Period
to 1 August 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in London. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 1 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
England > London
6 months to
1 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 438 313 436
Rank change year-on-year -125 +123 +5
Contract jobs citing PKI 85 64 158
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 0.28% 0.41% 0.39%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 0.84% 1.16% 1.22%
Number of daily rates quoted 53 48 122
10th Percentile £413 £463 £422
25th Percentile £456 £488 £513
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £533 £600
Median % change year-on-year -1.41% -11.25% +9.09%
75th Percentile £630 £628 £700
90th Percentile £675 £679 £737
England median daily rate £475 £514 £525
% change year-on-year -7.54% -2.14% +7.69%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 0 2
10th Percentile " " £50.63
25th Percentile £55.00 " £51.56
Median hourly rate £60.00 - £53.75
75th Percentile £65.00 " £56.56
90th Percentile " " £57.88
England median hourly rate £60.00 £67.50 £13.00
% change year-on-year -11.11% +419.23% -74.00%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 10,063 5,529 12,924
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 33.41% 35.10% 32.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,094 4,065 9,237
10th Percentile £362 £325 £325
25th Percentile £450 £425 £420
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £540 £525
Median % change year-on-year +1.85% +2.86% +1.94%
75th Percentile £675 £650 £625
90th Percentile £750 £750 £700
England median daily rate £513 £500 £475
% change year-on-year +2.50% +5.26% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 152 85 187
10th Percentile £14.27 £14.11 £12.76
25th Percentile £20.00 £24.35 £16.25
Median hourly rate £32.00 £38.50 £24.50
Median % change year-on-year -16.88% +57.14% +4.26%
75th Percentile £45.53 £47.75 £47.25
90th Percentile £58.63 £55.10 £52.70
England median hourly rate £24.47 £26.50 £20.50
% change year-on-year -7.66% +29.27% -10.68%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in London

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in London.

Daily rate trend for PKI in London

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in London over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in London

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in London.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in London

PKI
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the London region over the 6 months to 1 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -24 4 £628 -7.04% 7
South London +24 2 £631 - 1
West London - 2 - - 2
North London - 1 £350 -
PKI
England

For the 6 months to 1 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for PKI.

1 40 (47.06%) Windows
2 31 (36.47%) Linux
3 28 (32.94%) Active Directory
4 26 (30.59%) Microsoft
4 26 (30.59%) Java
5 25 (29.41%) Azure
6 22 (25.88%) Banking
7 21 (24.71%) DevOps
8 19 (22.35%) Agile Software Development
8 19 (22.35%) Python
9 18 (21.18%) Finance
9 18 (21.18%) Ansible
10 17 (20.00%) Docker
10 17 (20.00%) Firewall
11 16 (18.82%) SSL
11 16 (18.82%) Security Cleared
11 16 (18.82%) Social Skills
12 14 (16.47%) Kubernetes
12 14 (16.47%) SC Cleared
12 14 (16.47%) AWS
12 14 (16.47%) Bash Shell
12 14 (16.47%) VPN
12 14 (16.47%) C++
13 12 (14.12%) LDAP
13 12 (14.12%) SAML
13 12 (14.12%) Migration
13 12 (14.12%) Cryptography
13 12 (14.12%) Identity Access Management
13 12 (14.12%) Cybersecurity
13 12 (14.12%) Microsoft 365

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 11 (12.94%) IIS
2 7 (8.24%) Apache
3 6 (7.06%) nginx
3 6 (7.06%) Tomcat
4 3 (3.53%) SharePoint
5 2 (2.35%) Apache Spark
5 2 (2.35%) Elasticsearch
5 2 (2.35%) MS Exchange
5 2 (2.35%) OpenStack
6 1 (1.18%) CMS
6 1 (1.18%) Confluence
6 1 (1.18%) Ethereum
6 1 (1.18%) Exchange Server 2010
Applications
1 9 (10.59%) Microsoft Excel
1 9 (10.59%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 5 (5.88%) Microsoft Project
3 4 (4.71%) MS Visio
4 1 (1.18%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 1 (1.18%) Distributed Ledger
1 1 (1.18%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 25 (29.41%) Azure
2 14 (16.47%) AWS
3 12 (14.12%) Microsoft 365
4 10 (11.76%) Azure Active Directory
5 9 (10.59%) GCP
6 8 (9.41%) Apigee
7 7 (8.24%) IaaS
7 7 (8.24%) PaaS
8 5 (5.88%) SaaS
9 4 (4.71%) Cloud Computing
10 3 (3.53%) Serverless
11 2 (2.35%) Amazon EC2
11 2 (2.35%) Amazon ECS
11 2 (2.35%) Amazon EMR
11 2 (2.35%) OpenShift
11 2 (2.35%) Route 53
12 1 (1.18%) AWS CloudFormation
12 1 (1.18%) Cloud Functions
12 1 (1.18%) Google Compute Engine
12 1 (1.18%) Mimecast
Communications & Networking
1 17 (20.00%) Firewall
2 16 (18.82%) SSL
3 14 (16.47%) VPN
4 11 (12.94%) DNS
5 10 (11.76%) Kerberos
6 9 (10.59%) DMZ
6 9 (10.59%) Network Security
7 8 (9.41%) IPsec
8 7 (8.24%) Internet
9 6 (7.06%) WAN
10 5 (5.88%) Intranet
10 5 (5.88%) TCP/IP
10 5 (5.88%) Wireless
11 4 (4.71%) NAS
11 4 (4.71%) SAN
11 4 (4.71%) VoIP
11 4 (4.71%) Wi-Fi
12 3 (3.53%) DSL
12 3 (3.53%) IPv4
12 3 (3.53%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 6 (7.06%) SQL Server
2 2 (2.35%) Hadoop
3 1 (1.18%) Bigtable
3 1 (1.18%) Blockchain
3 1 (1.18%) Oracle Database
3 1 (1.18%) Relational Database
Development Applications
1 8 (9.41%) JIRA
2 7 (8.24%) Git (software)
2 7 (8.24%) SonarQube
3 6 (7.06%) Jenkins
4 5 (5.88%) Maven
5 4 (4.71%) Sonatype Nexus
6 3 (3.53%) Artifactory
7 2 (2.35%) Bitbucket
7 2 (2.35%) Gradle
8 1 (1.18%) Atlassian Bamboo
8 1 (1.18%) GitLab
General
1 22 (25.88%) Banking
2 18 (21.18%) Finance
3 16 (18.82%) Social Skills
4 7 (8.24%) Analytical Skills
5 5 (5.88%) Public Sector
6 4 (4.71%) Presentation Skills
6 4 (4.71%) Retail Banking
7 3 (3.53%) Games
7 3 (3.53%) Telecoms
8 1 (1.18%) Documentation Skills
8 1 (1.18%) Financial Institution
8 1 (1.18%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 12 (14.12%) Architect
2 10 (11.76%) Developer
3 8 (9.41%) C++ Developer
3 8 (9.41%) DevOps Engineer
4 6 (7.06%) Security Architect
4 6 (7.06%) Security Engineer
5 4 (4.71%) Cloud Engineer
5 4 (4.71%) Lead Architect
5 4 (4.71%) Senior Developer
6 3 (3.53%) Administrator
6 3 (3.53%) Azure Engineer
6 3 (3.53%) IT Support
6 3 (3.53%) Java Engineer
6 3 (3.53%) Lead Security Architect
6 3 (3.53%) Microsoft 365 Engineer
6 3 (3.53%) SailPoint Engineer
6 3 (3.53%) Security Specialist
6 3 (3.53%) Senior C++ Developer
6 3 (3.53%) Software Engineer
6 3 (3.53%) Technical Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 12 (14.12%) LDAP
1 12 (14.12%) SAML
2 11 (12.94%) OAuth
3 10 (11.76%) OpenID
4 6 (7.06%) Elastic Stack
4 6 (7.06%) OAuth2
4 6 (7.06%) SailPoint
4 6 (7.06%) SPNEGO
4 6 (7.06%) WCF
4 6 (7.06%) Windows Identity Foundation
5 5 (5.88%) 802.1X
6 4 (4.71%) Middleware
6 4 (4.71%) Node.js
7 3 (3.53%) Kafka
7 3 (3.53%) Keycloak
7 3 (3.53%) RabbitMQ
7 3 (3.53%) Serverless Framework
7 3 (3.53%) STL
7 3 (3.53%) Velocity
8 2 (2.35%) REST
Miscellaneous
1 8 (9.41%) Data Centre
2 7 (8.24%) Clustering
3 6 (7.06%) Management Information System
4 5 (5.88%) Public Cloud
5 4 (4.71%) Algorithms
5 4 (4.71%) Private Cloud
6 3 (3.53%) Mainframe
6 3 (3.53%) Self-Motivation
7 2 (2.35%) Analytical Mindset
7 2 (2.35%) Greenfield Project
7 2 (2.35%) Legacy Systems
7 2 (2.35%) Linux Command Line
7 2 (2.35%) Smartcard
7 2 (2.35%) SWIFT
8 1 (1.18%) Enterprise Software
8 1 (1.18%) Legacy Applications
8 1 (1.18%) Replication
8 1 (1.18%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 40 (47.06%) Windows
2 31 (36.47%) Linux
3 7 (8.24%) Windows Server
4 5 (5.88%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 4 (4.71%) Unix
5 4 (4.71%) Windows 10
5 4 (4.71%) Windows Server 2012
6 3 (3.53%) HPUX
6 3 (3.53%) Windows Server 2008
7 2 (2.35%) Windows Server 2016
8 1 (1.18%) CentOS
8 1 (1.18%) Ubuntu
8 1 (1.18%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 21 (24.71%) DevOps
2 19 (22.35%) Agile Software Development
3 12 (14.12%) Cryptography
3 12 (14.12%) Cybersecurity
3 12 (14.12%) Identity Access Management
3 12 (14.12%) Migration
4 11 (12.94%) ITIL
5 9 (10.59%) DevSecOps
5 9 (10.59%) Security Architecture
6 8 (9.41%) Full Stack Development
6 8 (9.41%) Problem-Solving
6 8 (9.41%) SIEM
7 7 (8.24%) Identity Management
7 7 (8.24%) Project Management
8 6 (7.06%) OO
8 6 (7.06%) OOP
8 6 (7.06%) Scrum
8 6 (7.06%) SOA
8 6 (7.06%) Software Architecture
8 6 (7.06%) Test Automation
Programming Languages
1 26 (30.59%) Java
2 19 (22.35%) Python
3 14 (16.47%) Bash Shell
3 14 (16.47%) C++
4 10 (11.76%) SQL
5 8 (9.41%) PowerShell
6 6 (7.06%) C
7 5 (5.88%) C#
8 4 (4.71%) Ruby
9 3 (3.53%) Groovy
9 3 (3.53%) JavaScript
10 2 (2.35%) Go
10 2 (2.35%) Perl
10 2 (2.35%) Scala
10 2 (2.35%) Shell Script
11 1 (1.18%) Solidity
Qualifications
1 16 (18.82%) Security Cleared
2 14 (16.47%) SC Cleared
3 7 (8.24%) Degree
4 6 (7.06%) CISSP
4 6 (7.06%) Computer Science Degree
5 5 (5.88%) DV Cleared
6 4 (4.71%) GIAC
7 3 (3.53%) ITIL Certification
7 3 (3.53%) TOGAF Certification
8 2 (2.35%) Microsoft Certification
9 1 (1.18%) CISA
9 1 (1.18%) CISM
9 1 (1.18%) CompTIA Security+
9 1 (1.18%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 8 (9.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 6 (7.06%) QA
3 3 (3.53%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
4 2 (2.35%) Accessibility
5 1 (1.18%) COBIT
5 1 (1.18%) FISMA
5 1 (1.18%) GDPR
5 1 (1.18%) Government Security Classifications
5 1 (1.18%) NCSC
5 1 (1.18%) NIST
5 1 (1.18%) PCI DSS
5 1 (1.18%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 28 (32.94%) Active Directory
2 17 (20.00%) Docker
3 7 (8.24%) VMware Infrastructure
4 3 (3.53%) BitLocker
4 3 (3.53%) Hyper-V
4 3 (3.53%) iptables
5 2 (2.35%) Virtual Desktop
5 2 (2.35%) Virtual Machines
5 2 (2.35%) VMware ESXi
5 2 (2.35%) VMware NSX
5 2 (2.35%) XenDesktop
6 1 (1.18%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
6 1 (1.18%) IAG
6 1 (1.18%) vCloud
6 1 (1.18%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 18 (21.18%) Ansible
2 14 (16.47%) Kubernetes
3 11 (12.94%) Terraform
4 10 (11.76%) Single Sign-On
5 7 (8.24%) CA Single Sign-On
6 6 (7.06%) Active Directory Federation Services
6 6 (7.06%) Prometheus
7 4 (4.71%) Grafana
7 4 (4.71%) Microsoft Intune
7 4 (4.71%) SCCM
8 3 (3.53%) Istio
8 3 (3.53%) Opscode Chef
8 3 (3.53%) Sysdig
8 3 (3.53%) TrustSec
9 2 (2.35%) CASB
9 2 (2.35%) EMC NetWorker
9 2 (2.35%) McAfee ePO
9 2 (2.35%) Microsoft Clustering
9 2 (2.35%) vCenter Server
9 2 (2.35%) WSUS
Vendors
1 26 (30.59%) Microsoft
2 10 (11.76%) CA
2 10 (11.76%) Cisco
3 9 (10.59%) VMware
4 8 (9.41%) Google
5 7 (8.24%) BMC
6 6 (7.06%) Oracle
7 5 (5.88%) HP
7 5 (5.88%) McAfee
8 4 (4.71%) Red Hat
8 4 (4.71%) ServiceNow
9 3 (3.53%) Dynatrace
9 3 (3.53%) NetApp
10 2 (2.35%) CheckPoint
10 2 (2.35%) Citrix
10 2 (2.35%) Dell
10 2 (2.35%) IBM
10 2 (2.35%) SAP
10 2 (2.35%) Trustwave
10 2 (2.35%) Veracode