Period
to 26 November 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in London. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 26 November 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
England > London
6 months to
26 Nov 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 450 309 408
Rank change year-on-year -141 +99 +15
Contract jobs citing PKI 127 72 134
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 0.34% 0.46% 0.38%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.02% 1.26% 1.22%
Number of daily rates quoted 94 52 88
10th Percentile £456 £375 £338
25th Percentile £503 £453 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £495 £536
Median % change year-on-year +21.21% -7.69% -6.74%
75th Percentile £683 £600 £675
90th Percentile £750 £662 £725
England median daily rate £530 £495 £500
% change year-on-year +7.07% -1.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 0 2
Median hourly rate £25.00 - £53.75
England median hourly rate £58.00 £60.50 £13.00
% change year-on-year -4.13% +365.38% -72.34%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 12,502 5,694 10,999
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 33.14% 36.06% 31.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,265 4,117 7,863
10th Percentile £363 £313 £313
25th Percentile £469 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +9.52% - -
75th Percentile £688 £650 £625
90th Percentile £775 £750 £700
England median daily rate £525 £488 £475
% change year-on-year +7.69% +2.63% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 144 72 140
10th Percentile £16.46 £12.76 £12.44
25th Percentile £23.00 £22.44 £16.25
Median hourly rate £35.00 £33.06 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year +5.86% +46.94% +3.40%
75th Percentile £53.00 £40.00 £41.24
90th Percentile £67.45 £48.65 £52.50
England median hourly rate £24.79 £27.99 £20.50
% change year-on-year -11.43% +36.54% +2.50%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in London

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in London.

Daily rate trend for PKI in London

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in London over the 6 months to 26 November 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in London

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in London.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in London

PKI
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the London region over the 6 months to 26 November 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -49 12 £544 -5.43% 6
West London - 1 - - 3
PKI
England

For the 6 months to 26 November 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for PKI.

1 48 (37.80%) Windows
1 48 (37.80%) Microsoft
2 46 (36.22%) VMware
3 44 (34.65%) Linux
4 42 (33.07%) Firewall
5 39 (30.71%) SSL
5 39 (30.71%) Active Directory
5 39 (30.71%) Docker
6 38 (29.92%) Azure
7 35 (27.56%) Kubernetes
8 34 (26.77%) AWS
9 33 (25.98%) DNS
10 32 (25.20%) CA
11 31 (24.41%) OAuth
11 31 (24.41%) DevOps
12 30 (23.62%) Ansible
12 30 (23.62%) Agile Software Development
13 29 (22.83%) VMware Infrastructure
14 26 (20.47%) Finance
14 26 (20.47%) VPN
14 26 (20.47%) IaaS
14 26 (20.47%) PaaS
15 25 (19.69%) Python
16 24 (18.90%) IPsec
16 24 (18.90%) Identity Access Management
17 23 (18.11%) GCP
17 23 (18.11%) Private Cloud
17 23 (18.11%) OAuth2
17 23 (18.11%) Java
18 22 (17.32%) Active Directory Federation Services

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 21 (16.54%) OpenStack
2 16 (12.60%) nginx
3 11 (8.66%) Apache
3 11 (8.66%) IIS
4 10 (7.87%) Tomcat
5 7 (5.51%) Traefik
6 5 (3.94%) Elasticsearch
7 4 (3.15%) Apache Spark
7 4 (3.15%) Cloud Foundry
8 3 (2.36%) SharePoint
9 2 (1.57%) JBoss
10 1 (0.79%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 1 (0.79%) CMS
10 1 (0.79%) Joomla!
10 1 (0.79%) WebSphere
10 1 (0.79%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 8 (6.30%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (3.94%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 5 (3.94%) Microsoft Project
3 2 (1.57%) Microsoft Office
4 1 (0.79%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 1 (0.79%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 38 (29.92%) Azure
2 34 (26.77%) AWS
3 26 (20.47%) IaaS
3 26 (20.47%) PaaS
4 23 (18.11%) GCP
5 21 (16.54%) SaaS
6 19 (14.96%) Microsoft 365
7 18 (14.17%) Azure Active Directory
8 15 (11.81%) Amazon EC2
9 14 (11.02%) Apigee
10 10 (7.87%) Cloud Computing
11 9 (7.09%) AWS CloudFormation
12 7 (5.51%) Amazon CloudWatch
12 7 (5.51%) Virtual Private Cloud
13 5 (3.94%) Route 53
14 4 (3.15%) Amazon ECS
14 4 (3.15%) Amazon EKS
14 4 (3.15%) Amazon EMR
14 4 (3.15%) Google Compute Engine
14 4 (3.15%) OneDrive
Communications & Networking
1 42 (33.07%) Firewall
2 39 (30.71%) SSL
3 33 (25.98%) DNS
4 26 (20.47%) VPN
5 24 (18.90%) IPsec
6 20 (15.75%) IKE
7 16 (12.60%) TCP/IP
8 9 (7.09%) Network Security
9 7 (5.51%) Kerberos
10 6 (4.72%) DHCP
11 5 (3.94%) BIG-IP
11 5 (3.94%) Internet
12 4 (3.15%) VSAN
13 3 (2.36%) Intranet
13 3 (2.36%) NetScaler
13 3 (2.36%) Software-Defined Networking
13 3 (2.36%) SSH
13 3 (2.36%) WAN
14 2 (1.57%) L2TP
14 2 (1.57%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 8 (6.30%) SQL Server
2 6 (4.72%) Hadoop
3 5 (3.94%) MongoDB
4 4 (3.15%) Bigtable
5 3 (2.36%) Cloudant
5 3 (2.36%) Couchbase
6 2 (1.57%) MySQL
6 2 (1.57%) PostgreSQL
7 1 (0.79%) Aerospike
7 1 (0.79%) Amazon DynamoDB
7 1 (0.79%) Amazon RDS
7 1 (0.79%) Hazelcast
7 1 (0.79%) MariaDB
7 1 (0.79%) NoSQL
7 1 (0.79%) Redis
Development Applications
1 17 (13.39%) Git (software)
2 16 (12.60%) Jenkins
3 10 (7.87%) GitLab
4 9 (7.09%) JIRA
5 6 (4.72%) Bitbucket
5 6 (4.72%) Sonatype Nexus
6 4 (3.15%) Maven
7 3 (2.36%) JUnit
7 3 (2.36%) Liquibase
8 2 (1.57%) Gradle
8 2 (1.57%) Robot Framework
8 2 (1.57%) Selenium
8 2 (1.57%) TestLink
9 1 (0.79%) Artifactory
9 1 (0.79%) AutoIt
9 1 (0.79%) IBM UrbanCode
9 1 (0.79%) Octopus Deploy
9 1 (0.79%) TeamCity
General
1 26 (20.47%) Finance
2 21 (16.54%) Banking
3 18 (14.17%) Social Skills
4 15 (11.81%) Telecoms
5 14 (11.02%) Games
6 6 (4.72%) Public Sector
7 5 (3.94%) Analytical Skills
8 3 (2.36%) Documentation Skills
8 3 (2.36%) Financial Institution
8 3 (2.36%) Investment Banking
8 3 (2.36%) Presentation Skills
9 1 (0.79%) Back Office
9 1 (0.79%) Front Office
9 1 (0.79%) Influencing Skills
9 1 (0.79%) Local Government
9 1 (0.79%) Marketing
9 1 (0.79%) Retail
Job Titles
1 32 (25.20%) Architect
2 20 (15.75%) Security Architect
3 18 (14.17%) Security Engineer
4 17 (13.39%) Lead Architect
5 15 (11.81%) Lead Security Architect
6 14 (11.02%) Design Engineer
6 14 (11.02%) Developer
7 12 (9.45%) DevOps Engineer
8 11 (8.66%) C++ Developer
9 8 (6.30%) Cloud Engineer
9 8 (6.30%) Infrastructure Engineer
10 5 (3.94%) Security Manager
10 5 (3.94%) Senior C++ Developer
10 5 (3.94%) Senior Developer
10 5 (3.94%) Unix Architect
10 5 (3.94%) VMware Architect
11 4 (3.15%) Consultant
11 4 (3.15%) Infrastructure Manager
11 4 (3.15%) Solutions Architect
11 4 (3.15%) Wintel Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 31 (24.41%) OAuth
2 23 (18.11%) OAuth2
3 12 (9.45%) LDAP
3 12 (9.45%) OpenID
3 12 (9.45%) SAML
4 9 (7.09%) RabbitMQ
5 7 (5.51%) cloud-init
5 7 (5.51%) SailPoint
6 6 (4.72%) Hibernate
6 6 (4.72%) SPNEGO
6 6 (4.72%) WCF
6 6 (4.72%) Windows Identity Foundation
7 5 (3.94%) JPA
7 5 (3.94%) Kafka
7 5 (3.94%) Spring
8 4 (3.15%) RESTful
8 4 (3.15%) SOAP
8 4 (3.15%) Spring Boot
9 3 (2.36%) REST
9 3 (2.36%) Spring Security
Miscellaneous
1 23 (18.11%) Private Cloud
2 13 (10.24%) Clustering
3 9 (7.09%) Data Centre
4 6 (4.72%) Linux Command Line
5 5 (3.94%) Public Cloud
6 4 (3.15%) Greenfield Project
7 3 (2.36%) Hybrid Cloud
7 3 (2.36%) Management Information System
7 3 (2.36%) Replication
7 3 (2.36%) Self-Motivation
7 3 (2.36%) Virtual Team
8 2 (1.57%) Algorithms
8 2 (1.57%) Analytical Mindset
8 2 (1.57%) DataPower
8 2 (1.57%) Enterprise Software
8 2 (1.57%) Enterprise Storage
8 2 (1.57%) Legacy Code
9 1 (0.79%) Enterprise Cloud
9 1 (0.79%) Legacy Systems
9 1 (0.79%) SWIFT
Operating Systems
1 48 (37.80%) Windows
2 44 (34.65%) Linux
3 19 (14.96%) Windows Server
4 18 (14.17%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 12 (9.45%) Unix
6 9 (7.09%) Windows 10
7 8 (6.30%) CentOS
8 7 (5.51%) Windows Server 2012
8 7 (5.51%) Windows Server 2016
9 4 (3.15%) HPUX
10 3 (2.36%) Windows Server 2008
10 3 (2.36%) Windows Server 2019
11 2 (1.57%) AIX
11 2 (1.57%) Debian
11 2 (1.57%) Oracle Linux
11 2 (1.57%) Solaris
11 2 (1.57%) Ubuntu
12 1 (0.79%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 31 (24.41%) DevOps
2 30 (23.62%) Agile Software Development
3 24 (18.90%) Identity Access Management
4 21 (16.54%) Vulnerability Management
5 20 (15.75%) Data Loss Prevention
6 19 (14.96%) Cybersecurity
7 18 (14.17%) Password Management
8 17 (13.39%) Load Balancing
8 17 (13.39%) Migration
9 14 (11.02%) Infrastructure as Code
9 14 (11.02%) ITIL
10 13 (10.24%) Infrastructure Engineering
11 12 (9.45%) Project Management
12 11 (8.66%) Scrum
12 11 (8.66%) SDLC
13 10 (7.87%) Configuration Management
13 10 (7.87%) Continuous Integration
13 10 (7.87%) Problem-Solving
14 9 (7.09%) Multithreading
15 8 (6.30%) Disaster Recovery
Programming Languages
1 25 (19.69%) Python
2 23 (18.11%) Java
3 20 (15.75%) PowerShell
4 19 (14.96%) SQL
5 17 (13.39%) Bash Shell
6 15 (11.81%) C++
7 7 (5.51%) Go
7 7 (5.51%) Ruby
8 5 (3.94%) Perl
9 4 (3.15%) Java 8
9 4 (3.15%) JavaScript
10 3 (2.36%) PL/SQL
10 3 (2.36%) Shell Script
11 2 (1.57%) C
11 2 (1.57%) C#
11 2 (1.57%) Scala
12 1 (0.79%) Java 9
12 1 (0.79%) PHP
12 1 (0.79%) VBA
12 1 (0.79%) VBScript
Qualifications
1 20 (15.75%) Security Cleared
2 12 (9.45%) SC Cleared
3 5 (3.94%) Microsoft Certification
4 4 (3.15%) Cisco Certification
4 4 (3.15%) MCTS
5 3 (2.36%) CCIE
5 3 (2.36%) CCIE Security
5 3 (2.36%) CISA
5 3 (2.36%) CISM
5 3 (2.36%) CISSP
5 3 (2.36%) DV Cleared
6 2 (1.57%) BPSS Clearance
6 2 (1.57%) CRISC
6 2 (1.57%) Degree
6 2 (1.57%) HPE ATP
6 2 (1.57%) ISEB
7 1 (0.79%) CompTIA Security+
7 1 (0.79%) ITIL Certification
7 1 (0.79%) MCSA
7 1 (0.79%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 9 (7.09%) NCSC
1 9 (7.09%) QA
2 3 (2.36%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 3 (2.36%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
2 3 (2.36%) SLA
3 2 (1.57%) Government Security Classifications
4 1 (0.79%) Disclosure Scotland
4 1 (0.79%) PMO
System Software
1 39 (30.71%) Active Directory
1 39 (30.71%) Docker
2 29 (22.83%) VMware Infrastructure
3 20 (15.75%) vCloud
4 18 (14.17%) VMware Workstation
5 5 (3.94%) Virtual Desktop
5 5 (3.94%) VMware NSX
6 4 (3.15%) Microsoft Virtual Server
6 4 (3.15%) Terminal Services
6 4 (3.15%) Virtual Servers
6 4 (3.15%) VMware ESXi
6 4 (3.15%) XenDesktop
7 3 (2.36%) Hyper-V
8 2 (1.57%) BitLocker
8 2 (1.57%) NFS
9 1 (0.79%) DFS Replication
9 1 (0.79%) Snort
Systems Management
1 35 (27.56%) Kubernetes
2 30 (23.62%) Ansible
3 22 (17.32%) Active Directory Federation Services
4 20 (15.75%) Terraform
5 15 (11.81%) Single Sign-On
6 14 (11.02%) Istio
6 14 (11.02%) Prometheus
7 12 (9.45%) SCCM
8 10 (7.87%) Consul
8 10 (7.87%) HAProxy
8 10 (7.87%) ZABBIX
9 9 (7.09%) Puppet
10 8 (6.30%) CA Single Sign-On
11 7 (5.51%) Docker Swarm
11 7 (5.51%) Graphite
11 7 (5.51%) linkerd
11 7 (5.51%) Opscode Chef
11 7 (5.51%) Packer
12 6 (4.72%) Microsoft Intune
13 4 (3.15%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
Vendors
1 48 (37.80%) Microsoft
2 46 (36.22%) VMware
3 32 (25.20%) CA
4 14 (11.02%) Cisco
4 14 (11.02%) Red Hat
4 14 (11.02%) Splunk
5 12 (9.45%) Oracle
6 10 (7.87%) Google
6 10 (7.87%) IBM
7 8 (6.30%) Citrix
7 8 (6.30%) F5
7 8 (6.30%) HP
8 7 (5.51%) BMC
8 7 (5.51%) Dell
8 7 (5.51%) PagerDuty
8 7 (5.51%) ServiceNow
9 6 (4.72%) NetApp
10 5 (3.94%) CyberArk
10 5 (3.94%) Juniper
11 4 (3.15%) Hitachi