The table below looks at the statistics for DNS skills in IT contracts advertised across the UK. Included is a guide to the contractor rates offered in IT contracts that have cited DNS over the 3 months to 29 June 2016 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily contractor rates and hourly contractor rates are treated separately. When calculating average contractor rates, daily rates are not derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
29 Jun 2016
Same period 2015 Same period 2014
Domain Name System (DNS)
Rank 93 113 119
Rank change year-on-year
+20 +6
Contract jobs citing DNS 1313 1077 990
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 2.44% 1.92% 1.87%
As % of the Communications & Networking category 15.06% 13.36% 13.71%
Number of daily rates quoted 824 632 526
Median daily rate £350 £350 £325
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
- +7.69%
90% offered a daily rate of more than £222 £207 £208
10% offered a daily rate of more than £495 £475 £450
UK excluding London median daily rate £325 £325 £300
% change year-on-year
- +8.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 82 62 46
Median hourly rate £28.00 £20.00 £16.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
+40.00% +21.21%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £19.00 £11.15 £12.00
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £47.77 £41.75 £28.70
UK excluding London median hourly rate £28.00 £20.19 £16.00
% change year-on-year
+38.71% +26.15%

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Communications & Networking category in contract jobs advertised across the UK.

Communications & Networking Category
UK
Contract IT job ads with a match in the
Communications & Networking category
8718 8059 7220
As % of all contract IT jobs located in the UK 16.23% 14.38% 13.61%
Number of daily rates quoted 5279 4535 3866
Median daily rate £390 £355 £350
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
+9.85% +1.42%
90% offered a daily rate of more than £240 £213 £200
10% offered a daily rate of more than £550 £500 £500
UK excluding London median daily rate £365 £340 £325
% change year-on-year
+7.35% +4.61%
Number of hourly rates quoted 427 479 396
Median hourly rate £28.50 £22.83 £19.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
+24.83% +20.15%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £12.80 £12.50 £11.50
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £47.83 £45.30 £40.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £31.50 £24.00 £18.00
% change year-on-year
+31.25% +33.33%

DNS
Jobs Demand Trend

The demand trend of contract jobs citing DNS as a proportion of all IT contracts with a match in the Communications & Networking category.

DNS Jobs Demand Trend in the UK

DNS
Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in IT contract jobs citing DNS within the UK.

DNS Daily Rate Trend in the UK

DNS
Daily Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of daily rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing DNS within the UK over the 3 months to 29 June 2016.

DNS Daily Rate Histogram in the UK

DNS
Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing DNS within the UK.

DNS Hourly Rate Trend in the UK

DNS
Hourly Rate Histogram

This chart provides a histogram of hourly rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing DNS within the UK over the 3 months to 29 June 2016.

DNS Hourly Rate Histogram in the UK

DNS
Top 30 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing DNS within the UK over the 3 months to 29 June 2016. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location
(Click see detailed
statistics and trends)
Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +6 1131 £350 - 301
London +1 396 £413 +14.18% 99
North East +26 232 £280 +1.81% 7
Tyne and Wear +21 221 £280 +4.18% 7
Newcastle upon Tyne +20 220 £280 +4.18% 6
South East -16 204 £338 -10.00% 67
Scotland +68 145 £330 +10.00% 9
Berkshire +23 89 £287 -25.82% 11
Renfrewshire +5 77 £323 -4.92%
Erskine +2 77 £323 -4.92%
City of London +32 73 £450 +20.00% 18
North West -27 65 £388 +40.90% 28
East of England -3 63 £340 +7.93% 17
South West 0 58 £330 -8.33% 32
Yorkshire +10 54 £443 +47.50% 15
Hampshire +12 44 £337 -19.76% 15
Reading +13 37 £375 +13.20% 3
Manchester -3 32 £388 +38.39% 13
West Yorkshire -7 32 £443 +47.50% 12
West Midlands -31 31 £339 -0.36% 18
Glasgow - 30 £335 - 4
Leeds +4 27 £450 +50.00% 5
Surrey -33 26 £400 +9.58% 14
East Midlands +4 25 £400 +31.14% 16
Hertfordshire +1 22 £325 +3.58% 7
Edinburgh -3 20 £355 +22.41% 5
Cambridgeshire +17 19 £340 +7.93% 8
Cambridge +23 18 £340 +7.93% 6
South Wales +22 18 £350 -12.50% 3
Wales +12 18 £350 -12.50% 3

DNS
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 29 June 2016, IT contractor jobs citing DNS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for DNS.

1 1418 (58.86%) Windows
2 1307 (54.25%) Active Directory
3 1214 (50.39%) DHCP
4 992 (41.18%) Microsoft
5 853 (35.41%) Windows Server
6 838 (34.79%) VMware
7 736 (30.55%) Linux
8 670 (27.81%) Firewall
9 665 (27.60%) TCP/IP
10 647 (26.86%) ITIL
11 524 (21.75%) VMware Infrastructure
12 513 (21.30%) Windows Server 2008
13 488 (20.26%) Cisco
14 486 (20.17%) SQL
15 469 (19.47%) Security Cleared
16 465 (19.30%) Citrix
17 451 (18.72%) PowerShell
18 435 (18.06%) Windows Server 2012
19 390 (16.19%) MS Exchange
20 371 (15.40%) SQL Server
21 369 (15.32%) WAN
22 366 (15.19%) SC Cleared
23 335 (13.91%) Unix
24 332 (13.78%) SSL
25 321 (13.33%) Microsoft Certification
26 315 (13.08%) VPN
26 315 (13.08%) LAN
27 314 (13.03%) HP
28 311 (12.91%) SAN
29 305 (12.66%) Windows Server 2003

DNS
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 390 (16.19%) MS Exchange
2 272 (11.29%) IIS
3 248 (10.29%) Apache
4 201 (8.34%) Exchange Server 2010
5 194 (8.05%) SharePoint
6 173 (7.18%) Skype for Business
7 139 (5.77%) Tomcat
8 113 (4.69%) Exchange Server 2013
9 99 (4.11%) WebSphere
10 86 (3.57%) OpenStack
11 69 (2.86%) nginx
12 66 (2.74%) Exchange Server 2007
13 49 (2.03%) WebLogic
14 45 (1.87%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
15 44 (1.83%) Exchange Server 2003
15 44 (1.83%) JBoss
16 43 (1.78%) Jetty
17 39 (1.62%) IBM Notes
17 39 (1.62%) WebSphere Application Server
18 37 (1.54%) SharePoint 2013
Applications
1 304 (12.62%) MS Excel
2 201 (8.34%) MS Office
3 32 (1.33%) MS Visio
4 16 (0.66%) MS Project
5 8 (0.33%) ProjectWise
6 6 (0.25%) Spreadsheet
7 5 (0.21%) InfoPath
8 3 (0.12%) HipChat
8 3 (0.12%) MS PowerPoint
9 2 (0.083%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 2 (0.083%) Adobe Illustrator
9 2 (0.083%) Photoshop
Business Applications
1 11 (0.46%) SAP Oil and Gas
2 8 (0.33%) Remedy ITSM
3 4 (0.17%) assyst
3 4 (0.17%) Eikon
3 4 (0.17%) Faxination
4 3 (0.12%) Dynamics CRM
5 2 (0.083%) Infor CRM
5 2 (0.083%) Infor M3
5 2 (0.083%) Oracle EBS
6 1 (0.042%) Documaker
6 1 (0.042%) Dynamics AX
6 1 (0.042%) Oracle 11i
6 1 (0.042%) Oracle EBS R12
6 1 (0.042%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 1 (0.042%) Teamcenter
Cloud Services
1 240 (9.96%) Office 365
2 195 (8.09%) Amazon AWS
3 172 (7.14%) Microsoft Azure
4 58 (2.41%) Cloud Computing
5 40 (1.66%) IaaS
6 38 (1.58%) Amazon EC2
7 33 (1.37%) Azure Active Directory
7 33 (1.37%) PaaS
8 32 (1.33%) SaaS
9 27 (1.12%) Google Cloud Platform
10 20 (0.83%) Google App Engine
11 16 (0.66%) Amazon S3
12 15 (0.62%) AWS CloudFormation
13 13 (0.54%) Virtual Private Cloud
14 12 (0.50%) Amazon ELB
15 10 (0.42%) Amazon CloudWatch
15 10 (0.42%) Route 53
16 8 (0.33%) Google Apps
16 8 (0.33%) Mimecast
17 7 (0.29%) OneDrive
Communications & Networking
1 1214 (50.39%) DHCP
2 670 (27.81%) Firewall
3 665 (27.60%) TCP/IP
4 369 (15.32%) WAN
5 332 (13.78%) SSL
6 315 (13.08%) LAN
6 315 (13.08%) VPN
7 311 (12.91%) SAN
8 240 (9.96%) HTTP
9 221 (9.17%) LDAP
10 205 (8.51%) Internet
11 173 (7.18%) IPsec
11 173 (7.18%) MPLS
12 143 (5.94%) BGP
12 143 (5.94%) FTP
13 135 (5.60%) Network Security
13 135 (5.60%) Wireless
14 127 (5.27%) SMTP
15 114 (4.73%) VLAN
16 106 (4.40%) OSPF
Database & Business Intelligence
1 371 (15.40%) SQL Server
2 134 (5.56%) MySQL
3 77 (3.20%) SQL Server 2008
4 65 (2.70%) MongoDB
5 59 (2.45%) SQL Server 2012
6 55 (2.28%) PostgreSQL
7 50 (2.08%) Relational Database
8 47 (1.95%) Oracle Database
9 34 (1.41%) SQL Server 2005
10 33 (1.37%) NoSQL
11 31 (1.29%) RDBMS
12 17 (0.71%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 13 (0.54%) DB2
14 12 (0.50%) Redis
15 11 (0.46%) Amazon RDS
16 10 (0.42%) Big Data
17 9 (0.37%) MariaDB
17 9 (0.37%) SQL Server 2014
17 9 (0.37%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 8 (0.33%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 165 (6.85%) Jenkins
2 106 (4.40%) Git (software)
3 58 (2.41%) JIRA
4 44 (1.83%) MSI
5 42 (1.74%) Travis CI
6 37 (1.54%) Team Foundation Server
7 33 (1.37%) Visual Studio
8 31 (1.29%) Introscope
9 30 (1.25%) Maven
10 25 (1.04%) Subversion
11 19 (0.79%) Hudson
11 19 (0.79%) Vagrant
12 14 (0.58%) Selenium
13 13 (0.54%) Artifactory
13 13 (0.54%) TeamCity
14 11 (0.46%) StarTeam
15 10 (0.42%) Ant
15 10 (0.42%) ClearCase
16 9 (0.37%) GoCD
16 9 (0.37%) SonarQube
General
1 249 (10.34%) Finance
2 89 (3.69%) Banking
3 86 (3.57%) Telecoms
4 41 (1.70%) Marketing
5 33 (1.37%) Manufacturing
5 33 (1.37%) Retail
6 27 (1.12%) Back Office
7 25 (1.04%) Publishing
8 20 (0.83%) Legal
9 18 (0.75%) Games
9 18 (0.75%) Local Government
10 15 (0.62%) Advertising
10 15 (0.62%) Law
11 14 (0.58%) Financial Institution
12 12 (0.50%) Electronics
12 12 (0.50%) French Language
13 10 (0.42%) Billing
14 8 (0.33%) Front Office
15 7 (0.29%) Investment Banking
15 7 (0.29%) Italian Language
Job Titles
1 257 (10.67%) Support Engineer
2 228 (9.46%) Analyst
3 224 (9.30%) Administrator
4 203 (8.43%) Infrastructure Engineer
4 203 (8.43%) Network Engineer
5 135 (5.60%) DevOps Engineer
6 130 (5.40%) Systems Administrator
7 120 (4.98%) Active Directory Engineer
8 117 (4.86%) Consultant
8 117 (4.86%) Server Engineer
9 116 (4.82%) Linux Engineer
10 111 (4.61%) Architect
10 111 (4.61%) Windows Engineer
11 105 (4.36%) 3rd Line Engineer
12 104 (4.32%) 3rd Line Support
13 92 (3.82%) Wintel Engineer
14 89 (3.69%) Desktop Support
15 86 (3.57%) VMware Engineer
16 85 (3.53%) Support Analyst
17 78 (3.24%) Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 119 (4.94%) .NET
2 106 (4.40%) Middleware
3 94 (3.90%) LAMP
4 92 (3.82%) Web Services
5 76 (3.15%) CSS
6 73 (3.03%) XML
7 71 (2.95%) HTML
8 40 (1.66%) 802.1X
9 39 (1.62%) Servlets
10 33 (1.37%) LEMP Stack
11 32 (1.33%) J2EE
12 30 (1.25%) jQuery
12 30 (1.25%) REST
13 28 (1.16%) ASP.NET
13 28 (1.16%) LAPP Stack
14 27 (1.12%) SAML
15 25 (1.04%) Node.js
16 23 (0.95%) .NET Framework
16 23 (0.95%) ELK Stack
17 21 (0.87%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 302 (12.54%) Data Centre
2 164 (6.81%) Clustering
3 141 (5.85%) Computer Science
4 132 (5.48%) Management Information System
5 121 (5.02%) Analytical Skills
6 108 (4.48%) PKI
7 90 (3.74%) Replication
8 52 (2.16%) Public Cloud
9 50 (2.08%) Blackberry
10 44 (1.83%) Hybrid Cloud
11 40 (1.66%) Fat Client
11 40 (1.66%) Thin Client
12 34 (1.41%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
13 30 (1.25%) Client/Server
14 27 (1.12%) DataPower
15 26 (1.08%) Private Cloud
16 23 (0.95%) EMC VNX
17 21 (0.87%) Driving Licence
18 20 (0.83%) Cryptography
18 20 (0.83%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 1418 (58.86%) Windows
2 853 (35.41%) Windows Server
3 736 (30.55%) Linux
4 513 (21.30%) Windows Server 2008
5 435 (18.06%) Windows Server 2012
6 335 (13.91%) Unix
7 305 (12.66%) Windows Server 2003
8 245 (10.17%) Windows 7
9 183 (7.60%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 119 (4.94%) Solaris
11 95 (3.94%) Windows XP
12 84 (3.49%) CentOS
13 68 (2.82%) Ubuntu
14 64 (2.66%) AIX
15 62 (2.57%) Windows 8
16 53 (2.20%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
17 51 (2.12%) Windows 10
18 36 (1.49%) Android
19 35 (1.45%) Mac OS X
20 33 (1.37%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 647 (26.86%) ITIL
2 266 (11.04%) Load Balancing
3 250 (10.38%) Migration
4 247 (10.25%) DevOps
5 240 (9.96%) Agile Software Development
6 216 (8.97%) Configuration Management
7 161 (6.68%) High Availability
8 154 (6.39%) Change Management
9 144 (5.98%) Disaster Recovery
10 131 (5.44%) Open Source
11 130 (5.40%) Project Management
12 108 (4.48%) Incident Management
13 97 (4.03%) Problem Management
14 90 (3.74%) Software Delivery
15 88 (3.65%) Continuous Integration
16 82 (3.40%) ITIL V3
17 81 (3.36%) Service Management
18 75 (3.11%) Continuous Improvement
19 70 (2.91%) Service Delivery
20 68 (2.82%) Change Control
Programming Languages
1 486 (20.17%) SQL
2 451 (18.72%) PowerShell
3 256 (10.63%) Perl
4 247 (10.25%) Python
5 208 (8.63%) Bash Shell
6 181 (7.51%) Java
7 129 (5.35%) Shell Script
8 111 (4.61%) VBScript
9 99 (4.11%) JavaScript
10 83 (3.45%) PHP
10 83 (3.45%) Ruby
11 71 (2.95%) C#
12 61 (2.53%) Korn
13 48 (1.99%) VB
14 46 (1.91%) T-SQL
15 41 (1.70%) C-shell
16 39 (1.62%) C
17 33 (1.37%) C++
18 22 (0.91%) Jython
19 18 (0.75%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 469 (19.47%) Security Cleared
2 366 (15.19%) SC Cleared
3 321 (13.33%) Microsoft Certification
4 203 (8.43%) Degree
5 193 (8.01%) Cisco Certification
6 166 (6.89%) MCSE
7 115 (4.77%) CCNA
8 102 (4.23%) MCSA
9 96 (3.99%) CCNP
10 89 (3.69%) BPSS Clearance
11 78 (3.24%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 74 (3.07%) MCTS
13 65 (2.70%) MCITP
13 65 (2.70%) MCP
14 46 (1.91%) DV Cleared
15 37 (1.54%) CISSP
16 29 (1.20%) MCSD
17 28 (1.16%) ITIL Certification
18 25 (1.04%) RHCE
19 22 (0.91%) CCIE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 96 (3.99%) Disclosure Scotland
2 91 (3.78%) SLA
3 33 (1.37%) PCI DSS
4 17 (0.71%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 13 (0.54%) QA
6 5 (0.21%) HIPAA
6 5 (0.21%) JSP 440
7 4 (0.17%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 2 (0.083%) COBIT
8 2 (0.083%) ISO 9001
8 2 (0.083%) ISO15022
8 2 (0.083%) ISO20022
9 1 (0.042%) DICOM
9 1 (0.042%) GxP
9 1 (0.042%) HL7
9 1 (0.042%) ISO/IEC 17799
System Software
1 1307 (54.25%) Active Directory
2 524 (21.75%) VMware Infrastructure
3 254 (10.54%) XenApp
4 233 (9.67%) Hyper-V
5 176 (7.31%) vSphere
6 134 (5.56%) VMware ESX
7 112 (4.65%) Microsoft App-V
8 105 (4.36%) XenDesktop
9 77 (3.20%) Terminal Services
10 75 (3.11%) VMware ESXi
11 67 (2.78%) Docker
11 67 (2.78%) Virtual Machines
12 63 (2.62%) XenServer
13 60 (2.49%) NFS
14 44 (1.83%) Samba
14 44 (1.83%) Virtual Servers
15 42 (1.74%) UAG
16 36 (1.49%) DFS Replication
17 32 (1.33%) Xen
18 31 (1.29%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 299 (12.41%) SCCM
2 261 (10.83%) Puppet
3 164 (6.81%) SCOM
4 118 (4.90%) Opscode Chef
5 94 (3.90%) Nagios
6 92 (3.82%) Ansible
7 78 (3.24%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
8 75 (3.11%) WSUS
9 68 (2.82%) Microsoft Clustering
10 56 (2.32%) NetBackup
11 51 (2.12%) Backup Exec
12 41 (1.70%) logstash
13 35 (1.45%) OpenView Configuration Management
14 32 (1.33%) Norton AntiVirus
15 27 (1.12%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
16 26 (1.08%) Terraform
17 25 (1.04%) Kibana
17 25 (1.04%) ZABBIX
18 24 (1.00%) HAProxy
18 24 (1.00%) HP SIM
Vendors
1 992 (41.18%) Microsoft
2 838 (34.79%) VMware
3 488 (20.26%) Cisco
4 465 (19.30%) Citrix
5 314 (13.03%) HP
6 269 (11.17%) Oracle
7 254 (10.54%) Red Hat
8 154 (6.39%) CheckPoint
9 141 (5.85%) F5
10 120 (4.98%) Symantec
11 114 (4.73%) IBM
12 108 (4.48%) NetApp
13 100 (4.15%) Dell
14 96 (3.99%) AppSense
15 95 (3.94%) Juniper
16 88 (3.65%) EMC
17 66 (2.74%) SolarWinds
18 65 (2.70%) Splunk
19 56 (2.32%) Blue Coat
20 55 (2.28%) Palo Alto
Portsmouth, Hampshire
Informatiq Consulting
Rate: £300 - £350 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
Cobham, Surrey
Fruition IT Resources Limited
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
Kingston Upon Thames, Surrey
Ebury
Rate: £300.00 - £330.00 per day
Posted: 12 hours ago
Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire
FT Select
Rate: From £300 to £320 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £400 - £500 per hour
Posted: 2 days ago
Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
Experis Ltd
Rate: £221.00 - £243.10 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
London
Hays Finance Technology
Rate: £300.00 - £400.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Lawrence Harvey Enterprise
Rate: £1.00 - £2.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Berkshire
People Source Consulting
Rate: £350.00 - £355.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Belfast, County Antrim
Hays Talent Solutions
Rate: £20.00 per hour
Posted: 2 days ago
Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
Experis Ltd
Rate: £200 - £235 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
Experis Ltd
Rate: £200 - £224.00 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
UK
Oho Group Ltd.
Rate: £150 - 250 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Sunderland, Tyne and Wear
Lorien Resourcing
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: 2 days ago
Hereford, Herefordshire
Greywood Associates Limited
Rate: £10 - £14 per hour
Posted: 6 days ago
London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £350 - £550 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
Surrey
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Rate: £250 - £350 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
People Source Consulting
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Talent International
Rate: £0.00 per annum
Posted: 6 days ago
Worcester, Worcestershire
Redrock Consulting Ltd
Posted: 5 days ago
London
JM
Posted: 2 days ago
Oxfordshire
HAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Rate: £14.00 - £16.00 per hour
Posted: 6 days ago
City, London
Ashdown IT
Rate: £250 - £310 per day
Posted: 6 days ago
Swindon, Wiltshire
Experis Ltd
Rate: £300.00 - £330.00 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
Newbury, Berkshire
ComputAppoint
Rate: £300 - £315 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
City, London
Deerfoot IT Resources Ltd
Rate: £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Rate: £425 - £465 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
London
Austin Fraser
Rate: £500 - £550 per day + Negotiable
Posted: 4 days ago
City, London
Networking People
Rate: £280 - £305 per day
Posted: 6 days ago
West London
Experis Ltd
Rate: £450.00 - £495.00 per day + DOE
Posted: 6 days ago