Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CI/CD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CI/CD over the 6 months to 23 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CI/CD
UK > England
6 months to
23 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 18 18 26
Rank change year-on-year 0 +8 +6
Contract jobs citing CI/CD 6,014 3,845 2,827
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 8.62% 8.30% 6.56%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 9.62% 9.34% 7.56%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,249 2,828 2,094
10th Percentile £440 £406 £406
25th Percentile £513 £463 £456
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £525 £550
Median % change year-on-year +14.29% -4.55% +1.85%
75th Percentile £700 £625 £638
90th Percentile £788 £700 £705
UK median daily rate £600 £525 £540
% change year-on-year +14.29% -2.78% +0.47%
Number of hourly rates quoted 55 26 7
10th Percentile £35.00 £36.50 £20.05
25th Percentile £55.00 £50.31 £32.84
Median hourly rate £65.00 £63.25 £48.85
Median % change year-on-year +2.77% +29.48% -2.30%
75th Percentile £75.00 £67.77 £59.50
90th Percentile £79.20 £72.60 £61.10
UK median hourly rate £65.00 £58.00 £48.85
% change year-on-year +12.07% +18.73% -2.30%

CI/CD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 62,528 41,162 37,384
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.63% 88.85% 86.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 44,512 28,322 25,236
10th Percentile £350 £313 £300
25th Percentile £436 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £545 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £650 £588 £575
90th Percentile £750 £688 £675
UK median daily rate £538 £498 £475
% change year-on-year +8.04% +4.74% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,568 1,261 1,061
10th Percentile £13.00 £11.75 £12.42
25th Percentile £16.25 £15.21 £15.75
Median hourly rate £26.98 £24.47 £21.57
Median % change year-on-year +10.26% +13.44% -4.13%
75th Percentile £51.55 £46.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £65.27 £58.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £27.50 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year +10.00% +11.11% -

CI/CD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CI/CD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CI/CD in England

CI/CD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CI/CD in England.

Daily rate trend for CI/CD in England

CI/CD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CI/CD in England over the 6 months to 23 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CI/CD in England

CI/CD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CI/CD in England.

Hourly rate trend for CI/CD in England

CI/CD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CI/CD in England over the 6 months to 23 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CI/CD in England

CI/CD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CI/CD within the England region over the 6 months to 23 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London 0 4,041 £625 +13.64% 698
North of England +3 476 £538 +13.16% 248
South East +1 386 £575 +15.00% 145
North West +3 288 £550 +15.79% 149
Midlands -2 225 £495 +10.00% 95
South West +2 224 £525 +10.53% 70
Yorkshire +10 171 £530 +6.00% 72
West Midlands -4 169 £522 +15.92% 62
East of England -2 135 £600 +18.23% 82
East Midlands -5 54 £475 +11.76% 33
North East +7 47 £550 +12.82% 27
CI/CD
UK

For the 6 months to 23 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CI/CD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CI/CD.

1 3,533 (58.75%) DevOps
2 2,814 (46.79%) Agile
3 2,597 (43.18%) Azure
4 2,365 (39.32%) AWS
5 2,021 (33.60%) Kubernetes
6 1,911 (31.78%) Terraform
7 1,838 (30.56%) Python
8 1,825 (30.35%) Docker
9 1,770 (29.43%) Jenkins
10 1,687 (28.05%) Java
11 1,353 (22.50%) Microservices
12 1,317 (21.90%) Finance
13 1,285 (21.37%) Git (software)
14 1,103 (18.34%) JavaScript
15 1,102 (18.32%) SQL
16 1,058 (17.59%) Test Automation
17 1,003 (16.68%) Infrastructure as Code
18 1,001 (16.64%) Ansible
19 1,000 (16.63%) Social Skills
20 985 (16.38%) Linux
21 979 (16.28%) TDD
22 964 (16.03%) Continuous Integration
23 926 (15.40%) Software Engineering
24 867 (14.42%) Scrum
25 864 (14.37%) C#
26 782 (13.00%) Microsoft
27 773 (12.85%) .NET
28 765 (12.72%) GCP
29 760 (12.64%) Security Cleared
30 757 (12.59%) JIRA

CI/CD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 456 (7.58%) Confluence
2 249 (4.14%) Apache Spark
3 124 (2.06%) Elasticsearch
4 113 (1.88%) Apache
5 101 (1.68%) nginx
6 73 (1.21%) IIS
7 71 (1.18%) Apache Airflow
8 59 (0.98%) CMS
9 58 (0.96%) Cloud Foundry
10 45 (0.75%) SharePoint
11 43 (0.71%) OpenStack
12 42 (0.70%) BizTalk Server
13 36 (0.60%) SAS
14 35 (0.58%) Traefik
15 34 (0.57%) Oracle Coherence
15 34 (0.57%) WebLogic
16 31 (0.52%) Sitecore CMS
16 31 (0.52%) Tomcat
17 28 (0.47%) Mule
18 26 (0.43%) WebSphere
Applications
1 30 (0.50%) Microsoft Excel
2 18 (0.30%) MS Visio
3 9 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
4 7 (0.12%) Microsoft Office
5 5 (0.083%) Adobe Illustrator
6 3 (0.050%) Chatbot
6 3 (0.050%) Sketch
6 3 (0.050%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.017%) Adobe XD
7 1 (0.017%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 17 (0.28%) Sentinel
2 14 (0.23%) SAP FI-CA
2 14 (0.23%) SAP PSCD
3 12 (0.20%) Dynamics CRM
4 10 (0.17%) Shopify
5 8 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 5 (0.083%) Cloudability
6 5 (0.083%) SAP S/4HANA
7 4 (0.067%) Magento
7 4 (0.067%) Oracle EBS
7 4 (0.067%) SAP IS-U
8 3 (0.050%) Bloomberg AIM
8 3 (0.050%) Oracle EBS R12
8 3 (0.050%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
8 3 (0.050%) SAP FI
8 3 (0.050%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 3 (0.050%) Teamcenter
8 3 (0.050%) WebTrends
9 2 (0.033%) Payment Gateway
9 2 (0.033%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 2,597 (43.18%) Azure
2 2,365 (39.32%) AWS
3 765 (12.72%) GCP
4 749 (12.45%) Serverless
5 662 (11.01%) GitHub
6 508 (8.45%) PaaS
7 382 (6.35%) AWS Lambda
8 364 (6.05%) AWS CloudFormation
9 363 (6.04%) IaaS
10 250 (4.16%) Power Platform
11 245 (4.07%) Amazon S3
12 243 (4.04%) OpenShift
13 234 (3.89%) SaaS
14 221 (3.67%) Amazon EC2
15 176 (2.93%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 175 (2.91%) Azure Data Factory
17 174 (2.89%) Amazon EKS
18 172 (2.86%) Azure Functions
19 156 (2.59%) Azure Monitor
20 148 (2.46%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 178 (2.96%) DNS
2 143 (2.38%) Firewall
3 83 (1.38%) TCP/IP
4 73 (1.21%) HTTP
5 69 (1.15%) VPN
6 67 (1.11%) Internet
7 65 (1.08%) SSL
8 61 (1.01%) Network Security
9 37 (0.62%) SSH
10 27 (0.45%) Ethernet
11 26 (0.43%) FTP
12 23 (0.38%) IPv4
13 22 (0.37%) HTTPS
13 22 (0.37%) WAN
14 18 (0.30%) Reverse Proxy
14 18 (0.30%) SMTP
14 18 (0.30%) VLAN
15 17 (0.28%) Kerberos
16 16 (0.27%) DHCP
17 14 (0.23%) IPv6
Database & Business Intelligence
1 466 (7.75%) SQL Server
2 398 (6.62%) NoSQL
3 323 (5.37%) MongoDB
4 299 (4.97%) PostgreSQL
5 228 (3.79%) Big Data
6 202 (3.36%) Relational Database
7 195 (3.24%) Data Warehouse
8 179 (2.98%) Power BI
9 158 (2.63%) Data Lake
9 158 (2.63%) MySQL
10 145 (2.41%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 145 (2.41%) Amazon RDS
11 138 (2.29%) Azure SQL Database
12 105 (1.75%) Hadoop
13 93 (1.55%) Amazon Redshift
14 85 (1.41%) RDBMS
14 85 (1.41%) Redis
15 71 (1.18%) Oracle Database
16 65 (1.08%) Delta Lake
17 60 (1.00%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 1,770 (29.43%) Jenkins
2 1,285 (21.37%) Git (software)
3 757 (12.59%) JIRA
4 750 (12.47%) GitLab
5 414 (6.88%) Maven
6 337 (5.60%) TeamCity
7 257 (4.27%) Cucumber
8 242 (4.02%) Selenium
9 210 (3.49%) Bitbucket
10 177 (2.94%) Gradle
11 167 (2.78%) SonarQube
12 154 (2.56%) JUnit
13 137 (2.28%) Sonatype Nexus
14 136 (2.26%) Artifactory
15 110 (1.83%) Visual Studio
16 94 (1.56%) webpack
17 92 (1.53%) JMeter
18 88 (1.46%) Cypress.io
19 87 (1.45%) CircleCI
20 84 (1.40%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 1,317 (21.90%) Finance
2 1,000 (16.63%) Social Skills
3 553 (9.20%) Banking
4 427 (7.10%) Public Sector
5 336 (5.59%) Analytical Skills
6 225 (3.74%) Front Office
7 169 (2.81%) Investment Banking
8 167 (2.78%) Presentation Skills
9 130 (2.16%) Retail
10 125 (2.08%) Legal
11 104 (1.73%) Telecoms
12 99 (1.65%) Financial Institution
12 99 (1.65%) Marketing
13 73 (1.21%) Influencing Skills
14 68 (1.13%) Law
15 36 (0.60%) Back Office
15 36 (0.60%) Games
16 35 (0.58%) Documentation Skills
16 35 (0.58%) Manufacturing
17 33 (0.55%) Billing
Job Titles
1 1,855 (30.84%) Developer
2 1,264 (21.02%) DevOps Engineer
3 522 (8.68%) Java Developer
4 519 (8.63%) Architect
5 480 (7.98%) AWS Engineer
6 447 (7.43%) Azure Engineer
7 320 (5.32%) Data Engineer
8 315 (5.24%) Senior Developer
9 306 (5.09%) Software Engineer
10 287 (4.77%) AWS DevOps
11 265 (4.41%) Cloud Engineer
12 254 (4.22%) .NET Developer
13 244 (4.06%) AWS DevOps Engineer
14 231 (3.84%) Azure DevOps Engineer
15 204 (3.39%) Python Developer
16 197 (3.28%) Java Engineer
17 193 (3.21%) Azure DevOps
18 184 (3.06%) Full Stack Developer
19 157 (2.61%) AWS Developer
20 155 (2.58%) Cloud Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 773 (12.85%) .NET
2 707 (11.76%) React
3 586 (9.74%) REST
4 575 (9.56%) Spring
5 481 (8.00%) Kafka
6 468 (7.78%) Node.js
7 436 (7.25%) HTML
8 434 (7.22%) Spring Boot
9 409 (6.80%) CSS
10 390 (6.48%) AngularJS
11 368 (6.12%) RESTful
12 297 (4.94%) JSON
13 260 (4.32%) .NET Core
14 231 (3.84%) ASP.NET
15 221 (3.67%) Web Services
16 204 (3.39%) HTML5
17 150 (2.49%) .NET Framework
18 142 (2.36%) ASP.NET Web API
19 139 (2.31%) CSS3
20 138 (2.29%) Flask
Miscellaneous
1 355 (5.90%) Cloud Native
2 312 (5.19%) Public Cloud
3 242 (4.02%) Greenfield Project
4 224 (3.72%) User Experience
5 155 (2.58%) Hedge funds
6 152 (2.53%) Data Protection Act
7 148 (2.46%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 128 (2.13%) Hybrid Cloud
9 122 (2.03%) Fixed Income
10 117 (1.95%) Derivative
11 114 (1.90%) Mobile App
12 110 (1.83%) Equities
13 109 (1.81%) Self-Motivation
14 95 (1.58%) Enterprise Software
15 86 (1.43%) Algorithms
16 72 (1.20%) Legacy Systems
17 70 (1.16%) Virtual Team
18 67 (1.11%) Linux Command Line
18 67 (1.11%) PKI
19 66 (1.10%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 985 (16.38%) Linux
2 464 (7.72%) Windows
3 253 (4.21%) Unix
4 191 (3.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 99 (1.65%) Windows Server
6 95 (1.58%) Apple iOS
7 89 (1.48%) Android
8 85 (1.41%) CentOS
9 57 (0.95%) Ubuntu
10 28 (0.47%) Windows Server 2008
11 24 (0.40%) VMS
12 23 (0.38%) Windows Server 2012
13 18 (0.30%) Windows Server 2019
14 14 (0.23%) Windows Server 2016
15 9 (0.15%) Solaris
16 7 (0.12%) Alpine Linux
16 7 (0.12%) Amazon Linux
16 7 (0.12%) Debian
17 5 (0.083%) Oracle Linux
18 4 (0.067%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,533 (58.75%) DevOps
2 2,814 (46.79%) Agile
3 1,353 (22.50%) Microservices
4 1,058 (17.59%) Test Automation
5 1,003 (16.68%) Infrastructure as Code
6 979 (16.28%) TDD
7 964 (16.03%) Continuous Integration
8 926 (15.40%) Software Engineering
9 867 (14.42%) Scrum
10 614 (10.21%) Continuous Delivery
11 558 (9.28%) Analytics
12 557 (9.26%) Problem-Solving
13 502 (8.35%) Full Stack Development
14 488 (8.11%) Configuration Management
15 457 (7.60%) Migration
16 433 (7.20%) BDD
17 397 (6.60%) SDLC
18 351 (5.84%) Kanban
19 322 (5.35%) Unit Testing
20 307 (5.10%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 1,838 (30.56%) Python
2 1,687 (28.05%) Java
3 1,103 (18.34%) JavaScript
4 1,102 (18.32%) SQL
5 864 (14.37%) C#
6 543 (9.03%) PowerShell
7 519 (8.63%) Bash
8 414 (6.88%) TypeScript
9 304 (5.05%) Go
10 219 (3.64%) Scala
11 158 (2.63%) Shell Script
12 156 (2.59%) C++
12 156 (2.59%) Ruby
13 122 (2.03%) Groovy
14 113 (1.88%) Kotlin
15 78 (1.30%) PL/SQL
16 77 (1.28%) T-SQL
17 75 (1.25%) C
18 71 (1.18%) ES6
19 61 (1.01%) Perl
Qualifications
1 760 (12.64%) Security Cleared
2 667 (11.09%) SC Cleared
3 243 (4.04%) Degree
4 98 (1.63%) AWS Certification
5 92 (1.53%) Computer Science Degree
5 92 (1.53%) DV Cleared
6 62 (1.03%) ISTQB
7 60 (1.00%) BPSS Clearance
8 49 (0.81%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 37 (0.62%) CISSP
10 30 (0.50%) Microsoft Certification
11 26 (0.43%) Numerate Degree
12 25 (0.42%) ISEB
13 20 (0.33%) Cisco Certification
13 20 (0.33%) CISM
14 17 (0.28%) Master's Degree
15 14 (0.23%) FFIEC
16 13 (0.22%) PMP
17 12 (0.20%) SANS
18 11 (0.18%) CISA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 363 (6.04%) QA
2 113 (1.88%) Accessibility
3 83 (1.38%) GDPR
4 65 (1.08%) Data Quality
5 35 (0.58%) NIST
6 33 (0.55%) NCSC
7 31 (0.52%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 30 (0.50%) SLA
9 17 (0.28%) PCI DSS
10 15 (0.25%) COBIT
11 14 (0.23%) GLBA
12 9 (0.15%) PMO
12 9 (0.15%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 8 (0.13%) WCAG
14 7 (0.12%) MiFID
15 4 (0.067%) Disclosure Scotland
15 4 (0.067%) HMG Security Policy Framework
16 3 (0.050%) Cyber Essentials
16 3 (0.050%) NIST 800
16 3 (0.050%) OASIS TOSCA
System Software
1 1,825 (30.35%) Docker
2 163 (2.71%) Active Directory
3 102 (1.70%) VMware Infrastructure
4 69 (1.15%) Virtual Machines
5 21 (0.35%) vSphere
6 19 (0.32%) HDFS
7 16 (0.27%) VMware ESXi
8 15 (0.25%) Hyper-V
8 15 (0.25%) NFS
9 14 (0.23%) Ceph
10 10 (0.17%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 10 (0.17%) vCloud
11 8 (0.13%) Veritas Volume Manager
12 7 (0.12%) OpenSSH
12 7 (0.12%) Veritas Cluster Server
12 7 (0.12%) Virtual Desktop
12 7 (0.12%) VirtualBox
12 7 (0.12%) VMware Workstation
13 5 (0.083%) KVM
13 5 (0.083%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 2,021 (33.60%) Kubernetes
2 1,911 (31.78%) Terraform
3 1,001 (16.64%) Ansible
4 310 (5.15%) Puppet
5 239 (3.97%) Prometheus
6 230 (3.82%) Grafana
7 190 (3.16%) Opscode Chef
8 131 (2.18%) Istio
9 126 (2.10%) Packer
10 90 (1.50%) Consul
11 75 (1.25%) Docker Swarm
12 55 (0.91%) ZABBIX
13 54 (0.90%) Kibana
14 41 (0.68%) logstash
15 40 (0.67%) HAProxy
16 38 (0.63%) ITRS Geneos
16 38 (0.63%) Rancher
17 36 (0.60%) Nagios
18 34 (0.57%) Graphite
18 34 (0.57%) Podman
Vendors
1 782 (13.00%) Microsoft
2 369 (6.14%) Oracle
3 364 (6.05%) Google
4 247 (4.11%) Databricks
5 235 (3.91%) Splunk
6 152 (2.53%) VMware
7 122 (2.03%) AppDynamics
8 109 (1.81%) Red Hat
9 96 (1.60%) Atlassian
10 91 (1.51%) Salesforce.com
11 87 (1.45%) SAP
12 77 (1.28%) IBM
13 76 (1.26%) ServiceNow
14 62 (1.03%) Informatica
15 61 (1.01%) Dynatrace
16 60 (1.00%) Sitecore
17 50 (0.83%) MuleSoft
18 48 (0.80%) PagerDuty
19 39 (0.65%) New Relic
20 34 (0.57%) Talend