Period
to 24 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 24 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK > England
6 months to
24 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 7 5
Rank change year-on-year 0 -2 +1
Contract jobs citing SQL 4,368 8,466 11,976
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 12.72% 12.89% 13.12%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.27% 31.40% 29.40%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,666 6,068 8,672
Median daily rate £455 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.00% - +2.86%
10th Percentile £300 £313 £306
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £463 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +2.78% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 115 142 154
Median hourly rate £26.00 £26.25 £28.91
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.95% -9.19% +7.96%
10th Percentile £13.25 £13.99 £15.00
90th Percentile £57.17 £53.75 £56.93
UK median hourly rate £26.00 £27.50 £27.20
% change year-on-year -5.45% +1.09% +1.60%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 14,430 26,960 40,741
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 42.01% 41.04% 44.62%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,159 19,107 29,247
Median daily rate £480 £485 £480
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.03% +1.04% +1.05%
10th Percentile £313 £325 £325
90th Percentile £675 £650 £650
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £475
Number of hourly rates quoted 341 479 579
Median hourly rate £42.50 £44.00 £42.27
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -3.41% +4.11% +5.66%
10th Percentile £13.50 £16.50 £17.50
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £52.25
Median hourly rate £42.50 £43.50 £42.00
% change year-on-year -2.30% +3.57% +5.00%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Daily rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 24 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 24 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the England region over the 6 months to 24 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -4 2,427 £500 - 783
North of England -2 497 £385 -3.75% 480
South East -5 473 £450 - 320
Midlands +4 451 £400 - 311
West Midlands +4 316 £400 -5.88% 187
North West +1 296 £388 -3.13% 270
South West -8 164 £450 +5.88% 154
East of England 0 158 £429 +1.03% 142
Yorkshire -5 139 £350 -12.50% 158
East Midlands +1 125 £375 - 124
North East +9 62 £431 +1.47% 52
SQL
UK

For the 6 months to 24 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for SQL.

1 1,309 (29.97%) Agile Software Development
2 1,141 (26.12%) Azure
3 1,006 (23.03%) Python
4 976 (22.34%) Oracle
5 975 (22.32%) Java
6 970 (22.21%) Finance
7 966 (22.12%) SQL Server
8 864 (19.78%) Business Intelligence
9 739 (16.92%) Microsoft
10 680 (15.57%) AWS
11 666 (15.25%) C#
12 649 (14.86%) DevOps
13 648 (14.84%) .NET
14 596 (13.64%) Data Modelling
15 594 (13.60%) JavaScript
16 506 (11.58%) ETL
17 497 (11.38%) Data Warehouse
18 496 (11.36%) Power Platform
19 485 (11.10%) PL/SQL
20 481 (11.01%) Power BI
21 479 (10.97%) Analytics
22 464 (10.62%) Banking
23 453 (10.37%) Security Cleared
24 446 (10.21%) Microservices
25 444 (10.16%) Windows
26 441 (10.10%) Migration
27 423 (9.68%) Analytical Skills
28 411 (9.41%) Problem-Solving
29 405 (9.27%) Git (software)
30 400 (9.16%) Linux

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 209 (4.78%) Apache Spark
2 169 (3.87%) Apache
3 165 (3.78%) Confluence
4 149 (3.41%) WebLogic
5 116 (2.66%) SharePoint
6 101 (2.31%) SAS
7 53 (1.21%) WebSphere
8 49 (1.12%) Oracle Workflow
9 47 (1.08%) Elasticsearch
10 45 (1.03%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 42 (0.96%) IIS
12 37 (0.85%) Tomcat
13 35 (0.80%) Apache Airflow
14 30 (0.69%) CMS
15 29 (0.66%) BizTalk Server
16 26 (0.60%) JBoss
17 25 (0.57%) Jupyter
18 23 (0.53%) Mule
19 22 (0.50%) MS Exchange
19 22 (0.50%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 246 (5.63%) Microsoft Excel
2 101 (2.31%) Microsoft Office
3 52 (1.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 27 (0.62%) MS Visio
5 18 (0.41%) Spreadsheet
6 14 (0.32%) SPSS
7 9 (0.21%) SOLIDWORKS
8 8 (0.18%) InfoPath
8 8 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
9 5 (0.11%) Chatbot
9 5 (0.11%) Stata
10 4 (0.092%) Photoshop
11 2 (0.046%) Windchill
12 1 (0.023%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.023%) Adobe XD
12 1 (0.023%) Figma
Business Applications
1 84 (1.92%) Oracle EBS
2 54 (1.24%) Oracle EBS R12
3 44 (1.01%) Dynamics CRM
4 38 (0.87%) Markit EDM
5 37 (0.85%) Oracle Applications
6 34 (0.78%) Eagle PACE
7 26 (0.60%) Oracle Payables
8 25 (0.57%) Oracle General Ledger
9 22 (0.50%) Oracle Assets
10 20 (0.46%) Maximo
11 18 (0.41%) SAP FI-CA
12 17 (0.39%) Oracle ERP
13 12 (0.27%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
14 11 (0.25%) Magento
15 10 (0.23%) Salesforce.com CRM
15 10 (0.23%) SAP PSCD
16 9 (0.21%) Oracle Financials
16 9 (0.21%) SunGard Martini
17 8 (0.18%) Summit
18 7 (0.16%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 1,141 (26.12%) Azure
2 680 (15.57%) AWS
3 496 (11.36%) Power Platform
4 242 (5.54%) Serverless
5 227 (5.20%) GCP
6 170 (3.89%) AWS Lambda
7 147 (3.37%) Amazon S3
7 147 (3.37%) Azure Data Factory
8 108 (2.47%) Amazon EC2
8 108 (2.47%) PaaS
9 95 (2.17%) GitHub
10 87 (1.99%) Office 365
11 77 (1.76%) SaaS
12 70 (1.60%) Azure Active Directory
13 66 (1.51%) Logic Apps
14 65 (1.49%) IaaS
15 61 (1.40%) Azure Functions
15 61 (1.40%) Dynamics 365
16 51 (1.17%) Cloud Computing
17 50 (1.14%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 69 (1.58%) DNS
2 61 (1.40%) Firewall
3 36 (0.82%) HTTP
4 35 (0.80%) Skype
4 35 (0.80%) TCP/IP
5 34 (0.78%) DHCP
5 34 (0.78%) SAN
6 23 (0.53%) Internet
6 23 (0.53%) SNMP
7 21 (0.48%) SSL
7 21 (0.48%) VoIP
8 19 (0.43%) VPN
9 18 (0.41%) FTP
10 16 (0.37%) Multicast
10 16 (0.37%) Network Security
11 15 (0.34%) Kerberos
12 14 (0.32%) WAN
13 12 (0.27%) MPLS
14 10 (0.23%) Wi-Fi
15 8 (0.18%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 966 (22.12%) SQL Server
2 497 (11.38%) Data Warehouse
3 481 (11.01%) Power BI
4 382 (8.75%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 323 (7.39%) NoSQL
6 294 (6.73%) Relational Database
7 274 (6.27%) Azure SQL Database
8 260 (5.95%) Big Data
8 260 (5.95%) MySQL
9 248 (5.68%) Oracle Database
10 247 (5.65%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 242 (5.54%) PostgreSQL
12 217 (4.97%) Tableau
13 175 (4.01%) Hadoop
14 172 (3.94%) Data Lake
15 162 (3.71%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 149 (3.41%) MongoDB
17 108 (2.47%) Apache Hive
18 105 (2.40%) RDBMS
19 98 (2.24%) Oracle Reports
Development Applications
1 405 (9.27%) Git (software)
2 367 (8.40%) Jenkins
3 340 (7.78%) JIRA
4 155 (3.55%) Selenium
5 110 (2.52%) Cucumber
5 110 (2.52%) GitLab
6 100 (2.29%) Maven
7 84 (1.92%) Bitbucket
8 82 (1.88%) Visual Studio
9 68 (1.56%) Subversion
10 65 (1.49%) Toad
11 61 (1.40%) CA Gen
12 55 (1.26%) Oracle APEX
12 55 (1.26%) Oracle Forms
13 53 (1.21%) Postman
13 53 (1.21%) TeamCity
14 52 (1.19%) Team Foundation Server
15 51 (1.17%) Artifactory
16 47 (1.08%) JUnit
17 46 (1.05%) SonarQube
General
1 970 (22.21%) Finance
2 464 (10.62%) Banking
3 284 (6.50%) Public Sector
4 269 (6.16%) Front Office
5 153 (3.50%) Investment Banking
6 113 (2.59%) Marketing
7 110 (2.52%) Retail
8 95 (2.17%) Back Office
9 52 (1.19%) Manufacturing
10 47 (1.08%) Law
10 47 (1.08%) Telecoms
11 42 (0.96%) Pharmaceutical
12 34 (0.78%) Games
13 33 (0.76%) Legal
14 31 (0.71%) Electronics
15 29 (0.66%) Financial Institution
16 24 (0.55%) Advertising
17 21 (0.48%) Local Government
18 19 (0.43%) Billing
19 17 (0.39%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 1,654 (37.87%) Developer
2 694 (15.89%) Analyst
3 368 (8.42%) Data Engineer
4 316 (7.23%) Architect
5 280 (6.41%) SQL Developer
6 272 (6.23%) Data Analyst
7 252 (5.77%) Java Developer
8 242 (5.54%) .NET Developer
9 205 (4.69%) Consultant
10 197 (4.51%) Software Engineer
11 157 (3.59%) DBA
12 150 (3.43%) C# Developer
13 149 (3.41%) Business Intelligence Developer
14 140 (3.21%) Full Stack Developer
14 140 (3.21%) Senior Developer
15 137 (3.14%) Python Engineer
16 132 (3.02%) Business Analyst
17 129 (2.95%) Data Architect
18 124 (2.84%) Azure Engineer
18 124 (2.84%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 648 (14.84%) .NET
2 353 (8.08%) Web Services
3 322 (7.37%) XML
4 319 (7.30%) HTML
5 281 (6.43%) AngularJS
6 277 (6.34%) CSS
7 266 (6.09%) React
7 266 (6.09%) REST
8 258 (5.91%) Spring
9 201 (4.60%) JSON
10 183 (4.19%) Node.js
11 176 (4.03%) .NET Core
12 170 (3.89%) Kafka
13 163 (3.73%) ASP.NET
14 154 (3.53%) RESTful
15 151 (3.46%) Spring Boot
16 145 (3.32%) .NET Framework
17 129 (2.95%) J2EE
17 129 (2.95%) SOAP
18 103 (2.36%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 423 (9.68%) Analytical Skills
2 166 (3.80%) Hedge funds
3 163 (3.73%) Derivative
4 152 (3.48%) Equities
5 145 (3.32%) Fixed Income
6 135 (3.09%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 121 (2.77%) Greenfield Project
8 120 (2.75%) NHS
9 103 (2.36%) Data Structures
10 84 (1.92%) Reference Data
11 83 (1.90%) User Experience
12 81 (1.85%) Management Information System
13 74 (1.69%) Cloud Native
14 64 (1.47%) Algorithms
15 63 (1.44%) Self-Motivation
16 51 (1.17%) Virtual Team
17 48 (1.10%) Data Centre
17 48 (1.10%) Public Cloud
18 44 (1.01%) Linux Command Line
19 39 (0.89%) Clustering
Operating Systems
1 444 (10.16%) Windows
2 400 (9.16%) Linux
3 390 (8.93%) Unix
4 160 (3.66%) Windows Server
5 53 (1.21%) Android
5 53 (1.21%) Apple iOS
6 52 (1.19%) Windows Server 2012
7 45 (1.03%) AIX
8 41 (0.94%) Windows Server 2008
9 40 (0.92%) Windows Server 2016
10 35 (0.80%) Solaris
11 31 (0.71%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 27 (0.62%) Windows 10
13 15 (0.34%) Windows Server 2019
14 14 (0.32%) Oracle Linux
14 14 (0.32%) Windows 7
15 12 (0.27%) SUSE
16 11 (0.25%) CentOS
17 9 (0.21%) Ubuntu
18 7 (0.16%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,309 (29.97%) Agile Software Development
2 864 (19.78%) Business Intelligence
3 649 (14.86%) DevOps
4 596 (13.64%) Data Modelling
5 506 (11.58%) ETL
6 479 (10.97%) Analytics
7 446 (10.21%) Microservices
8 441 (10.10%) Migration
9 411 (9.41%) Problem-Solving
10 382 (8.75%) Software Engineering
11 365 (8.36%) Test Automation
12 341 (7.81%) Scrum
13 279 (6.39%) TDD
14 262 (6.00%) Data Analysis
15 242 (5.54%) Asset Management
16 239 (5.47%) BDD
17 225 (5.15%) Continuous Integration
17 225 (5.15%) Visualisation
18 215 (4.92%) Data Science
19 203 (4.65%) Data Migration
Programming Languages
1 1,006 (23.03%) Python
2 975 (22.32%) Java
3 666 (15.25%) C#
4 594 (13.60%) JavaScript
5 485 (11.10%) PL/SQL
6 324 (7.42%) T-SQL
7 267 (6.11%) PowerShell
8 179 (4.10%) Scala
9 168 (3.85%) Shell Script
10 147 (3.37%) R
11 142 (3.25%) TypeScript
12 132 (3.02%) C++
13 117 (2.68%) Kotlin
14 113 (2.59%) Java 8
15 104 (2.38%) Perl
16 94 (2.15%) C
17 87 (1.99%) VBA
18 76 (1.74%) Bash Shell
19 71 (1.63%) PHP
20 70 (1.60%) VB
Qualifications
1 453 (10.37%) Security Cleared
2 347 (7.94%) SC Cleared
3 192 (4.40%) Degree
4 68 (1.56%) ISTQB
5 66 (1.51%) DV Cleared
5 66 (1.51%) ISEB
6 61 (1.40%) Computer Science Degree
7 52 (1.19%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 35 (0.80%) Microsoft Certification
9 30 (0.69%) Master's Degree
10 20 (0.46%) TOGAF Certification
11 19 (0.43%) BPSS Clearance
12 16 (0.37%) MCSE
13 15 (0.34%) AWS Certification
14 14 (0.32%) PhD
15 12 (0.27%) ITIL Certification
15 12 (0.27%) Numerate Degree
16 11 (0.25%) Sun Certification
17 8 (0.18%) DBS Check
17 8 (0.18%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 214 (4.90%) QA
2 159 (3.64%) Data Quality
3 51 (1.17%) GDPR
4 33 (0.76%) SLA
5 12 (0.27%) COREP
5 12 (0.27%) MiFID
5 12 (0.27%) PCI DSS
6 10 (0.23%) ISO/IEC 20000
7 9 (0.21%) COBIT
8 8 (0.18%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 7 (0.16%) EMIR
9 7 (0.16%) FINREP
10 6 (0.14%) CDISC
10 6 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 6 (0.14%) NIST
11 5 (0.11%) IFRS
11 5 (0.11%) WCAG
12 4 (0.092%) Basel III
12 4 (0.092%) PMO
13 3 (0.069%) Cyber Essentials
System Software
1 351 (8.04%) Docker
2 171 (3.91%) Active Directory
3 78 (1.79%) VMware Infrastructure
4 66 (1.51%) HDFS
5 43 (0.98%) Oracle RAC
6 36 (0.82%) Hyper-V
7 28 (0.64%) Virtual Machines
8 14 (0.32%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 13 (0.30%) Microsoft App-V
10 12 (0.27%) GlusterFS
10 12 (0.27%) Oracle Clusterware
11 11 (0.25%) VMware ESXi
12 7 (0.16%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
12 7 (0.16%) Terminal Server
12 7 (0.16%) VMware NSX
13 6 (0.14%) vSphere
14 4 (0.092%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
15 3 (0.069%) Apache Flume
15 3 (0.069%) DFS Replication
15 3 (0.069%) Xen
Systems Management
1 302 (6.91%) Kubernetes
2 165 (3.78%) Terraform
3 113 (2.59%) Ansible
4 55 (1.26%) Puppet
5 44 (1.01%) Oracle RMAN
6 37 (0.85%) SCCM
7 36 (0.82%) Data Guard
8 35 (0.80%) Prometheus
9 32 (0.73%) Grafana
9 32 (0.73%) Opscode Chef
10 30 (0.69%) Single Sign-On
11 27 (0.62%) HP Quality Center
12 22 (0.50%) Control-M
13 21 (0.48%) Hadoop YARN
13 21 (0.48%) HP ALM
14 19 (0.43%) Netcool
15 17 (0.39%) Tivoli
16 15 (0.34%) Nagios
16 15 (0.34%) NetBackup
17 14 (0.32%) Microsoft Intune
Vendors
1 976 (22.34%) Oracle
2 739 (16.92%) Microsoft
3 186 (4.26%) SAP
4 171 (3.91%) Google
5 141 (3.23%) Databricks
6 117 (2.68%) VMware
7 108 (2.47%) Informatica
8 98 (2.24%) webMethods
9 90 (2.06%) IBM
10 79 (1.81%) BEA
11 63 (1.44%) Salesforce.com
12 60 (1.37%) HP
13 58 (1.33%) Talend
14 52 (1.19%) MuleSoft
14 52 (1.19%) Splunk
15 51 (1.17%) Bloomberg
16 50 (1.14%) Pega
17 47 (1.08%) Cloudera
18 41 (0.94%) Alteryx
19 39 (0.89%) Red Hat