Period
to 11 April 2021

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 11 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
11 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 404 371 506
Rank change year-on-year -33 +135 +13
Contract jobs citing PKI 184 312 367
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.44% 0.58% 0.42%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.30% 1.81% 1.29%
Number of daily rates quoted 120 186 251
10th Percentile £359 £363 £342
25th Percentile £411 £400 £403
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £493 £500
Median % change year-on-year -3.55% -1.50% +5.82%
75th Percentile £538 £588 £625
90th Percentile £575 £650 £725
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £500
% change year-on-year - -5.00% +11.11%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 7 14
Median hourly rate £15.00 £53.00 £13.69
Median % change year-on-year -71.70% +287.29% -63.51%
UK median hourly rate £60.50 £51.75 £13.69
% change year-on-year +16.91% +278.15% -68.57%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 14,102 17,285 28,369
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 33.77% 32.24% 32.12%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,418 11,367 19,013
10th Percentile £263 £240 £281
25th Percentile £375 £363 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £495 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +4.21% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £675
UK median daily rate £488 £473 £475
% change year-on-year +3.17% -0.53% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 603 756 865
10th Percentile £12.39 £12.44 £12.00
25th Percentile £16.18 £15.75 £14.75
Median hourly rate £25.00 £22.25 £20.86
Median % change year-on-year +12.36% +6.69% -0.69%
75th Percentile £45.00 £44.31 £43.01
90th Percentile £56.50 £52.50 £50.00
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £22.85 £20.69
% change year-on-year +9.41% +10.44% -0.66%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 11 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 11 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 11 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +7 70 £475 -20.83% 15
South East +54 47 £520 +15.56% 12
North of England +55 23 £425 +6.25% 8
North West +29 20 £388 -3.13% 1
Midlands -1 19 £456 -15.12% 7
West Midlands -10 14 £446 -20.67% 5
South West +9 11 £500 +4.17% 9
East of England +29 5 £400 -15.79% 4
East Midlands +24 5 £463 -7.50% 2
Yorkshire +35 3 £440 -2.22% 6
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 11 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 92 (50.00%) Windows
2 88 (47.83%) Active Directory
3 76 (41.30%) Security Cleared
4 67 (36.41%) Azure
5 55 (29.89%) Microsoft
6 47 (25.54%) SC Cleared
7 46 (25.00%) Firewall
8 44 (23.91%) DNS
9 43 (23.37%) Microsoft 365
10 42 (22.83%) VPN
11 40 (21.74%) Cisco
12 35 (19.02%) WAN
12 35 (19.02%) VMware
13 34 (18.48%) Linux
14 31 (16.85%) PowerShell
14 31 (16.85%) Windows Server
15 29 (15.76%) Self-Motivation
15 29 (15.76%) DevOps
16 27 (14.67%) Infrastructure Engineering
17 26 (14.13%) VMware Infrastructure
18 25 (13.59%) Docker
19 24 (13.04%) DV Cleared
19 24 (13.04%) SIEM
20 23 (12.50%) Data Centre
20 23 (12.50%) Wireless
20 23 (12.50%) Identity Management
21 22 (11.96%) SQL Server
21 22 (11.96%) Cybersecurity
21 22 (11.96%) AWS
22 20 (10.87%) SCCM

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 17 (9.24%) SharePoint
2 8 (4.35%) IIS
3 7 (3.80%) JBoss
3 7 (3.80%) MS Exchange
4 6 (3.26%) Apache
4 6 (3.26%) WebSphere
5 5 (2.72%) WebLogic
6 4 (2.17%) Apache Spark
6 4 (2.17%) NetWeaver
6 4 (2.17%) Skype for Business
7 3 (1.63%) CMS
7 3 (1.63%) Confluence
7 3 (1.63%) Tomcat
8 2 (1.09%) Blackberry Enterprise Server
8 2 (1.09%) Elasticsearch
8 2 (1.09%) nginx
9 1 (0.54%) CICS
9 1 (0.54%) Documentum
9 1 (0.54%) Exchange Server 2010
9 1 (0.54%) MQSeries
Applications
1 5 (2.72%) Microsoft Office
2 4 (2.17%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.54%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.54%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 3 (1.63%) SAP Oil and Gas
2 2 (1.09%) R3 Corda
3 1 (0.54%) Distributed Ledger
Cloud Services
1 67 (36.41%) Azure
2 43 (23.37%) Microsoft 365
3 22 (11.96%) AWS
4 20 (10.87%) Azure Active Directory
5 17 (9.24%) PaaS
6 15 (8.15%) IaaS
7 7 (3.80%) GCP
8 6 (3.26%) Cloud Computing
8 6 (3.26%) SaaS
9 4 (2.17%) Amazon EC2
9 4 (2.17%) Amazon ECS
9 4 (2.17%) Amazon EMR
9 4 (2.17%) Azure ExpressRoute
9 4 (2.17%) Route 53
10 3 (1.63%) IBM Cloud
10 3 (1.63%) Serverless
11 2 (1.09%) OpenShift
11 2 (1.09%) Yammer
12 1 (0.54%) GitHub
12 1 (0.54%) Mimecast
Communications & Networking
1 46 (25.00%) Firewall
2 44 (23.91%) DNS
3 42 (22.83%) VPN
4 35 (19.02%) WAN
5 23 (12.50%) Wireless
6 18 (9.78%) Internet
7 16 (8.70%) DHCP
7 16 (8.70%) DMZ
7 16 (8.70%) Intranet
8 15 (8.15%) Network Security
9 13 (7.07%) Skype
9 13 (7.07%) SSL
10 12 (6.52%) IPsec
11 10 (5.43%) Kerberos
12 9 (4.89%) Junos
12 9 (4.89%) X.500
13 8 (4.35%) LAN
13 8 (4.35%) MPLS
14 6 (3.26%) SAN
14 6 (3.26%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 22 (11.96%) SQL Server
2 6 (3.26%) Oracle Database
3 5 (2.72%) MySQL
4 4 (2.17%) Azure SQL Database
4 4 (2.17%) Cosmos DB
4 4 (2.17%) DB2
4 4 (2.17%) Hadoop
4 4 (2.17%) SAP HANA
5 3 (1.63%) Blockchain
6 2 (1.09%) MariaDB
6 2 (1.09%) MongoDB
6 2 (1.09%) Oracle Database 11g
7 1 (0.54%) EDRMS
7 1 (0.54%) GIS
7 1 (0.54%) PostgreSQL
7 1 (0.54%) Relational Database
Development Applications
1 7 (3.80%) Team Foundation Server
2 4 (2.17%) JIRA
3 3 (1.63%) SonarQube
4 2 (1.09%) Bitbucket
4 2 (1.09%) Jenkins
4 2 (1.09%) Oracle APEX
5 1 (0.54%) Git (software)
5 1 (0.54%) GitLab
5 1 (0.54%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 19 (10.33%) Finance
2 9 (4.89%) Public Sector
3 8 (4.35%) Banking
4 4 (2.17%) Manufacturing
4 4 (2.17%) Retail
5 3 (1.63%) Legal
5 3 (1.63%) Retail Banking
6 2 (1.09%) Billing
6 2 (1.09%) Financial Institution
7 1 (0.54%) Advertising
7 1 (0.54%) Aerospace
7 1 (0.54%) Electronics
7 1 (0.54%) Local Government
7 1 (0.54%) Marketing
7 1 (0.54%) Pharmaceutical
7 1 (0.54%) Telecoms
Job Titles
1 25 (13.59%) Architect
2 16 (8.70%) Consultant
3 14 (7.61%) Network Engineer
3 14 (7.61%) Security Engineer
4 13 (7.07%) Support Engineer
5 12 (6.52%) Azure Engineer
5 12 (6.52%) Security Specialist
6 11 (5.98%) Infrastructure Engineer
7 9 (4.89%) Azure Specialist
8 8 (4.35%) Cloud Engineer
8 8 (4.35%) Infrastructure Architect
9 7 (3.80%) Network Support
9 7 (3.80%) Network Support Engineer
9 7 (3.80%) Office 365 Engineer
9 7 (3.80%) Office 365 Specialist
10 6 (3.26%) Active Directory Engineer
10 6 (3.26%) IT Manager
10 6 (3.26%) Platform Engineer
10 6 (3.26%) Security Architect
10 6 (3.26%) Windows Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 18 (9.78%) LDAP
2 9 (4.89%) CSS
2 9 (4.89%) Middleware
3 6 (3.26%) REST
3 6 (3.26%) SAML
4 5 (2.72%) HTML
4 5 (2.72%) OpenID
4 5 (2.72%) SOAP
5 4 (2.17%) JSON
5 4 (2.17%) Node.js
5 4 (2.17%) SAP Basis
5 4 (2.17%) XML
6 3 (1.63%) .NET
6 3 (1.63%) EJS
6 3 (1.63%) Elastic Stack
6 3 (1.63%) OAuth
6 3 (1.63%) Serverless Framework
7 2 (1.09%) .NET Framework
7 2 (1.09%) J2EE
7 2 (1.09%) Web Services
Miscellaneous
1 29 (15.76%) Self-Motivation
2 23 (12.50%) Data Centre
3 18 (9.78%) Management Information System
4 14 (7.61%) Replication
5 11 (5.98%) Algorithms
6 10 (5.43%) Analytical Skills
7 7 (3.80%) Public Cloud
7 7 (3.80%) Smartcard
8 4 (2.17%) Fat Client
8 4 (2.17%) Thin Client
8 4 (2.17%) Video Conferencing
9 3 (1.63%) BYOD
9 3 (1.63%) Cloud Native
9 3 (1.63%) Clustering
9 3 (1.63%) Greenfield Project
10 2 (1.09%) Blackberry
10 2 (1.09%) EFT
10 2 (1.09%) SWIFT
11 1 (0.54%) HP Storage
11 1 (0.54%) Private Cloud
Operating Systems
1 92 (50.00%) Windows
2 34 (18.48%) Linux
3 31 (16.85%) Windows Server
4 14 (7.61%) Unix
5 8 (4.35%) Windows Server 2019
6 7 (3.80%) Windows Server 2012
7 6 (3.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 5 (2.72%) AIX
8 5 (2.72%) Solaris
8 5 (2.72%) Windows 10
9 4 (2.17%) Android
9 4 (2.17%) Apple iOS
10 3 (1.63%) MVS
11 2 (1.09%) CentOS
11 2 (1.09%) Windows Server 2008
11 2 (1.09%) Windows Server 2016
12 1 (0.54%) HPUX
12 1 (0.54%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 29 (15.76%) DevOps
2 27 (14.67%) Infrastructure Engineering
3 24 (13.04%) SIEM
4 23 (12.50%) Identity Management
5 22 (11.96%) Cybersecurity
6 19 (10.33%) ITIL
7 18 (9.78%) Cryptography
8 17 (9.24%) Migration
8 17 (9.24%) Problem-Solving
9 16 (8.70%) Agile Software Development
9 16 (8.70%) High Availability
9 16 (8.70%) Identity Access Management
10 14 (7.61%) Information Security
10 14 (7.61%) Security Architecture
11 13 (7.07%) TOGAF
12 11 (5.98%) DevSecOps
12 11 (5.98%) Project Management
12 11 (5.98%) Security Operations
12 11 (5.98%) Technical Leadership
12 11 (5.98%) Vulnerability Management
Programming Languages
1 31 (16.85%) PowerShell
2 20 (10.87%) Java
3 17 (9.24%) SQL
4 14 (7.61%) Bash Shell
5 12 (6.52%) Python
6 4 (2.17%) Groovy
6 4 (2.17%) Perl
7 3 (1.63%) C#
7 3 (1.63%) Ruby
8 2 (1.09%) C
8 2 (1.09%) JavaScript
8 2 (1.09%) PL/SQL
8 2 (1.09%) T-SQL
8 2 (1.09%) VBScript
9 1 (0.54%) PHP
9 1 (0.54%) Solidity
9 1 (0.54%) VBA
Qualifications
1 76 (41.30%) Security Cleared
2 47 (25.54%) SC Cleared
3 24 (13.04%) DV Cleared
4 13 (7.07%) Degree
5 12 (6.52%) Microsoft Certification
6 8 (4.35%) Cisco Certification
6 8 (4.35%) JNCIA
6 8 (4.35%) MCSE
7 7 (3.80%) CISSP
8 4 (2.17%) CCNP
9 3 (1.63%) CCNA
9 3 (1.63%) HPE ATP
9 3 (1.63%) ITIL Certification
9 3 (1.63%) TOGAF Certification
10 2 (1.09%) CCIE
10 2 (1.09%) CCIE Routing and Switching
10 2 (1.09%) CISM
10 2 (1.09%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
11 1 (0.54%) CEH
11 1 (0.54%) GIAC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 8 (4.35%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 6 (3.26%) GDPR
2 6 (3.26%) PCI DSS
3 5 (2.72%) COBIT
4 3 (1.63%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
4 3 (1.63%) NIST
4 3 (1.63%) SLA
5 2 (1.09%) Cyber Essentials
5 2 (1.09%) NCSC
6 1 (0.54%) Def Stans
6 1 (0.54%) HMG Security Policy Framework
6 1 (0.54%) JSP 440
6 1 (0.54%) PSD2
System Software
1 88 (47.83%) Active Directory
2 26 (14.13%) VMware Infrastructure
3 25 (13.59%) Docker
4 11 (5.98%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
5 9 (4.89%) VMware ESXi
6 7 (3.80%) vSphere
7 4 (2.17%) Hyper-V
8 2 (1.09%) Firmware
8 2 (1.09%) Oracle RAC
8 2 (1.09%) Veritas Cluster Server
8 2 (1.09%) Virtual Machines
8 2 (1.09%) VMware NSX
9 1 (0.54%) BitLocker
9 1 (0.54%) IAG
9 1 (0.54%) KVM
9 1 (0.54%) Snort
9 1 (0.54%) Virtual Desktop
9 1 (0.54%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 20 (10.87%) SCCM
2 18 (9.78%) Kubernetes
3 13 (7.07%) Terraform
4 9 (4.89%) Ansible
4 9 (4.89%) vCenter Server
5 8 (4.35%) Single Sign-On
6 7 (3.80%) Microsoft Intune
6 7 (3.80%) Prometheus
7 5 (2.72%) McAfee ePO
8 4 (2.17%) SCOM
8 4 (2.17%) WSUS
9 3 (1.63%) AirWatch
9 3 (1.63%) Grafana
9 3 (1.63%) vRealize
10 2 (1.09%) Host Intrusion Detection System
10 2 (1.09%) Microsoft Data Protection Manager
10 2 (1.09%) NetBackup
10 2 (1.09%) OfficeScan
10 2 (1.09%) Opscode Chef
10 2 (1.09%) Trend Micro Deep Security
Vendors
1 55 (29.89%) Microsoft
2 40 (21.74%) Cisco
3 35 (19.02%) VMware
4 17 (9.24%) Oracle
5 15 (8.15%) McAfee
6 14 (7.61%) Juniper
7 11 (5.98%) SAP
8 9 (4.89%) CA
8 9 (4.89%) HP
9 8 (4.35%) IBM
9 8 (4.35%) Red Hat
10 7 (3.80%) Citrix
11 6 (3.26%) Tripwire
12 5 (2.72%) Forcepoint
12 5 (2.72%) Gemalto
12 5 (2.72%) Remedy
13 4 (2.17%) NetApp
13 4 (2.17%) Qualys
13 4 (2.17%) Software AG
13 4 (2.17%) Splunk