Period
to 17 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 17 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK > England
6 months to
17 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 10 7 10
Rank change year-on-year -3 +3 -5
Contract jobs citing Java 7,707 3,825 8,826
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 11.58% 14.40% 11.35%
As % of the Programming Languages category 29.12% 33.44% 26.80%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,603 2,843 6,111
10th Percentile £406 £363 £388
25th Percentile £475 £438 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £563 £525 £533
Median % change year-on-year +7.14% -1.41% +3.90%
75th Percentile £675 £650 £625
90th Percentile £750 £750 £700
UK median daily rate £550 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 72 22 57
10th Percentile £33.20 £21.30 £23.60
25th Percentile £46.91 £41.31 £34.00
Median hourly rate £61.40 £44.50 £46.00
Median % change year-on-year +37.97% -3.26% +5.75%
75th Percentile £68.78 £60.31 £51.25
90th Percentile £71.98 £65.53 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £60.00 £43.00 £46.00
% change year-on-year +39.53% -6.52% +6.36%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 26,467 11,439 32,928
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 39.76% 43.07% 42.35%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,277 8,112 23,367
10th Percentile £363 £313 £325
25th Percentile £425 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +5.05% +2.51% +2.63%
75th Percentile £638 £600 £575
90th Percentile £713 £694 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £483 £475
% change year-on-year +8.81% +1.58% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 392 223 576
10th Percentile £17.40 £12.63 £18.47
25th Percentile £25.44 £21.25 £34.00
Median hourly rate £45.50 £37.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +21.33% -16.67% +6.51%
75th Percentile £58.75 £47.50 £51.25
90th Percentile £65.54 £55.00 £55.50
UK median hourly rate £45.50 £37.71 £44.51
% change year-on-year +20.65% -15.27% +5.98%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Java in England

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Daily rate trend for Java in England

Java
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Hourly rate trend for Java in England

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the England region over the 6 months to 17 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -4 5,144 £600 +4.35% 1,387
North of England -1 639 £500 +5.26% 399
South East 0 510 £500 +5.21% 268
North West -1 361 £484 +7.50% 226
Midlands -6 344 £495 +17.16% 222
South West -3 331 £500 +2.56% 169
West Midlands -1 291 £495 +14.85% 154
East of England -2 223 £540 +8.00% 114
Yorkshire -12 205 £500 - 121
North East +1 80 £513 +2.50% 52
East Midlands -40 48 £475 +18.75% 65
Java
UK

For the 6 months to 17 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Java.

1 3,402 (44.14%) Agile Software Development
2 2,108 (27.35%) Spring
3 2,079 (26.98%) Microservices
4 2,057 (26.69%) AWS
5 1,844 (23.93%) Python
6 1,781 (23.11%) SQL
7 1,771 (22.98%) DevOps
8 1,704 (22.11%) Finance
9 1,650 (21.41%) JavaScript
10 1,564 (20.29%) Jenkins
11 1,449 (18.80%) Kubernetes
12 1,426 (18.50%) Docker
13 1,408 (18.27%) Social Skills
14 1,386 (17.98%) Spring Boot
15 1,369 (17.76%) TDD
16 1,331 (17.27%) Git (software)
17 1,304 (16.92%) Azure
18 1,297 (16.83%) Software Engineering
19 1,253 (16.26%) Banking
20 1,203 (15.61%) Test Automation
21 1,087 (14.10%) Scrum
22 1,079 (14.00%) Linux
23 1,048 (13.60%) Oracle
24 978 (12.69%) REST
25 910 (11.81%) Java 8
26 901 (11.69%) Kafka
27 893 (11.59%) React
28 872 (11.31%) JIRA
29 855 (11.09%) Maven
30 818 (10.61%) BDD

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 496 (6.44%) Confluence
2 374 (4.85%) Apache Spark
3 278 (3.61%) Apache
4 201 (2.61%) Tomcat
5 177 (2.30%) Elasticsearch
6 163 (2.11%) WebLogic
7 103 (1.34%) WebSphere
8 101 (1.31%) JBoss
8 101 (1.31%) Mule
9 84 (1.09%) CMS
10 83 (1.08%) Apache Airflow
11 60 (0.78%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 57 (0.74%) Cloud Foundry
13 56 (0.73%) SharePoint
14 53 (0.69%) SAS
15 47 (0.61%) OpenStack
16 43 (0.56%) Red Hat Fuse
17 38 (0.49%) nginx
18 37 (0.48%) Oracle Workflow
19 35 (0.45%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 74 (0.96%) Microsoft Excel
2 38 (0.49%) Microsoft Office
3 13 (0.17%) Spreadsheet
4 8 (0.10%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 7 (0.091%) MS Visio
6 6 (0.078%) Photoshop
7 5 (0.065%) Microsoft Project
8 4 (0.052%) Chatbot
9 2 (0.026%) Figma
9 2 (0.026%) SPSS
10 1 (0.013%) 3ds Max
10 1 (0.013%) Maya
10 1 (0.013%) Sketch
10 1 (0.013%) ZBrush
10 1 (0.013%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 53 (0.69%) ION MarketView
2 38 (0.49%) Dynamics CRM
3 36 (0.47%) SAP Hybris
4 27 (0.35%) Magento
5 23 (0.30%) Dynamics AX
6 10 (0.13%) Shopify
7 9 (0.12%) Oracle BPM
8 7 (0.091%) BusinessWorks
8 7 (0.091%) Payment Gateway
8 7 (0.091%) SAP CRM
8 7 (0.091%) SAP ERP
8 7 (0.091%) Temenos T24
9 6 (0.078%) Distributed Ledger
9 6 (0.078%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 6 (0.078%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 5 (0.065%) SAP FI-CA
10 5 (0.065%) SAP PSCD
10 5 (0.065%) SAP S/4HANA
11 4 (0.052%) Loan IQ
11 4 (0.052%) Oracle Financials
Cloud Services
1 2,057 (26.69%) AWS
2 1,304 (16.92%) Azure
3 800 (10.38%) GCP
4 452 (5.86%) Serverless
5 450 (5.84%) GitHub
6 285 (3.70%) AWS Lambda
7 248 (3.22%) Amazon S3
8 206 (2.67%) Amazon EC2
9 203 (2.63%) AWS CloudFormation
10 179 (2.32%) SaaS
11 173 (2.24%) OpenShift
12 145 (1.88%) PaaS
13 130 (1.69%) Amazon SQS
14 116 (1.51%) IaaS
15 99 (1.28%) Apigee
16 95 (1.23%) Amazon ECS
17 80 (1.04%) Amazon EKS
18 74 (0.96%) Power Platform
19 71 (0.92%) Cloud Computing
20 63 (0.82%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 197 (2.56%) HTTP
2 97 (1.26%) TCP/IP
3 72 (0.93%) Firewall
4 59 (0.77%) SSL
5 57 (0.74%) Internet
6 56 (0.73%) DNS
7 31 (0.40%) LAN
7 31 (0.40%) Network Security
8 26 (0.34%) RTMP
9 23 (0.30%) SAN
10 22 (0.29%) DHCP
10 22 (0.29%) Ethernet
10 22 (0.29%) FTP
11 21 (0.27%) HTTPS
11 21 (0.27%) NAS
11 21 (0.27%) WAN
12 17 (0.22%) FIX Connectivity
12 17 (0.22%) Kerberos
12 17 (0.22%) VPN
13 15 (0.19%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 603 (7.82%) NoSQL
2 535 (6.94%) Relational Database
3 429 (5.57%) MongoDB
4 422 (5.48%) PostgreSQL
5 411 (5.33%) MySQL
6 347 (4.50%) Big Data
6 347 (4.50%) SQL Server
7 302 (3.92%) Hadoop
8 198 (2.57%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 196 (2.54%) Data Warehouse
10 195 (2.53%) Oracle Database
11 173 (2.24%) Apache Cassandra
12 166 (2.15%) Redis
13 154 (2.00%) RDBMS
14 139 (1.80%) Apache Hive
15 125 (1.62%) HBase
16 121 (1.57%) BigQuery
17 104 (1.35%) Amazon RDS
18 103 (1.34%) Data Lake
19 83 (1.08%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 1,564 (20.29%) Jenkins
2 1,331 (17.27%) Git (software)
3 872 (11.31%) JIRA
4 855 (11.09%) Maven
5 476 (6.18%) Cucumber
6 452 (5.86%) JUnit
7 441 (5.72%) Selenium
8 294 (3.81%) GitLab
9 266 (3.45%) Bitbucket
10 253 (3.28%) Gradle
11 244 (3.17%) Mockito
12 184 (2.39%) TeamCity
13 169 (2.19%) Postman
14 156 (2.02%) Subversion
15 152 (1.97%) JMeter
16 137 (1.78%) Sonatype Nexus
17 127 (1.65%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 120 (1.56%) IntelliJ
19 113 (1.47%) SonarQube
20 105 (1.36%) Artifactory
General
1 1,704 (22.11%) Finance
2 1,408 (18.27%) Social Skills
3 1,253 (16.26%) Banking
4 703 (9.12%) Front Office
5 588 (7.63%) Investment Banking
6 484 (6.28%) Analytical Skills
7 384 (4.98%) Public Sector
8 231 (3.00%) Retail
9 134 (1.74%) Presentation Skills
10 126 (1.63%) Marketing
11 97 (1.26%) Financial Institution
12 87 (1.13%) Manufacturing
13 80 (1.04%) Telecoms
14 57 (0.74%) Law
15 55 (0.71%) Games
16 53 (0.69%) Documentation Skills
16 53 (0.69%) Legal
17 51 (0.66%) Back Office
17 51 (0.66%) Electronics
18 49 (0.64%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 4,199 (54.48%) Developer
2 2,556 (33.16%) Java Developer
3 683 (8.86%) Senior Developer
4 665 (8.63%) Architect
5 527 (6.84%) Senior Java Developer
6 477 (6.19%) Software Engineer
7 425 (5.51%) Java Engineer
8 342 (4.44%) Full Stack Developer
9 336 (4.36%) DevOps Engineer
10 314 (4.07%) Data Engineer
11 232 (3.01%) Solutions Architect
12 215 (2.79%) React Developer
13 197 (2.56%) Front Office Developer
14 196 (2.54%) Analyst
15 195 (2.53%) Consultant
16 186 (2.41%) Java Software Engineer
17 178 (2.31%) Python Developer
18 171 (2.22%) AWS Developer
19 159 (2.06%) AWS Engineer
19 159 (2.06%) Tester
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,108 (27.35%) Spring
2 1,386 (17.98%) Spring Boot
3 978 (12.69%) REST
4 901 (11.69%) Kafka
5 893 (11.59%) React
6 772 (10.02%) Web Services
7 750 (9.73%) Node.js
8 742 (9.63%) RESTful
9 662 (8.59%) AngularJS
10 632 (8.20%) HTML
11 530 (6.88%) CSS
12 516 (6.70%) .NET
13 459 (5.96%) XML
14 440 (5.71%) JSON
15 367 (4.76%) J2EE
16 326 (4.23%) Hibernate
17 311 (4.04%) SOAP
18 266 (3.45%) Middleware
19 212 (2.75%) HTML5
20 200 (2.60%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 453 (5.88%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 418 (5.42%) Fixed Income
3 296 (3.84%) Derivative
4 262 (3.40%) Data Protection Act
5 248 (3.22%) Data Structures
6 244 (3.17%) Greenfield Project
7 242 (3.14%) User Experience
8 236 (3.06%) Equities
9 229 (2.97%) Algorithms
10 192 (2.49%) Mobile App
11 155 (2.01%) Cloud Native
12 142 (1.84%) Enterprise Software
13 130 (1.69%) Public Cloud
14 116 (1.51%) Hedge funds
15 95 (1.23%) Self-Motivation
16 88 (1.14%) Virtual Team
17 86 (1.12%) Management Information System
18 78 (1.01%) Client/Server
19 77 (1.00%) Legacy Systems
20 72 (0.93%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 1,079 (14.00%) Linux
2 684 (8.88%) Unix
3 411 (5.33%) Windows
4 268 (3.48%) Android
5 102 (1.32%) Apple iOS
6 84 (1.09%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 53 (0.69%) Ubuntu
8 37 (0.48%) Mac OS X
9 33 (0.43%) Windows Server
10 26 (0.34%) CentOS
11 21 (0.27%) Solaris
12 17 (0.22%) VMS
13 16 (0.21%) Debian
14 14 (0.18%) Windows 10
15 13 (0.17%) Windows Server 2012
15 13 (0.17%) Windows Server 2016
16 12 (0.16%) Mac OS
17 11 (0.14%) AIX
18 10 (0.13%) Oracle Linux
18 10 (0.13%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,402 (44.14%) Agile Software Development
2 2,079 (26.98%) Microservices
3 1,771 (22.98%) DevOps
4 1,369 (17.76%) TDD
5 1,297 (16.83%) Software Engineering
6 1,203 (15.61%) Test Automation
7 1,087 (14.10%) Scrum
8 818 (10.61%) BDD
9 714 (9.26%) Continuous Integration
10 710 (9.21%) Full Stack Development
11 639 (8.29%) Problem-Solving
12 596 (7.73%) Analytics
13 540 (7.01%) Multithreading
14 514 (6.67%) OO
15 470 (6.10%) SDLC
16 373 (4.84%) Open Source
17 367 (4.76%) Computer Science
18 362 (4.70%) Unit Testing
19 355 (4.61%) Low Latency
19 355 (4.61%) Migration
Programming Languages
1 1,844 (23.93%) Python
2 1,781 (23.11%) SQL
3 1,650 (21.41%) JavaScript
4 910 (11.81%) Java 8
5 742 (9.63%) C#
6 656 (8.51%) C++
7 612 (7.94%) Scala
8 511 (6.63%) Kotlin
9 447 (5.80%) TypeScript
10 379 (4.92%) Java 11
11 308 (4.00%) PL/SQL
12 300 (3.89%) Go
13 292 (3.79%) Bash Shell
14 271 (3.52%) Shell Script
15 234 (3.04%) C
16 233 (3.02%) Perl
16 233 (3.02%) PowerShell
17 183 (2.37%) Ruby
18 137 (1.78%) PHP
19 134 (1.74%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 753 (9.77%) Security Cleared
2 575 (7.46%) SC Cleared
3 440 (5.71%) Degree
4 161 (2.09%) Computer Science Degree
5 100 (1.30%) DV Cleared
6 65 (0.84%) AWS Certification
7 54 (0.70%) BPSS Clearance
8 48 (0.62%) ISTQB
9 45 (0.58%) Sun Certification
10 35 (0.45%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 34 (0.44%) OCPJP
12 31 (0.40%) Master's Degree
13 27 (0.35%) ISEB
14 20 (0.26%) RHCE
15 19 (0.25%) CISSP
16 14 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
17 12 (0.16%) DBS Check
18 11 (0.14%) CREST Certified
19 10 (0.13%) ITIL Certification
20 9 (0.12%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 335 (4.35%) QA
2 147 (1.91%) Accessibility
3 85 (1.10%) Data Quality
4 67 (0.87%) GDPR
5 30 (0.39%) PMO
6 22 (0.29%) NCSC
7 19 (0.25%) SLA
8 16 (0.21%) WCAG
9 9 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
10 8 (0.10%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 7 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 27005
11 7 (0.091%) NIST
12 6 (0.078%) ISO 20022
13 4 (0.052%) ISO/IEC 27001
13 4 (0.052%) PSD2
14 3 (0.039%) Basel II
14 3 (0.039%) Cyber Essentials
14 3 (0.039%) ISO 15022
14 3 (0.039%) MiFID
14 3 (0.039%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 1,426 (18.50%) Docker
2 89 (1.15%) Active Directory
3 78 (1.01%) HDFS
4 56 (0.73%) VMware Infrastructure
5 28 (0.36%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 21 (0.27%) GridGain
7 17 (0.22%) NFS
7 17 (0.22%) OpenAM
7 17 (0.22%) vSphere
8 16 (0.21%) Hyper-V
8 16 (0.21%) Virtual Machines
9 10 (0.13%) KVM
9 10 (0.13%) Oracle RAC
9 10 (0.13%) Xen
10 9 (0.12%) OpenDJ
11 8 (0.10%) Apache Flume
12 7 (0.091%) OpenIDM
12 7 (0.091%) SRDF
13 6 (0.078%) Virtual Servers
14 5 (0.065%) Platform Symphony
Systems Management
1 1,449 (18.80%) Kubernetes
2 704 (9.13%) Terraform
3 572 (7.42%) Ansible
4 186 (2.41%) Grafana
5 162 (2.10%) Puppet
6 137 (1.78%) Prometheus
7 107 (1.39%) Opscode Chef
8 97 (1.26%) Kibana
9 45 (0.58%) Rancher
10 44 (0.57%) Single Sign-On
11 42 (0.54%) Nagios
12 39 (0.51%) Oozie
13 34 (0.44%) logstash
14 29 (0.38%) ITRS Geneos
15 27 (0.35%) Packer
16 24 (0.31%) BladeLogic
17 23 (0.30%) Bosun
17 23 (0.30%) Istio
18 22 (0.29%) Hadoop YARN
19 20 (0.26%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 1,048 (13.60%) Oracle
2 365 (4.74%) Google
3 324 (4.20%) Microsoft
4 165 (2.14%) SAP
5 153 (1.99%) Splunk
6 149 (1.93%) IBM
7 129 (1.67%) ION Trading
8 120 (1.56%) MuleSoft
9 113 (1.47%) Salesforce.com
10 111 (1.44%) Informatica
11 110 (1.43%) webMethods
12 104 (1.35%) Atlassian
13 95 (1.23%) Red Hat
14 91 (1.18%) BEA
15 88 (1.14%) VMware
16 77 (1.00%) Sybase
17 76 (0.99%) hybris
18 71 (0.92%) Adobe
19 70 (0.91%) Cloudera
20 69 (0.90%) Talend