Period
to 29 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK > England
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 6 8 5
Rank change year-on-year +2 -3 +2
Contract jobs citing SQL 7,546 4,202 10,905
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 13.20% 12.87% 13.06%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.50% 30.79% 30.41%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,208 3,010 7,783
10th Percentile £325 £323 £309
25th Percentile £410 £400 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -
75th Percentile £613 £575 £550
90th Percentile £700 £675 £638
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £450
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 135 60 119
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.63 £15.31
25th Percentile £19.00 £17.83 £20.00
Median hourly rate £27.22 £26.26 £31.00
Median % change year-on-year +3.67% -15.30% +30.53%
75th Percentile £47.50 £43.94 £47.34
90th Percentile £58.73 £55.30 £55.20
UK median hourly rate £27.36 £26.26 £30.00
% change year-on-year +4.20% -12.48% +33.33%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 23,216 13,647 35,858
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 40.62% 41.80% 42.94%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,669 9,755 25,318
10th Percentile £350 £325 £325
25th Percentile £413 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £518 £500 £480
Median % change year-on-year +3.53% +4.17% +1.05%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £575
90th Percentile £700 £688 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 409 243 590
10th Percentile £16.84 £15.35 £20.31
25th Percentile £25.00 £22.50 £34.25
Median hourly rate £42.81 £42.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +0.73% -5.56% +9.76%
75th Percentile £55.00 £50.00 £51.25
90th Percentile £64.55 £60.00 £55.00
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £44.96
% change year-on-year - -5.47% +11.01%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Daily rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL in England.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in England

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL in England over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in England

SQL
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the England region over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +1 4,541 £550 +7.32% 1,280
South East -2 819 £475 - 502
North of England 0 631 £425 +6.25% 665
Midlands +1 557 £425 - 469
West Midlands -1 411 £450 +3.45% 308
North West -4 334 £425 +13.33% 358
South West +6 296 £450 - 225
Yorkshire 0 237 £425 +6.25% 240
East of England +4 234 £400 -8.57% 211
East Midlands 0 137 £398 -0.63% 160
North East -4 60 £465 +7.51% 67
SQL
UK

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for SQL.

1 2,418 (32.04%) Agile Software Development
2 2,109 (27.95%) Azure
3 2,015 (26.70%) Python
4 1,736 (23.01%) Finance
5 1,644 (21.79%) Social Skills
6 1,610 (21.34%) Oracle
7 1,578 (20.91%) Java
8 1,424 (18.87%) SQL Server
9 1,401 (18.57%) Business Intelligence
10 1,383 (18.33%) DevOps
11 1,309 (17.35%) .NET
12 1,257 (16.66%) C#
13 1,205 (15.97%) Microsoft
14 1,173 (15.54%) AWS
15 1,163 (15.41%) Analytics
16 1,008 (13.36%) ETL
17 1,004 (13.31%) JavaScript
18 961 (12.74%) Data Warehouse
19 958 (12.70%) Power Platform
20 947 (12.55%) Data Modelling
21 925 (12.26%) Banking
22 913 (12.10%) Power BI
23 879 (11.65%) Analytical Skills
24 851 (11.28%) Git (software)
25 838 (11.11%) Scrum
26 824 (10.92%) Problem-Solving
27 782 (10.36%) Migration
28 777 (10.30%) Windows
29 743 (9.85%) Linux
30 683 (9.05%) Microservices

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 413 (5.47%) Apache Spark
2 277 (3.67%) Confluence
3 231 (3.06%) Apache
4 209 (2.77%) SharePoint
5 151 (2.00%) SAS
6 144 (1.91%) WebLogic
7 140 (1.86%) Apache Airflow
8 113 (1.50%) Tomcat
9 106 (1.40%) IIS
10 82 (1.09%) Elasticsearch
11 71 (0.94%) BizTalk Server
12 67 (0.89%) WebSphere
13 56 (0.74%) Oracle Coherence
13 56 (0.74%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 49 (0.65%) JBoss
15 48 (0.64%) CMS
16 35 (0.46%) Jupyter
17 31 (0.41%) MS Exchange
17 31 (0.41%) nginx
18 26 (0.34%) Luigi
Applications
1 450 (5.96%) Microsoft Excel
2 151 (2.00%) Microsoft Office
3 79 (1.05%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 33 (0.44%) MS Visio
5 32 (0.42%) Spreadsheet
6 25 (0.33%) SPSS
7 13 (0.17%) Stata
8 11 (0.15%) Chatbot
8 11 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
9 8 (0.11%) InfoPath
10 4 (0.053%) Oracle Smart View
10 4 (0.053%) Photoshop
11 2 (0.027%) Mingle
12 1 (0.013%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.013%) AutoCAD
12 1 (0.013%) Figma
12 1 (0.013%) Pipeline Pilot
12 1 (0.013%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 76 (1.01%) Dynamics CRM
2 49 (0.65%) Oracle EBS
3 33 (0.44%) SunGard Martini
4 29 (0.38%) NetSuite
5 26 (0.34%) ION MarketView
6 22 (0.29%) Dynamics AX
7 20 (0.27%) Oracle Payables
8 18 (0.24%) Oracle Applications
9 17 (0.23%) Maximo
9 17 (0.23%) Oracle General Ledger
9 17 (0.23%) Oracle Receivables
9 17 (0.23%) SAP S/4HANA
9 17 (0.23%) Unit4 Business World
10 16 (0.21%) Oracle Financials
11 15 (0.20%) Magento
12 14 (0.19%) Markit EDM
12 14 (0.19%) SAP HCM
13 13 (0.17%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
13 13 (0.17%) Summit
14 11 (0.15%) Oracle ERP
Cloud Services
1 2,109 (27.95%) Azure
2 1,173 (15.54%) AWS
3 958 (12.70%) Power Platform
4 439 (5.82%) Serverless
5 434 (5.75%) GCP
6 351 (4.65%) Azure Data Factory
7 231 (3.06%) PaaS
8 229 (3.03%) Azure Cosmos DB
9 220 (2.92%) AWS Lambda
10 212 (2.81%) SaaS
11 208 (2.76%) Azure Functions
12 172 (2.28%) Microsoft 365
13 170 (2.25%) GitHub
14 169 (2.24%) Azure Synapse Analytics
15 155 (2.05%) IaaS
16 153 (2.03%) Amazon S3
17 145 (1.92%) Azure Storage
18 120 (1.59%) Azure Logic Apps
19 119 (1.58%) Snowflake
20 118 (1.56%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 168 (2.23%) Firewall
2 112 (1.48%) TCP/IP
3 97 (1.29%) DNS
3 97 (1.29%) HTTP
4 78 (1.03%) SSL
5 64 (0.85%) DHCP
6 63 (0.83%) WAN
7 58 (0.77%) SAN
8 45 (0.60%) LAN
9 42 (0.56%) Internet
10 38 (0.50%) VPN
11 37 (0.49%) Kerberos
12 32 (0.42%) FTP
13 30 (0.40%) Multicast
14 29 (0.38%) Wi-Fi
15 27 (0.36%) Network Security
15 27 (0.36%) SSH
16 25 (0.33%) Skype
17 22 (0.29%) RTMP
17 22 (0.29%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,424 (18.87%) SQL Server
2 961 (12.74%) Data Warehouse
3 913 (12.10%) Power BI
4 577 (7.65%) Relational Database
5 552 (7.32%) NoSQL
6 521 (6.90%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 471 (6.24%) Azure SQL Database
8 457 (6.06%) Big Data
9 410 (5.43%) Tableau
10 406 (5.38%) Data Lake
11 377 (5.00%) PostgreSQL
12 372 (4.93%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 343 (4.55%) Hadoop
14 334 (4.43%) MySQL
15 308 (4.08%) Oracle Database
16 289 (3.83%) MongoDB
17 242 (3.21%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 184 (2.44%) Apache Hive
19 168 (2.23%) BigQuery
20 167 (2.21%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 851 (11.28%) Git (software)
2 630 (8.35%) JIRA
3 581 (7.70%) Jenkins
4 230 (3.05%) Maven
5 211 (2.80%) Visual Studio
6 197 (2.61%) Bitbucket
7 171 (2.27%) Selenium
8 167 (2.21%) TeamCity
9 149 (1.97%) Subversion
10 140 (1.86%) Cucumber
11 124 (1.64%) GitLab
12 93 (1.23%) JUnit
13 79 (1.05%) Artifactory
13 79 (1.05%) Postman
14 71 (0.94%) Oracle APEX
15 67 (0.89%) Octopus Deploy
16 64 (0.85%) Team Foundation Server
17 62 (0.82%) Eclipse
18 61 (0.81%) Mockito
19 58 (0.77%) Gradle
General
1 1,736 (23.01%) Finance
2 1,644 (21.79%) Social Skills
3 925 (12.26%) Banking
4 879 (11.65%) Analytical Skills
5 429 (5.69%) Investment Banking
6 426 (5.65%) Front Office
7 386 (5.12%) Public Sector
8 289 (3.83%) Marketing
9 214 (2.84%) Retail
10 213 (2.82%) Presentation Skills
11 137 (1.82%) Telecoms
12 103 (1.36%) Legal
13 93 (1.23%) Documentation Skills
14 85 (1.13%) Manufacturing
15 72 (0.95%) Organisational Skills
16 71 (0.94%) Electronics
17 69 (0.91%) Back Office
18 58 (0.77%) Financial Institution
19 56 (0.74%) Influencing Skills
19 56 (0.74%) Law
Job Titles
1 2,758 (36.55%) Developer
2 1,317 (17.45%) Analyst
3 694 (9.20%) Data Engineer
4 526 (6.97%) Data Analyst
5 482 (6.39%) Architect
6 451 (5.98%) Java Developer
7 408 (5.41%) .NET Developer
8 407 (5.39%) C# Developer
9 391 (5.18%) SQL Developer
10 321 (4.25%) Consultant
11 283 (3.75%) Senior Developer
12 273 (3.62%) Azure Engineer
13 248 (3.29%) Python Developer
14 247 (3.27%) Business Analyst
15 245 (3.25%) Full Stack Developer
16 244 (3.23%) Software Engineer
17 224 (2.97%) SQL Analyst
18 211 (2.80%) Business Intelligence Developer
19 184 (2.44%) DBA
20 180 (2.39%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,309 (17.35%) .NET
2 580 (7.69%) HTML
3 537 (7.12%) Spring
4 529 (7.01%) AngularJS
5 478 (6.33%) REST
6 475 (6.29%) Web Services
7 426 (5.65%) XML
8 418 (5.54%) React
9 416 (5.51%) CSS
10 405 (5.37%) RESTful
11 398 (5.27%) .NET Core
12 377 (5.00%) JSON
13 370 (4.90%) Kafka
14 325 (4.31%) Spring Boot
15 322 (4.27%) .NET Framework
16 318 (4.21%) ASP.NET
17 288 (3.82%) Node.js
18 223 (2.96%) HTML5
19 220 (2.92%) SOAP
20 158 (2.09%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 285 (3.78%) Data Structures
2 235 (3.11%) Fixed Income
3 228 (3.02%) Derivative
4 209 (2.77%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 194 (2.57%) Algorithms
6 183 (2.43%) Management Information System
7 143 (1.90%) NHS
8 138 (1.83%) User Experience
9 133 (1.76%) Virtual Team
10 126 (1.67%) Cloud Native
11 122 (1.62%) Self-Motivation
12 116 (1.54%) Legacy Systems
13 115 (1.52%) Greenfield Project
14 107 (1.42%) Data Protection Act
15 93 (1.23%) Data Centre
16 92 (1.22%) Equities
17 77 (1.02%) Enterprise Software
17 77 (1.02%) Public Cloud
18 73 (0.97%) Hedge funds
19 70 (0.93%) Reference Data
Operating Systems
1 777 (10.30%) Windows
2 743 (9.85%) Linux
3 589 (7.81%) Unix
4 219 (2.90%) Windows Server
5 90 (1.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 81 (1.07%) Windows Server 2012
7 73 (0.97%) Windows Server 2016
8 61 (0.81%) Windows 10
9 43 (0.57%) Android
10 41 (0.54%) Windows Server 2019
11 38 (0.50%) AIX
12 36 (0.48%) Solaris
12 36 (0.48%) Ubuntu
13 30 (0.40%) Apple iOS
14 27 (0.36%) Windows Server 2008
15 25 (0.33%) VMS
16 23 (0.30%) Windows 7
17 21 (0.28%) CentOS
18 10 (0.13%) Debian
19 8 (0.11%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,418 (32.04%) Agile Software Development
2 1,401 (18.57%) Business Intelligence
3 1,383 (18.33%) DevOps
4 1,163 (15.41%) Analytics
5 1,008 (13.36%) ETL
6 947 (12.55%) Data Modelling
7 838 (11.11%) Scrum
8 824 (10.92%) Problem-Solving
9 782 (10.36%) Migration
10 683 (9.05%) Microservices
11 653 (8.65%) Test Automation
12 647 (8.57%) Software Engineering
13 581 (7.70%) TDD
14 561 (7.43%) Visualisation
15 552 (7.32%) Full Stack Development
16 544 (7.21%) Data Analysis
17 487 (6.45%) Continuous Integration
18 390 (5.17%) Data Science
19 387 (5.13%) SDLC
20 377 (5.00%) Data Engineering
Programming Languages
1 2,015 (26.70%) Python
2 1,578 (20.91%) Java
3 1,257 (16.66%) C#
4 1,004 (13.31%) JavaScript
5 670 (8.88%) PL/SQL
6 553 (7.33%) T-SQL
7 453 (6.00%) PowerShell
8 362 (4.80%) Scala
9 341 (4.52%) TypeScript
10 324 (4.29%) C++
11 294 (3.90%) R
12 262 (3.47%) Shell Script
13 230 (3.05%) Java 8
14 193 (2.56%) VBA
15 162 (2.15%) Perl
16 126 (1.67%) C
17 123 (1.63%) VB
18 122 (1.62%) Bash Shell
19 119 (1.58%) Go
20 111 (1.47%) PHP
Qualifications
1 547 (7.25%) Security Cleared
2 475 (6.29%) Degree
3 394 (5.22%) SC Cleared
4 112 (1.48%) Computer Science Degree
5 110 (1.46%) DV Cleared
6 85 (1.13%) ISTQB
7 81 (1.07%) ISEB
8 46 (0.61%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 42 (0.56%) BPSS Clearance
9 42 (0.56%) Microsoft Certification
10 34 (0.45%) Numerate Degree
11 27 (0.36%) AWS Certification
12 24 (0.32%) Master's Degree
13 23 (0.30%) DBS Check
14 22 (0.29%) ITIL Certification
15 16 (0.21%) PhD
16 14 (0.19%) TOGAF Certification
17 12 (0.16%) MCSE
18 11 (0.15%) Cisco Certification
19 10 (0.13%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 343 (4.55%) Data Quality
2 337 (4.47%) QA
3 84 (1.11%) GDPR
4 54 (0.72%) SLA
5 48 (0.64%) Accessibility
6 31 (0.41%) IFRS
7 28 (0.37%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 17 (0.23%) MiFID
9 16 (0.21%) GRC
10 13 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
11 12 (0.16%) GAAP
12 11 (0.15%) PMO
13 9 (0.12%) EMIR
14 8 (0.11%) HL7
14 8 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
14 8 (0.11%) PCI DSS
14 8 (0.11%) WCAG
15 7 (0.093%) Dodd-Frank
15 7 (0.093%) FINREP
15 7 (0.093%) IFRS 9
System Software
1 501 (6.64%) Docker
2 322 (4.27%) Active Directory
3 143 (1.90%) VMware Infrastructure
4 85 (1.13%) Hyper-V
5 67 (0.89%) HDFS
6 52 (0.69%) Virtual Machines
7 40 (0.53%) Microsoft App-V
7 40 (0.53%) VMware ESXi
8 37 (0.49%) Oracle RAC
9 36 (0.48%) XenApp
10 30 (0.40%) Virtual Desktop
11 23 (0.30%) Platform Symphony
11 23 (0.30%) vSphere
12 16 (0.21%) Virtual Servers
13 15 (0.20%) RACF
13 15 (0.20%) XenDesktop
14 14 (0.19%) NFS
15 12 (0.16%) BitLocker
16 10 (0.13%) DFS Replication
16 10 (0.13%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 525 (6.96%) Kubernetes
2 277 (3.67%) Terraform
3 266 (3.53%) Ansible
4 83 (1.10%) SCCM
5 70 (0.93%) Puppet
6 55 (0.73%) Grafana
7 46 (0.61%) Opscode Chef
8 44 (0.58%) Control-M
9 40 (0.53%) Data Guard
10 37 (0.49%) Prometheus
11 36 (0.48%) Single Sign-On
12 34 (0.45%) Kibana
13 32 (0.42%) Oozie
14 28 (0.37%) ITRS Geneos
14 28 (0.37%) SCOM
15 27 (0.36%) Hadoop YARN
16 25 (0.33%) BladeLogic
16 25 (0.33%) Microsoft Intune
16 25 (0.33%) WSUS
17 23 (0.30%) Oracle RMAN
Vendors
1 1,610 (21.34%) Oracle
2 1,205 (15.97%) Microsoft
3 394 (5.22%) Databricks
4 308 (4.08%) Google
5 264 (3.50%) SAP
6 225 (2.98%) Informatica
7 214 (2.84%) VMware
8 167 (2.21%) Salesforce.com
9 164 (2.17%) IBM
10 105 (1.39%) Red Hat
11 100 (1.33%) Splunk
12 96 (1.27%) Citrix
13 86 (1.14%) webMethods
14 82 (1.09%) Cloudera
15 81 (1.07%) Alteryx
15 81 (1.07%) BEA
16 80 (1.06%) Talend
17 78 (1.03%) ServiceNow
18 76 (1.01%) MuleSoft
19 72 (0.95%) Adobe