The table below looks at the statistics for Windows skills in IT contracts advertised for the London region. Included is a guide to the contractor rates offered in IT contracts that have cited Windows over the 3 months to 24 June 2016 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily contractor rates and hourly contractor rates are treated separately. When calculating average contractor rates, daily rates are not derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
24 Jun 2016
Same period 2015 Same period 2014
Microsoft Windows
Rank 11 8 8
Rank change year-on-year
-3 0
Contract jobs citing Windows 2061 2633 2734
As % of all contract IT jobs located in London 9.52% 11.28% 11.68%
As % of the Operating Systems category 43.79% 52.45% 51.46%
Number of daily rates quoted 1343 1719 1765
Median daily rate £400 £350 £350
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
+14.28% -
90% offered a daily rate of more than £163 £165 £152
10% offered a daily rate of more than £550 £550 £538
UK excluding London median daily rate £338 £325 £300
% change year-on-year
+3.84% +8.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 76 170 221
Median hourly rate £15.75 £18.23 £16.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
-13.60% +13.93%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £11.50 £12.37 £11.00
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £22.38 £40.00 £24.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £16.38 £15.50 £15.00
% change year-on-year
+5.64% +3.33%
Windows
England

The following table is for comparison with the above and provides statistics for the entire Operating Systems category in contract jobs advertised in the London region.

Operating Systems Category
London
Contract IT job ads with a match in the
Operating Systems category
4707 5020 5313
As % of all contract IT jobs located in London 21.74% 21.50% 22.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 3349 3349 3597
Median daily rate £425 £400 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year
+6.25% -
90% offered a daily rate of more than £215 £195 £180
10% offered a daily rate of more than £575 £575 £550
UK excluding London median daily rate £363 £349 £305
% change year-on-year
+3.86% +14.42%
Number of hourly rates quoted 95 189 244
Median hourly rate £16.25 £18.71 £16.53
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year
-13.14% +13.18%
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £12.50 £12.50 £11.50
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £40.00 £47.83 £25.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £17.00 £16.20 £15.00
% change year-on-year
+4.93% +8.00%

Windows
Jobs Demand Trend in London

The demand trend of contract jobs across the London region citing Windows as a proportion of all IT contracts with a match in the Operating Systems category.

Windows Jobs Demand Trend in London

Windows
Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in IT contract jobs citing Windows across the London region.

Windows Daily Rate Trend in London

Windows
Daily Rate Histogram in London

This chart provides a histogram of daily rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Windows across the London region over the 3 months to 24 June 2016.

Windows Daily Rate Histogram in London

Windows
Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing Windows across the London region.

Windows Hourly Rate Trend in London

Windows
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

This chart provides a histogram of hourly rates quoted in contract IT jobs citing Windows across the London region over the 3 months to 24 June 2016.

Windows Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Windows
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Windows within the London region over the 3 months to 24 June 2016. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location
(Click see detailed
statistics and trends)
Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
City of London -8 293 £423 +16.55% 154
Croydon -24 14 £325 - 3
Canary Wharf -4 9 £388 -3.12% 2
Uxbridge +5 8 £381 +79.05% 6
Kingston Upon Thames +1 7 £403 +120.36% 5
Docklands, London -2 7 £525 -4.54%
Bromley -8 7 £325 +30.00% 2
Chiswick - 7 - -
Harrow -3 6 £395 +259.09% 2
Hammersmith +7 5 £120 -56.36%
Southall 0 5 £270 -
Westminster -16 5 £438 +124.35%
Ealing 0 4 - -
Brentford +9 3 £145 - 2
Enfield +2 3 £150 -61.29%
Twickenham -2 3 - -
Feltham -3 3 - - 1
Ilford +3 2 - -
Surbiton 0 2 - - 1
Greenford 0 2 £218 -38.73%
Wimbledon -1 2 £436 +45.41%
Sidcup - 2 £375 - 1
Hayes - 2 £340 - 1
Paddington +5 1 - -
Northwood 0 1 - -
Southwark -2 1 - - 1
Mayfair - 1 £400 -
Osterley - 1 £503 -
Barnet - 1 - -
Carshalton - 1 - -
Dagenham - 1 - -
Windows
England

Windows
Top 30 Related IT Skills in London

For the 6 months to 24 June 2016, IT contractor jobs citing Windows also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the London region with a requirement for Windows.

1 1518 (36.05%) Active Directory
2 1350 (32.06%) Microsoft
3 1313 (31.18%) Windows Server
4 1212 (28.78%) Linux
5 961 (22.82%) Finance
5 961 (22.82%) VMware
6 823 (19.54%) SQL
7 797 (18.93%) Windows 7
8 790 (18.76%) SQL Server
9 705 (16.74%) Windows Server 2008
10 649 (15.41%) ITIL
11 639 (15.17%) Citrix
12 618 (14.68%) PowerShell
13 608 (14.44%) VMware Infrastructure
14 594 (14.11%) MS Office
15 588 (13.96%) Windows Server 2012
16 585 (13.89%) Unix
17 560 (13.30%) Oracle
18 534 (12.68%) MS Excel
19 523 (12.42%) Agile Software Development
20 518 (12.30%) .NET
21 470 (11.16%) Migration
22 464 (11.02%) Banking
23 453 (10.76%) C#
24 424 (10.07%) Java
25 415 (9.86%) Firewall
26 414 (9.83%) MS Exchange
27 411 (9.76%) DNS
28 406 (9.64%) SCCM
29 395 (9.38%) Cisco

Windows
Top Related IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 414 (9.83%) MS Exchange
2 294 (6.98%) IIS
3 209 (4.96%) SharePoint
4 193 (4.58%) Exchange Server 2010
5 152 (3.61%) Skype for Business
6 137 (3.25%) Apache
7 130 (3.09%) Tomcat
8 103 (2.45%) Exchange Server 2013
9 94 (2.23%) Confluence
10 88 (2.09%) WebSphere
11 86 (2.04%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
12 66 (1.57%) OpenStack
13 56 (1.33%) Exchange Server 2007
13 56 (1.33%) JBoss
14 46 (1.09%) IBM Notes
15 44 (1.04%) Exchange Server 2003
16 38 (0.90%) CMS
17 36 (0.85%) SharePoint 2013
18 34 (0.81%) WebLogic
19 31 (0.74%) SharePoint 2010
Applications
1 594 (14.11%) MS Office
2 534 (12.68%) MS Excel
3 55 (1.31%) MS PowerPoint
4 43 (1.02%) MS Visio
5 28 (0.66%) MS Project
6 15 (0.36%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 14 (0.33%) Photoshop
8 9 (0.21%) AutoCAD
8 9 (0.21%) Spreadsheet
8 9 (0.21%) SPSS
9 5 (0.12%) Adobe After Effects
9 5 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
10 4 (0.095%) Acrobat
10 4 (0.095%) Final Cut Pro
10 4 (0.095%) HipChat
11 3 (0.071%) Adobe Illustrator
12 2 (0.047%) InfoPath
12 2 (0.047%) OmniGraffle
12 2 (0.047%) PaintShop Pro
13 1 (0.024%) CINEMA 4D
Business Applications
1 44 (1.04%) Dynamics CRM
2 15 (0.36%) Eikon
2 15 (0.36%) Remedy ITSM
3 11 (0.26%) Unit4 Business World
4 9 (0.21%) Endur
5 8 (0.19%) Faxination
5 8 (0.19%) Hi Portfolio
5 8 (0.19%) IntelliMatch
6 7 (0.17%) SAP Oil and Gas
7 6 (0.14%) Northgate Housing
8 5 (0.12%) Oracle BPM
8 5 (0.12%) RMDS
9 4 (0.095%) Dynamics AX
9 4 (0.095%) Maximo
9 4 (0.095%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
9 4 (0.095%) SAP R/3
10 3 (0.071%) BusinessWorks
10 3 (0.071%) ION MarketView
10 3 (0.071%) MetaTrader
10 3 (0.071%) Misys Opics
Cloud Services
1 362 (8.60%) Office 365
2 324 (7.69%) Microsoft Azure
3 305 (7.24%) Amazon AWS
4 63 (1.50%) IaaS
5 52 (1.23%) PaaS
6 46 (1.09%) Azure Active Directory
7 37 (0.88%) Google Apps
8 35 (0.83%) Yammer
9 32 (0.76%) SaaS
10 31 (0.74%) AWS CloudFormation
11 30 (0.71%) Amazon EC2
12 28 (0.66%) Mimecast
13 27 (0.64%) OneDrive
14 24 (0.57%) Amazon S3
15 21 (0.50%) Cloud Computing
16 13 (0.31%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 12 (0.28%) Google Cloud Platform
18 11 (0.26%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
19 10 (0.24%) GitHub
20 9 (0.21%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 415 (9.86%) Firewall
2 411 (9.76%) DNS
3 335 (7.96%) SAN
4 297 (7.05%) TCP/IP
5 234 (5.56%) LAN
6 222 (5.27%) WAN
7 216 (5.13%) DHCP
8 178 (4.23%) VPN
9 155 (3.68%) Internet
10 111 (2.64%) NAS
11 100 (2.37%) Network Security
12 99 (2.35%) LDAP
13 81 (1.92%) Wireless
14 80 (1.90%) HTTP
15 75 (1.78%) VoIP
16 72 (1.71%) Skype
17 62 (1.47%) NetScaler
18 53 (1.26%) Fibre Channel
19 50 (1.19%) VLAN
20 48 (1.14%) Intranet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 790 (18.76%) SQL Server
2 139 (3.30%) SQL Server 2008
3 129 (3.06%) Oracle Database
4 128 (3.04%) Relational Database
5 125 (2.97%) MySQL
6 112 (2.66%) SQL Server 2012
7 93 (2.21%) MongoDB
8 72 (1.71%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 70 (1.66%) SQL Server 2005
10 67 (1.59%) NoSQL
11 66 (1.57%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 60 (1.42%) Data Warehouse
12 60 (1.42%) PostgreSQL
13 55 (1.31%) Hadoop
14 52 (1.23%) RDBMS
15 49 (1.16%) DB2
16 44 (1.04%) Big Data
17 39 (0.93%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 38 (0.90%) Oracle Database 11g
19 28 (0.66%) SQL Server 2014
Development Applications
1 197 (4.68%) Jenkins
2 180 (4.27%) Git (software)
3 163 (3.87%) JIRA
4 115 (2.73%) TeamCity
5 102 (2.42%) Team Foundation Server
6 95 (2.26%) Subversion
7 64 (1.52%) Octopus Deploy
8 62 (1.47%) Maven
9 53 (1.26%) Visual Studio
10 41 (0.97%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 36 (0.85%) NUnit
11 36 (0.85%) Selenium
12 29 (0.69%) Ant
12 29 (0.69%) MSI
13 25 (0.59%) JUnit
14 23 (0.55%) Hudson
14 23 (0.55%) Vagrant
15 22 (0.52%) Bitbucket
16 21 (0.50%) Artifactory
16 21 (0.50%) MSBuild
General
1 961 (22.82%) Finance
2 464 (11.02%) Banking
3 133 (3.16%) Legal
4 123 (2.92%) Investment Banking
4 123 (2.92%) Retail
5 119 (2.83%) Law
6 107 (2.54%) Front Office
7 106 (2.52%) Back Office
8 89 (2.11%) Financial Institution
9 73 (1.73%) Telecoms
10 41 (0.97%) Marketing
11 38 (0.90%) Advertising
12 37 (0.88%) Games
13 31 (0.74%) Publishing
14 27 (0.64%) Billing
15 19 (0.45%) French Language
15 19 (0.45%) Manufacturing
16 13 (0.31%) German Language
17 12 (0.28%) Spanish Language
18 9 (0.21%) Italian Language
Job Titles
1 667 (15.84%) Analyst
2 486 (11.54%) Developer
3 327 (7.77%) Architect
4 303 (7.20%) Support Engineer
5 301 (7.15%) Windows Engineer
6 290 (6.89%) Support Analyst
7 247 (5.87%) Administrator
8 245 (5.82%) Infrastructure Engineer
9 222 (5.27%) Desktop Support
10 205 (4.87%) DevOps Engineer
11 197 (4.68%) Service Analyst
12 191 (4.54%) Consultant
13 180 (4.27%) Service Desk Analyst
14 177 (4.20%) 2nd Line Support
15 160 (3.80%) Systems Administrator
16 134 (3.18%) IT Support
17 129 (3.06%) C# Developer
18 125 (2.97%) Applications Support
19 123 (2.92%) Desktop Engineer
20 120 (2.85%) Systems Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 518 (12.30%) .NET
2 275 (6.53%) HTML
3 236 (5.60%) Web Services
4 163 (3.87%) XML
5 158 (3.75%) ASP.NET
6 141 (3.35%) CSS
7 117 (2.78%) .NET Framework
8 110 (2.61%) HTML5
9 107 (2.54%) jQuery
10 96 (2.28%) Middleware
11 89 (2.11%) AngularJS
12 83 (1.97%) WCF
13 78 (1.85%) REST
14 73 (1.73%) JSON
15 68 (1.61%) SOAP
16 64 (1.52%) ASP.NET MVC
17 62 (1.47%) J2EE
18 57 (1.35%) XSLT
19 56 (1.33%) LAMP
20 54 (1.28%) WPF
Miscellaneous
1 275 (6.53%) Data Centre
2 230 (5.46%) Analytical Skills
3 192 (4.56%) Blackberry
4 129 (3.06%) Clustering
5 128 (3.04%) Management Information System
6 103 (2.45%) Computer Science
7 71 (1.69%) Hedge funds
8 70 (1.66%) Derivative
8 70 (1.66%) Replication
9 65 (1.54%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 63 (1.50%) Equities
11 60 (1.42%) Fixed Income
11 60 (1.42%) Mobile App
12 58 (1.38%) User Experience
13 50 (1.19%) iPhone
14 48 (1.14%) Smartphone
15 47 (1.12%) NHS
16 43 (1.02%) PKI
17 42 (1.00%) Client/Server
18 40 (0.95%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 1313 (31.18%) Windows Server
2 1212 (28.78%) Linux
3 797 (18.93%) Windows 7
4 705 (16.74%) Windows Server 2008
5 588 (13.96%) Windows Server 2012
6 585 (13.89%) Unix
7 328 (7.79%) Windows Server 2003
8 252 (5.98%) Windows 10
9 241 (5.72%) Windows 8
10 187 (4.44%) Windows XP
11 180 (4.27%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 145 (3.44%) Android
13 132 (3.13%) Mac OS X
14 129 (3.06%) Solaris
15 118 (2.80%) Apple iOS
16 83 (1.97%) CentOS
17 60 (1.42%) AIX
18 57 (1.35%) Ubuntu
19 48 (1.14%) Windows Phone
20 47 (1.12%) Windows Vista
Processes & Methodologies
1 649 (15.41%) ITIL
2 523 (12.42%) Agile Software Development
3 470 (11.16%) Migration
4 388 (9.21%) DevOps
5 242 (5.75%) Project Management
6 207 (4.92%) Configuration Management
7 192 (4.56%) Continuous Integration
8 181 (4.30%) Change Management
9 167 (3.97%) Service Management
10 160 (3.80%) Service Delivery
11 146 (3.47%) Disaster Recovery
12 138 (3.28%) Open Source
12 138 (3.28%) SDLC
13 136 (3.23%) Scrum
14 127 (3.02%) OO
15 126 (2.99%) Performance Tuning
15 126 (2.99%) TDD
16 125 (2.97%) Asset Management
17 122 (2.90%) Problem Management
18 120 (2.85%) High Availability
Programming Languages
1 823 (19.54%) SQL
2 618 (14.68%) PowerShell
3 453 (10.76%) C#
4 424 (10.07%) Java
5 313 (7.43%) Python
6 290 (6.89%) JavaScript
7 272 (6.46%) Perl
8 210 (4.99%) Bash Shell
9 159 (3.78%) C++
10 127 (3.02%) Shell Script
11 126 (2.99%) Ruby
12 121 (2.87%) C
13 95 (2.26%) T-SQL
14 86 (2.04%) VBScript
15 79 (1.88%) PHP
16 67 (1.59%) VB
17 65 (1.54%) PL/SQL
18 55 (1.31%) VBA
19 35 (0.83%) VB.NET
20 27 (0.64%) Korn
Qualifications
1 324 (7.69%) Security Cleared
2 222 (5.27%) Microsoft Certification
3 204 (4.84%) SC Cleared
4 199 (4.73%) Degree
5 136 (3.23%) MCSE
6 113 (2.68%) Cisco Certification
7 89 (2.11%) DV Cleared
8 82 (1.95%) CCNA
9 67 (1.59%) ITIL Certification
10 59 (1.40%) MCSA
11 49 (1.16%) CISSP
11 49 (1.16%) MCP
12 46 (1.09%) CCNP
12 46 (1.09%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
13 29 (0.69%) CTC Cleared
14 27 (0.64%) MCITP
14 27 (0.64%) PRINCE2 Certification
15 26 (0.62%) MCTS
16 22 (0.52%) MCDST
17 21 (0.50%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 129 (3.06%) QA
2 122 (2.90%) SLA
3 26 (0.62%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 24 (0.57%) PCI DSS
5 11 (0.26%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 10 (0.24%) Data Quality
7 9 (0.21%) Disclosure Scotland
7 9 (0.21%) HL7
8 8 (0.19%) COBIT
9 7 (0.17%) JSP 440
10 6 (0.14%) DICOM
10 6 (0.14%) MiFID
11 5 (0.12%) ISO22301
12 3 (0.071%) BS7799
12 3 (0.071%) ISO 9001
12 3 (0.071%) ISO27002
13 2 (0.047%) CDISC
13 2 (0.047%) GCP
13 2 (0.047%) GxP
13 2 (0.047%) ISO20022
System Software
1 1518 (36.05%) Active Directory
2 608 (14.44%) VMware Infrastructure
3 214 (5.08%) Hyper-V
4 183 (4.35%) XenApp
5 148 (3.51%) vSphere
6 130 (3.09%) VMware ESX
7 100 (2.37%) XenDesktop
8 87 (2.07%) Docker
9 75 (1.78%) Virtual Machines
10 69 (1.64%) VMware ESXi
11 65 (1.54%) Microsoft App-V
12 62 (1.47%) NFS
13 50 (1.19%) Xen
14 48 (1.14%) Virtual Servers
15 41 (0.97%) KVM
16 33 (0.78%) BitLocker
17 30 (0.71%) Oracle RAC
18 28 (0.66%) Samba
19 27 (0.64%) Virtual Desktop
20 25 (0.59%) StorNext
Systems Management
1 406 (9.64%) SCCM
2 238 (5.65%) Puppet
3 183 (4.35%) Opscode Chef
4 177 (4.20%) SCOM
5 143 (3.40%) Ansible
6 116 (2.75%) Nagios
7 78 (1.85%) WSUS
8 47 (1.12%) Microsoft Clustering
9 35 (0.83%) NetBackup
10 34 (0.81%) Backup Exec
10 34 (0.81%) ZABBIX
11 33 (0.78%) logstash
12 31 (0.74%) Norton AntiVirus
13 29 (0.69%) Control-M
14 26 (0.62%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
15 25 (0.59%) HP Operations Orchestration
15 25 (0.59%) HP SIM
15 25 (0.59%) Symantec Enterprise Vault
16 24 (0.57%) HP Quality Center
17 23 (0.55%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 1350 (32.06%) Microsoft
2 961 (22.82%) VMware
3 639 (15.17%) Citrix
4 560 (13.30%) Oracle
5 395 (9.38%) Cisco
6 295 (7.01%) HP
7 247 (5.87%) Red Hat
8 192 (4.56%) NetApp
9 164 (3.89%) IBM
10 139 (3.30%) Apple
11 130 (3.09%) EMC
12 121 (2.87%) Symantec
13 105 (2.49%) Sybase
14 104 (2.47%) Dell
15 80 (1.90%) Bloomberg
16 71 (1.69%) CheckPoint
17 65 (1.54%) Google
18 62 (1.47%) Reuters
19 57 (1.35%) Atlassian
20 54 (1.28%) Juniper
City, London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £160 - £225 per day + Fantastic Day Rate - Pot to go Perm
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £350 - £550 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
Harrington Starr
Rate: £200 - £250 per day
Posted: 7 hours ago
City, London
Lorien Resourcing
Posted: 3 hours ago
London
Oho Group Ltd.
Rate: £200 - 250 per day
Posted: 5 hours ago
Central London / West End
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Posted: 6 hours ago
City, London
Nigel Frank International Ltd
Rate: £425 - £465 per day
Posted: 10 hours ago
London
Oho Group Ltd.
Rate: £200 - 300 per day
Posted: 5 hours ago
London
Lorien Resourcing
Rate: £430 - £470 per day
Posted: 4 hours ago
London
onezeero.
Rate: MARKET RATE + COMPETITIVE
Posted: 10 hours ago
Feltham, Middlesex
LA International
Rate: £350 - £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Talent International
Rate: £0.00 per annum
Posted: Yesterday
London
Spencer Rose
Rate: Up to £470 per day
Posted: 9 hours ago
London
Data Idols
Rate: From £450 to £550 per day
Posted: 8 hours ago
City, London
Harris Global
Rate: From £60,000 to £67,000 per annum + bonus and benefits
Posted: 5 hours ago
London
Nakama
Rate: From £400 to £500 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Ashdown IT
Rate: £250 - £310 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Harris Rubbert Associates
Rate: £500 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
E-synergy Solutions
Rate: £450 - £550 per day
Posted: 4 hours ago
City, London
TEKsystems
Rate: £650 - £850 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
IntaPeople
Rate: £650 - £700 per day
Posted: 4 hours ago
Brentford, Middlesex
Vadis People
Rate: £130 - £160 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Sanderson
Rate: £220 - £250 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
EasyWebRecruitment.com
Rate: £24,500 per annum, pro rata
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Ashdown IT
Rate: £20 - £25 per hour
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Westbourne Partners
Rate: From £300 to £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Central London / West End
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: Yesterday
London
Lorien Resourcing
Posted: 4 hours ago
City, London
Networking People
Rate: £280 - £305 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Uxbridge, Middlesex
Plan-net
Rate: Unspecified competitive
Posted: Yesterday