Period
to 4 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 4 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
Central London > City of London
6 months to
4 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 4 5 4
Rank change year-on-year +1 -1 0
Contract jobs citing Java 408 677 1,240
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the City of London 17.97% 14.61% 18.25%
As % of the Programming Languages category 35.45% 29.97% 34.72%
Number of daily rates quoted 371 575 1,050
Median daily rate £593 £575 £575
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.13% - -
10th Percentile £332 £417 £425
90th Percentile £750 £725 £725
Central London median daily rate £588 £575 £575
% change year-on-year +2.17% - +4.55%
Number of hourly rates quoted 0 6 0
Median hourly rate - £52.14 -
Central London median hourly rate - £52.14 £70.00
% change year-on-year - -25.52% +225.58%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
City of London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 1,151 2,259 3,571
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the City of London 50.70% 48.76% 52.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 876 1,816 2,938
Median daily rate £550 £525 £525
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.76% - -
10th Percentile £363 £376 £400
90th Percentile £714 £688 £675
Central London median daily rate £550 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +4.76% - +2.44%
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 16 8
Median hourly rate £14.00 £43.00 £35.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -67.44% +22.86% +62.79%
10th Percentile £12.75 £21.00 £18.39
90th Percentile £32.42 £59.38 £46.48
Median hourly rate £18.73 £36.09 £35.00
% change year-on-year -48.11% +3.11% +62.79%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend in the City of London

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in the City of London.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the City of London

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java in the City of London.

Daily rate trend for Java in the City of London

Java
Daily Rate Histogram in the City of London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java in the City of London over the 6 months to 4 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the City of London

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java in the City of London.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the City of London

For the 6 months to 4 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the City of London region with a requirement for Java.

1 170 (41.67%) Agile Software Development
2 125 (30.64%) Spring
3 116 (28.43%) Microservices
4 111 (27.21%) Banking
5 99 (24.26%) TDD
6 91 (22.30%) AWS
7 90 (22.06%) Kubernetes
8 87 (21.32%) Finance
9 77 (18.87%) Python
10 72 (17.65%) Front Office
10 72 (17.65%) Kafka
10 72 (17.65%) Docker
10 72 (17.65%) Java 8
11 68 (16.67%) Multithreading
12 67 (16.42%) SQL
13 66 (16.18%) Azure
14 65 (15.93%) Spring Boot
15 63 (15.44%) DevOps
16 62 (15.20%) JavaScript
17 60 (14.71%) Low Latency
18 57 (13.97%) Jenkins
19 55 (13.48%) Continuous Integration
19 55 (13.48%) Git (software)
20 53 (12.99%) Electronic Trading
21 51 (12.50%) Kotlin
22 50 (12.25%) Linux
22 50 (12.25%) Scrum
23 48 (11.76%) REST
24 45 (11.03%) BDD
25 43 (10.54%) OO

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills in the City of London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 22 (5.39%) Apache
2 18 (4.41%) Apache Spark
3 16 (3.92%) Elasticsearch
4 14 (3.43%) Red Hat Fuse
5 6 (1.47%) Mule
6 5 (1.23%) Apache Airflow
6 5 (1.23%) Confluence
6 5 (1.23%) Oracle Coherence
6 5 (1.23%) SAS
7 3 (0.74%) Camunda
7 3 (0.74%) Cloud Foundry
7 3 (0.74%) CMS
7 3 (0.74%) JBoss
7 3 (0.74%) WebLogic
8 2 (0.49%) Jupyter
8 2 (0.49%) WebSphere
9 1 (0.25%) Anypoint
9 1 (0.25%) Apache Solr
9 1 (0.25%) Appian
9 1 (0.25%) DataSynapse
Applications
1 3 (0.74%) Spreadsheet
2 2 (0.49%) Microsoft Project
3 1 (0.25%) Microsoft Excel
Business Applications
1 1 (0.25%) IntelliMatch
1 1 (0.25%) SAP CRM
Cloud Services
1 91 (22.30%) AWS
2 66 (16.18%) Azure
3 21 (5.15%) GCP
4 20 (4.90%) SaaS
5 17 (4.17%) GitHub
6 14 (3.43%) Amazon EC2
6 14 (3.43%) PaaS
7 11 (2.70%) Serverless
8 10 (2.45%) AWS CloudFormation
9 9 (2.21%) Amazon ECS
10 6 (1.47%) Amazon Kinesis
10 6 (1.47%) Amazon S3
10 6 (1.47%) Apigee
10 6 (1.47%) Cloud Computing
10 6 (1.47%) OpenShift
10 6 (1.47%) Power Platform
11 5 (1.23%) Amazon ElastiCache
11 5 (1.23%) Azure Functions
11 5 (1.23%) IaaS
12 4 (0.98%) npm
Communications & Networking
1 11 (2.70%) Internet
2 9 (2.21%) Firewall
3 8 (1.96%) HTTP
3 8 (1.96%) TCP/IP
4 5 (1.23%) BGP
4 5 (1.23%) MPLS
4 5 (1.23%) SNMP
5 4 (0.98%) DNS
6 3 (0.74%) SSL
7 2 (0.49%) FTP
8 1 (0.25%) BIG-IP
8 1 (0.25%) Cisco ASA
8 1 (0.25%) H.323
8 1 (0.25%) HTTPS
8 1 (0.25%) Kerberos
8 1 (0.25%) MGCP
8 1 (0.25%) Sourcefire
8 1 (0.25%) VoIP
8 1 (0.25%) Wi-Fi
8 1 (0.25%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 28 (6.86%) Relational Database
2 27 (6.62%) NoSQL
3 25 (6.13%) MongoDB
4 21 (5.15%) SQL Server
5 16 (3.92%) Big Data
6 15 (3.68%) Hadoop
7 12 (2.94%) Data Lake
7 12 (2.94%) Data Warehouse
7 12 (2.94%) PostgreSQL
8 10 (2.45%) Oracle Database
9 9 (2.21%) Apache Hive
9 9 (2.21%) Neo4j
9 9 (2.21%) RDBMS
10 8 (1.96%) Amazon Redshift
10 8 (1.96%) MySQL
11 7 (1.72%) Redis
12 6 (1.47%) Apache Cassandra
12 6 (1.47%) Hazelcast
13 5 (1.23%) Amazon RDS
14 4 (0.98%) Impala
Development Applications
1 57 (13.97%) Jenkins
2 55 (13.48%) Git (software)
3 38 (9.31%) Maven
4 26 (6.37%) JUnit
5 21 (5.15%) JIRA
6 16 (3.92%) Cucumber
6 16 (3.92%) Mockito
7 10 (2.45%) Gradle
7 10 (2.45%) Selenium
8 8 (1.96%) Bitbucket
9 7 (1.72%) GitLab
10 6 (1.47%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 5 (1.23%) JMeter
11 5 (1.23%) Subversion
11 5 (1.23%) TeamCity
12 4 (0.98%) Android Studio
12 4 (0.98%) Eclipse
12 4 (0.98%) Gatling
12 4 (0.98%) IntelliJ
12 4 (0.98%) Robot Framework
General
1 111 (27.21%) Banking
2 87 (21.32%) Finance
3 72 (17.65%) Front Office
4 39 (9.56%) Investment Banking
5 11 (2.70%) Retail
6 6 (1.47%) Public Sector
7 5 (1.23%) Financial Institution
8 3 (0.74%) Advertising
8 3 (0.74%) Games
8 3 (0.74%) Telecoms
9 2 (0.49%) Back Office
9 2 (0.49%) Multimedia
10 1 (0.25%) Automotive
10 1 (0.25%) International Banking
10 1 (0.25%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 277 (67.89%) Developer
2 190 (46.57%) Java Developer
3 32 (7.84%) Electronic Trading Developer
3 32 (7.84%) Electronic Trading Java Developer
4 27 (6.62%) Senior Developer
5 24 (5.88%) Architect
6 23 (5.64%) Front Office Developer
7 22 (5.39%) Data Engineer
7 22 (5.39%) Full Stack Developer
8 17 (4.17%) DevOps Engineer
8 17 (4.17%) Senior Java Developer
9 15 (3.68%) AWS Developer
9 15 (3.68%) React Developer
9 15 (3.68%) Solutions Architect
10 14 (3.43%) Python Developer
11 13 (3.19%) Software Engineer
12 12 (2.94%) Android Developer
12 12 (2.94%) Java Architect
12 12 (2.94%) Java Engineer
13 11 (2.70%) Low Latency Java Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 125 (30.64%) Spring
2 72 (17.65%) Kafka
3 65 (15.93%) Spring Boot
4 48 (11.76%) REST
5 35 (8.58%) React
6 34 (8.33%) AngularJS
6 34 (8.33%) RESTful
7 30 (7.35%) HTML
8 28 (6.86%) XML
9 27 (6.62%) JSON
10 26 (6.37%) Hibernate
10 26 (6.37%) HTML5
11 25 (6.13%) Node.js
12 22 (5.39%) .NET
12 22 (5.39%) JMS
13 21 (5.15%) Web Services
14 16 (3.92%) Apache Camel
15 15 (3.68%) Middleware
16 14 (3.43%) CSS
16 14 (3.43%) JDBC
Miscellaneous
1 36 (8.82%) Fixed Income
1 36 (8.82%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 32 (7.84%) Enterprise Software
3 31 (7.60%) Greenfield Project
4 17 (4.17%) Derivative
5 16 (3.92%) Analytical Skills
6 15 (3.68%) Clustering
7 14 (3.43%) Data Structures
8 12 (2.94%) Algorithms
9 11 (2.70%) Credit Risk
9 11 (2.70%) Mobile App
9 11 (2.70%) Public Cloud
10 10 (2.45%) Grid Computing
11 9 (2.21%) Market Risk
11 9 (2.21%) Self-Motivation
12 5 (1.23%) Cloud Native
12 5 (1.23%) Equities
13 4 (0.98%) Equity Derivative
14 3 (0.74%) Blog
14 3 (0.74%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 50 (12.25%) Linux
2 20 (4.90%) Android
3 19 (4.66%) Unix
4 5 (1.23%) Windows
5 3 (0.74%) Apple iOS
6 2 (0.49%) CentOS
6 2 (0.49%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 1 (0.25%) Android TV
7 1 (0.25%) Ubuntu
7 1 (0.25%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 170 (41.67%) Agile Software Development
2 116 (28.43%) Microservices
3 99 (24.26%) TDD
4 68 (16.67%) Multithreading
5 63 (15.44%) DevOps
6 60 (14.71%) Low Latency
7 55 (13.48%) Continuous Integration
8 53 (12.99%) Electronic Trading
9 50 (12.25%) Scrum
10 45 (11.03%) BDD
11 43 (10.54%) OO
12 40 (9.80%) Software Engineering
13 33 (8.09%) Test Automation
14 27 (6.62%) Analytics
14 27 (6.62%) Migration
15 25 (6.13%) Open Source
15 25 (6.13%) Performance Tuning
15 25 (6.13%) Web Development
16 22 (5.39%) SDLC
17 21 (5.15%) High Availability
Programming Languages
1 77 (18.87%) Python
2 72 (17.65%) Java 8
3 67 (16.42%) SQL
4 62 (15.20%) JavaScript
5 51 (12.50%) Kotlin
6 31 (7.60%) C#
7 29 (7.11%) Scala
8 21 (5.15%) Go
8 21 (5.15%) PL/SQL
9 18 (4.41%) C++
10 14 (3.43%) Ruby
10 14 (3.43%) TypeScript
11 11 (2.70%) Perl
12 10 (2.45%) PHP
13 9 (2.21%) Bash Shell
14 8 (1.96%) PowerShell
15 6 (1.47%) ES6
16 5 (1.23%) Apple Swift
16 5 (1.23%) R
17 4 (0.98%) Haskell
Qualifications
1 29 (7.11%) Security Cleared
2 26 (6.37%) SC Cleared
3 12 (2.94%) Degree
4 8 (1.96%) Computer Science Degree
5 6 (1.47%) AWS Certification
6 4 (0.98%) CCNA
6 4 (0.98%) Cisco Certification
7 2 (0.49%) DV Cleared
8 1 (0.25%) CCNP
8 1 (0.25%) CTC Cleared
8 1 (0.25%) Master's Degree
8 1 (0.25%) PhD
8 1 (0.25%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 14 (3.43%) QA
2 3 (0.74%) MiFID
3 2 (0.49%) ISO 20022
System Software
1 72 (17.65%) Docker
2 7 (1.72%) VMware Infrastructure
3 4 (0.98%) VMware ESXi
4 3 (0.74%) Active Directory
4 3 (0.74%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 3 (0.74%) Ceph
4 3 (0.74%) HDFS
4 3 (0.74%) NFS
5 2 (0.49%) etcd
5 2 (0.49%) Varnish
6 1 (0.25%) Oracle RAC
6 1 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.25%) VMware NSX
6 1 (0.25%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 90 (22.06%) Kubernetes
2 28 (6.86%) Terraform
3 20 (4.90%) Ansible
4 8 (1.96%) Netcool
4 8 (1.96%) Puppet
5 7 (1.72%) Opscode Chef
5 7 (1.72%) Prometheus
6 6 (1.47%) Grafana
6 6 (1.47%) Salt
7 5 (1.23%) vRealize Orchestrator
8 3 (0.74%) Consul
8 3 (0.74%) Hadoop YARN
8 3 (0.74%) Mesos
8 3 (0.74%) vRealize
9 2 (0.49%) Docker Swarm
9 2 (0.49%) Rundeck
10 1 (0.25%) Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
10 1 (0.25%) ITRS Geneos
10 1 (0.25%) Pingdom
10 1 (0.25%) QRadar
Vendors
1 43 (10.54%) Oracle
2 18 (4.41%) Microsoft
3 11 (2.70%) AppDynamics
4 9 (2.21%) Talend
5 8 (1.96%) SevOne
5 8 (1.96%) VMware
6 7 (1.72%) Google
6 7 (1.72%) Splunk
7 6 (1.47%) Salesforce.com
7 6 (1.47%) Sybase
8 5 (1.23%) Databricks
9 4 (0.98%) EMC
9 4 (0.98%) ServiceNow
10 3 (0.74%) Atlassian
10 3 (0.74%) CyberArk
10 3 (0.74%) NetApp
10 3 (0.74%) SAP
11 2 (0.49%) Dynatrace
11 2 (0.49%) MuleSoft
11 2 (0.49%) Solace