Period
to

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 1 July 2022 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
1 Jul 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 399 460 356
Rank change year-on-year +61 -104 +138
Contract jobs citing PKI 415 219 222
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.58% 0.42% 0.60%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.77% 1.35% 1.94%
Number of daily rates quoted 307 144 138
10th Percentile £413 £350 £375
25th Percentile £455 £413 £457
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £474 £525
Median % change year-on-year +21.32% -9.72% -
75th Percentile £688 £550 £634
90th Percentile £738 £625 £650
UK median daily rate £575 £474 £500
% change year-on-year +21.33% -5.21% -4.76%
Number of hourly rates quoted 6 6 3
10th Percentile £37.00 - £55.65
25th Percentile £57.19 - £59.63
Median hourly rate £61.50 £15.00 £67.50
Median % change year-on-year +310.00% -77.78% +440.00%
75th Percentile £78.00 £52.50 £68.75
90th Percentile £89.38 £72.50 -
UK median hourly rate £66.00 £54.37 £51.10
% change year-on-year +21.39% +6.41% +293.04%

PKI is in the General and Transferable Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 23,421 16,245 11,449
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 32.51% 31.08% 31.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,812 11,012 7,685
10th Percentile £313 £300 £268
25th Percentile £438 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £675 £619 £600
90th Percentile £775 £713 £716
UK median daily rate £550 £500 £488
% change year-on-year +10.00% +2.56% +2.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 604 603 407
10th Percentile £14.50 £12.18 £12.60
25th Percentile £17.56 £15.91 £16.00
Median hourly rate £26.50 £25.00 £24.70
Median % change year-on-year +6.00% +1.21% +17.62%
75th Percentile £50.00 £47.58 £46.25
90th Percentile £67.46 £60.00 £53.85
UK median hourly rate £26.98 £24.50 £24.86
% change year-on-year +10.12% -1.43% +19.18%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 1 July 2022.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 1 July 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 1 July 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London +8 171 £619 +26.28% 22
South East +9 83 £510 +2.00% 23
North of England -51 45 £625 +45.35% 14
North West -42 31 £619 +45.59% 11
Midlands -29 27 £483 +7.22% 10
East of England -6 23 £425 - 8
South West -12 21 £525 -4.55% 9
West Midlands -29 17 £550 +22.22% 5
East Midlands -3 12 £465 +0.54% 5
North East 0 9 £738 +31.11% 2
Yorkshire -35 5 £650 +47.73% 1
South Coast - 4 £750 -
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 1 July 2022, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 199 (47.95%) Active Directory
2 188 (45.30%) DNS
2 188 (45.30%) Microsoft
3 177 (42.65%) Windows
3 177 (42.65%) VMware
4 169 (40.72%) Azure
5 168 (40.48%) Security Cleared
6 134 (32.29%) VMware Infrastructure
7 127 (30.60%) SC Cleared
8 126 (30.36%) Linux
9 116 (27.95%) AWS
10 115 (27.71%) Windows Server
11 104 (25.06%) Firewall
12 103 (24.82%) DHCP
13 99 (23.86%) Microsoft 365
14 97 (23.37%) Agile
15 96 (23.13%) Terraform
16 94 (22.65%) Azure Active Directory
16 94 (22.65%) PowerShell
17 92 (22.17%) Social Skills
18 91 (21.93%) DevOps
19 84 (20.24%) Kubernetes
20 83 (20.00%) Ansible
21 80 (19.28%) SCCM
22 76 (18.31%) Docker
23 74 (17.83%) Python
24 69 (16.63%) SQL
25 64 (15.42%) TCP/IP
25 64 (15.42%) Configuration Management
26 63 (15.18%) Cybersecurity

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 43 (10.36%) SharePoint
2 38 (9.16%) nginx
3 30 (7.23%) Exchange Server 2013
4 29 (6.99%) Traefik
5 26 (6.27%) Skype for Business
6 21 (5.06%) OpenStack
7 20 (4.82%) MS Exchange
8 16 (3.86%) Confluence
9 13 (3.13%) IIS
10 10 (2.41%) Apache
11 6 (1.45%) Tomcat
12 4 (0.96%) Cloud Foundry
12 4 (0.96%) JBoss
13 3 (0.72%) GlassFish
14 2 (0.48%) Apache Airflow
14 2 (0.48%) Documentum
14 2 (0.48%) SharePoint Server
14 2 (0.48%) WebSphere
15 1 (0.24%) Ethereum
15 1 (0.24%) Hyperledger
Applications
1 22 (5.30%) Microsoft Excel
1 22 (5.30%) Microsoft PowerPoint
2 17 (4.10%) MS Visio
3 7 (1.69%) Microsoft Office
4 3 (0.72%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 4 (0.96%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 169 (40.72%) Azure
2 116 (27.95%) AWS
3 99 (23.86%) Microsoft 365
4 94 (22.65%) Azure Active Directory
5 61 (14.70%) GCP
6 60 (14.46%) IaaS
6 60 (14.46%) PaaS
7 39 (9.40%) Amazon CloudWatch
7 39 (9.40%) AWS CloudFormation
7 39 (9.40%) Virtual Private Cloud
8 37 (8.92%) Amazon EC2
9 32 (7.71%) SaaS
10 16 (3.86%) OpenShift
11 12 (2.89%) Azure Monitor
11 12 (2.89%) Power Platform
12 11 (2.65%) OneDrive
13 10 (2.41%) Apigee
14 9 (2.17%) Azure Sentinel
14 9 (2.17%) Cloud Computing
15 5 (1.20%) Google Workspace
Communications & Networking
1 188 (45.30%) DNS
2 104 (25.06%) Firewall
3 103 (24.82%) DHCP
4 64 (15.42%) TCP/IP
5 52 (12.53%) SSL
6 39 (9.40%) IPsec
6 39 (9.40%) VPN
7 34 (8.19%) Skype
8 21 (5.06%) Kerberos
9 19 (4.58%) Network Security
10 18 (4.34%) SSH
11 17 (4.10%) SAN
11 17 (4.10%) WAN
12 16 (3.86%) IKE
13 14 (3.37%) LAN
14 13 (3.13%) SMTP
15 12 (2.89%) DMZ
15 12 (2.89%) HTTP
15 12 (2.89%) X.500
16 10 (2.41%) Cisco ASA
Database & Business Intelligence
1 56 (13.49%) SQL Server
2 26 (6.27%) PostgreSQL
3 14 (3.37%) MySQL
4 11 (2.65%) Redis
5 9 (2.17%) MongoDB
6 7 (1.69%) MariaDB
7 6 (1.45%) Hadoop
7 6 (1.45%) NoSQL
8 5 (1.20%) SAP HANA
9 4 (0.96%) Relational Database
10 3 (0.72%) Amazon RDS
11 2 (0.48%) Couchbase
11 2 (0.48%) DB2
12 1 (0.24%) Azure SQL Database
12 1 (0.24%) Big Data
12 1 (0.24%) Cloudant
12 1 (0.24%) Power BI
12 1 (0.24%) RDBMS
12 1 (0.24%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 1 (0.24%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 51 (12.29%) Jenkins
2 49 (11.81%) Git (software)
3 47 (11.33%) GitLab
4 19 (4.58%) JIRA
5 5 (1.20%) Bitbucket
6 2 (0.48%) Axure RP
6 2 (0.48%) Robot Framework
7 1 (0.24%) IBM UrbanCode
7 1 (0.24%) JUnit
7 1 (0.24%) Liquibase
7 1 (0.24%) Moq
7 1 (0.24%) Postman
7 1 (0.24%) Sonatype Nexus
7 1 (0.24%) SpecFlow
7 1 (0.24%) TeamCity
General
1 92 (22.17%) Social Skills
2 53 (12.77%) Finance
3 50 (12.05%) Public Sector
4 30 (7.23%) Analytical Skills
5 20 (4.82%) Telecoms
6 14 (3.37%) Banking
7 11 (2.65%) Games
7 11 (2.65%) Presentation Skills
8 8 (1.93%) Documentation Skills
9 6 (1.45%) Organisational Skills
10 5 (1.20%) Military
11 3 (0.72%) Financial Institution
11 3 (0.72%) Inclusion and Diversity
11 3 (0.72%) Legal
12 2 (0.48%) Investment Banking
13 1 (0.24%) Electronics
13 1 (0.24%) Front Office
13 1 (0.24%) Local Government
13 1 (0.24%) Marketing
13 1 (0.24%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 72 (17.35%) Architect
2 61 (14.70%) DevOps Engineer
3 43 (10.36%) Infrastructure Engineer
4 36 (8.67%) 3rd Line Engineer
4 36 (8.67%) Security Architect
5 29 (6.99%) Security Engineer
6 25 (6.02%) Cloud Engineer
7 24 (5.78%) Applications Engineer
8 20 (4.82%) Support Engineer
9 18 (4.34%) Wintel Engineer
10 16 (3.86%) Azure Engineer
11 15 (3.61%) Consultant
12 14 (3.37%) Server Engineer
13 13 (3.13%) Design Engineer
13 13 (3.13%) Solutions Architect
14 12 (2.89%) Active Directory Engineer
14 12 (2.89%) Analyst
14 12 (2.89%) VMware Engineer
15 11 (2.65%) Senior Infrastructure Engineer
15 11 (2.65%) Unix Security Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 46 (11.08%) LDAP
2 38 (9.16%) cloud-init
3 35 (8.43%) OAuth
4 33 (7.95%) SAML
5 23 (5.54%) Elastic Stack
6 20 (4.82%) OAuth2
7 15 (3.61%) OpenID
8 14 (3.37%) REST
9 11 (2.65%) Web Services
10 10 (2.41%) ARM Templates
11 9 (2.17%) XSLT
12 8 (1.93%) EJB
13 7 (1.69%) Kafka
13 7 (1.69%) RESTful
14 5 (1.20%) 802.1X
14 5 (1.20%) JWT
14 5 (1.20%) Spring Boot
15 4 (0.96%) Node.js
15 4 (0.96%) SOAP
15 4 (0.96%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 49 (11.81%) Clustering
2 43 (10.36%) Replication
3 33 (7.95%) Private Cloud
4 27 (6.51%) Management Information System
5 23 (5.54%) Data Centre
6 19 (4.58%) Hybrid Cloud
6 19 (4.58%) Public Cloud
7 10 (2.41%) DataPower
8 8 (1.93%) Self-Motivation
9 7 (1.69%) Algorithms
10 6 (1.45%) User Experience
11 5 (1.20%) Greenfield Project
12 4 (0.96%) Blackberry
12 4 (0.96%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
13 3 (0.72%) Blog
13 3 (0.72%) Data Protection Act
13 3 (0.72%) Enterprise Software
13 3 (0.72%) Enterprise Storage
13 3 (0.72%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 3 (0.72%) Smartcard
Operating Systems
1 177 (42.65%) Windows
2 126 (30.36%) Linux
3 115 (27.71%) Windows Server
4 59 (14.22%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 54 (13.01%) CentOS
6 46 (11.08%) Windows Server 2012
7 37 (8.92%) Unix
8 27 (6.51%) Windows 10
9 25 (6.02%) Windows Server 2019
10 19 (4.58%) Windows Server 2003
10 19 (4.58%) Windows Server 2016
11 12 (2.89%) Android
11 12 (2.89%) Apple iOS
11 12 (2.89%) HPUX
11 12 (2.89%) Mac OS
12 8 (1.93%) Windows Server 2008
13 7 (1.69%) Windows 7
14 5 (1.20%) Windows 2000
15 4 (0.96%) Ubuntu
16 3 (0.72%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 97 (23.37%) Agile
2 91 (21.93%) DevOps
3 64 (15.42%) Configuration Management
4 63 (15.18%) CI/CD
4 63 (15.18%) Cybersecurity
5 62 (14.94%) ITIL
6 58 (13.98%) Load Balancing
7 50 (12.05%) Infrastructure Engineering
8 48 (11.57%) Identity Management
9 47 (11.33%) Continuous Integration
9 47 (11.33%) Data Loss Prevention
10 44 (10.60%) Problem-Solving
11 41 (9.88%) Information Security
12 37 (8.92%) Change Management
13 36 (8.67%) Microservices
14 35 (8.43%) SIEM
15 34 (8.19%) Incident Management
15 34 (8.19%) Vulnerability Management
16 33 (7.95%) Continuous Deployment
17 31 (7.47%) Application Security
Programming Languages
1 94 (22.65%) PowerShell
2 74 (17.83%) Python
3 69 (16.63%) SQL
4 46 (11.08%) Bash
5 32 (7.71%) Go
6 29 (6.99%) Ruby
7 23 (5.54%) Java
8 18 (4.34%) VB
9 12 (2.89%) C#
10 9 (2.17%) JavaScript
11 6 (1.45%) VBScript
12 5 (1.20%) C++
12 5 (1.20%) PHP
13 2 (0.48%) Perl
13 2 (0.48%) PL/SQL
14 1 (0.24%) Assembly Language
14 1 (0.24%) JCL
14 1 (0.24%) REXX
14 1 (0.24%) Shell Script
14 1 (0.24%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 168 (40.48%) Security Cleared
2 127 (30.60%) SC Cleared
3 44 (10.60%) DV Cleared
4 28 (6.75%) Degree
5 26 (6.27%) Microsoft Certification
6 22 (5.30%) CISSP
7 12 (2.89%) Cisco Certification
8 10 (2.41%) MCSE
9 9 (2.17%) BPSS Clearance
10 8 (1.93%) Computer Science Degree
11 7 (1.69%) CESG Certified Professional
11 7 (1.69%) CISA
11 7 (1.69%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 6 (1.45%) CCIE
12 6 (1.45%) CEH
12 6 (1.45%) CISM
12 6 (1.45%) MCP
13 4 (0.96%) CCIE Security
13 4 (0.96%) GIAC
14 3 (0.72%) CCNP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 45 (10.84%) NCSC
2 30 (7.23%) SLA
3 21 (5.06%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 11 (2.65%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
5 10 (2.41%) NIST
5 10 (2.41%) RMADS
6 8 (1.93%) Accessibility
7 7 (1.69%) PCI DSS
8 5 (1.20%) GDPR
9 4 (0.96%) Government Security Classifications
10 3 (0.72%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 2 (0.48%) COBIT
11 2 (0.48%) Cyber Essentials
11 2 (0.48%) JSP 440
11 2 (0.48%) OASIS TOSCA
11 2 (0.48%) QA
11 2 (0.48%) WCAG
12 1 (0.24%) HMG Infosec
12 1 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27005
12 1 (0.24%) NIST 800
System Software
1 199 (47.95%) Active Directory
2 134 (32.29%) VMware Infrastructure
3 76 (18.31%) Docker
4 57 (13.73%) vSphere
5 44 (10.60%) Hyper-V
6 21 (5.06%) VMware ESXi
7 19 (4.58%) Virtual Desktop
8 16 (3.86%) vCloud
8 16 (3.86%) VMware Workstation
9 14 (3.37%) Virtual Machines
10 10 (2.41%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
11 9 (2.17%) Firmware
12 6 (1.45%) XenApp
13 5 (1.20%) BitLocker
13 5 (1.20%) NFS
13 5 (1.20%) Terminal Services
14 4 (0.96%) Microsoft Virtual Server
14 4 (0.96%) Virtual Servers
14 4 (0.96%) VMware NSX
14 4 (0.96%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 96 (23.13%) Terraform
2 84 (20.24%) Kubernetes
3 83 (20.00%) Ansible
4 80 (19.28%) SCCM
5 53 (12.77%) Active Directory Federation Services
6 45 (10.84%) Microsoft Intune
6 45 (10.84%) Prometheus
7 39 (9.40%) Packer
8 38 (9.16%) ZABBIX
9 37 (8.92%) Graphite
10 33 (7.95%) Consul
10 33 (7.95%) Puppet
10 33 (7.95%) Single Sign-On
11 31 (7.47%) Istio
12 30 (7.23%) HAProxy
12 30 (7.23%) Podman
13 29 (6.99%) Docker Swarm
14 28 (6.75%) linkerd
15 22 (5.30%) SCVMM
16 16 (3.86%) Rancher
Vendors
1 188 (45.30%) Microsoft
2 177 (42.65%) VMware
3 49 (11.81%) Cisco
4 44 (10.60%) Splunk
5 37 (8.92%) PagerDuty
6 35 (8.43%) CA
6 35 (8.43%) HP
6 35 (8.43%) Oracle
7 30 (7.23%) IBM
8 29 (6.99%) Citrix
9 28 (6.75%) ServiceNow
10 27 (6.51%) McAfee
10 27 (6.51%) NetApp
11 26 (6.27%) Red Hat
12 24 (5.78%) Dell
13 21 (5.06%) Atlassian
13 21 (5.06%) Remedy
14 17 (4.10%) CyberArk
14 17 (4.10%) Thales
15 15 (3.61%) SolarWinds