The table below looks at the statistics for Python skills in IT contracts advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the contractor rates offered in IT contracts that have cited Python over the 3 months to 19 February 2017 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily contractor rates and hourly contractor rates are treated separately. When calculating average contractor rates, daily rates are not derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
19 Feb 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Python
UK
Rank 32 45 60
Rank change year-on-year
+13 +15
Contract jobs citing Python 2548 2060 1592
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 5.72% 3.97% 3.05%
As % of the Programming Languages category 14.08% 10.38% 8.04%
Number of daily rates quoted 1766 1430 1065
Median daily rate £488 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
+8.33% -
90% offered a daily rate of more than £340 £320 £300
10% offered a daily rate of more than £625 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £441 £400 £375
% change year-on-year
+10.12% +6.66%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 50 45
Median hourly rate £41.00 £47.00 £36.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
-12.76% +28.76%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £22.13 £28.85 £24.23
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £47.00 £55.00 £43.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £42.50 £37.50
% change year-on-year
-5.88% +13.33%

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Programming Languages category in contract jobs advertised across the UK.

Programming Languages Category
UK
Contract IT job ads with a match in the
Programming Languages category
18096 19837 19806
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 40.61% 38.26% 37.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 12436 13463 13063
Median daily rate £429 £415 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
+3.49% +3.75%
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £297 £275
10% offered a daily rate of more than £600 £575 £560
UK excluding London median daily rate £388 £375 £350
% change year-on-year
+3.33% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 418 492 430
Median hourly rate £41.64 £40.00 £35.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
+4.10% +14.28%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £17.32 £18.85 £19.65
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £52.50 £50.54 £45.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.25 £40.00 £35.50
% change year-on-year
+3.12% +12.67%

Python
Jobs Demand Trend

The demand trend of contract jobs citing Python as a proportion of all IT contracts with a match in the Programming Languages category.

Python Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

Python
Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in IT contract jobs citing Python within the UK.

Python Daily Rate Trend in the UK

Python
Daily Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of daily rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Python within the UK over the 3 months to 19 February 2017.

Python Daily Rate Histogram in the UK

Python
Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing Python within the UK.

Python Hourly Rate Trend in the UK

Python
Hourly Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of hourly rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Python within the UK over the 3 months to 19 February 2017.

Python Hourly Rate Histogram in the UK

Python
Top 30 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Python within the UK over the 3 months to 19 February 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +11 2372 £500 +11.11% 1012
London +16 1478 £513 +7.89% 575
South East +2 308 £468 +16.87% 146
City of London +22 202 £513 +2.50% 137
Yorkshire +35 154 £420 -15.36% 50
West Yorkshire +27 119 £410 -13.68% 31
Leeds +20 117 £410 -13.68% 24
East of England +30 109 £445 +11.25% 99
North West +19 108 £430 +6.17% 45
Scotland +42 98 £350 -10.25% 44
South West -18 84 £450 +24.13% 70
Berkshire +4 82 £500 +29.70% 35
Manchester +18 77 £425 +11.84% 37
Surrey +16 61 £463 -2.63% 31
Cambridgeshire +5 61 £350 -12.50% 79
Edinburgh +32 52 £375 -6.25% 26
West Sussex +34 51 £468 - 7
Cambridge +4 48 £375 -1.63% 69
West Midlands +39 46 £475 +58.33% 13
Hampshire -17 41 £363 +13.80% 24
Wales +40 38 £500 +14.28% 7
South Wales +50 37 £500 +17.64% 5
Reading -17 37 £500 +31.57% 19
East Midlands +30 36 £375 +4.16% 8
North East -14 36 £375 -31.81% 6
South Yorkshire +29 34 £450 -37.93% 11
Sheffield +29 34 £450 -37.93% 8
Oxfordshire -4 33 £463 -7.50% 36
Tyne and Wear -14 33 £375 -25.74% 6
Newcastle upon Tyne -18 33 £375 -31.81% 6

Python
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 19 February 2017, IT contractor jobs citing Python also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for Python.

1 2189 (41.57%) Linux
2 2075 (39.40%) Java
3 2043 (38.80%) Agile Software Development
4 1515 (28.77%) DevOps
5 1171 (22.24%) Ruby
6 1075 (20.41%) SQL
7 1053 (20.00%) Puppet
8 1047 (19.88%) Amazon AWS
9 1011 (19.20%) Jenkins
10 960 (18.23%) Perl
11 946 (17.96%) Git (software)
12 905 (17.19%) Bash Shell
13 903 (17.15%) JavaScript
14 881 (16.73%) Continuous Integration
14 881 (16.73%) Ansible
15 820 (15.57%) Big Data
16 810 (15.38%) Unix
17 781 (14.83%) Hadoop
18 775 (14.72%) Docker
19 760 (14.43%) Finance
20 715 (13.58%) Open Source
21 698 (13.25%) Scala
22 693 (13.16%) Opscode Chef
23 679 (12.89%) HTML
24 645 (12.25%) TDD
25 632 (12.00%) Configuration Management
26 623 (11.83%) Apache Spark
27 598 (11.36%) C++
28 597 (11.34%) Scrum
29 534 (10.14%) NoSQL

Python
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 623 (11.83%) Apache Spark
2 402 (7.63%) Apache
3 302 (5.73%) Elasticsearch
4 246 (4.67%) Confluence
5 227 (4.31%) nginx
6 217 (4.12%) Tomcat
7 166 (3.15%) OpenStack
8 137 (2.60%) Apache Pig
9 112 (2.13%) SAS
10 77 (1.46%) Cloud Foundry
11 76 (1.44%) WebLogic
12 74 (1.41%) JBoss
13 66 (1.25%) Apache Solr
14 62 (1.18%) WebSphere
15 56 (1.06%) IIS
16 49 (0.93%) CMS
17 41 (0.78%) GeoServer
18 31 (0.59%) Jetty
19 28 (0.53%) Drupal
20 25 (0.47%) Jupyter
Applications
1 106 (2.01%) MS Excel
2 35 (0.66%) SPSS
3 32 (0.61%) Spreadsheet
4 19 (0.36%) Photoshop
5 12 (0.23%) Doxygen
5 12 (0.23%) MS Office
6 11 (0.21%) Stata
7 7 (0.13%) Weka
8 6 (0.11%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 5 (0.095%) Simulink
10 3 (0.057%) GNU Octave
10 3 (0.057%) Mathematica
10 3 (0.057%) OmniGraffle
11 2 (0.038%) Chatbot
11 2 (0.038%) FrameMaker
12 1 (0.019%) Adobe Illustrator
12 1 (0.019%) Edge Animate
12 1 (0.019%) MS PowerPoint
12 1 (0.019%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 46 (0.87%) SAP Oil and Gas
2 11 (0.21%) RMDS
3 10 (0.19%) Oracle BPM
4 9 (0.17%) Oracle EBS
4 9 (0.17%) Oracle EBS R12
5 7 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
6 5 (0.095%) Magento
6 5 (0.095%) Oracle Applications
7 4 (0.076%) FINCAD Analytics
8 3 (0.057%) Adobe Campaign
8 3 (0.057%) BusinessWorks
8 3 (0.057%) Sentinel
8 3 (0.057%) Unica
9 2 (0.038%) Front Arena
9 2 (0.038%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
9 2 (0.038%) Oracle Cash Management
9 2 (0.038%) Oracle Payables
9 2 (0.038%) Relativity
9 2 (0.038%) Remedy ITSM
9 2 (0.038%) Veritas eDiscovery
Cloud Services
1 1047 (19.88%) Amazon AWS
2 343 (6.51%) Microsoft Azure
3 164 (3.11%) Amazon EC2
4 148 (2.81%) AWS CloudFormation
4 148 (2.81%) PaaS
5 147 (2.79%) GitHub
6 118 (2.24%) Amazon S3
6 118 (2.24%) IaaS
7 113 (2.15%) Cloud Computing
8 87 (1.65%) Virtual Private Cloud
9 81 (1.54%) Google Cloud Platform
10 60 (1.14%) SaaS
11 56 (1.06%) Amazon EMR
12 51 (0.97%) Amazon Kinesis
13 50 (0.95%) Amazon ELB
14 38 (0.72%) Route 53
15 32 (0.61%) Amazon SQS
16 31 (0.59%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
17 30 (0.57%) AWS Lambda
17 30 (0.57%) Google Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 417 (7.92%) HTTP
2 348 (6.61%) TCP/IP
3 249 (4.73%) Firewall
4 198 (3.76%) DNS
5 186 (3.53%) SSL
6 131 (2.49%) LDAP
7 124 (2.35%) Internet
8 85 (1.61%) VPN
9 70 (1.33%) Kerberos
10 52 (0.99%) SAN
11 41 (0.78%) DHCP
12 40 (0.76%) SMTP
13 39 (0.74%) SNMP
14 37 (0.70%) MQTT
14 37 (0.70%) Wireless
15 36 (0.68%) RTSP
15 36 (0.68%) SSH
16 33 (0.63%) Network Security
17 30 (0.57%) HTTPS
17 30 (0.57%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 820 (15.57%) Big Data
2 781 (14.83%) Hadoop
3 534 (10.14%) NoSQL
4 488 (9.27%) PostgreSQL
5 455 (8.64%) MySQL
6 437 (8.30%) Relational Database
7 413 (7.84%) MongoDB
8 346 (6.57%) Apache Hive
9 293 (5.56%) SQL Server
10 203 (3.85%) Apache Cassandra
11 166 (3.15%) HBase
12 127 (2.41%) Data Warehouse
13 126 (2.39%) RDBMS
14 124 (2.35%) Redis
15 98 (1.86%) Amazon RDS
16 93 (1.77%) Oracle Database
17 82 (1.56%) Sqoop
18 64 (1.22%) Data Mining
19 58 (1.10%) Impala
20 57 (1.08%) GIS
Development Applications
1 1011 (19.20%) Jenkins
2 946 (17.96%) Git (software)
3 500 (9.49%) JIRA
4 317 (6.02%) Selenium
5 302 (5.73%) Subversion
6 244 (4.63%) Maven
7 213 (4.04%) Cucumber
8 141 (2.68%) Gradle
9 131 (2.49%) TeamCity
10 125 (2.37%) JUnit
11 106 (2.01%) Vagrant
12 103 (1.96%) Ant
13 95 (1.80%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 93 (1.77%) WebDriver
15 85 (1.61%) Bitbucket
16 72 (1.37%) Hudson
17 68 (1.29%) Sonatype Nexus
18 62 (1.18%) JMeter
19 54 (1.03%) Mercurial
19 54 (1.03%) SoapUI
General
1 760 (14.43%) Finance
2 420 (7.98%) Banking
3 177 (3.36%) Investment Banking
4 159 (3.02%) Front Office
5 146 (2.77%) Marketing
6 141 (2.68%) Telecoms
7 106 (2.01%) Retail
8 86 (1.63%) Electronics
9 59 (1.12%) Manufacturing
10 52 (0.99%) Financial Institution
11 48 (0.91%) Games
12 45 (0.85%) Publishing
13 34 (0.65%) Law
14 26 (0.49%) Advertising
15 19 (0.36%) Aerospace
15 19 (0.36%) Legal
16 14 (0.27%) Back Office
17 11 (0.21%) Billing
18 10 (0.19%) Pharmaceutical
19 9 (0.17%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1941 (36.86%) Developer
2 851 (16.16%) DevOps Engineer
3 784 (14.89%) Python Developer
4 373 (7.08%) Java Developer
5 333 (6.32%) Analyst
6 272 (5.17%) Linux Engineer
7 260 (4.94%) Data Engineer
8 257 (4.88%) Architect
9 240 (4.56%) AWS Engineer
10 222 (4.22%) Senior Developer
11 220 (4.18%) AWS DevOps
12 192 (3.65%) Data Scientist
13 191 (3.63%) Linux/Unix DevOps
14 181 (3.44%) Administrator
15 175 (3.32%) Big Data Engineer
16 169 (3.21%) Software Engineer
17 161 (3.06%) Consultant
18 147 (2.79%) Scala Developer
19 141 (2.68%) Linux DevOps Engineer
20 139 (2.64%) C++ Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 679 (12.89%) HTML
2 520 (9.87%) CSS
3 499 (9.48%) Web Services
4 494 (9.38%) Django
5 396 (7.52%) JSON
6 374 (7.10%) REST
7 332 (6.30%) XML
8 308 (5.85%) AngularJS
9 289 (5.49%) Kafka
10 288 (5.47%) RESTful
11 255 (4.84%) HTML5
12 247 (4.69%) .NET
13 243 (4.61%) Node.js
14 236 (4.48%) Spring
15 182 (3.46%) jQuery
16 180 (3.42%) Elastic Stack
17 172 (3.27%) Flask
18 154 (2.92%) CSS3
19 134 (2.54%) RabbitMQ
20 132 (2.51%) LAMP
Miscellaneous
1 346 (6.57%) Analytical Skills
2 284 (5.39%) Computer Science
3 271 (5.15%) Algorithms
4 209 (3.97%) Visualisation
5 193 (3.67%) Statistics
6 181 (3.44%) Mathematics
7 122 (2.32%) Public Cloud
8 117 (2.22%) User Experience
9 102 (1.94%) Data Centre
10 94 (1.79%) Management Information System
11 84 (1.60%) Linux Command Line
12 71 (1.35%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 69 (1.31%) Data Structures
14 68 (1.29%) Fixed Income
15 67 (1.27%) Mobile App
16 64 (1.22%) Credit Risk
17 61 (1.16%) Clustering
18 57 (1.08%) Derivative
19 48 (0.91%) Fintech
20 46 (0.87%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 2189 (41.57%) Linux
2 810 (15.38%) Unix
3 507 (9.63%) Windows
4 304 (5.77%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 265 (5.03%) CentOS
6 227 (4.31%) Ubuntu
7 96 (1.82%) Android
8 74 (1.41%) Apple iOS
9 67 (1.27%) Windows Server
10 60 (1.14%) AIX
11 57 (1.08%) Solaris
12 56 (1.06%) Mac OS X
13 45 (0.85%) Debian
14 43 (0.82%) Windows Server 2008
15 28 (0.53%) Mac OS
16 27 (0.51%) SUSE
17 22 (0.42%) CoreOS
17 22 (0.42%) Windows Server 2012
18 14 (0.27%) Fedora
19 13 (0.25%) Embedded Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 2043 (38.80%) Agile Software Development
2 1515 (28.77%) DevOps
3 881 (16.73%) Continuous Integration
4 715 (13.58%) Open Source
5 645 (12.25%) TDD
6 632 (12.00%) Configuration Management
7 597 (11.34%) Scrum
8 476 (9.04%) Analytics
9 460 (8.74%) Software Engineering
10 409 (7.77%) OO
11 380 (7.22%) BDD
12 318 (6.04%) Continuous Delivery
13 314 (5.96%) Machine Learning
14 280 (5.32%) Business Intelligence
15 275 (5.22%) SDLC
16 266 (5.05%) High Availability
17 256 (4.86%) Microservices
18 252 (4.79%) Automated Testing
19 250 (4.75%) Web Development
20 214 (4.06%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 2075 (39.40%) Java
2 1171 (22.24%) Ruby
3 1075 (20.41%) SQL
4 960 (18.23%) Perl
5 905 (17.19%) Bash Shell
6 903 (17.15%) JavaScript
7 698 (13.25%) Scala
8 598 (11.36%) C++
9 508 (9.65%) R
10 476 (9.04%) C#
11 433 (8.22%) C
12 397 (7.54%) PHP
13 282 (5.36%) Shell Script
14 217 (4.12%) PowerShell
15 210 (3.99%) Go
16 102 (1.94%) MATLAB
17 100 (1.90%) Groovy
18 50 (0.95%) VBA
19 46 (0.87%) PL/SQL
20 43 (0.82%) Korn
Qualifications
1 412 (7.82%) Degree
2 377 (7.16%) Security Cleared
3 202 (3.84%) SC Cleared
4 122 (2.32%) DV Cleared
5 103 (1.96%) PhD
6 62 (1.18%) CISSP
7 35 (0.66%) AWS Certification
7 35 (0.66%) ISEB
8 34 (0.65%) Cisco Certification
9 32 (0.61%) BPSS Clearance
9 32 (0.61%) SANS
10 30 (0.57%) CCNP
11 28 (0.53%) CEH
12 26 (0.49%) ISTQB
13 21 (0.40%) CCNA
13 21 (0.40%) RHCE
14 19 (0.36%) GIAC
15 17 (0.32%) RHCSA
15 17 (0.32%) SSCP
16 11 (0.21%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 237 (4.50%) QA
2 54 (1.03%) Data Quality
3 42 (0.80%) PCI DSS
4 37 (0.70%) Disclosure Scotland
5 26 (0.49%) SDET
6 12 (0.23%) SLA
7 11 (0.21%) WCAG
8 5 (0.095%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 4 (0.076%) GCP
9 4 (0.076%) JTAG
10 2 (0.038%) GPG for Computer-Based Electronic Evidence
10 2 (0.038%) IAS 39
10 2 (0.038%) IFRS
10 2 (0.038%) IFRS 9
10 2 (0.038%) MiFID
10 2 (0.038%) MISRA
10 2 (0.038%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 2 (0.038%) Solvency II
11 1 (0.019%) Actionable Recommendations
11 1 (0.019%) BS7666
System Software
1 775 (14.72%) Docker
2 186 (3.53%) VMware Infrastructure
3 127 (2.41%) Active Directory
3 127 (2.41%) HDFS
4 69 (1.31%) Virtual Machines
5 64 (1.22%) Apache Flume
6 46 (0.87%) Xen
7 36 (0.68%) vSphere
8 31 (0.59%) KVM
8 31 (0.59%) NFS
9 29 (0.55%) LXC
10 24 (0.46%) Hyper-V
10 24 (0.46%) XenServer
11 23 (0.44%) VMware ESXi
12 22 (0.42%) vCloud
13 17 (0.32%) Firmware
14 16 (0.30%) Apache ZooKeeper
15 15 (0.28%) GlusterFS
16 14 (0.27%) VMware ESX
17 13 (0.25%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 1053 (20.00%) Puppet
2 881 (16.73%) Ansible
3 693 (13.16%) Opscode Chef
4 210 (3.99%) Terraform
5 165 (3.13%) Kubernetes
6 158 (3.00%) Salt
7 156 (2.96%) Kibana
8 151 (2.87%) logstash
9 150 (2.85%) Nagios
10 99 (1.88%) Hadoop YARN
11 68 (1.29%) Mesos
12 57 (1.08%) ZABBIX
13 55 (1.04%) Graphite
14 54 (1.03%) HAProxy
15 44 (0.84%) Grafana
16 39 (0.74%) Packer
17 35 (0.66%) SELinux
18 34 (0.65%) Oozie
19 26 (0.49%) Cobbler
19 26 (0.49%) QRadar
Vendors
1 496 (9.42%) Oracle
2 341 (6.48%) Red Hat
3 283 (5.37%) VMware
4 229 (4.35%) Splunk
5 215 (4.08%) Google
6 165 (3.13%) Microsoft
7 129 (2.45%) Tableau
8 127 (2.41%) SaltStack
9 118 (2.24%) Atlassian
10 115 (2.18%) Cloudera
11 93 (1.77%) IBM
12 90 (1.71%) SAP
13 87 (1.65%) Cisco
14 77 (1.46%) Hortonworks
15 75 (1.42%) Sybase
16 72 (1.37%) HP
17 69 (1.31%) Teradata
18 60 (1.14%) Rackspace
19 43 (0.82%) EMC
19 43 (0.82%) New Relic
Greater Manchester
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: Yesterday
London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £550 - £650 per day
Posted: Yesterday
South East London
Lorien Resourcing
Rate: £400 - £460 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
TEKsystems
Rate: £600 - £700 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Computer People
Posted: 19 hours ago
London
Montash
Rate: £58.76 - £67.15 per day + Negotiable
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Michael Bailey Associates
Rate: market rates
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Pro-Quest Resourcing Ltd
Rate: Please indicate day rate and availability when applying
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Pioneer Search
Rate: £600 - £700 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Shrewsbury, Shropshire
Premier IT
Rate: £350 - £600 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Swindon, Wiltshire
Oscar
Rate: £450 - £500 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Newport, Gwent
Avion Recruitment Solutions
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
E-synergy Solutions
Rate: £450 - £550 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
London
Joseph Harry Ltd
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Hatstand Limited
Rate: £350 - £550 per day
Posted: 15 hours ago
London
Talent International
Rate: £450 - £600 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Oho Group Ltd.
Rate: £350 - £500 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
City, London
Hatstand Limited
Rate: £400 - £550 per day
Posted: 15 hours ago
London
Experis Ltd
Rate: £500.00 - £540.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Shipley, West Yorkshire
Experis Ltd
Rate: £500.00 - £540.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
Experis Ltd
Rate: £490.00 - £540.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Southampton, Hampshire
Sopra Steria Recruitment
Rate: Unspecified Competitive
Posted: 3 days ago
Woking, Surrey
TEKsystems
Rate: £375 - £400 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
IntaPeople
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Joseph Harry Ltd
Posted: Yesterday
London
Hays Finance Technology
Rate: £600.00 - £650.00 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Oho Group Ltd.
Rate: £450 - £650 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Woking, Surrey
Understanding Recruitment
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Berkshire
TEKsystems
Rate: £295 - £405 per day
Posted: 2 days ago