Period
to 18 January 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 18 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
18 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 379 386 443
Rank change year-on-year +7 +57 +56
Contract jobs citing PKI 156 366 471
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.46% 0.56% 0.52%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.34% 1.77% 1.59%
Number of daily rates quoted 105 236 339
Median daily rate £480 £486 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.29% -2.75% +0.55%
10th Percentile £380 £338 £348
90th Percentile £625 £700 £651
UK median daily rate £495 £485 £500
% change year-on-year +2.06% -3.00% +2.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 8 7
Median hourly rate £60.50 £50.25 £15.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +20.40% +224.19% -50.00%
10th Percentile £55.35 £12.00 £14.02
90th Percentile £63.25 £54.73 £47.00
UK median hourly rate £66.00 £49.60 £15.50
% change year-on-year +33.08% +219.97% -51.94%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 11,618 20,636 29,628
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 34.36% 31.37% 32.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,808 13,552 19,921
Median daily rate £475 £471 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +0.80% -0.79% +5.56%
10th Percentile £254 £250 £275
90th Percentile £700 £675 £663
UK median daily rate £475 £455 £475
% change year-on-year +4.40% -4.21% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 455 848 885
Median hourly rate £26.00 £22.00 £20.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +18.18% +10.00% -
10th Percentile £12.50 £12.00 £12.25
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.00 £48.75
Median hourly rate £26.00 £22.50 £20.00
% change year-on-year +15.56% +12.50% -

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 18 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 18 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +52 57 £495 -5.71% 15
South East +112 32 £531 +25.00% 6
South West +70 26 £475 - 2
Midlands +39 14 £425 -19.05% 7
North of England +80 11 £450 +12.50% 2
North West +59 10 £437 +9.13% 1
East of England +29 10 £400 -20.00% 1
West Midlands +25 9 £425 -22.73% 3
East Midlands +43 5 - - 4
Yorkshire +42 1 £450 +7.14%
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 18 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 76 (48.72%) Active Directory
2 70 (44.87%) Windows
3 56 (35.90%) Security Cleared
4 50 (32.05%) Microsoft
5 49 (31.41%) Azure
6 44 (28.21%) DNS
6 44 (28.21%) Firewall
7 34 (21.79%) SC Cleared
8 31 (19.87%) Office 365
8 31 (19.87%) VPN
9 29 (18.59%) VMware
10 28 (17.95%) Agile Software Development
11 27 (17.31%) Cisco
11 27 (17.31%) DevOps
12 26 (16.67%) Windows Server
13 25 (16.03%) Data Centre
13 25 (16.03%) WAN
13 25 (16.03%) DHCP
14 24 (15.38%) SQL Server
14 24 (15.38%) Information Security
14 24 (15.38%) VMware Infrastructure
15 23 (14.74%) PowerShell
15 23 (14.74%) Finance
15 23 (14.74%) Linux
16 22 (14.10%) AWS
17 21 (13.46%) SCCM
17 21 (13.46%) IaaS
17 21 (13.46%) Internet
18 20 (12.82%) PaaS
18 20 (12.82%) Self-Motivation

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 15 (9.62%) SharePoint
2 11 (7.05%) Confluence
3 8 (5.13%) JBoss
3 8 (5.13%) MS Exchange
3 8 (5.13%) Skype for Business
4 7 (4.49%) IIS
4 7 (4.49%) WebSphere
5 5 (3.21%) Apache
5 5 (3.21%) CMS
5 5 (3.21%) NetWeaver
5 5 (3.21%) WebLogic
6 4 (2.56%) nginx
7 3 (1.92%) Tomcat
8 2 (1.28%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
8 2 (1.28%) Elasticsearch
9 1 (0.64%) CICS
9 1 (0.64%) Exchange Server 2013
9 1 (0.64%) MQSeries
Applications
1 2 (1.28%) Microsoft Office
1 2 (1.28%) MS Visio
2 1 (0.64%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 3 (1.92%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 49 (31.41%) Azure
2 31 (19.87%) Office 365
3 22 (14.10%) AWS
4 21 (13.46%) IaaS
5 20 (12.82%) PaaS
6 9 (5.77%) Azure Active Directory
7 7 (4.49%) Cloud Computing
7 7 (4.49%) SaaS
8 6 (3.85%) Amazon EC2
8 6 (3.85%) Azure ExpressRoute
9 5 (3.21%) Amazon S3
10 4 (2.56%) OpenShift
10 4 (2.56%) Route 53
11 3 (1.92%) Amazon CloudWatch
11 3 (1.92%) Amazon EKS
11 3 (1.92%) AWS CloudFormation
11 3 (1.92%) IBM Cloud
12 2 (1.28%) Amazon ECS
12 2 (1.28%) GCP
12 2 (1.28%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 44 (28.21%) DNS
1 44 (28.21%) Firewall
2 31 (19.87%) VPN
3 25 (16.03%) DHCP
3 25 (16.03%) WAN
4 21 (13.46%) Internet
5 18 (11.54%) Wireless
6 16 (10.26%) DMZ
6 16 (10.26%) Skype
7 15 (9.62%) Network Security
8 12 (7.69%) Intranet
9 10 (6.41%) SAN
10 8 (5.13%) Kerberos
10 8 (5.13%) MPLS
10 8 (5.13%) X.500
11 6 (3.85%) SSL
11 6 (3.85%) VoIP
11 6 (3.85%) VSAN
12 5 (3.21%) Remote Desktop
12 5 (3.21%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 24 (15.38%) SQL Server
2 8 (5.13%) PostgreSQL
3 7 (4.49%) MySQL
3 7 (4.49%) Oracle Database
4 5 (3.21%) Amazon RDS
4 5 (3.21%) Azure SQL Database
4 5 (3.21%) Cosmos DB
4 5 (3.21%) DB2
4 5 (3.21%) Oracle Database 11g
4 5 (3.21%) SAP HANA
5 3 (1.92%) Oracle Database 12c
6 2 (1.28%) MongoDB
6 2 (1.28%) SQL Server 2012
7 1 (0.64%) GIS
7 1 (0.64%) MariaDB
7 1 (0.64%) Relational Database
7 1 (0.64%) SQL Server 2019
Development Applications
1 13 (8.33%) JIRA
2 8 (5.13%) Bitbucket
3 2 (1.28%) Atlassian Bamboo
3 2 (1.28%) Jenkins
3 2 (1.28%) Oracle APEX
4 1 (0.64%) Git (software)
4 1 (0.64%) GitLab
4 1 (0.64%) Octopus Deploy
4 1 (0.64%) Sonatype Nexus
4 1 (0.64%) Team Foundation Server
4 1 (0.64%) TeamCity
General
1 23 (14.74%) Finance
2 9 (5.77%) Manufacturing
3 8 (5.13%) Banking
3 8 (5.13%) Telecoms
4 7 (4.49%) Public Sector
5 6 (3.85%) Financial Institution
6 5 (3.21%) Electronics
6 5 (3.21%) Marketing
6 5 (3.21%) Pharmaceutical
7 3 (1.92%) Legal
7 3 (1.92%) Military
7 3 (1.92%) Retail
8 2 (1.28%) Aerospace
9 1 (0.64%) Police
Job Titles
1 29 (18.59%) Architect
2 18 (11.54%) Security Specialist
3 15 (9.62%) Consultant
4 11 (7.05%) Infrastructure Architect
5 10 (6.41%) Azure Specialist
6 8 (5.13%) Security Architect
6 8 (5.13%) Security Engineer
7 7 (4.49%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 7 (4.49%) Office 365 Specialist
8 6 (3.85%) Engineering Specialist
8 6 (3.85%) IT Manager
8 6 (3.85%) Network Engineer
8 6 (3.85%) Security Operations Specialist
8 6 (3.85%) Solutions Architect
8 6 (3.85%) Wintel Engineer
9 5 (3.21%) Office 365 Engineer
9 5 (3.21%) Platform Engineer
9 5 (3.21%) Project Manager
9 5 (3.21%) Support Engineer
9 5 (3.21%) Wintel Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 18 (11.54%) LDAP
2 12 (7.69%) Middleware
3 7 (4.49%) .NET
4 6 (3.85%) OAuth
4 6 (3.85%) REST
5 5 (3.21%) SAML
5 5 (3.21%) SAP Basis
6 4 (2.56%) OpenID
6 4 (2.56%) Web Services
7 3 (1.92%) Elastic Stack
7 3 (1.92%) J2EE
7 3 (1.92%) OAuth2
7 3 (1.92%) SOAP
7 3 (1.92%) YAML
8 2 (1.28%) .NET Framework
8 2 (1.28%) Flash
8 2 (1.28%) JSON
8 2 (1.28%) ModSecurity
9 1 (0.64%) JMS
9 1 (0.64%) WSDL
Miscellaneous
1 25 (16.03%) Data Centre
2 20 (12.82%) Self-Motivation
3 19 (12.18%) Replication
4 15 (9.62%) Management Information System
5 11 (7.05%) Algorithms
6 7 (4.49%) Smartcard
7 6 (3.85%) Analytical Skills
8 5 (3.21%) Fat Client
8 5 (3.21%) Public Cloud
8 5 (3.21%) Thin Client
8 5 (3.21%) Video Conferencing
9 4 (2.56%) Cloud Native
10 3 (1.92%) BYOD
10 3 (1.92%) YubiKey
11 2 (1.28%) Blackberry
11 2 (1.28%) Clustering
11 2 (1.28%) EFT
11 2 (1.28%) Linux Command Line
11 2 (1.28%) Virtual Team
12 1 (0.64%) Smartphone
Operating Systems
1 70 (44.87%) Windows
2 26 (16.67%) Windows Server
3 23 (14.74%) Linux
4 11 (7.05%) Windows Server 2012
5 10 (6.41%) Unix
6 8 (5.13%) Windows Server 2019
7 6 (3.85%) Windows 10
8 4 (2.56%) Android
8 4 (2.56%) Apple iOS
8 4 (2.56%) Solaris
9 3 (1.92%) AIX
9 3 (1.92%) MVS
10 2 (1.28%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 2 (1.28%) Windows 7
11 1 (0.64%) CentOS
11 1 (0.64%) HPUX
11 1 (0.64%) Windows Server 2003
11 1 (0.64%) Windows Server 2008
11 1 (0.64%) Windows Server 2016
11 1 (0.64%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 28 (17.95%) Agile Software Development
2 27 (17.31%) DevOps
3 24 (15.38%) Information Security
4 20 (12.82%) Infrastructure Engineering
5 19 (12.18%) Cybersecurity
6 18 (11.54%) Identity Access Management
6 18 (11.54%) Identity Management
6 18 (11.54%) SIEM
7 15 (9.62%) Cryptography
7 15 (9.62%) High Availability
8 14 (8.97%) ITIL
9 13 (8.33%) Security Architecture
9 13 (8.33%) TOGAF
10 12 (7.69%) Security Operations
11 11 (7.05%) Migration
11 11 (7.05%) Vulnerability Management
12 10 (6.41%) Business Analysis
12 10 (6.41%) Data Protection
12 10 (6.41%) Multi-Factor Authentication
12 10 (6.41%) Service Delivery
Programming Languages
1 23 (14.74%) PowerShell
2 18 (11.54%) SQL
3 16 (10.26%) Java
4 8 (5.13%) Bash Shell
5 4 (2.56%) C#
5 4 (2.56%) Perl
5 4 (2.56%) Python
6 3 (1.92%) C++
7 2 (1.28%) C
7 2 (1.28%) Go
7 2 (1.28%) JavaScript
7 2 (1.28%) PL/SQL
7 2 (1.28%) T-SQL
8 1 (0.64%) Groovy
8 1 (0.64%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 56 (35.90%) Security Cleared
2 34 (21.79%) SC Cleared
3 18 (11.54%) DV Cleared
4 15 (9.62%) CISSP
5 14 (8.97%) Microsoft Certification
6 12 (7.69%) MCSE
7 11 (7.05%) Degree
8 7 (4.49%) Cisco Certification
9 5 (3.21%) HPE ATP
9 5 (3.21%) MCSA
10 4 (2.56%) (ISC)2 CCSP
10 4 (2.56%) CCSP
11 3 (1.92%) CISA
11 3 (1.92%) CSSLP
11 3 (1.92%) TOGAF Certification
11 3 (1.92%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 2 (1.28%) CCNA
12 2 (1.28%) CISM
12 2 (1.28%) JNCIA
13 1 (0.64%) CCNP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 8 (5.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 7 (4.49%) GDPR
2 7 (4.49%) PCI DSS
3 6 (3.85%) COBIT
4 5 (3.21%) NCSC
5 3 (1.92%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
5 3 (1.92%) NIST
5 3 (1.92%) SLA
6 2 (1.28%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.64%) Def Stans
7 1 (0.64%) HMG Security Policy Framework
7 1 (0.64%) JSP 440
7 1 (0.64%) PSD2
System Software
1 76 (48.72%) Active Directory
2 24 (15.38%) VMware Infrastructure
3 15 (9.62%) Docker
4 11 (7.05%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 9 (5.77%) VMware ESXi
6 6 (3.85%) vSphere
7 4 (2.56%) VMware NSX
8 3 (1.92%) Virtual Desktop
9 2 (1.28%) Hyper-V
9 2 (1.28%) Oracle RAC
9 2 (1.28%) Veritas Cluster Server
10 1 (0.64%) UAG
10 1 (0.64%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 21 (13.46%) SCCM
2 15 (9.62%) Kubernetes
3 11 (7.05%) vCenter Server
4 10 (6.41%) Single Sign-On
5 8 (5.13%) SCOM
5 8 (5.13%) Terraform
6 6 (3.85%) WSUS
7 4 (2.56%) Ansible
7 4 (2.56%) McAfee ePO
7 4 (2.56%) Microsoft Intune
8 3 (1.92%) PingFederate
9 2 (1.28%) AirWatch
9 2 (1.28%) HAProxy
9 2 (1.28%) Host Intrusion Detection System
9 2 (1.28%) NetBackup
9 2 (1.28%) OfficeScan
9 2 (1.28%) OPNET
9 2 (1.28%) Puppet
9 2 (1.28%) Trend Micro Deep Security
9 2 (1.28%) vRealize
Vendors
1 50 (32.05%) Microsoft
2 29 (18.59%) VMware
3 27 (17.31%) Cisco
4 19 (12.18%) Oracle
5 15 (9.62%) SAP
6 10 (6.41%) McAfee
7 8 (5.13%) Atlassian
7 8 (5.13%) Forcepoint
7 8 (5.13%) IBM
8 7 (4.49%) Citrix
8 7 (4.49%) Remedy
9 6 (3.85%) HP
9 6 (3.85%) Juniper
9 6 (3.85%) Tripwire
10 5 (3.21%) Fortinet
10 5 (3.21%) NetApp
10 5 (3.21%) Palo Alto
10 5 (3.21%) Red Hat
10 5 (3.21%) Veeam
11 4 (2.56%) SolarWinds