Period
to 26 July 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 26 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
26 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 460 349 478
Rank change year-on-year -111 +129 -12
Contract jobs citing PKI 235 204 383
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.42% 0.61% 0.45%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.36% 1.97% 1.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 154 128 269
10th Percentile £350 £400 £312
25th Percentile £413 £463 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £500 £525
Median % change year-on-year -5.00% -4.76% +8.25%
75th Percentile £558 £600 £663
90th Percentile £630 £650 £725
UK median daily rate £475 £500 £520
% change year-on-year -5.00% -3.85% +15.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 2 13
Median hourly rate £15.00 £67.50 £12.00
Median % change year-on-year -77.78% +462.50% -76.00%
UK median hourly rate £48.74 £67.50 £13.00
% change year-on-year -27.79% +419.23% -74.00%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 17,336 10,353 24,837
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.67% 31.01% 29.48%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,845 6,987 16,503
10th Percentile £300 £270 £288
25th Percentile £406 £398 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £510 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £625 £613 £588
90th Percentile £713 £725 £675
UK median daily rate £500 £495 £475
% change year-on-year +1.01% +4.21% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 615 357 820
10th Percentile £11.94 £12.42 £11.85
25th Percentile £15.05 £16.25 £14.11
Median hourly rate £24.00 £25.50 £20.50
Median % change year-on-year -5.88% +24.39% -12.77%
75th Percentile £47.07 £47.25 £46.71
90th Percentile £60.50 £54.25 £53.00
UK median hourly rate £23.21 £25.00 £20.00
% change year-on-year -7.16% +25.00% -12.82%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 26 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -111 84 £505 -6.48% 17
North of England -7 48 £425 -10.53% 6
South East -35 48 £500 +3.36% 15
North West 0 36 £413 -12.23% 3
Midlands -50 22 £475 -13.64% 10
West Midlands -46 18 £513 -10.87% 6
South West -25 15 £475 -26.92% 5
Yorkshire -17 10 £470 -1.05% 3
East of England -9 6 - - 1
East Midlands -17 4 £475 -5.00% 4
North East - 2 £563 -
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 26 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 113 (48.09%) Windows
2 105 (44.68%) Active Directory
3 87 (37.02%) Microsoft
4 86 (36.60%) Security Cleared
5 71 (30.21%) Azure
6 63 (26.81%) SC Cleared
7 62 (26.38%) DNS
8 54 (22.98%) Linux
9 46 (19.57%) VMware
10 44 (18.72%) Windows Server
11 43 (18.30%) AWS
12 40 (17.02%) Microsoft 365
13 39 (16.60%) Docker
13 39 (16.60%) PowerShell
14 38 (16.17%) Agile Software Development
15 36 (15.32%) Java
15 36 (15.32%) SQL Server
15 36 (15.32%) Cisco
15 36 (15.32%) Social Skills
16 35 (14.89%) ITIL
16 35 (14.89%) DevOps
17 33 (14.04%) VPN
18 32 (13.62%) Firewall
19 31 (13.19%) VMware Infrastructure
19 31 (13.19%) DV Cleared
19 31 (13.19%) Active Directory Federation Services
20 30 (12.77%) Finance
21 29 (12.34%) Python
22 27 (11.49%) Migration
22 27 (11.49%) Degree

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 26 (11.06%) SharePoint
2 13 (5.53%) Apache Spark
2 13 (5.53%) IIS
2 13 (5.53%) Skype for Business
3 10 (4.26%) MS Exchange
4 8 (3.40%) Apache
5 7 (2.98%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 6 (2.55%) nginx
6 6 (2.55%) Tomcat
7 5 (2.13%) Confluence
7 5 (2.13%) Elasticsearch
8 4 (1.70%) JBoss
8 4 (1.70%) NetWeaver
8 4 (1.70%) WebSphere
9 2 (0.85%) SAS
10 1 (0.43%) CMS
10 1 (0.43%) Documentum
10 1 (0.43%) Ethereum
10 1 (0.43%) Exchange Server 2010
10 1 (0.43%) OpenStack
Applications
1 10 (4.26%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (3.83%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 7 (2.98%) Microsoft Office
3 7 (2.98%) MS Visio
4 5 (2.13%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 1 (0.43%) Distributed Ledger
1 1 (0.43%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 71 (30.21%) Azure
2 43 (18.30%) AWS
3 40 (17.02%) Microsoft 365
4 27 (11.49%) Azure Active Directory
5 15 (6.38%) PaaS
6 14 (5.96%) SaaS
7 13 (5.53%) Amazon EC2
7 13 (5.53%) Amazon ECS
7 13 (5.53%) Amazon EMR
7 13 (5.53%) Route 53
8 12 (5.11%) IaaS
9 10 (4.26%) GCP
10 7 (2.98%) Apigee
11 5 (2.13%) OneDrive
11 5 (2.13%) OpenShift
12 4 (1.70%) Amazon EKS
12 4 (1.70%) Azure Cosmos DB
12 4 (1.70%) Azure ExpressRoute
12 4 (1.70%) Power Automate
12 4 (1.70%) Yammer
Communications & Networking
1 62 (26.38%) DNS
2 33 (14.04%) VPN
3 32 (13.62%) Firewall
4 25 (10.64%) Skype
5 23 (9.79%) WAN
6 19 (8.09%) Network Security
6 19 (8.09%) SSL
7 18 (7.66%) IPsec
8 17 (7.23%) Internet
9 16 (6.81%) Kerberos
9 16 (6.81%) VoIP
10 15 (6.38%) SAN
11 14 (5.96%) DHCP
11 14 (5.96%) Wireless
12 13 (5.53%) LAN
12 13 (5.53%) MPLS
12 13 (5.53%) TCP/IP
13 10 (4.26%) DMZ
14 7 (2.98%) Wi-Fi
14 7 (2.98%) X.500
Database & Business Intelligence
1 36 (15.32%) SQL Server
2 13 (5.53%) Hadoop
3 12 (5.11%) MySQL
4 5 (2.13%) Oracle Database
5 4 (1.70%) Azure SQL Database
5 4 (1.70%) DB2
5 4 (1.70%) SAP HANA
6 2 (0.85%) Data Warehouse
7 1 (0.43%) Blockchain
7 1 (0.43%) EDRMS
7 1 (0.43%) MariaDB
7 1 (0.43%) Relational Database
Development Applications
1 12 (5.11%) JIRA
2 7 (2.98%) SonarQube
3 6 (2.55%) Git (software)
4 5 (2.13%) GitLab
4 5 (2.13%) Jenkins
4 5 (2.13%) Maven
4 5 (2.13%) Team Foundation Server
5 4 (1.70%) Sonatype Nexus
6 3 (1.28%) Artifactory
6 3 (1.28%) Bitbucket
7 2 (0.85%) Gradle
7 2 (0.85%) Rational DOORS
7 2 (0.85%) Rational Rhapsody
7 2 (0.85%) TestRail
8 1 (0.43%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 36 (15.32%) Social Skills
2 30 (12.77%) Finance
3 25 (10.64%) Banking
4 19 (8.09%) Analytical Skills
4 19 (8.09%) Public Sector
5 9 (3.83%) Documentation Skills
6 7 (2.98%) Telecoms
7 6 (2.55%) Presentation Skills
8 4 (1.70%) Retail Banking
9 3 (1.28%) Military
10 2 (0.85%) Back Office
10 2 (0.85%) Billing
10 2 (0.85%) Games
11 1 (0.43%) Advertising
11 1 (0.43%) Financial Institution
11 1 (0.43%) Influencing Skills
11 1 (0.43%) Legal
11 1 (0.43%) Pharmaceutical
11 1 (0.43%) Retail
Job Titles
1 30 (12.77%) Architect
2 19 (8.09%) Wintel Engineer
3 17 (7.23%) Developer
4 16 (6.81%) Infrastructure Engineer
5 15 (6.38%) Support Engineer
6 13 (5.53%) Consultant
6 13 (5.53%) Network Engineer
7 12 (5.11%) DevOps Engineer
7 12 (5.11%) Solutions Architect
8 11 (4.68%) Azure Engineer
9 10 (4.26%) AWS Engineer
9 10 (4.26%) Security Engineer
10 9 (3.83%) 3rd Line Engineer
10 9 (3.83%) Cloud Engineer
10 9 (3.83%) Security Architect
11 8 (3.40%) C++ Developer
12 7 (2.98%) Administrator
12 7 (2.98%) Senior Developer
12 7 (2.98%) Systems Engineer
13 6 (2.55%) 3rd Line Support
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 24 (10.21%) LDAP
2 21 (8.94%) SAML
3 12 (5.11%) CSS
3 12 (5.11%) OpenID
4 10 (4.26%) .NET
4 10 (4.26%) Middleware
4 10 (4.26%) OAuth
5 8 (3.40%) 802.1X
5 8 (3.40%) HTML
6 7 (2.98%) J2EE
6 7 (2.98%) Node.js
7 6 (2.55%) Elastic Stack
7 6 (2.55%) SailPoint
7 6 (2.55%) SPNEGO
7 6 (2.55%) WCF
7 6 (2.55%) Windows Identity Foundation
8 5 (2.13%) OAuth2
8 5 (2.13%) REST
9 4 (1.70%) JSON
9 4 (1.70%) SAP Basis
Miscellaneous
1 19 (8.09%) Data Centre
2 17 (7.23%) Clustering
3 16 (6.81%) Management Information System
4 12 (5.11%) Self-Motivation
5 9 (3.83%) Public Cloud
5 9 (3.83%) Video Conferencing
6 8 (3.40%) Greenfield Project
7 7 (2.98%) Enterprise Storage
7 7 (2.98%) Replication
8 6 (2.55%) Private Cloud
8 6 (2.55%) Smartcard
9 5 (2.13%) Algorithms
10 3 (1.28%) Linux Command Line
10 3 (1.28%) Mainframe
11 2 (0.85%) Fat Client
11 2 (0.85%) Industrial Internet of Things
11 2 (0.85%) Internet of Things
11 2 (0.85%) Online Banking
11 2 (0.85%) SWIFT
11 2 (0.85%) Thin Client
Operating Systems
1 113 (48.09%) Windows
2 54 (22.98%) Linux
3 44 (18.72%) Windows Server
4 20 (8.51%) Unix
5 13 (5.53%) Windows 10
5 13 (5.53%) Windows Server 2012
6 12 (5.11%) Windows Server 2019
7 10 (4.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 7 (2.98%) AIX
8 7 (2.98%) Windows Server 2008
9 5 (2.13%) Windows Server 2016
10 3 (1.28%) HPUX
10 3 (1.28%) Solaris
11 2 (0.85%) CentOS
11 2 (0.85%) FreeRTOS
12 1 (0.43%) Android
12 1 (0.43%) Apple iOS
12 1 (0.43%) Mac OS X
12 1 (0.43%) Ubuntu
12 1 (0.43%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 38 (16.17%) Agile Software Development
2 35 (14.89%) DevOps
2 35 (14.89%) ITIL
3 27 (11.49%) Infrastructure Engineering
3 27 (11.49%) Migration
4 25 (10.64%) Problem-Solving
5 24 (10.21%) Identity Management
6 23 (9.79%) Cryptography
7 21 (8.94%) Project Management
8 20 (8.51%) Cybersecurity
9 16 (6.81%) Infrastructure as Code
10 15 (6.38%) Identity Access Management
11 14 (5.96%) High Availability
11 14 (5.96%) Service Management
12 13 (5.53%) Security Architecture
12 13 (5.53%) SIEM
12 13 (5.53%) SOA
13 12 (5.11%) Information Security
13 12 (5.11%) Mentoring
13 12 (5.11%) TOGAF
Programming Languages
1 39 (16.60%) PowerShell
2 36 (15.32%) Java
3 29 (12.34%) Python
4 25 (10.64%) SQL
5 16 (6.81%) Bash Shell
6 14 (5.96%) C++
7 7 (2.98%) Ruby
8 6 (2.55%) JavaScript
9 5 (2.13%) C
9 5 (2.13%) VBScript
10 4 (1.70%) C#
11 3 (1.28%) Groovy
12 2 (0.85%) Go
12 2 (0.85%) Perl
12 2 (0.85%) Scala
12 2 (0.85%) Shell Script
13 1 (0.43%) PHP
13 1 (0.43%) Solidity
13 1 (0.43%) VBA
Qualifications
1 86 (36.60%) Security Cleared
2 63 (26.81%) SC Cleared
3 31 (13.19%) DV Cleared
4 27 (11.49%) Degree
5 14 (5.96%) Microsoft Certification
6 13 (5.53%) Cisco Certification
7 8 (3.40%) MCSE
8 7 (2.98%) CCNA
8 7 (2.98%) CISSP
9 6 (2.55%) Computer Science Degree
10 5 (2.13%) CCNP
10 5 (2.13%) ITIL Certification
10 5 (2.13%) JNCIA
11 4 (1.70%) GIAC
12 3 (1.28%) MCITP
12 3 (1.28%) MCTS
12 3 (1.28%) TOGAF Certification
13 2 (0.85%) CCIE Routing and Switching
13 2 (0.85%) Master's Degree
13 2 (0.85%) PCI QSA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 9 (3.83%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 8 (3.40%) NCSC
2 8 (3.40%) PCI DSS
3 7 (2.98%) GDPR
4 6 (2.55%) QA
5 5 (2.13%) COBIT
6 3 (1.28%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
6 3 (1.28%) SLA
7 2 (0.85%) Accessibility
7 2 (0.85%) NIST 800
8 1 (0.43%) Def Stans
8 1 (0.43%) FISMA
8 1 (0.43%) Government Security Classifications
8 1 (0.43%) NIST
8 1 (0.43%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 105 (44.68%) Active Directory
2 39 (16.60%) Docker
3 31 (13.19%) VMware Infrastructure
4 10 (4.26%) vSphere
5 8 (3.40%) VMware ESXi
6 7 (2.98%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
7 5 (2.13%) VMware NSX
8 4 (1.70%) Hyper-V
9 3 (1.28%) BitLocker
9 3 (1.28%) iptables
9 3 (1.28%) Virtual Desktop
9 3 (1.28%) Virtual Machines
10 2 (0.85%) Firmware
10 2 (0.85%) XenDesktop
11 1 (0.43%) IAG
11 1 (0.43%) KVM
11 1 (0.43%) Microsoft App-V
11 1 (0.43%) ProxySG
11 1 (0.43%) Snort
Systems Management
1 31 (13.19%) Active Directory Federation Services
2 24 (10.21%) Terraform
3 22 (9.36%) Ansible
4 20 (8.51%) SCCM
5 17 (7.23%) Prometheus
6 16 (6.81%) Kubernetes
6 16 (6.81%) Single Sign-On
7 13 (5.53%) Microsoft Intune
8 11 (4.68%) vCenter Server
9 8 (3.40%) CA Single Sign-On
10 7 (2.98%) Grafana
11 5 (2.13%) OpenView Configuration Management
12 4 (1.70%) AirWatch
12 4 (1.70%) Nessus
12 4 (1.70%) Opscode Chef
12 4 (1.70%) vRealize
13 3 (1.28%) Oracle ZFS
13 3 (1.28%) Sysdig
13 3 (1.28%) TrustSec
13 3 (1.28%) yum
Vendors
1 87 (37.02%) Microsoft
2 46 (19.57%) VMware
3 36 (15.32%) Cisco
4 24 (10.21%) Oracle
5 19 (8.09%) CA
6 12 (5.11%) HP
6 12 (5.11%) Juniper
7 11 (4.68%) Citrix
7 11 (4.68%) Red Hat
8 9 (3.83%) McAfee
9 7 (2.98%) BMC
9 7 (2.98%) Google
9 7 (2.98%) IBM
9 7 (2.98%) Splunk
10 6 (2.55%) Gemalto
10 6 (2.55%) Nimble Storage
10 6 (2.55%) SAP
10 6 (2.55%) Veeam
11 5 (2.13%) Thales
12 4 (1.70%) Software AG