Period
to 2 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 2 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK > England
6 months to
2 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 10 4
Rank change year-on-year +3 -6 +1
Contract jobs citing Java 4,747 6,631 12,204
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 12.28% 11.03% 13.60%
As % of the Programming Languages category 29.39% 26.79% 30.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,136 4,824 8,810
Median daily rate £525 £538 £525
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.33% +2.38% +5.00%
10th Percentile £363 £388 £375
90th Percentile £713 £700 £688
UK median daily rate £525 £525 £525
Number of hourly rates quoted 47 54 68
Median hourly rate £50.00 £45.50 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +9.89% +1.11% +8.43%
10th Percentile £37.03 £16.53 £25.92
90th Percentile £65.60 £57.85 £61.55
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £45.00

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 16,152 24,751 39,585
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 41.78% 41.19% 44.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,394 17,575 28,355
Median daily rate £490 £490 £485
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +1.03% +2.11%
10th Percentile £313 £325 £325
90th Percentile £675 £650 £650
UK median daily rate £483 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +1.58% - +3.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 381 450 578
Median hourly rate £42.50 £44.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -3.41% +3.53% +6.25%
10th Percentile £16.32 £17.00 £17.50
90th Percentile £58.75 £56.25 £52.50
Median hourly rate £42.50 £43.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -2.30% +2.35% +6.25%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Java in England

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Daily rate trend for Java in England

Java
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 2 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java in England.

Hourly rate trend for Java in England

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java in England over the 6 months to 2 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in England

Java
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the England region over the 6 months to 2 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -1 3,158 £563 -1.32% 991
North of England -1 440 £475 - 294
South East -4 312 £475 - 291
South West -1 249 £500 - 130
North West +1 214 £473 -0.53% 142
Midlands -8 214 £413 -8.33% 155
East of England +20 159 £473 +5.00% 119
West Midlands -7 145 £413 -8.33% 104
Yorkshire -1 144 £459 -5.71% 111
North East +2 82 £500 +16.28% 41
East Midlands +2 58 £413 -8.33% 49
Java
UK

For the 6 months to 2 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Java.

1 2,163 (45.57%) Agile Software Development
2 1,220 (25.70%) AWS
3 1,184 (24.94%) Spring
4 1,174 (24.73%) Microservices
5 1,160 (24.44%) Python
6 1,121 (23.61%) Finance
7 1,073 (22.60%) JavaScript
8 1,005 (21.17%) SQL
9 969 (20.41%) Kubernetes
10 967 (20.37%) DevOps
11 956 (20.14%) Docker
12 919 (19.36%) Jenkins
13 866 (18.24%) Banking
14 845 (17.80%) Software Engineering
15 840 (17.70%) TDD
16 802 (16.89%) Git (software)
17 770 (16.22%) Azure
18 719 (15.15%) Web Services
19 715 (15.06%) Spring Boot
20 710 (14.96%) Test Automation
21 706 (14.87%) Linux
22 693 (14.60%) Security Cleared
23 679 (14.30%) Front Office
24 617 (13.00%) React
25 614 (12.93%) Scrum
26 610 (12.85%) REST
27 589 (12.41%) Oracle
28 587 (12.37%) Java 8
29 574 (12.09%) Node.js
30 559 (11.78%) BDD

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 263 (5.54%) Apache
2 246 (5.18%) Confluence
3 235 (4.95%) Apache Spark
4 157 (3.31%) WebLogic
5 150 (3.16%) Mule
6 148 (3.12%) Elasticsearch
7 110 (2.32%) Red Hat Fuse
8 107 (2.25%) Tomcat
9 99 (2.09%) WebSphere
10 94 (1.98%) JBoss
11 88 (1.85%) Cloud Foundry
12 45 (0.95%) SharePoint
13 44 (0.93%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 40 (0.84%) CMS
15 33 (0.70%) nginx
16 31 (0.65%) WebSphere Application Server
17 26 (0.55%) Camunda
18 24 (0.51%) Apache Airflow
19 21 (0.44%) Anypoint
20 20 (0.42%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 24 (0.51%) Microsoft Office
2 13 (0.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 13 (0.27%) MS Visio
3 10 (0.21%) Photoshop
4 8 (0.17%) Spreadsheet
5 7 (0.15%) Sketch
6 5 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
7 4 (0.084%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.063%) Zeplin
9 2 (0.042%) Adobe Illustrator
9 2 (0.042%) Adobe Premiere
9 2 (0.042%) InVision
10 1 (0.021%) Chatbot
10 1 (0.021%) Doxygen
10 1 (0.021%) InfoPath
10 1 (0.021%) SPSS
10 1 (0.021%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 18 (0.38%) ION MarketView
2 15 (0.32%) Magento
3 12 (0.25%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
4 8 (0.17%) SAP CRM
4 8 (0.17%) Shopify
5 7 (0.15%) Oracle BPM
6 6 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
7 4 (0.084%) BusinessWorks
7 4 (0.084%) Maximo
7 4 (0.084%) Oracle EBS
7 4 (0.084%) Payment Gateway
7 4 (0.084%) RMDS
7 4 (0.084%) SAP FI-CA
8 3 (0.063%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 3 (0.063%) SAP PSCD
8 3 (0.063%) SAP S/4HANA
8 3 (0.063%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 3 (0.063%) Teamcenter
9 2 (0.042%) ContrOCC
Cloud Services
1 1,220 (25.70%) AWS
2 770 (16.22%) Azure
3 437 (9.21%) GCP
4 259 (5.46%) Serverless
5 239 (5.03%) GitHub
6 171 (3.60%) AWS Lambda
7 138 (2.91%) Amazon S3
8 130 (2.74%) OpenShift
9 126 (2.65%) PaaS
10 121 (2.55%) Amazon EC2
11 82 (1.73%) Apigee
12 79 (1.66%) IaaS
13 78 (1.64%) AWS CloudFormation
14 73 (1.54%) Amazon ECS
15 71 (1.50%) SaaS
16 62 (1.31%) Slack
17 60 (1.26%) Cloud Computing
18 54 (1.14%) Power Platform
19 47 (0.99%) npm
20 45 (0.95%) Amazon EKS
Communications & Networking
1 111 (2.34%) HTTP
2 43 (0.91%) TCP/IP
3 36 (0.76%) SSL
4 34 (0.72%) Firewall
5 31 (0.65%) DNS
6 24 (0.51%) Internet
7 15 (0.32%) FTP
7 15 (0.32%) Network Security
8 14 (0.29%) VPN
9 13 (0.27%) Unified Communications
10 12 (0.25%) Kerberos
11 11 (0.23%) HTTPS
12 10 (0.21%) Ethernet
12 10 (0.21%) Wireless
13 9 (0.19%) LAN
13 9 (0.19%) NAS
13 9 (0.19%) SAN
13 9 (0.19%) SSH
13 9 (0.19%) Wi-Fi
14 8 (0.17%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 274 (5.77%) NoSQL
2 269 (5.67%) Relational Database
3 235 (4.95%) Big Data
3 235 (4.95%) MongoDB
4 230 (4.85%) PostgreSQL
5 227 (4.78%) SQL Server
6 206 (4.34%) MySQL
7 194 (4.09%) Hadoop
8 96 (2.02%) Data Warehouse
9 81 (1.71%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 81 (1.71%) Apache Cassandra
10 78 (1.64%) Apache Hive
11 74 (1.56%) Apache Ignite
12 71 (1.50%) BigQuery
13 69 (1.45%) Oracle Database
14 59 (1.24%) RDBMS
15 48 (1.01%) Amazon RDS
16 46 (0.97%) Redis
17 40 (0.84%) Amazon Redshift
17 40 (0.84%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 919 (19.36%) Jenkins
2 802 (16.89%) Git (software)
3 507 (10.68%) Maven
4 495 (10.43%) JIRA
5 301 (6.34%) Selenium
6 292 (6.15%) Cucumber
7 273 (5.75%) JUnit
8 217 (4.57%) GitLab
9 147 (3.10%) Gradle
10 123 (2.59%) Bitbucket
11 121 (2.55%) Mockito
12 118 (2.49%) Sonatype Nexus
13 111 (2.34%) SonarQube
14 109 (2.30%) JMeter
15 101 (2.13%) Subversion
16 82 (1.73%) Postman
17 72 (1.52%) Artifactory
17 72 (1.52%) SoapUI
18 70 (1.47%) IntelliJ
19 68 (1.43%) Eclipse
General
1 1,121 (23.61%) Finance
2 866 (18.24%) Banking
3 679 (14.30%) Front Office
4 375 (7.90%) Investment Banking
5 344 (7.25%) Public Sector
6 112 (2.36%) Retail
7 105 (2.21%) Marketing
8 101 (2.13%) Telecoms
9 78 (1.64%) Manufacturing
10 64 (1.35%) Electronics
11 45 (0.95%) Games
12 33 (0.70%) Financial Institution
13 31 (0.65%) Law
14 26 (0.55%) Automotive
14 26 (0.55%) Back Office
14 26 (0.55%) Retail Banking
15 17 (0.36%) Advertising
15 17 (0.36%) Pharmaceutical
16 16 (0.34%) Aerospace
17 14 (0.29%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 2,738 (57.68%) Developer
2 1,615 (34.02%) Java Developer
3 404 (8.51%) Senior Developer
4 393 (8.28%) Software Engineer
5 345 (7.27%) Architect
6 295 (6.21%) Senior Java Developer
7 270 (5.69%) Java Engineer
8 242 (5.10%) DevOps Engineer
9 226 (4.76%) Full Stack Developer
10 163 (3.43%) React Developer
11 160 (3.37%) Python Developer
12 142 (2.99%) Front Office Developer
13 140 (2.95%) Developer/Software Engineer
14 139 (2.93%) JavaScript Developer
15 136 (2.86%) Java Software Engineer
16 135 (2.84%) AWS Developer
17 134 (2.82%) Solutions Architect
18 126 (2.65%) Data Engineer
19 124 (2.61%) Electronic Trading Developer
20 120 (2.53%) Tester
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,184 (24.94%) Spring
2 719 (15.15%) Web Services
3 715 (15.06%) Spring Boot
4 617 (13.00%) React
5 610 (12.85%) REST
6 574 (12.09%) Node.js
7 494 (10.41%) AngularJS
8 475 (10.01%) Kafka
9 418 (8.81%) HTML
10 391 (8.24%) RESTful
11 337 (7.10%) JSON
12 320 (6.74%) XML
13 311 (6.55%) CSS
14 310 (6.53%) .NET
15 291 (6.13%) J2EE
16 279 (5.88%) Middleware
17 252 (5.31%) SOAP
18 228 (4.80%) Hibernate
19 200 (4.21%) Apache Camel
19 200 (4.21%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 360 (7.58%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 341 (7.18%) Fixed Income
3 274 (5.77%) Derivative
4 254 (5.35%) User Experience
5 232 (4.89%) Equities
6 227 (4.78%) Analytical Skills
7 182 (3.83%) Mobile App
8 164 (3.45%) Greenfield Project
9 132 (2.78%) Enterprise Software
10 127 (2.68%) Data Structures
11 126 (2.65%) Hedge funds
12 96 (2.02%) Algorithms
12 96 (2.02%) Cloud Native
13 77 (1.62%) Self-Motivation
14 65 (1.37%) Public Cloud
15 58 (1.22%) Clustering
16 42 (0.88%) Virtual Team
17 37 (0.78%) Management Information System
18 33 (0.70%) Credit Risk
19 32 (0.67%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 706 (14.87%) Linux
2 370 (7.79%) Unix
3 225 (4.74%) Android
4 175 (3.69%) Windows
5 104 (2.19%) Apple iOS
6 53 (1.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 34 (0.72%) Mac OS X
8 19 (0.40%) CentOS
9 18 (0.38%) Oracle Linux
10 12 (0.25%) Solaris
10 12 (0.25%) SUSE
11 11 (0.23%) Embedded Linux
12 10 (0.21%) Windows Server
13 8 (0.17%) Ubuntu
14 7 (0.15%) Mac OS
15 6 (0.13%) Amazon Linux
16 5 (0.11%) zOS
17 4 (0.084%) AIX
17 4 (0.084%) VMS
17 4 (0.084%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,163 (45.57%) Agile Software Development
2 1,174 (24.73%) Microservices
3 967 (20.37%) DevOps
4 845 (17.80%) Software Engineering
5 840 (17.70%) TDD
6 710 (14.96%) Test Automation
7 614 (12.93%) Scrum
8 559 (11.78%) BDD
9 522 (11.00%) Continuous Integration
10 388 (8.17%) Multithreading
11 357 (7.52%) OO
12 313 (6.59%) Open Source
13 311 (6.55%) Problem-Solving
14 294 (6.19%) SDLC
15 293 (6.17%) Low Latency
16 278 (5.86%) Continuous Delivery
17 250 (5.27%) Asset Management
18 244 (5.14%) Electronic Trading
19 243 (5.12%) Analytics
20 226 (4.76%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 1,160 (24.44%) Python
2 1,073 (22.60%) JavaScript
3 1,005 (21.17%) SQL
4 587 (12.37%) Java 8
5 475 (10.01%) Kotlin
6 427 (9.00%) Scala
7 399 (8.41%) C#
8 325 (6.85%) C++
9 203 (4.28%) TypeScript
10 200 (4.21%) PL/SQL
11 161 (3.39%) Shell Script
12 141 (2.97%) Go
13 134 (2.82%) Bash Shell
14 127 (2.68%) C
15 119 (2.51%) Perl
16 107 (2.25%) Ruby
17 103 (2.17%) PowerShell
18 79 (1.66%) PHP
19 74 (1.56%) Groovy
20 65 (1.37%) R
Qualifications
1 693 (14.60%) Security Cleared
2 534 (11.25%) SC Cleared
3 302 (6.36%) Degree
4 117 (2.46%) DV Cleared
5 97 (2.04%) Computer Science Degree
6 46 (0.97%) ISTQB
7 45 (0.95%) Master's Degree
8 36 (0.76%) Numerate Degree
9 33 (0.70%) ISEB
9 33 (0.70%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 25 (0.53%) AWS Certification
11 23 (0.48%) BPSS Clearance
12 18 (0.38%) PhD
13 12 (0.25%) Sun Certification
14 10 (0.21%) Cisco Certification
15 9 (0.19%) CCNA
15 9 (0.19%) TOGAF Certification
16 8 (0.17%) CTC Cleared
16 8 (0.17%) DBS Check
17 6 (0.13%) OCPJP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 255 (5.37%) QA
2 21 (0.44%) SLA
3 18 (0.38%) Data Quality
3 18 (0.38%) GDPR
4 17 (0.36%) WCAG
5 15 (0.32%) MiFID
6 12 (0.25%) NIST
7 11 (0.23%) PMO
8 10 (0.21%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 7 (0.15%) PCI DSS
10 5 (0.11%) ISO 20022
10 5 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 3 (0.063%) HIPAA
11 3 (0.063%) HL7
11 3 (0.063%) NCSC
11 3 (0.063%) RMADS
12 2 (0.042%) Cyber Essentials
12 2 (0.042%) Disclosure Scotland
12 2 (0.042%) PSD2
12 2 (0.042%) SEPA
System Software
1 956 (20.14%) Docker
2 50 (1.05%) HDFS
3 40 (0.84%) Virtual Machines
4 30 (0.63%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 27 (0.57%) Active Directory
6 26 (0.55%) VMware Infrastructure
7 12 (0.25%) GridGain
8 9 (0.19%) NFS
8 9 (0.19%) VMware ESXi
9 8 (0.17%) vSphere
10 7 (0.15%) Apache Flume
11 6 (0.13%) Hyper-V
11 6 (0.13%) KVM
11 6 (0.13%) Oracle RAC
11 6 (0.13%) Postfix
11 6 (0.13%) Xen
12 4 (0.084%) Platform Symphony
12 4 (0.084%) qmail
12 4 (0.084%) SRDF
12 4 (0.084%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
Systems Management
1 969 (20.41%) Kubernetes
2 484 (10.20%) Terraform
3 340 (7.16%) Ansible
4 114 (2.40%) Puppet
5 82 (1.73%) Prometheus
6 69 (1.45%) Opscode Chef
7 61 (1.29%) Grafana
8 38 (0.80%) HP ALM
9 34 (0.72%) Kibana
10 23 (0.48%) Hadoop YARN
10 23 (0.48%) Salt
11 20 (0.42%) Istio
12 19 (0.40%) Single Sign-On
13 17 (0.36%) Packer
14 16 (0.34%) Argo
14 16 (0.34%) vRealize Orchestrator
15 14 (0.29%) Nagios
15 14 (0.29%) Oozie
16 11 (0.23%) HP Fortify
17 10 (0.21%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 589 (12.41%) Oracle
2 220 (4.63%) Google
3 176 (3.71%) Microsoft
4 126 (2.65%) SAP
4 126 (2.65%) webMethods
5 123 (2.59%) MuleSoft
6 122 (2.57%) Splunk
7 97 (2.04%) IBM
8 92 (1.94%) BEA
9 86 (1.81%) Red Hat
10 81 (1.71%) Atlassian
11 75 (1.58%) AppDynamics
12 61 (1.29%) HP
13 60 (1.26%) Pega
14 58 (1.22%) TIBCO
15 57 (1.20%) Talend
16 47 (0.99%) Informatica
17 45 (0.95%) Salesforce.com
18 43 (0.91%) Bloomberg
18 43 (0.91%) ION Trading