification
11 26 (0.100%) CTC Cleared
12 20 (0.077%) OCP
13 19 (0.073%) MCSD
14 18 (0.069%) OCA
15 17 (0.065%) HND
15 17 (0.065%) ISTQB
15 17 (0.065%) OCAJ
16 16 (0.062%) ISEB
17 15 (0.058%) MCTS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 499 (1.92%) QA
2 246 (0.95%) Data Quality
3 235 (0.90%) Disclosure Scotland
4 49 (0.19%) WCAG
5 42 (0.16%) SLA
6 38 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 34 (0.13%) HMG Security Policy Framework
8 27 (0.10%) ISO 9001
9 21 (0.081%) SDET
9 21 (0.081%) WAI
10 20 (0.077%) Solvency II
11 19 (0.073%) ISO 14001
12 18 (0.069%) HL7
13 14 (0.054%) MiFID
13 14 (0.054%) PCI DSS
14 9 (0.035%) Dodd-Frank
14 9 (0.035%) FedRAMP
15 7 (0.027%) EMIR
15 7 (0.027%) MISRA
15 7 (0.027%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 254 (0.98%) Docker
2 102 (0.39%) Active Directory
3 85 (0.33%) HDFS
4 52 (0.20%) VMware Infrastructure
5 50 (0.19%) Apache Flume
6 39 (0.15%) Varnish
7 36 (0.14%) vSphere
8 21 (0.081%) Firmware
9 16 (0.062%) vCloud
10 13 (0.050%) Platform Symphony
11 10 (0.038%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 10 (0.038%) Oracle RAC
12 9 (0.035%) Shibboleth
12 9 (0.035%) Time Sharing Option
13 7 (0.027%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
13 7 (0.027%) VirtualBox
13 7 (0.027%) VMware ESXi
14 6 (0.023%) BitLocker
14 6 (0.023%) Hyper-V
15 5 (0.019%) Xen
Systems Management
1 200 (0.77%) Puppet
2 151 (0.58%) Opscode Chef
3 56 (0.22%) Control-M
4 44 (0.17%) Graphite
5 39 (0.15%) Capistrano
5 39 (0.15%) Oozie
6 38 (0.15%) Ansible
7 36 (0.14%) logstash
8 30 (0.12%) HP Quality Center
8 30 (0.12%) Kibana
9 28 (0.11%) Tivoli
10 25 (0.096%) WebSphere Cast Iron
10 25 (0.096%) yum
10 25 (0.096%) ZABBIX
11 22 (0.085%) Mesos
11 22 (0.085%) Oracle Identity Manager
12 20 (0.077%) Kubernetes
13 18 (0.069%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
14 16 (0.062%) Forefront Identity Manager
14 16 (0.062%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
Vendors
1 2964 (11.40%) Oracle
2 2509 (9.65%) Microsoft
3 447 (1.72%) IBM
4 438 (1.68%) SAP
5 365 (1.40%) Adobe
6 346 (1.33%) Informatica
7 311 (1.20%) Salesforce.com
8 292 (1.12%) Google
9 276 (1.06%) Sybase
10 232 (0.89%) Tableau
11 228 (0.88%) ServiceNow
12 216 (0.83%) Zend
13 201 (0.77%) Sitecore
14 156 (0.60%) Cognos
15 131 (0.50%) Red Hat
16 117 (0.45%) Apple
16 117 (0.45%) TIBCO
17 116 (0.45%) Teradata
18 115 (0.44%) Twitter
19 113 (0.43%) EPiServer
London
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: £400 per day
Posted: 8 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Oscar
Rate: £250 - £300 per day
Posted: 8 hours ago
City, London
TEKsystems
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Manchester, Lancashire
Oscar
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Mason Frank International
Rate: £480 - £520 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Bristol Area
Venn Group
Rate: £200 - £350 Per Day
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £500 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
South West London
Oscar
Rate: £350 - £425 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Oliver Bernard
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Edinburgh, Midlothian
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
TEKsystems
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
Oliver Bernard
Rate: £500 - £550 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Cheshire
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £450 - £550 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Venturi
Rate: £400.00 - £500 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
TEKsystems
Rate: £500 - £575 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Richmond, Surrey
Metaskil
Rate: £Neg on exp
Posted: 9 hours ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Experis Ltd
Rate: £350 - £378 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Rate: £300 - £350 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Oliver James Associates
Rate: £450 - £550 per annum
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
City, London
Arrows Group
Rate: £400 - £500 per day + negotiable
Posted: 10 hours ago
Ashton-Under-Lyne, Lancashire
Venn Group
Rate: £270 - £300 Per Day
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
Mason Frank International
Posted: 10 hours ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Senitor Associates
Rate: £325 - £375 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
Swansea, West Glamorgan
CPS Group UK
Rate: £450 - £500 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
Oliver James Associates
Rate: £450 - £550 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
Pioneer Search
Rate: £500 - £550 per day + Excellent
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
McGregor Boyall
Posted: 10 hours ago