Period
to 25 October 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 25 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
25 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 485 337 432
Rank change year-on-year -148 +95 -6
Contract jobs citing PKI 284 163 381
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.42% 0.60% 0.49%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.37% 1.85% 1.71%
Number of daily rates quoted 192 99 259
10th Percentile £389 £398 £298
25th Percentile £425 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £519 £495 £500
Median % change year-on-year +4.80% -1.00% -
75th Percentile £625 £603 £650
90th Percentile £723 £650 £715
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £500
% change year-on-year +5.00% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 1 9
10th Percentile £38.00 " "
25th Percentile £57.50 £53.75 £12.00
Median hourly rate £60.00 £57.50 £13.00
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +342.31% -73.20%
75th Percentile £80.00 £61.25 "
90th Percentile " " £51.75
UK median hourly rate £60.00 £57.50 £13.00
% change year-on-year +4.35% +342.31% -73.20%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 20,787 8,817 22,320
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.65% 32.24% 28.99%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,737 6,107 14,873
10th Percentile £300 £272 £273
25th Percentile £413 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £638 £613 £588
90th Percentile £733 £725 £675
UK median daily rate £525 £480 £475
% change year-on-year +9.38% +1.05% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 623 270 783
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.23 £11.62
25th Percentile £15.02 £16.24 £14.28
Median hourly rate £24.00 £27.23 £20.50
Median % change year-on-year -11.86% +32.83% +1.64%
75th Percentile £48.75 £45.19 £47.50
90th Percentile £64.04 £60.13 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £24.08 £26.11 £20.50
% change year-on-year -7.77% +27.37% +2.50%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 25 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 25 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 25 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -146 110 £600 +20.00% 19
South East -69 53 £495 -1.00% 20
North of England -47 52 £450 -5.26% 7
North West -30 35 £448 +9.82% 5
Midlands -55 34 £475 +13.10% 10
West Midlands -54 24 £513 +22.02% 4
South West -62 14 £600 +11.63% 6
East Midlands -35 10 £400 - 6
Yorkshire -45 9 £500 +5.26% 1
North East - 8 £513 - 1
East of England -56 6 £450 +12.50% 2
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 25 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 124 (43.66%) Windows
2 108 (38.03%) Active Directory
3 91 (32.04%) Microsoft
4 87 (30.63%) DNS
5 79 (27.82%) VMware
6 77 (27.11%) Security Cleared
7 72 (25.35%) Linux
8 69 (24.30%) AWS
9 68 (23.94%) Azure
9 68 (23.94%) Docker
10 57 (20.07%) SC Cleared
10 57 (20.07%) Agile Software Development
11 55 (19.37%) Windows Server
12 51 (17.96%) DevOps
12 51 (17.96%) Firewall
13 50 (17.61%) VMware Infrastructure
14 46 (16.20%) Terraform
15 44 (15.49%) Active Directory Federation Services
15 44 (15.49%) Python
16 43 (15.14%) VPN
17 42 (14.79%) SSL
17 42 (14.79%) ITIL
18 41 (14.44%) Cisco
19 39 (13.73%) IPsec
19 39 (13.73%) Microsoft 365
19 39 (13.73%) Kubernetes
20 38 (13.38%) Social Skills
20 38 (13.38%) Java
21 37 (13.03%) SQL
22 36 (12.68%) Ansible

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 25 (8.80%) SharePoint
2 24 (8.45%) Apache Spark
3 19 (6.69%) Elasticsearch
4 15 (5.28%) IIS
5 14 (4.93%) nginx
5 14 (4.93%) OpenStack
6 12 (4.23%) Skype for Business
7 9 (3.17%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 9 (3.17%) Tomcat
8 8 (2.82%) Apache
8 8 (2.82%) MS Exchange
8 8 (2.82%) Traefik
9 5 (1.76%) Confluence
9 5 (1.76%) JBoss
9 5 (1.76%) NetWeaver
9 5 (1.76%) WebSphere
10 2 (0.70%) SAS
11 1 (0.35%) Cloud Foundry
11 1 (0.35%) Exchange Server 2013
Applications
1 10 (3.52%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (3.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 5 (1.76%) Microsoft Project
4 4 (1.41%) MS Visio
5 3 (1.06%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 1 (0.35%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 69 (24.30%) AWS
2 68 (23.94%) Azure
3 39 (13.73%) Microsoft 365
4 33 (11.62%) Amazon EC2
5 28 (9.86%) SaaS
6 27 (9.51%) PaaS
7 26 (9.15%) IaaS
8 24 (8.45%) Azure Active Directory
9 23 (8.10%) Amazon ECS
9 23 (8.10%) Amazon EMR
9 23 (8.10%) Route 53
10 22 (7.75%) GCP
11 16 (5.63%) Amazon EKS
12 12 (4.23%) Apigee
12 12 (4.23%) AWS CloudFormation
13 9 (3.17%) Cloud Computing
14 8 (2.82%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 8 (2.82%) Virtual Private Cloud
15 5 (1.76%) Azure Cosmos DB
15 5 (1.76%) Yammer
Communications & Networking
1 87 (30.63%) DNS
2 51 (17.96%) Firewall
3 43 (15.14%) VPN
4 42 (14.79%) SSL
5 39 (13.73%) IPsec
6 25 (8.80%) Skype
7 24 (8.45%) WAN
8 22 (7.75%) TCP/IP
9 20 (7.04%) DHCP
9 20 (7.04%) MPLS
10 19 (6.69%) Network Security
10 19 (6.69%) VoIP
11 17 (5.99%) SAN
12 16 (5.63%) Internet
13 15 (5.28%) IKE
14 14 (4.93%) LAN
15 13 (4.58%) Kerberos
15 13 (4.58%) Wi-Fi
16 10 (3.52%) BGP
16 10 (3.52%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 34 (11.97%) SQL Server
2 24 (8.45%) Hadoop
3 16 (5.63%) MySQL
4 7 (2.46%) DB2
5 5 (1.76%) Azure SQL Database
5 5 (1.76%) SAP HANA
6 4 (1.41%) Bigtable
6 4 (1.41%) MongoDB
7 3 (1.06%) Cloudant
8 2 (0.70%) Data Warehouse
9 1 (0.35%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 1 (0.35%) Apache Accumulo
9 1 (0.35%) Apache Hive
9 1 (0.35%) EDRMS
9 1 (0.35%) Impala
9 1 (0.35%) Oracle Database
9 1 (0.35%) RDBMS
9 1 (0.35%) Relational Database
9 1 (0.35%) Sqoop
Development Applications
1 24 (8.45%) Git (software)
2 23 (8.10%) Jenkins
3 17 (5.99%) JIRA
4 16 (5.63%) GitLab
5 8 (2.82%) Bitbucket
6 6 (2.11%) Sonatype Nexus
7 5 (1.76%) Maven
8 4 (1.41%) SonarQube
9 3 (1.06%) Artifactory
9 3 (1.06%) Gradle
9 3 (1.06%) JUnit
9 3 (1.06%) Liquibase
9 3 (1.06%) Robot Framework
10 2 (0.70%) Rational DOORS
10 2 (0.70%) Rational Rhapsody
10 2 (0.70%) Selenium
10 2 (0.70%) TestLink
10 2 (0.70%) TestRail
11 1 (0.35%) Atlassian Bamboo
11 1 (0.35%) AutoIt
General
1 38 (13.38%) Social Skills
2 34 (11.97%) Finance
3 29 (10.21%) Banking
4 20 (7.04%) Telecoms
5 19 (6.69%) Public Sector
6 14 (4.93%) Analytical Skills
6 14 (4.93%) Games
7 6 (2.11%) Presentation Skills
8 5 (1.76%) Documentation Skills
9 3 (1.06%) Back Office
9 3 (1.06%) Investment Banking
9 3 (1.06%) Law
9 3 (1.06%) Military
9 3 (1.06%) Retail
10 2 (0.70%) Aerospace
10 2 (0.70%) Financial Institution
10 2 (0.70%) Legal
11 1 (0.35%) Front Office
11 1 (0.35%) Local Government
11 1 (0.35%) Marketing
Job Titles
1 50 (17.61%) Architect
2 31 (10.92%) DevOps Engineer
3 29 (10.21%) Wintel Engineer
4 24 (8.45%) Security Engineer
5 22 (7.75%) Developer
5 22 (7.75%) Security Architect
6 18 (6.34%) Lead Architect
7 17 (5.99%) Design Engineer
7 17 (5.99%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 17 (5.99%) Network Engineer
8 16 (5.63%) Solutions Architect
9 15 (5.28%) AWS Engineer
10 14 (4.93%) 3rd Line Engineer
11 13 (4.58%) Lead Security Architect
12 12 (4.23%) Consultant
13 11 (3.87%) C++ Developer
13 11 (3.87%) Infrastructure Architect
14 10 (3.52%) Cloud Engineer
14 10 (3.52%) Systems Engineer
15 9 (3.17%) Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 24 (8.45%) OAuth
2 21 (7.39%) SAML
3 18 (6.34%) LDAP
3 18 (6.34%) OAuth2
4 13 (4.58%) Middleware
5 12 (4.23%) OpenID
6 11 (3.87%) .NET
7 10 (3.52%) J2EE
8 9 (3.17%) Spring
9 8 (2.82%) 802.1X
9 8 (2.82%) cloud-init
10 7 (2.46%) RabbitMQ
10 7 (2.46%) SailPoint
11 6 (2.11%) Kafka
11 6 (2.11%) SPNEGO
11 6 (2.11%) Spring Boot
11 6 (2.11%) WCF
11 6 (2.11%) Windows Identity Foundation
12 5 (1.76%) Node.js
12 5 (1.76%) REST
Miscellaneous
1 29 (10.21%) Clustering
2 21 (7.39%) Private Cloud
3 18 (6.34%) Data Centre
4 12 (4.23%) Management Information System
5 10 (3.52%) Enterprise Storage
5 10 (3.52%) Greenfield Project
5 10 (3.52%) Public Cloud
6 9 (3.17%) Linux Command Line
6 9 (3.17%) Replication
7 7 (2.46%) Video Conferencing
8 6 (2.11%) Self-Motivation
9 4 (1.41%) Hybrid Cloud
9 4 (1.41%) Virtual Team
10 3 (1.06%) Algorithms
10 3 (1.06%) Mainframe
11 2 (0.70%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
11 2 (0.70%) Industrial Internet of Things
11 2 (0.70%) Internet of Things
11 2 (0.70%) Online Banking
11 2 (0.70%) User Experience
Operating Systems
1 124 (43.66%) Windows
2 72 (25.35%) Linux
3 55 (19.37%) Windows Server
4 22 (7.75%) Unix
5 20 (7.04%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 15 (5.28%) Windows 10
6 15 (5.28%) Windows Server 2019
7 14 (4.93%) Windows Server 2012
8 10 (3.52%) CentOS
9 9 (3.17%) AIX
10 6 (2.11%) Windows Server 2008
10 6 (2.11%) Windows Server 2016
11 4 (1.41%) HPUX
12 2 (0.70%) FreeRTOS
12 2 (0.70%) Solaris
12 2 (0.70%) Windows 7
13 1 (0.35%) Android
13 1 (0.35%) Apple iOS
13 1 (0.35%) Ubuntu
13 1 (0.35%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 57 (20.07%) Agile Software Development
2 51 (17.96%) DevOps
3 42 (14.79%) ITIL
4 31 (10.92%) Infrastructure as Code
5 30 (10.56%) Cybersecurity
6 29 (10.21%) Migration
7 26 (9.15%) Identity Access Management
8 24 (8.45%) Problem-Solving
9 23 (8.10%) Infrastructure Engineering
10 20 (7.04%) Cryptography
10 20 (7.04%) Identity Management
10 20 (7.04%) Information Security
11 19 (6.69%) Project Management
12 18 (6.34%) Vulnerability Management
13 17 (5.99%) Load Balancing
13 17 (5.99%) Service Management
13 17 (5.99%) Sprint Planning
14 16 (5.63%) Configuration Management
14 16 (5.63%) Scrum
15 15 (5.28%) SOA
Programming Languages
1 44 (15.49%) Python
2 38 (13.38%) Java
3 37 (13.03%) SQL
4 34 (11.97%) PowerShell
5 25 (8.80%) Bash Shell
6 21 (7.39%) C++
7 14 (4.93%) Ruby
8 10 (3.52%) Go
9 6 (2.11%) C
9 6 (2.11%) JavaScript
9 6 (2.11%) Perl
10 5 (1.76%) Java 8
10 5 (1.76%) Shell Script
11 4 (1.41%) PL/SQL
11 4 (1.41%) VBScript
12 3 (1.06%) C#
13 2 (0.70%) Scala
14 1 (0.35%) Java 9
Qualifications
1 77 (27.11%) Security Cleared
2 57 (20.07%) SC Cleared
3 22 (7.75%) Degree
3 22 (7.75%) DV Cleared
4 21 (7.39%) Cisco Certification
5 18 (6.34%) Microsoft Certification
6 16 (5.63%) CCNA
7 12 (4.23%) CISSP
8 10 (3.52%) CCNP
9 8 (2.82%) MCSE
10 7 (2.46%) MCTS
11 6 (2.11%) CISM
11 6 (2.11%) Computer Science Degree
11 6 (2.11%) GIAC
12 5 (1.76%) CISA
12 5 (1.76%) MCITP
13 4 (1.41%) CCIE
13 4 (1.41%) CRISC
13 4 (1.41%) MCP
14 3 (1.06%) CCSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 17 (5.99%) NCSC
2 9 (3.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 9 (3.17%) QA
3 8 (2.82%) GDPR
3 8 (2.82%) PCI DSS
4 6 (2.11%) SLA
5 5 (1.76%) COBIT
6 3 (1.06%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
7 2 (0.70%) HIPAA
7 2 (0.70%) NIST 800
8 1 (0.35%) Accessibility
8 1 (0.35%) Def Stans
8 1 (0.35%) Government Security Classifications
8 1 (0.35%) PMO
System Software
1 108 (38.03%) Active Directory
2 68 (23.94%) Docker
3 50 (17.61%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (4.58%) vCloud
4 13 (4.58%) VMware Workstation
5 11 (3.87%) VMware ESXi
5 11 (3.87%) vSphere
6 7 (2.46%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
6 7 (2.46%) VMware NSX
7 6 (2.11%) Virtual Desktop
8 5 (1.76%) Hyper-V
9 4 (1.41%) XenDesktop
10 3 (1.06%) iptables
11 2 (0.70%) BitLocker
11 2 (0.70%) ProxySG
11 2 (0.70%) Virtual Machines
12 1 (0.35%) DFS Replication
12 1 (0.35%) Microsoft App-V
12 1 (0.35%) NFS
12 1 (0.35%) Terminal Services
Systems Management
1 46 (16.20%) Terraform
2 44 (15.49%) Active Directory Federation Services
3 39 (13.73%) Kubernetes
4 36 (12.68%) Ansible
5 33 (11.62%) Prometheus
6 20 (7.04%) SCCM
7 17 (5.99%) Single Sign-On
8 15 (5.28%) Istio
9 12 (4.23%) Microsoft Intune
10 11 (3.87%) WSUS
11 10 (3.52%) Opscode Chef
11 10 (3.52%) Puppet
12 9 (3.17%) HAProxy
12 9 (3.17%) Packer
12 9 (3.17%) vCenter Server
13 8 (2.82%) Consul
13 8 (2.82%) Docker Swarm
13 8 (2.82%) Graphite
13 8 (2.82%) linkerd
13 8 (2.82%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 91 (32.04%) Microsoft
2 79 (27.82%) VMware
3 41 (14.44%) Cisco
4 33 (11.62%) Oracle
5 29 (10.21%) CA
5 29 (10.21%) Splunk
6 20 (7.04%) Citrix
7 18 (6.34%) Juniper
8 17 (5.99%) HP
8 17 (5.99%) Red Hat
9 14 (4.93%) F5
10 10 (3.52%) Google
10 10 (3.52%) Palo Alto
11 8 (2.82%) PagerDuty
11 8 (2.82%) SAP
11 8 (2.82%) Veeam
12 7 (2.46%) BMC
12 7 (2.46%) CheckPoint
12 7 (2.46%) Nimble Storage
13 6 (2.11%) ServiceNow