Period
to 8 August 2020

The table below looks at the prevalence of the term PKI in contract job vacancies advertised in England. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited PKI over the 6 months to 8 August 2020 with a comparison to the same period over the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
UK > England
6 months to
8 Aug 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 315 471 462
Rank change year-on-year +156 -9 +62
Contract jobs citing PKI 211 376 470
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.68% 0.45% 0.50%
As % of the Miscellaneous category 1.99% 1.42% 1.53%
Number of daily rates quoted 133 260 328
Median daily rate £500 £530 £488
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -5.66% +8.72% +2.63%
10th Percentile £400 £325 £280
90th Percentile £650 £732 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £525 £475
% change year-on-year -4.76% +10.53% +2.59%
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 15 8
Median hourly rate £35.00 £13.00 £36.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +169.23% -64.63% -26.50%
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £13.00 £36.75
% change year-on-year +169.23% -64.63% -26.50%

PKI is in the Generic IT Skills category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for generic IT skills.

All Generic IT Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for generic IT skills 10,608 26,537 30,758
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 33.95% 31.93% 32.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,755 17,115 20,022
Median daily rate £500 £475 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
10th Percentile £263 £280 £275
90th Percentile £725 £675 £675
UK median daily rate £481 £475 £463
% change year-on-year +1.21% +2.70% +2.78%
Number of hourly rates quoted 461 947 956
Median hourly rate £34.00 £21.00 £21.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +61.90% -2.33% +7.50%
10th Percentile £12.92 £11.66 £12.00
90th Percentile £52.50 £53.75 £50.62
Median hourly rate £31.61 £20.86 £21.50
% change year-on-year +51.57% -3.00% +7.50%

PKI
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing PKI as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Daily rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 8 August 2020.

Daily rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing PKI in England.

Hourly rate trend for PKI in England

PKI
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing PKI in England over the 6 months to 8 August 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for PKI in England

PKI
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing PKI within the England region over the 6 months to 8 August 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +112 64 £540 -10.00% 8
South East +134 48 £475 - 5
South West +83 39 £650 +30.00% 13
Midlands +106 35 £575 +86.99% 4
West Midlands +73 24 £575 +91.67% 3
North of England +112 21 £475 -2.06% 11
North West +75 13 £440 -9.74% 6
East Midlands +60 11 £500 +40.85% 1
Yorkshire +70 8 £475 +13.43% 5
East of England +61 1 £550 -10.20% 3
PKI
UK

For the 6 months to 8 August 2020, IT contractor jobs citing PKI also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for PKI.

1 97 (45.97%) Active Directory
2 92 (43.60%) Windows
3 74 (35.07%) Security Cleared
4 68 (32.23%) Java
5 67 (31.75%) Firewall
5 67 (31.75%) Azure
6 64 (30.33%) Microsoft
7 51 (24.17%) VMware
8 50 (23.70%) DevOps
9 49 (23.22%) Agile Software Development
10 46 (21.80%) DNS
11 45 (21.33%) Windows Server
12 44 (20.85%) Data Centre
13 43 (20.38%) Linux
14 42 (19.91%) PowerShell
15 40 (18.96%) Docker
16 38 (18.01%) DV Cleared
16 38 (18.01%) VPN
16 38 (18.01%) Cisco
17 37 (17.54%) WAN
18 35 (16.59%) .NET
19 33 (15.64%) Internet
19 33 (15.64%) Migration
20 32 (15.17%) SQL Server
20 32 (15.17%) DHCP
21 30 (14.22%) AWS
21 30 (14.22%) Windows Server 2012
22 29 (13.74%) Office 365
22 29 (13.74%) Bash Shell
23 28 (13.27%) Python

PKI
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 26 (12.32%) Confluence
2 17 (8.06%) Skype for Business
3 16 (7.58%) SharePoint
4 9 (4.27%) MS Exchange
5 8 (3.79%) IIS
5 8 (3.79%) JBoss
6 4 (1.90%) Apache ServiceMix
6 4 (1.90%) Red Hat Fuse
7 3 (1.42%) Elasticsearch
7 3 (1.42%) NetWeaver
7 3 (1.42%) WebSphere
8 2 (0.95%) Exchange Server 2010
8 2 (0.95%) nginx
9 1 (0.47%) Exchange Server 2003
9 1 (0.47%) Exchange Server 2013
9 1 (0.47%) SharePoint Server
Applications
1 1 (0.47%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 1 (0.47%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 67 (31.75%) Azure
2 30 (14.22%) AWS
3 29 (13.74%) Office 365
4 25 (11.85%) IaaS
5 17 (8.06%) PaaS
6 15 (7.11%) Azure Active Directory
7 10 (4.74%) Cloud Computing
8 9 (4.27%) Amazon EC2
9 7 (3.32%) GCP
10 6 (2.84%) Amazon CloudWatch
10 6 (2.84%) Amazon EKS
10 6 (2.84%) Amazon S3
10 6 (2.84%) Azure ExpressRoute
10 6 (2.84%) OpenShift
10 6 (2.84%) Power Platform
10 6 (2.84%) Route 53
10 6 (2.84%) SaaS
11 5 (2.37%) Amazon ECS
11 5 (2.37%) AWS CloudFormation
11 5 (2.37%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 67 (31.75%) Firewall
2 46 (21.80%) DNS
3 38 (18.01%) VPN
4 37 (17.54%) WAN
5 33 (15.64%) Internet
6 32 (15.17%) DHCP
7 23 (10.90%) Network Security
7 23 (10.90%) Skype
8 22 (10.43%) Wireless
9 19 (9.00%) IPsec
10 17 (8.06%) DMZ
10 17 (8.06%) MPLS
11 16 (7.58%) Intranet
12 14 (6.64%) PBX
13 13 (6.16%) SSL
14 12 (5.69%) BGP
15 8 (3.79%) Junos
15 8 (3.79%) Kerberos
16 7 (3.32%) HTTP
17 6 (2.84%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 32 (15.17%) SQL Server
2 15 (7.11%) Apache Accumulo
2 15 (7.11%) Hadoop
3 11 (5.21%) PostgreSQL
4 10 (4.74%) MySQL
4 10 (4.74%) Relational Database
5 8 (3.79%) Amazon RDS
6 6 (2.84%) Oracle Database
6 6 (2.84%) Oracle Database 11g
6 6 (2.84%) Oracle Database 12c
7 5 (2.37%) Azure SQL Database
7 5 (2.37%) Cosmos DB
7 5 (2.37%) DB2
7 5 (2.37%) SQL Server 2019
8 4 (1.90%) Data Warehouse
8 4 (1.90%) Power BI
9 3 (1.42%) Big Data
9 3 (1.42%) MongoDB
9 3 (1.42%) SAP HANA
10 2 (0.95%) Blockchain
Development Applications
1 26 (12.32%) JIRA
2 18 (8.53%) Jenkins
3 17 (8.06%) Bitbucket
4 10 (4.74%) Visual Studio
5 6 (2.84%) Sonatype Nexus
6 4 (1.90%) Eclipse
6 4 (1.90%) Team Foundation Server
7 3 (1.42%) Robot Framework
7 3 (1.42%) TestRail
8 1 (0.47%) Git (software)
8 1 (0.47%) JUnit
8 1 (0.47%) Maven
8 1 (0.47%) Mockito
General
1 23 (10.90%) Finance
2 19 (9.00%) Banking
3 14 (6.64%) Aerospace
4 6 (2.84%) Investment Banking
5 4 (1.90%) Public Sector
6 3 (1.42%) Legal
6 3 (1.42%) Military
6 3 (1.42%) Pharmaceutical
6 3 (1.42%) Telecoms
7 1 (0.47%) Financial Institution
7 1 (0.47%) German Language
7 1 (0.47%) Local Government
7 1 (0.47%) Police
Job Titles
1 44 (20.85%) Architect
2 20 (9.48%) Network Engineer
3 18 (8.53%) Consultant
4 17 (8.06%) Administrator
5 16 (7.58%) Developer
5 16 (7.58%) Systems Administrator
6 15 (7.11%) Security Engineer
7 14 (6.64%) Linux Administrator
7 14 (6.64%) Linux Systems Administrator
7 14 (6.64%) Security Architect
7 14 (6.64%) Systems Administration Leader
8 12 (5.69%) Security Specialist
8 12 (5.69%) Solutions Architect
9 10 (4.74%) 3rd Line Engineer
9 10 (4.74%) 3rd Line Network Engineer
9 10 (4.74%) Network Support
9 10 (4.74%) Network Support Engineer
9 10 (4.74%) Support Engineer
10 8 (3.79%) Java Architect
11 7 (3.32%) Java Solutions Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 35 (16.59%) .NET
2 26 (12.32%) LDAP
3 24 (11.37%) SAML
4 23 (10.90%) REST
5 16 (7.58%) OAuth
6 15 (7.11%) Apache NiFi
6 15 (7.11%) Kafka
6 15 (7.11%) OpenID
7 14 (6.64%) JSON
8 13 (6.16%) SOAP
9 12 (5.69%) Node.js
10 11 (5.21%) Middleware
11 9 (4.27%) XML
12 8 (3.79%) Spring
12 8 (3.79%) Web Services
13 7 (3.32%) XACML
14 6 (2.84%) Elastic Stack
14 6 (2.84%) OAuth2
14 6 (2.84%) SPML
14 6 (2.84%) Spring Boot
Miscellaneous
1 44 (20.85%) Data Centre
2 28 (13.27%) Self-Motivation
3 18 (8.53%) Analytical Skills
4 15 (7.11%) Algorithms
5 11 (5.21%) Management Information System
6 10 (4.74%) Public Cloud
7 7 (3.32%) Cloud Native
7 7 (3.32%) Linux Command Line
8 6 (2.84%) Client/Server
9 5 (2.37%) Fat Client
9 5 (2.37%) Thin Client
10 4 (1.90%) CMDB
10 4 (1.90%) Enterprise Software
10 4 (1.90%) Smart Energy
10 4 (1.90%) Smart Meter
10 4 (1.90%) Virtual Team
11 3 (1.42%) Distributed Denial-of-Service
11 3 (1.42%) Replication
11 3 (1.42%) Security Operations Centre
11 3 (1.42%) User Experience
Operating Systems
1 92 (43.60%) Windows
2 45 (21.33%) Windows Server
3 43 (20.38%) Linux
4 30 (14.22%) Windows Server 2012
5 22 (10.43%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 21 (9.95%) Windows Server 2016
7 19 (9.00%) CentOS
8 14 (6.64%) Unix
9 8 (3.79%) Windows 10
9 8 (3.79%) Windows Server 2019
10 5 (2.37%) Windows Server 2003
11 4 (1.90%) Windows Server 2008
12 3 (1.42%) Apple iOS
13 2 (0.95%) Android
13 2 (0.95%) Solaris
14 1 (0.47%) HPUX
14 1 (0.47%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 50 (23.70%) DevOps
2 49 (23.22%) Agile Software Development
3 33 (15.64%) Migration
4 27 (12.80%) Technical Leadership
5 25 (11.85%) SIEM
6 23 (10.90%) Incident Management
7 22 (10.43%) Infrastructure Engineering
7 22 (10.43%) Microservices
8 21 (9.95%) Security Architecture
9 20 (9.48%) Open Source
9 20 (9.48%) Scrum
10 19 (9.00%) High Availability
11 18 (8.53%) Information Security
12 17 (8.06%) Product Roadmap
13 16 (7.58%) Identity Management
14 14 (6.64%) Cryptography
14 14 (6.64%) Validation
15 13 (6.16%) Load Balancing
16 12 (5.69%) Disaster Recovery
17 10 (4.74%) Change Management
Programming Languages
1 68 (32.23%) Java
2 42 (19.91%) PowerShell
3 29 (13.74%) Bash Shell
4 28 (13.27%) Python
4 28 (13.27%) SQL
5 15 (7.11%) JavaScript
5 15 (7.11%) Perl
6 7 (3.32%) C#
6 7 (3.32%) Shell Script
7 6 (2.84%) C++
7 6 (2.84%) VB.NET
8 4 (1.90%) ActionScript
8 4 (1.90%) ActionScript 2.0
8 4 (1.90%) C
9 3 (1.42%) PHP
10 2 (0.95%) Java 8
10 2 (0.95%) Solidity
10 2 (0.95%) TypeScript
11 1 (0.47%) Ruby
11 1 (0.47%) VBScript
Qualifications
1 74 (35.07%) Security Cleared
2 38 (18.01%) DV Cleared
3 27 (12.80%) CISSP
4 23 (10.90%) SC Cleared
5 21 (9.95%) Microsoft Certification
6 13 (6.16%) Cisco Certification
7 10 (4.74%) Degree
8 7 (3.32%) (ISC)2 CCSP
8 7 (3.32%) CCSP
8 7 (3.32%) MCSE
9 6 (2.84%) Master's Degree
9 6 (2.84%) MCSA
10 5 (2.37%) CCNA
10 5 (2.37%) CISM
10 5 (2.37%) JNCIA
11 4 (1.90%) CISMP
11 4 (1.90%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
12 3 (1.42%) CCNP
12 3 (1.42%) ISTQB
13 2 (0.95%) GIAC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 5 (2.37%) GDPR
1 5 (2.37%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 4 (1.90%) ISO/IEC 27005
2 4 (1.90%) NCSC
3 3 (1.42%) COBIT
3 3 (1.42%) PCI DSS
4 2 (0.95%) QA
4 2 (0.95%) SLA
5 1 (0.47%) ISO 20022
5 1 (0.47%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
5 1 (0.47%) NIST
5 1 (0.47%) SEPA
5 1 (0.47%) TARGET2
System Software
1 97 (45.97%) Active Directory
2 40 (18.96%) Docker
3 21 (9.95%) VMware Infrastructure
4 14 (6.64%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 9 (4.27%) VMware ESXi
5 9 (4.27%) vSphere
6 3 (1.42%) Virtual Desktop
6 3 (1.42%) Virtual Machines
7 2 (0.95%) NDS
7 2 (0.95%) Snort
7 2 (0.95%) VMware NSX
8 1 (0.47%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
8 1 (0.47%) BitLocker
8 1 (0.47%) Citrix Presentation Server
8 1 (0.47%) iptables
8 1 (0.47%) NFS
8 1 (0.47%) Virtual Servers
8 1 (0.47%) XenApp
8 1 (0.47%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 18 (8.53%) Single Sign-On
2 17 (8.06%) Ansible
3 16 (7.58%) Kubernetes
4 14 (6.64%) SCCM
5 13 (6.16%) Terraform
6 9 (4.27%) SCOM
7 7 (3.32%) PingFederate
8 6 (2.84%) Forefront Identity Manager
9 4 (1.90%) CASB
9 4 (1.90%) McAfee ePO
10 3 (1.42%) AirWatch
10 3 (1.42%) HP ALM
10 3 (1.42%) vRealize
11 2 (0.95%) Consul
11 2 (0.95%) HAProxy
11 2 (0.95%) Microsoft Intune
11 2 (0.95%) Network Intrusion Detection System
11 2 (0.95%) Packer
11 2 (0.95%) Puppet
12 1 (0.47%) Oracle Identity Management
Vendors
1 64 (30.33%) Microsoft
2 51 (24.17%) VMware
3 38 (18.01%) Cisco
4 26 (12.32%) Red Hat
5 19 (9.00%) Juniper
6 13 (6.16%) Oracle
7 12 (5.69%) Citrix
8 10 (4.74%) McAfee
9 9 (4.27%) CA
9 9 (4.27%) Fortinet
9 9 (4.27%) SolarWinds
9 9 (4.27%) Sonus
10 8 (3.79%) Gemalto
11 7 (3.32%) Google
11 7 (3.32%) Palo Alto
12 6 (2.84%) NetApp
12 6 (2.84%) Splunk
12 6 (2.84%) Veracode
13 5 (2.37%) HP
13 5 (2.37%) Qualys