Period
to 24 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 24 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK > England
6 months to
24 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 8 5
Rank change year-on-year +1 -3 +2
Contract jobs citing SQL 8,739 3,545 9,958
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 13.00% 12.97% 12.92%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.73% 30.26% 30.56%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,244 2,518 7,080
10th Percentile £331 £300 £313
25th Percentile £413 £375 £371
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £515 £475 £450
Median % change year-on-year +8.42% +5.56% -
75th Percentile £623 £575 £550
90th Percentile £700 £675 £638
UK median daily rate £500 £473 £450
% change year-on-year +5.82% +5.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 140 79 140
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.50 £14.00
25th Percentile £20.30 £17.60 £18.00
Median hourly rate £35.50 £25.05 £36.70
Median % change year-on-year +41.74% -31.76% +49.55%
75th Percentile £52.81 £42.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £62.31 £55.94 £65.63
UK median hourly rate £35.50 £24.77 £36.70
% change year-on-year +43.30% -32.50% +54.53%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 26,697 11,715 32,586
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 39.71% 42.85% 42.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,528 8,325 23,146
10th Percentile £363 £311 £325
25th Percentile £425 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £495 £488
Median % change year-on-year +6.06% +1.54% +2.63%
75th Percentile £638 £598 £575
90th Percentile £713 £688 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £480 £475
% change year-on-year +9.38% +1.05% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 399 240 580
10th Percentile £17.50 £11.17 £18.00
25th Percentile £25.38 £20.94 £33.81
Median hourly rate £45.50 £37.93 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +19.97% -15.72% +6.57%
75th Percentile £58.75 £47.50 £51.25
90th Percentile £67.55 £55.78 £55.05
UK median hourly rate £45.50 £38.50 £44.50
% change year-on-year +18.18% -13.48% +6.15%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Daily rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the England region over the 6 months to 24 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +2 5,250 £550 +6.80% 1,405
South East -1 929 £475 +1.60% 501
North of England +1 721 £430 +14.67% 619
Midlands -2 691 £450 +12.50% 529
West Midlands 0 524 £460 +13.58% 344
North West -1 405 £425 +13.33% 363
South West +6 352 £450 +2.27% 221
Yorkshire +2 261 £438 +16.67% 179
East of England -3 243 £383 -8.81% 204
East Midlands -6 158 £400 +6.67% 179
North East -3 61 £475 +11.76% 77
SQL
UK

For the 6 months to 24 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for SQL.

1 2,749 (31.46%) Agile Software Development
2 2,491 (28.50%) Azure
3 2,299 (26.31%) Python
4 2,066 (23.64%) Finance
5 1,859 (21.27%) Social Skills
6 1,810 (20.71%) Java
7 1,808 (20.69%) SQL Server
8 1,762 (20.16%) Oracle
9 1,742 (19.93%) Business Intelligence
10 1,565 (17.91%) DevOps
11 1,508 (17.26%) .NET
12 1,506 (17.23%) C#
13 1,396 (15.97%) Microsoft
14 1,389 (15.89%) Analytics
15 1,353 (15.48%) AWS
16 1,274 (14.58%) ETL
17 1,202 (13.75%) JavaScript
18 1,178 (13.48%) Power Platform
19 1,138 (13.02%) Data Warehouse
20 1,115 (12.76%) Power BI
21 1,098 (12.56%) Data Modelling
22 1,042 (11.92%) Analytical Skills
23 1,015 (11.61%) Git (software)
24 996 (11.40%) Banking
25 955 (10.93%) Windows
26 943 (10.79%) Scrum
27 892 (10.21%) Problem-Solving
28 871 (9.97%) Linux
29 837 (9.58%) Migration
30 804 (9.20%) Microservices

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 495 (5.66%) Apache Spark
2 373 (4.27%) Confluence
3 267 (3.06%) SharePoint
4 226 (2.59%) Apache
5 200 (2.29%) SAS
6 165 (1.89%) WebLogic
7 151 (1.73%) Apache Airflow
8 126 (1.44%) Tomcat
9 124 (1.42%) Elasticsearch
10 115 (1.32%) IIS
11 65 (0.74%) BizTalk Server
12 59 (0.68%) CMS
13 58 (0.66%) WebSphere
14 52 (0.60%) JBoss
14 52 (0.60%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 35 (0.40%) Jupyter
16 31 (0.35%) Luigi
17 29 (0.33%) nginx
18 28 (0.32%) MS Exchange
19 27 (0.31%) Oracle Coherence
Applications
1 576 (6.59%) Microsoft Excel
2 184 (2.11%) Microsoft Office
3 96 (1.10%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 51 (0.58%) MS Visio
5 40 (0.46%) Spreadsheet
6 33 (0.38%) SPSS
7 20 (0.23%) Microsoft Project
8 14 (0.16%) Chatbot
9 11 (0.13%) Stata
10 8 (0.092%) InfoPath
11 7 (0.080%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 7 (0.080%) Oracle Smart View
12 4 (0.046%) Photoshop
13 3 (0.034%) Mingle
14 1 (0.011%) CPLEX
14 1 (0.011%) FileZilla
14 1 (0.011%) Houdini
14 1 (0.011%) Maya
14 1 (0.011%) NUKE
14 1 (0.011%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 83 (0.95%) Dynamics CRM
2 52 (0.60%) Oracle EBS
3 39 (0.45%) SunGard Martini
4 32 (0.37%) Dynamics AX
5 31 (0.35%) NetSuite
6 25 (0.29%) SAP S/4HANA
7 20 (0.23%) ION MarketView
7 20 (0.23%) Markit EDM
8 18 (0.21%) Oracle ERP
8 18 (0.21%) Oracle Payables
9 17 (0.19%) Oracle General Ledger
10 16 (0.18%) Oracle Financials
10 16 (0.18%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 15 (0.17%) Oracle Receivables
11 15 (0.17%) SAP HCM
12 14 (0.16%) Hyperion Planning
12 14 (0.16%) Unit4 Business World
13 13 (0.15%) Oracle Applications
13 13 (0.15%) Oracle EBS R12
14 12 (0.14%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 2,491 (28.50%) Azure
2 1,353 (15.48%) AWS
3 1,178 (13.48%) Power Platform
4 493 (5.64%) GCP
5 484 (5.54%) Serverless
6 396 (4.53%) Azure Data Factory
7 292 (3.34%) PaaS
8 255 (2.92%) Azure Cosmos DB
9 243 (2.78%) GitHub
10 241 (2.76%) AWS Lambda
11 214 (2.45%) Microsoft 365
12 211 (2.41%) Amazon S3
13 206 (2.36%) Azure Synapse Analytics
14 203 (2.32%) Azure Functions
15 199 (2.28%) SaaS
16 173 (1.98%) IaaS
17 154 (1.76%) Snowflake
18 145 (1.66%) Azure Storage
19 143 (1.64%) Azure Active Directory
20 134 (1.53%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 183 (2.09%) Firewall
2 126 (1.44%) TCP/IP
3 120 (1.37%) DNS
4 116 (1.33%) HTTP
5 82 (0.94%) SSL
6 81 (0.93%) Internet
6 81 (0.93%) WAN
7 80 (0.92%) SAN
8 67 (0.77%) DHCP
9 59 (0.68%) LAN
10 51 (0.58%) VPN
11 38 (0.43%) FTP
12 33 (0.38%) Kerberos
12 33 (0.38%) RTMP
13 30 (0.34%) HTTPS
14 28 (0.32%) Skype
15 26 (0.30%) Multicast
16 24 (0.27%) Intranet
17 23 (0.26%) Wi-Fi
18 21 (0.24%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,808 (20.69%) SQL Server
2 1,138 (13.02%) Data Warehouse
3 1,115 (12.76%) Power BI
4 728 (8.33%) Relational Database
5 661 (7.56%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 641 (7.33%) NoSQL
7 531 (6.08%) Azure SQL Database
8 526 (6.02%) Big Data
9 508 (5.81%) Data Lake
10 482 (5.52%) Tableau
11 453 (5.18%) PostgreSQL
12 443 (5.07%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 407 (4.66%) Hadoop
14 388 (4.44%) MySQL
15 384 (4.39%) Oracle Database
16 332 (3.80%) MongoDB
17 308 (3.52%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 236 (2.70%) Apache Hive
19 230 (2.63%) RDBMS
20 193 (2.21%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 1,015 (11.61%) Git (software)
2 782 (8.95%) JIRA
3 661 (7.56%) Jenkins
4 269 (3.08%) Maven
5 258 (2.95%) Visual Studio
6 234 (2.68%) Bitbucket
7 223 (2.55%) Selenium
8 192 (2.20%) TeamCity
9 182 (2.08%) Cucumber
10 176 (2.01%) Subversion
11 170 (1.95%) GitLab
12 114 (1.30%) JUnit
13 105 (1.20%) Postman
14 104 (1.19%) Team Foundation Server
15 102 (1.17%) Artifactory
16 92 (1.05%) SpecFlow
17 74 (0.85%) ERwin
18 68 (0.78%) Gradle
19 64 (0.73%) JMeter
20 62 (0.71%) SoapUI
General
1 2,066 (23.64%) Finance
2 1,859 (21.27%) Social Skills
3 1,042 (11.92%) Analytical Skills
4 996 (11.40%) Banking
5 479 (5.48%) Public Sector
6 470 (5.38%) Front Office
7 448 (5.13%) Investment Banking
8 311 (3.56%) Marketing
9 241 (2.76%) Presentation Skills
10 203 (2.32%) Retail
11 148 (1.69%) Telecoms
12 135 (1.54%) Legal
13 100 (1.14%) Manufacturing
14 90 (1.03%) Documentation Skills
15 85 (0.97%) Financial Institution
16 83 (0.95%) Electronics
17 76 (0.87%) Organisational Skills
18 72 (0.82%) Law
19 67 (0.77%) Back Office
20 63 (0.72%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 3,192 (36.53%) Developer
2 1,508 (17.26%) Analyst
3 841 (9.62%) Data Engineer
4 620 (7.09%) Data Analyst
5 487 (5.57%) Architect
6 482 (5.52%) Java Developer
7 460 (5.26%) .NET Developer
8 453 (5.18%) SQL Developer
9 440 (5.03%) C# Developer
10 360 (4.12%) Consultant
11 336 (3.84%) Python Developer
12 335 (3.83%) Azure Engineer
13 323 (3.70%) Software Engineer
14 302 (3.46%) Senior Developer
15 292 (3.34%) Business Analyst
16 279 (3.19%) Full Stack Developer
17 272 (3.11%) Business Intelligence Developer
18 271 (3.10%) SQL Analyst
19 230 (2.63%) DBA
20 215 (2.46%) Python Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,508 (17.26%) .NET
2 628 (7.19%) HTML
3 616 (7.05%) REST
4 577 (6.60%) Spring
5 572 (6.55%) AngularJS
6 536 (6.13%) Web Services
7 509 (5.82%) XML
8 494 (5.65%) React
9 483 (5.53%) CSS
10 458 (5.24%) Kafka
11 438 (5.01%) .NET Core
12 433 (4.95%) .NET Framework
13 428 (4.90%) JSON
14 427 (4.89%) ASP.NET
15 402 (4.60%) Spring Boot
16 382 (4.37%) RESTful
17 286 (3.27%) Node.js
18 225 (2.57%) SOAP
19 213 (2.44%) HTML5
20 171 (1.96%) Entity Framework
Miscellaneous
1 272 (3.11%) Data Structures
2 261 (2.99%) Fixed Income
3 258 (2.95%) Derivative
4 239 (2.73%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 220 (2.52%) Management Information System
6 191 (2.19%) Algorithms
7 182 (2.08%) Data Protection Act
8 174 (1.99%) NHS
9 152 (1.74%) Equities
10 138 (1.58%) Virtual Team
11 135 (1.54%) Self-Motivation
12 130 (1.49%) User Experience
13 120 (1.37%) Greenfield Project
14 116 (1.33%) Legacy Systems
15 110 (1.26%) Cloud Native
16 106 (1.21%) Data Centre
17 94 (1.08%) Clustering
18 92 (1.05%) Public Cloud
19 85 (0.97%) Enterprise Software
20 81 (0.93%) Reference Data
Operating Systems
1 955 (10.93%) Windows
2 871 (9.97%) Linux
3 684 (7.83%) Unix
4 256 (2.93%) Windows Server
5 98 (1.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 81 (0.93%) Windows Server 2012
7 70 (0.80%) Windows Server 2016
8 57 (0.65%) Windows 10
9 54 (0.62%) Windows Server 2019
10 49 (0.56%) Windows Server 2008
11 37 (0.42%) Android
12 35 (0.40%) Apple iOS
12 35 (0.40%) Ubuntu
13 31 (0.35%) Solaris
14 27 (0.31%) AIX
15 26 (0.30%) VMS
16 24 (0.27%) Windows 7
17 17 (0.19%) CentOS
18 11 (0.13%) Debian
19 8 (0.092%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,749 (31.46%) Agile Software Development
2 1,742 (19.93%) Business Intelligence
3 1,565 (17.91%) DevOps
4 1,389 (15.89%) Analytics
5 1,274 (14.58%) ETL
6 1,098 (12.56%) Data Modelling
7 943 (10.79%) Scrum
8 892 (10.21%) Problem-Solving
9 837 (9.58%) Migration
10 804 (9.20%) Microservices
11 788 (9.02%) Software Engineering
12 756 (8.65%) Test Automation
13 714 (8.17%) Data Analysis
14 690 (7.90%) Visualisation
15 639 (7.31%) Full Stack Development
16 601 (6.88%) TDD
17 480 (5.49%) Continuous Integration
18 463 (5.30%) SDLC
19 454 (5.20%) OO
20 440 (5.03%) Data Engineering
Programming Languages
1 2,299 (26.31%) Python
2 1,810 (20.71%) Java
3 1,506 (17.23%) C#
4 1,202 (13.75%) JavaScript
5 710 (8.12%) PL/SQL
6 674 (7.71%) T-SQL
7 498 (5.70%) PowerShell
8 413 (4.73%) Scala
9 409 (4.68%) TypeScript
10 347 (3.97%) C++
11 336 (3.84%) R
12 307 (3.51%) Shell Script
13 270 (3.09%) Java 8
14 269 (3.08%) VBA
15 164 (1.88%) Perl
16 145 (1.66%) Bash Shell
17 144 (1.65%) VB
18 130 (1.49%) PHP
19 128 (1.46%) C
19 128 (1.46%) Go
Qualifications
1 572 (6.55%) Security Cleared
2 508 (5.81%) Degree
3 429 (4.91%) SC Cleared
4 174 (1.99%) Computer Science Degree
5 103 (1.18%) ISTQB
6 102 (1.17%) DV Cleared
7 84 (0.96%) ISEB
8 61 (0.70%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 59 (0.68%) BPSS Clearance
10 56 (0.64%) Microsoft Certification
11 41 (0.47%) Numerate Degree
12 29 (0.33%) AWS Certification
13 28 (0.32%) Master's Degree
14 27 (0.31%) DBS Check
15 21 (0.24%) MCSE
16 19 (0.22%) ITIL Certification
17 17 (0.19%) CIMA
17 17 (0.19%) MCSA
18 15 (0.17%) Cisco Certification
19 13 (0.15%) CCNA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 430 (4.92%) QA
2 394 (4.51%) Data Quality
3 125 (1.43%) GDPR
4 69 (0.79%) Accessibility
5 67 (0.77%) SLA
6 41 (0.47%) IFRS
7 36 (0.41%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 32 (0.37%) EMIR
9 27 (0.31%) MiFID
10 21 (0.24%) Dodd-Frank
11 20 (0.23%) GAAP
12 17 (0.19%) PMO
13 14 (0.16%) GRC
14 12 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
14 12 (0.14%) PCI DSS
15 11 (0.13%) WCAG
16 7 (0.080%) Actionable Recommendations
16 7 (0.080%) COREP
16 7 (0.080%) HL7
16 7 (0.080%) NIST
System Software
1 664 (7.60%) Docker
2 412 (4.71%) Active Directory
3 161 (1.84%) VMware Infrastructure
4 84 (0.96%) HDFS
5 61 (0.70%) Virtual Machines
6 57 (0.65%) Hyper-V
7 46 (0.53%) vSphere
8 43 (0.49%) Oracle RAC
9 28 (0.32%) VMware ESXi
10 26 (0.30%) XenApp
11 23 (0.26%) Virtual Desktop
11 23 (0.26%) Virtual Servers
12 17 (0.19%) RACF
13 15 (0.17%) BitLocker
13 15 (0.17%) VMware NSX
14 14 (0.16%) Microsoft App-V
14 14 (0.16%) NFS
14 14 (0.16%) VMware Workstation
15 12 (0.14%) XenDesktop
16 10 (0.11%) Platform Symphony
Systems Management
1 614 (7.03%) Kubernetes
2 362 (4.14%) Terraform
3 329 (3.76%) Ansible
4 72 (0.82%) Puppet
5 65 (0.74%) Grafana
6 63 (0.72%) Kibana
6 63 (0.72%) SCCM
7 61 (0.70%) BladeLogic
8 58 (0.66%) Prometheus
9 47 (0.54%) Data Guard
9 47 (0.54%) ITRS Geneos
10 46 (0.53%) Control-M
11 45 (0.51%) Opscode Chef
12 38 (0.43%) Single Sign-On
13 36 (0.41%) Microsoft Clustering
14 33 (0.38%) Microsoft Intune
15 32 (0.37%) Oozie
16 29 (0.33%) Nagios
17 28 (0.32%) logstash
17 28 (0.32%) Oracle RMAN
Vendors
1 1,762 (20.16%) Oracle
2 1,396 (15.97%) Microsoft
3 484 (5.54%) Databricks
4 316 (3.62%) Google
5 304 (3.48%) SAP
6 283 (3.24%) Informatica
7 246 (2.81%) VMware
8 202 (2.31%) Salesforce.com
9 158 (1.81%) IBM
10 116 (1.33%) Red Hat
11 110 (1.26%) webMethods
12 108 (1.24%) Splunk
13 103 (1.18%) Cloudera
14 98 (1.12%) Alteryx
14 98 (1.12%) Citrix
15 94 (1.08%) BEA
16 91 (1.04%) Cisco
16 91 (1.04%) ServiceNow
17 87 (1.00%) Adobe
18 86 (0.98%) Talend