Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK > England
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 6 7 5
Rank change year-on-year +1 -2 +1
Contract jobs citing SQL 5,277 6,871 11,559
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 12.66% 12.76% 13.10%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.82% 31.16% 30.20%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,640 4,860 8,117
10th Percentile £306 £313 £310
25th Percentile £388 £388 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £463 £450
Median % change year-on-year +2.70% +2.78% +2.86%
75th Percentile £588 £563 £545
90th Percentile £663 £650 £625
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 104 103 143
10th Percentile £14.58 £14.76 £14.46
25th Percentile £20.31 £18.25 £18.33
Median hourly rate £26.00 £24.70 £25.00
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% -1.20% -6.00%
75th Percentile £42.90 £41.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £55.00 £50.00 £57.00
UK median hourly rate £26.75 £24.71 £24.75
% change year-on-year +8.28% -0.18% -1.00%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 17,124 22,049 38,269
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 41.08% 40.95% 43.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 12,227 15,680 27,331
10th Percentile £320 £325 £325
25th Percentile £404 £405 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £485
Median % change year-on-year - +3.09% +2.11%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £575
90th Percentile £688 £658 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £485 £475
% change year-on-year +3.09% +2.11% +2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 378 408 552
10th Percentile £17.19 £17.43 £17.50
25th Percentile £25.00 £22.92 £26.25
Median hourly rate £42.25 £44.00 £42.63
Median % change year-on-year -3.98% +3.23% +6.56%
75th Percentile £50.00 £50.00 £49.30
90th Percentile £58.75 £57.50 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £43.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -2.30% +2.35% +6.25%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Daily rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the England region over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -3 3,024 £525 +5.00% 1,002
South East -5 576 £468 +3.89% 426
North of England -1 507 £400 - 502
Midlands +1 444 £400 -5.33% 356
West Midlands +1 317 £400 -5.88% 251
North West 0 283 £385 -3.69% 271
South West 0 234 £474 +9.22% 199
East of England -1 174 £413 -2.94% 187
Yorkshire -2 159 £375 -3.23% 180
East Midlands -4 115 £375 - 103
North East +9 65 £450 +5.88% 51
SQL
UK

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for SQL.

1 1,646 (31.19%) Agile Software Development
2 1,455 (27.57%) Azure
3 1,231 (23.33%) Python
4 1,179 (22.34%) Finance
5 1,146 (21.72%) Oracle
6 1,051 (19.92%) SQL Server
7 1,027 (19.46%) Java
8 993 (18.82%) Business Intelligence
9 877 (16.62%) DevOps
10 848 (16.07%) .NET
11 833 (15.79%) Microsoft
12 817 (15.48%) C#
13 797 (15.10%) AWS
14 689 (13.06%) Analytics
15 662 (12.55%) Data Modelling
16 659 (12.49%) JavaScript
17 634 (12.01%) ETL
18 632 (11.98%) Data Warehouse
19 622 (11.79%) Power Platform
20 600 (11.37%) Power BI
21 587 (11.12%) Analytical Skills
22 566 (10.73%) PL/SQL
23 550 (10.42%) Migration
24 539 (10.21%) Banking
24 539 (10.21%) Problem-Solving
25 525 (9.95%) Security Cleared
26 515 (9.76%) Scrum
27 505 (9.57%) Windows
28 495 (9.38%) Git (software)
29 467 (8.85%) Linux

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 247 (4.68%) Apache Spark
2 168 (3.18%) Confluence
3 157 (2.98%) Apache
4 129 (2.44%) WebLogic
5 109 (2.07%) SharePoint
6 107 (2.03%) SAS
7 62 (1.17%) Apache Airflow
8 55 (1.04%) IIS
9 54 (1.02%) WebSphere
10 49 (0.93%) Tomcat
11 48 (0.91%) BizTalk Server
12 42 (0.80%) Oracle Workflow
13 39 (0.74%) Elasticsearch
14 37 (0.70%) CMS
15 32 (0.61%) JBoss
15 32 (0.61%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 30 (0.57%) Oracle Coherence
17 28 (0.53%) Jupyter
18 23 (0.44%) MS Exchange
19 22 (0.42%) nginx
Applications
1 307 (5.82%) Microsoft Excel
2 106 (2.01%) Microsoft Office
3 51 (0.97%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 31 (0.59%) Spreadsheet
5 29 (0.55%) MS Visio
6 11 (0.21%) Chatbot
7 10 (0.19%) SPSS
8 7 (0.13%) InfoPath
8 7 (0.13%) Microsoft Project
9 6 (0.11%) Stata
10 4 (0.076%) SOLIDWORKS
11 2 (0.038%) Photoshop
12 1 (0.019%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.019%) Adobe XD
12 1 (0.019%) AutoCAD
12 1 (0.019%) Figma
12 1 (0.019%) Pipeline Pilot
Business Applications
1 81 (1.53%) Oracle EBS
2 49 (0.93%) Dynamics CRM
3 42 (0.80%) Oracle EBS R12
4 32 (0.61%) Oracle Payables
5 30 (0.57%) Oracle Applications
6 29 (0.55%) Oracle General Ledger
7 22 (0.42%) Oracle Assets
8 19 (0.36%) Markit EDM
9 18 (0.34%) Magento
10 17 (0.32%) Maximo
10 17 (0.32%) Summit
11 14 (0.27%) SAP FI-CA
11 14 (0.27%) SAP PSCD
12 13 (0.25%) ION MarketView
12 13 (0.25%) Oracle Receivables
13 12 (0.23%) assyst
13 12 (0.23%) Eagle PACE
13 12 (0.23%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
14 11 (0.21%) NetSuite
15 9 (0.17%) Oracle ERP
Cloud Services
1 1,455 (27.57%) Azure
2 797 (15.10%) AWS
3 622 (11.79%) Power Platform
4 267 (5.06%) GCP
5 250 (4.74%) Serverless
6 193 (3.66%) Azure Data Factory
7 154 (2.92%) AWS Lambda
8 142 (2.69%) SaaS
9 136 (2.58%) PaaS
10 130 (2.46%) Amazon S3
11 96 (1.82%) Azure Functions
12 95 (1.80%) GitHub
12 95 (1.80%) Microsoft 365
13 93 (1.76%) Azure Active Directory
14 91 (1.72%) Logic Apps
15 80 (1.52%) Amazon EC2
16 78 (1.48%) IaaS
17 57 (1.08%) Dynamics 365
18 56 (1.06%) PowerApps
19 46 (0.87%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 84 (1.59%) Firewall
2 59 (1.12%) HTTP
3 57 (1.08%) DNS
4 43 (0.81%) SAN
5 42 (0.80%) TCP/IP
6 29 (0.55%) DHCP
7 26 (0.49%) SSL
8 24 (0.45%) WAN
9 22 (0.42%) FTP
10 21 (0.40%) Multicast
10 21 (0.40%) VPN
11 20 (0.38%) LAN
11 20 (0.38%) Skype
12 19 (0.36%) Kerberos
13 16 (0.30%) Network Security
13 16 (0.30%) SSH
14 15 (0.28%) SMTP
14 15 (0.28%) VoIP
15 14 (0.27%) Internet
16 12 (0.23%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,051 (19.92%) SQL Server
2 632 (11.98%) Data Warehouse
3 600 (11.37%) Power BI
4 413 (7.83%) NoSQL
5 410 (7.77%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 362 (6.86%) Relational Database
7 331 (6.27%) Azure SQL Database
8 327 (6.20%) Tableau
9 290 (5.50%) Big Data
10 286 (5.42%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 261 (4.95%) PostgreSQL
12 237 (4.49%) MySQL
13 222 (4.21%) Oracle Database
14 220 (4.17%) Hadoop
15 211 (4.00%) Data Lake
16 189 (3.58%) MongoDB
17 171 (3.24%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 123 (2.33%) RDBMS
19 110 (2.08%) Apache Hive
20 93 (1.76%) Amazon Redshift
Development Applications
1 495 (9.38%) Git (software)
2 387 (7.33%) JIRA
3 360 (6.82%) Jenkins
4 130 (2.46%) Selenium
5 125 (2.37%) Visual Studio
6 118 (2.24%) Maven
7 100 (1.90%) Bitbucket
8 86 (1.63%) Cucumber
9 65 (1.23%) TeamCity
10 63 (1.19%) GitLab
11 57 (1.08%) JUnit
11 57 (1.08%) Subversion
12 53 (1.00%) CA Gen
13 50 (0.95%) Oracle Forms
14 49 (0.93%) Team Foundation Server
15 48 (0.91%) Postman
15 48 (0.91%) SonarQube
16 47 (0.89%) SoapUI
17 46 (0.87%) Gradle
18 45 (0.85%) Oracle APEX
General
1 1,179 (22.34%) Finance
2 539 (10.21%) Banking
3 303 (5.74%) Public Sector
4 291 (5.51%) Front Office
5 225 (4.26%) Investment Banking
6 175 (3.32%) Marketing
7 159 (3.01%) Retail
8 89 (1.69%) Telecoms
9 69 (1.31%) Back Office
10 66 (1.25%) Manufacturing
11 63 (1.19%) Legal
12 48 (0.91%) Law
13 47 (0.89%) Electronics
14 32 (0.61%) Games
15 31 (0.59%) Pharmaceutical
16 30 (0.57%) Financial Institution
16 30 (0.57%) Publishing
17 23 (0.44%) Local Government
18 20 (0.38%) Billing
19 16 (0.30%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 1,960 (37.14%) Developer
2 921 (17.45%) Analyst
3 471 (8.93%) Data Engineer
4 362 (6.86%) Data Analyst
5 361 (6.84%) Architect
6 312 (5.91%) SQL Developer
7 301 (5.70%) .NET Developer
7 301 (5.70%) Java Developer
8 262 (4.96%) Consultant
9 235 (4.45%) C# Developer
10 203 (3.85%) Senior Developer
11 195 (3.70%) Business Analyst
12 182 (3.45%) Business Intelligence Developer
13 180 (3.41%) SQL Analyst
14 163 (3.09%) Azure Engineer
15 162 (3.07%) Full Stack Developer
16 158 (2.99%) DBA
17 157 (2.98%) Software Engineer
18 142 (2.69%) Python Developer
19 137 (2.60%) Python Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 848 (16.07%) .NET
2 410 (7.77%) HTML
3 339 (6.42%) XML
4 336 (6.37%) Web Services
5 327 (6.20%) CSS
6 325 (6.16%) Spring
7 314 (5.95%) AngularJS
8 280 (5.31%) REST
9 273 (5.17%) React
10 263 (4.98%) .NET Core
11 251 (4.76%) RESTful
12 249 (4.72%) JSON
13 227 (4.30%) Node.js
14 216 (4.09%) Kafka
15 196 (3.71%) ASP.NET
16 180 (3.41%) .NET Framework
17 174 (3.30%) Spring Boot
18 144 (2.73%) HTML5
19 131 (2.48%) J2EE
20 128 (2.43%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 587 (11.12%) Analytical Skills
2 177 (3.35%) Data Structures
3 151 (2.86%) Derivative
4 147 (2.79%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 138 (2.62%) NHS
6 135 (2.56%) Fixed Income
7 128 (2.43%) Greenfield Project
8 120 (2.27%) Cloud Native
9 111 (2.10%) Equities
9 111 (2.10%) User Experience
10 109 (2.07%) Algorithms
11 104 (1.97%) Self-Motivation
12 100 (1.90%) Hedge funds
13 92 (1.74%) Management Information System
14 78 (1.48%) Reference Data
15 69 (1.31%) Virtual Team
16 63 (1.19%) Enterprise Software
17 61 (1.16%) Equity Derivative
18 59 (1.12%) Public Cloud
19 56 (1.06%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 505 (9.57%) Windows
2 467 (8.85%) Linux
3 418 (7.92%) Unix
4 169 (3.20%) Windows Server
5 54 (1.02%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 52 (0.99%) Android
7 46 (0.87%) Windows Server 2012
8 41 (0.78%) AIX
9 40 (0.76%) Apple iOS
10 31 (0.59%) Windows 10
10 31 (0.59%) Windows Server 2016
11 28 (0.53%) Solaris
12 22 (0.42%) Windows Server 2008
13 18 (0.34%) CentOS
13 18 (0.34%) Ubuntu
14 13 (0.25%) Windows 7
15 11 (0.21%) Windows Server 2019
16 9 (0.17%) SUSE
17 8 (0.15%) Mac OS X
17 8 (0.15%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,646 (31.19%) Agile Software Development
2 993 (18.82%) Business Intelligence
3 877 (16.62%) DevOps
4 689 (13.06%) Analytics
5 662 (12.55%) Data Modelling
6 634 (12.01%) ETL
7 550 (10.42%) Migration
8 539 (10.21%) Problem-Solving
9 515 (9.76%) Scrum
10 449 (8.51%) Microservices
11 447 (8.47%) Test Automation
12 444 (8.41%) Software Engineering
13 398 (7.54%) TDD
14 352 (6.67%) Data Analysis
15 348 (6.59%) Visualisation
16 298 (5.65%) Continuous Integration
17 272 (5.15%) BDD
17 272 (5.15%) Data Science
18 264 (5.00%) Data Migration
19 247 (4.68%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 1,231 (23.33%) Python
2 1,027 (19.46%) Java
3 817 (15.48%) C#
4 659 (12.49%) JavaScript
5 566 (10.73%) PL/SQL
6 404 (7.66%) T-SQL
7 331 (6.27%) PowerShell
8 214 (4.06%) R
9 208 (3.94%) Scala
10 198 (3.75%) TypeScript
11 186 (3.52%) Shell Script
12 179 (3.39%) C++
13 143 (2.71%) Java 8
14 124 (2.35%) C
15 118 (2.24%) VBA
16 108 (2.05%) Perl
17 89 (1.69%) VB
18 88 (1.67%) Go
18 88 (1.67%) PHP
19 84 (1.59%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 525 (9.95%) Security Cleared
2 399 (7.56%) SC Cleared
3 266 (5.04%) Degree
4 89 (1.69%) DV Cleared
5 64 (1.21%) ISEB
6 59 (1.12%) ISTQB
7 52 (0.99%) Computer Science Degree
8 44 (0.83%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 38 (0.72%) Microsoft Certification
10 24 (0.45%) BPSS Clearance
11 22 (0.42%) Master's Degree
12 20 (0.38%) AWS Certification
13 18 (0.34%) PhD
14 16 (0.30%) ITIL Certification
15 14 (0.27%) MCSE
16 12 (0.23%) TOGAF Certification
17 11 (0.21%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
18 10 (0.19%) CCNA
18 10 (0.19%) Cisco Certification
19 9 (0.17%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 267 (5.06%) QA
2 202 (3.83%) Data Quality
3 57 (1.08%) GDPR
4 44 (0.83%) SLA
5 17 (0.32%) MiFID
6 11 (0.21%) IFRS
7 10 (0.19%) COREP
8 8 (0.15%) PMO
8 8 (0.15%) WCAG
9 7 (0.13%) FINREP
10 6 (0.11%) COBIT
10 6 (0.11%) EMIR
10 6 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 20000
10 6 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 6 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 5 (0.095%) CDISC
11 5 (0.095%) Dodd-Frank
11 5 (0.095%) NIST
11 5 (0.095%) PCI DSS
12 4 (0.076%) Disclosure Scotland
System Software
1 345 (6.54%) Docker
2 203 (3.85%) Active Directory
3 115 (2.18%) VMware Infrastructure
4 72 (1.36%) Hyper-V
5 69 (1.31%) HDFS
6 34 (0.64%) Virtual Machines
7 33 (0.63%) Oracle RAC
8 31 (0.59%) Microsoft App-V
9 20 (0.38%) VMware ESXi
10 15 (0.28%) XenApp
11 14 (0.27%) Platform Symphony
12 12 (0.23%) Virtual Desktop
13 9 (0.17%) Oracle Clusterware
14 8 (0.15%) Apache ZooKeeper
14 8 (0.15%) GlusterFS
14 8 (0.15%) vSphere
15 7 (0.13%) Terminal Server
16 5 (0.095%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
16 5 (0.095%) DFS Replication
16 5 (0.095%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 336 (6.37%) Kubernetes
2 204 (3.87%) Terraform
3 156 (2.96%) Ansible
4 45 (0.85%) Puppet
5 41 (0.78%) SCCM
6 38 (0.72%) Grafana
7 30 (0.57%) Prometheus
8 28 (0.53%) Hadoop YARN
8 28 (0.53%) HP Quality Center
9 27 (0.51%) Opscode Chef
9 27 (0.51%) Oracle RMAN
10 25 (0.47%) Data Guard
11 23 (0.44%) Control-M
11 23 (0.44%) SCOM
12 21 (0.40%) Single Sign-On
13 18 (0.34%) HP ALM
13 18 (0.34%) Istio
13 18 (0.34%) Oozie
14 15 (0.28%) WSUS
15 14 (0.27%) Microsoft Intune
Vendors
1 1,146 (21.72%) Oracle
2 833 (15.79%) Microsoft
3 201 (3.81%) SAP
4 183 (3.47%) Google
5 169 (3.20%) Databricks
6 165 (3.13%) VMware
7 113 (2.14%) Informatica
8 96 (1.82%) IBM
9 88 (1.67%) webMethods
10 79 (1.50%) BEA
11 76 (1.44%) Salesforce.com
12 68 (1.29%) Citrix
13 66 (1.25%) MuleSoft
14 62 (1.17%) Red Hat
15 58 (1.10%) Talend
16 55 (1.04%) Splunk
17 53 (1.00%) Pega
18 52 (0.99%) Cloudera
19 45 (0.85%) HP
20 42 (0.80%) Alteryx