Period
to 3 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 3 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK > England
6 months to
3 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 10 7 7
Rank change year-on-year -3 0 -2
Contract jobs citing Java 6,855 4,354 10,241
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 11.87% 13.60% 12.22%
As % of the Programming Languages category 29.24% 32.66% 28.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,887 3,193 6,997
10th Percentile £400 £388 £388
25th Percentile £463 £450 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £538 £525
Median % change year-on-year +2.23% +2.48% +5.00%
75th Percentile £670 £650 £625
90th Percentile £738 £738 £688
UK median daily rate £550 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 61 48 72
10th Percentile £31.25 £18.89 £23.10
25th Percentile £45.00 £21.57 £37.69
Median hourly rate £60.00 £44.00 £47.50
Median % change year-on-year +36.36% -7.37% +11.76%
75th Percentile £65.54 £63.00 £53.75
90th Percentile £71.50 £68.75 £60.00
UK median hourly rate £60.00 £44.50 £47.09
% change year-on-year +34.83% -5.49% +10.79%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 23,443 13,333 35,867
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 40.60% 41.65% 42.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,844 9,519 25,315
10th Percentile £350 £325 £325
25th Percentile £413 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £500 £480
Median % change year-on-year +4.00% +4.17% +1.05%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £575
90th Percentile £700 £688 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 414 245 584
10th Percentile £16.20 £15.51 £20.25
25th Percentile £24.75 £22.50 £34.00
Median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year - -5.56% +9.76%
75th Percentile £55.00 £50.00 £51.25
90th Percentile £64.75 £59.20 £55.00
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -5.56% +11.11%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Java in England

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Daily rate trend for Java in England

Java
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Hourly rate trend for Java in England

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the England region over the 6 months to 3 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -3 4,565 £600 +6.19% 1,328
North of England -2 556 £500 +5.26% 437
South East -2 494 £475 - 278
South West -2 310 £488 -7.14% 160
North West 0 307 £484 +7.50% 253
Midlands -6 294 £465 +10.06% 178
West Midlands -3 238 £473 +11.18% 132
East of England -5 194 £528 +5.50% 115
Yorkshire -10 161 £500 - 137
North East +10 88 £525 +6.06% 47
East Midlands -27 52 £425 +0.59% 45
Java
UK

For the 6 months to 3 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Java.

1 2,995 (43.69%) Agile Software Development
2 1,948 (28.42%) Spring
3 1,791 (26.13%) Microservices
4 1,780 (25.97%) AWS
5 1,611 (23.50%) Python
6 1,596 (23.28%) SQL
7 1,495 (21.81%) Finance
8 1,486 (21.68%) DevOps
9 1,426 (20.80%) JavaScript
10 1,402 (20.45%) Jenkins
11 1,314 (19.17%) Docker
12 1,287 (18.77%) Social Skills
13 1,284 (18.73%) Kubernetes
14 1,211 (17.67%) Spring Boot
15 1,201 (17.52%) Banking
16 1,195 (17.43%) TDD
17 1,153 (16.82%) Azure
18 1,150 (16.78%) Git (software)
19 1,099 (16.03%) Software Engineering
20 986 (14.38%) Test Automation
21 971 (14.16%) Oracle
22 966 (14.09%) Scrum
23 929 (13.55%) Linux
24 913 (13.32%) REST
25 844 (12.31%) React
26 822 (11.99%) Java 8
27 816 (11.90%) Kafka
28 763 (11.13%) Security Cleared
29 758 (11.06%) Maven
30 751 (10.96%) JIRA

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 389 (5.67%) Confluence
2 322 (4.70%) Apache Spark
3 288 (4.20%) Apache
4 191 (2.79%) Tomcat
5 155 (2.26%) WebLogic
6 131 (1.91%) Elasticsearch
7 130 (1.90%) Mule
8 118 (1.72%) WebSphere
9 91 (1.33%) JBoss
10 84 (1.23%) CMS
11 75 (1.09%) Apache Airflow
12 73 (1.06%) Cloud Foundry
13 62 (0.90%) SharePoint
14 58 (0.85%) Red Hat Fuse
15 53 (0.77%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 53 (0.77%) nginx
15 53 (0.77%) Oracle Coherence
16 35 (0.51%) SAS
17 33 (0.48%) IBM Domino
18 32 (0.47%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 57 (0.83%) Microsoft Excel
2 55 (0.80%) Microsoft Office
3 13 (0.19%) Photoshop
4 9 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 5 (0.073%) Microsoft Project
5 5 (0.073%) Spreadsheet
6 4 (0.058%) MS Visio
7 3 (0.044%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.029%) Sketch
8 2 (0.029%) SPSS
9 1 (0.015%) 3ds Max
9 1 (0.015%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.015%) Figma
9 1 (0.015%) InfoPath
9 1 (0.015%) Maya
9 1 (0.015%) ZBrush
Business Applications
1 37 (0.54%) Magento
2 32 (0.47%) ION MarketView
2 32 (0.47%) SAP Hybris
3 29 (0.42%) Dynamics CRM
4 16 (0.23%) Shopify
5 12 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
6 10 (0.15%) Dynamics AX
6 10 (0.15%) Oracle BPM
7 8 (0.12%) Adobe Campaign
7 8 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 8 (0.12%) SAP ERP
8 7 (0.10%) Maximo
9 6 (0.088%) SAP CRM
9 6 (0.088%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 5 (0.073%) Distributed Ledger
11 4 (0.058%) IBM Planning Analytics
11 4 (0.058%) Oracle Financials
11 4 (0.058%) SAP S/4HANA
11 4 (0.058%) Temenos T24
12 3 (0.044%) SAP FI-CA
Cloud Services
1 1,780 (25.97%) AWS
2 1,153 (16.82%) Azure
3 708 (10.33%) GCP
4 416 (6.07%) Serverless
5 357 (5.21%) GitHub
6 262 (3.82%) AWS Lambda
7 195 (2.84%) Amazon S3
8 173 (2.52%) PaaS
9 166 (2.42%) SaaS
10 165 (2.41%) Amazon EC2
11 164 (2.39%) OpenShift
12 156 (2.28%) AWS CloudFormation
13 116 (1.69%) IaaS
14 104 (1.52%) Amazon SQS
15 83 (1.21%) Amazon ECS
16 78 (1.14%) Cloud Computing
17 75 (1.09%) Amazon EKS
17 75 (1.09%) Power Platform
18 69 (1.01%) Apigee
19 57 (0.83%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 166 (2.42%) HTTP
2 88 (1.28%) TCP/IP
3 78 (1.14%) SSL
4 72 (1.05%) Firewall
5 59 (0.86%) DNS
6 49 (0.71%) Internet
7 33 (0.48%) Kerberos
7 33 (0.48%) LAN
8 26 (0.38%) SAN
9 25 (0.36%) DHCP
10 24 (0.35%) FTP
10 24 (0.35%) NAS
11 23 (0.34%) VPN
12 21 (0.31%) WAN
13 19 (0.28%) HTTPS
14 16 (0.23%) Ethernet
15 15 (0.22%) Multicast
15 15 (0.22%) SMTP
16 14 (0.20%) Cisco Nexus
16 14 (0.20%) RTMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 508 (7.41%) NoSQL
2 456 (6.65%) Relational Database
3 401 (5.85%) MongoDB
4 374 (5.46%) PostgreSQL
5 329 (4.80%) Big Data
6 323 (4.71%) SQL Server
7 305 (4.45%) MySQL
8 301 (4.39%) Hadoop
9 163 (2.38%) Apache Cassandra
10 162 (2.36%) Data Warehouse
11 161 (2.35%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 155 (2.26%) Oracle Database
12 155 (2.26%) Redis
13 137 (2.00%) Apache Hive
14 114 (1.66%) RDBMS
15 111 (1.62%) BigQuery
16 97 (1.42%) HBase
17 88 (1.28%) Data Lake
18 84 (1.23%) Hazelcast
19 77 (1.12%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 1,402 (20.45%) Jenkins
2 1,150 (16.78%) Git (software)
3 758 (11.06%) Maven
4 751 (10.96%) JIRA
5 421 (6.14%) JUnit
6 412 (6.01%) Cucumber
7 352 (5.13%) Selenium
8 241 (3.52%) Bitbucket
9 230 (3.36%) GitLab
10 209 (3.05%) Gradle
11 199 (2.90%) Mockito
12 155 (2.26%) Subversion
13 147 (2.14%) TeamCity
14 144 (2.10%) Postman
15 129 (1.88%) IntelliJ
16 123 (1.79%) Sonatype Nexus
17 115 (1.68%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 115 (1.68%) JMeter
18 112 (1.63%) Eclipse
19 106 (1.55%) SonarQube
General
1 1,495 (21.81%) Finance
2 1,287 (18.77%) Social Skills
3 1,201 (17.52%) Banking
4 678 (9.89%) Front Office
5 550 (8.02%) Investment Banking
6 415 (6.05%) Analytical Skills
7 348 (5.08%) Public Sector
8 223 (3.25%) Retail
9 124 (1.81%) Marketing
10 112 (1.63%) Presentation Skills
11 89 (1.30%) Manufacturing
11 89 (1.30%) Telecoms
12 67 (0.98%) Financial Institution
13 60 (0.88%) Documentation Skills
14 56 (0.82%) Electronics
15 47 (0.69%) Games
16 45 (0.66%) Influencing Skills
17 43 (0.63%) Automotive
17 43 (0.63%) Back Office
18 38 (0.55%) Law
Job Titles
1 3,776 (55.08%) Developer
2 2,353 (34.33%) Java Developer
3 567 (8.27%) Senior Developer
4 563 (8.21%) Architect
5 436 (6.36%) Senior Java Developer
6 400 (5.84%) Software Engineer
7 341 (4.97%) Java Engineer
8 325 (4.74%) Full Stack Developer
9 303 (4.42%) DevOps Engineer
10 264 (3.85%) Data Engineer
11 212 (3.09%) React Developer
12 206 (3.01%) Front Office Developer
13 205 (2.99%) Consultant
14 201 (2.93%) Solutions Architect
15 162 (2.36%) Tester
16 158 (2.30%) AWS Developer
17 153 (2.23%) Analyst
18 146 (2.13%) Java Software Engineer
19 145 (2.12%) Android Developer
20 138 (2.01%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,948 (28.42%) Spring
2 1,211 (17.67%) Spring Boot
3 913 (13.32%) REST
4 844 (12.31%) React
5 816 (11.90%) Kafka
6 716 (10.44%) Web Services
7 685 (9.99%) Node.js
8 657 (9.58%) RESTful
9 637 (9.29%) AngularJS
10 598 (8.72%) HTML
11 459 (6.70%) CSS
12 452 (6.59%) .NET
13 384 (5.60%) JSON
13 384 (5.60%) XML
14 372 (5.43%) J2EE
15 344 (5.02%) Hibernate
16 271 (3.95%) SOAP
17 268 (3.91%) Middleware
18 195 (2.84%) HTML5
19 191 (2.79%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 438 (6.39%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 343 (5.00%) Fixed Income
3 266 (3.88%) User Experience
4 241 (3.52%) Derivative
5 237 (3.46%) Data Structures
6 229 (3.34%) Greenfield Project
7 203 (2.96%) Equities
8 201 (2.93%) Algorithms
9 185 (2.70%) Mobile App
10 180 (2.63%) Data Protection Act
11 165 (2.41%) Enterprise Software
12 152 (2.22%) Cloud Native
13 108 (1.58%) Public Cloud
14 101 (1.47%) Self-Motivation
15 93 (1.36%) Hedge funds
16 91 (1.33%) Management Information System
17 69 (1.01%) Virtual Team
18 62 (0.90%) Client/Server
18 62 (0.90%) Legacy Systems
19 60 (0.88%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 929 (13.55%) Linux
2 610 (8.90%) Unix
3 339 (4.95%) Windows
4 251 (3.66%) Android
5 89 (1.30%) Apple iOS
6 70 (1.02%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 38 (0.55%) Windows Server
8 32 (0.47%) CentOS
9 27 (0.39%) Ubuntu
10 24 (0.35%) Solaris
11 21 (0.31%) Windows 10
12 20 (0.29%) VMS
13 17 (0.25%) Debian
14 15 (0.22%) Oracle Linux
15 14 (0.20%) Mac OS X
15 14 (0.20%) Windows Server 2012
15 14 (0.20%) Windows Server 2016
16 13 (0.19%) SUSE
17 10 (0.15%) AIX
18 7 (0.10%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,995 (43.69%) Agile Software Development
2 1,791 (26.13%) Microservices
3 1,486 (21.68%) DevOps
4 1,195 (17.43%) TDD
5 1,099 (16.03%) Software Engineering
6 986 (14.38%) Test Automation
7 966 (14.09%) Scrum
8 714 (10.42%) BDD
9 667 (9.73%) Continuous Integration
10 666 (9.72%) Full Stack Development
11 554 (8.08%) Problem-Solving
12 534 (7.79%) Multithreading
13 464 (6.77%) OO
14 457 (6.67%) Analytics
15 430 (6.27%) SDLC
16 366 (5.34%) Low Latency
17 358 (5.22%) Open Source
18 346 (5.05%) Computer Science
19 328 (4.78%) Unit Testing
20 311 (4.54%) Electronic Trading
Programming Languages
1 1,611 (23.50%) Python
2 1,596 (23.28%) SQL
3 1,426 (20.80%) JavaScript
4 822 (11.99%) Java 8
5 605 (8.83%) C#
6 567 (8.27%) Scala
7 530 (7.73%) C++
8 496 (7.24%) Kotlin
9 393 (5.73%) TypeScript
10 284 (4.14%) Java 11
11 266 (3.88%) PL/SQL
12 262 (3.82%) Go
13 233 (3.40%) Bash Shell
14 217 (3.17%) PowerShell
14 217 (3.17%) Shell Script
15 206 (3.01%) C
16 174 (2.54%) Perl
17 155 (2.26%) Ruby
18 129 (1.88%) Groovy
19 114 (1.66%) PHP
Qualifications
1 763 (11.13%) Security Cleared
2 580 (8.46%) SC Cleared
3 428 (6.24%) Degree
4 120 (1.75%) DV Cleared
5 119 (1.74%) Computer Science Degree
6 64 (0.93%) AWS Certification
7 48 (0.70%) ISTQB
8 44 (0.64%) BPSS Clearance
9 40 (0.58%) Master's Degree
10 31 (0.45%) Sun Certification
11 27 (0.39%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 23 (0.34%) Numerate Degree
12 23 (0.34%) OCPJP
13 20 (0.29%) ISEB
14 11 (0.16%) RHCE
15 10 (0.15%) CISSP
15 10 (0.15%) ITIL Certification
16 8 (0.12%) CCNA
16 8 (0.12%) Cisco Certification
16 8 (0.12%) DBS Check
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 311 (4.54%) QA
2 102 (1.49%) Accessibility
3 87 (1.27%) Data Quality
4 51 (0.74%) GDPR
5 26 (0.38%) SLA
6 18 (0.26%) PMO
7 11 (0.16%) Cyber Essentials
8 9 (0.13%) ISO 20022
9 7 (0.10%) Disclosure Scotland
10 6 (0.088%) MiFID
10 6 (0.088%) NCSC
10 6 (0.088%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 6 (0.088%) WCAG
11 4 (0.058%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 4 (0.058%) ISO/IEC 27005
11 4 (0.058%) NIST
12 3 (0.044%) PCI DSS
13 2 (0.029%) Dublin Core
13 2 (0.029%) HIPAA
13 2 (0.029%) ISO 15022
System Software
1 1,314 (19.17%) Docker
2 79 (1.15%) Active Directory
3 67 (0.98%) VMware Infrastructure
4 62 (0.90%) HDFS
5 31 (0.45%) GridGain
6 21 (0.31%) Hyper-V
6 21 (0.31%) vSphere
7 19 (0.28%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 19 (0.28%) Platform Symphony
7 19 (0.28%) Xen
8 18 (0.26%) NFS
9 17 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
10 14 (0.20%) VMware ESXi
11 13 (0.19%) KVM
11 13 (0.19%) Oracle RAC
12 12 (0.18%) OpenAM
13 11 (0.16%) SRDF
14 10 (0.15%) Apache Flume
15 8 (0.12%) OpenDJ
15 8 (0.12%) Postfix
Systems Management
1 1,284 (18.73%) Kubernetes
2 589 (8.59%) Terraform
3 516 (7.53%) Ansible
4 161 (2.35%) Puppet
5 136 (1.98%) Grafana
6 113 (1.65%) Prometheus
7 109 (1.59%) Opscode Chef
8 68 (0.99%) Kibana
9 43 (0.63%) Single Sign-On
10 41 (0.60%) Oozie
11 38 (0.55%) Istio
11 38 (0.55%) Nagios
12 31 (0.45%) Rancher
13 29 (0.42%) vRealize Orchestrator
14 24 (0.35%) Hadoop YARN
15 23 (0.34%) logstash
16 22 (0.32%) HP Quality Center
16 22 (0.32%) ITRS Geneos
17 18 (0.26%) HP Fortify
18 16 (0.23%) vRealize
Vendors
1 971 (14.16%) Oracle
2 353 (5.15%) Google
3 290 (4.23%) Microsoft
4 188 (2.74%) IBM
5 150 (2.19%) SAP
6 140 (2.04%) Splunk
7 125 (1.82%) MuleSoft
8 101 (1.47%) Salesforce.com
9 94 (1.37%) webMethods
10 93 (1.36%) VMware
11 92 (1.34%) Informatica
12 90 (1.31%) Atlassian
12 90 (1.31%) ION Trading
13 86 (1.25%) BEA
13 86 (1.25%) Red Hat
14 80 (1.17%) hybris
15 74 (1.08%) Adobe
16 69 (1.01%) Cloudera
17 62 (0.90%) Databricks
17 62 (0.90%) Sybase