Period
to 20 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Test Automation skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Test Automation over the 6 months to 20 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Automated Testing
UK > England
6 months to
20 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 42 33 38
Rank change year-on-year -9 +5 -7
Contract jobs citing Test Automation 3,589 1,551 4,185
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 5.32% 5.73% 5.43%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.95% 6.55% 6.20%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,580 1,098 2,812
10th Percentile £360 £315 £335
25th Percentile £419 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - -
75th Percentile £609 £575 £550
90th Percentile £700 £650 £625
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £463
% change year-on-year +5.26% +2.70% +2.78%
Number of hourly rates quoted 47 10 33
10th Percentile £29.15 £39.63 £23.00
25th Percentile £39.17 £43.44 £27.00
Median hourly rate £46.00 £50.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year -8.00% +11.11% +12.50%
75th Percentile £51.75 £54.38 £48.75
90th Percentile £65.22 £55.25 £51.85
UK median hourly rate £46.00 £48.75 £45.00
% change year-on-year -5.64% +8.33% +12.50%

Test Automation is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 60,325 23,690 67,493
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.36% 87.45% 87.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 42,420 16,313 45,714
10th Percentile £318 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £381 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.47% - +1.60%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £510 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,490 667 1,901
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.36
25th Percentile £14.50 £15.50 £14.38
Median hourly rate £24.43 £26.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -6.04% +15.56% +12.50%
75th Percentile £49.25 £45.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £63.00 £55.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year - +11.11% +15.38%

Test Automation
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Test Automation as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Test Automation in England.

Daily rate trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Test Automation in England over the 6 months to 20 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Test Automation in England.

Hourly rate trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Test Automation in England over the 6 months to 20 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Test Automation within the England region over the 6 months to 20 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 1,981 £550 +4.76% 447
South East +3 383 £455 -1.62% 215
North of England -13 381 £458 +1.67% 227
South West +12 221 £450 +9.09% 103
Midlands -12 198 £427 +18.47% 131
North West -7 193 £455 +1.11% 125
Yorkshire -11 163 £455 +1.11% 72
West Midlands +2 149 £444 +22.84% 77
East of England -7 140 £425 -5.56% 85
East Midlands -23 47 £404 +15.36% 54
North East -13 27 £475 - 30
Test Automation
UK

For the 6 months to 20 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Test Automation also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Test Automation.

1 1,969 (54.86%) Agile Software Development
2 1,218 (33.94%) Java
3 1,081 (30.12%) DevOps
4 828 (23.07%) Azure
5 805 (22.43%) JavaScript
6 776 (21.62%) Social Skills
7 773 (21.54%) Git (software)
8 761 (21.20%) SQL
9 758 (21.12%) TDD
10 750 (20.90%) Selenium
11 746 (20.79%) Python
12 695 (19.36%) Jenkins
13 673 (18.75%) JIRA
14 639 (17.80%) Continuous Integration
15 636 (17.72%) Scrum
16 630 (17.55%) Finance
17 625 (17.41%) Microservices
18 613 (17.08%) AWS
19 583 (16.24%) BDD
20 582 (16.22%) C#
21 562 (15.66%) Software Testing
22 537 (14.96%) QA
23 520 (14.49%) Cucumber
24 512 (14.27%) Software Engineering
25 472 (13.15%) REST
26 431 (12.01%) Linux
27 414 (11.54%) Kubernetes
28 407 (11.34%) .NET
29 402 (11.20%) Docker
30 373 (10.39%) Security Cleared

Test Automation
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 298 (8.30%) Confluence
2 63 (1.76%) Elasticsearch
3 54 (1.50%) Apache
4 53 (1.48%) Apache Spark
5 41 (1.14%) CMS
6 38 (1.06%) Tomcat
7 33 (0.92%) WebLogic
8 32 (0.89%) SharePoint
9 26 (0.72%) WebSphere
10 23 (0.64%) SAS
11 20 (0.56%) Apache Airflow
12 19 (0.53%) Cloud Foundry
12 19 (0.53%) nginx
13 18 (0.50%) Oracle Workflow
14 17 (0.47%) IIS
15 15 (0.42%) OpenStack
16 14 (0.39%) Mule
17 13 (0.36%) BizTalk Server
17 13 (0.36%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 10 (0.28%) Appian
Applications
1 46 (1.28%) Microsoft Excel
2 15 (0.42%) Microsoft Office
3 10 (0.28%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 8 (0.22%) Chatbot
4 8 (0.22%) MS Visio
5 4 (0.11%) Photoshop
6 3 (0.084%) GIMP
6 3 (0.084%) Mingle
7 2 (0.056%) Figma
7 2 (0.056%) Simulink
7 2 (0.056%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.028%) Microsoft Project
8 1 (0.028%) PlantUML
8 1 (0.028%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 35 (0.98%) SunGard Martini
2 18 (0.50%) Dynamics CRM
2 18 (0.50%) Magento
3 15 (0.42%) SAP HCM
4 13 (0.36%) SAP S/4HANA
5 8 (0.22%) SAP FI-CA
5 8 (0.22%) SAP PSCD
6 7 (0.20%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 6 (0.17%) Oracle EBS
8 4 (0.11%) ION MarketView
9 3 (0.084%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.084%) Endur
9 3 (0.084%) Oracle BRM
9 3 (0.084%) Remedy ITSM
10 2 (0.056%) Dynamics NAV
10 2 (0.056%) Oracle BPM
11 1 (0.028%) Dynamics AX
11 1 (0.028%) IBM Planning Analytics
11 1 (0.028%) NetSuite
11 1 (0.028%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 828 (23.07%) Azure
2 613 (17.08%) AWS
3 248 (6.91%) GitHub
4 208 (5.80%) GCP
5 174 (4.85%) Serverless
6 98 (2.73%) PaaS
7 94 (2.62%) SaaS
8 93 (2.59%) OpenShift
9 90 (2.51%) AWS Lambda
10 76 (2.12%) BrowserStack
11 74 (2.06%) IaaS
12 70 (1.95%) Power Platform
13 54 (1.50%) Amazon SQS
14 51 (1.42%) Amazon S3
15 46 (1.28%) Apigee
15 46 (1.28%) AWS CloudFormation
16 42 (1.17%) Dynamics 365
17 41 (1.14%) Azure Data Factory
18 39 (1.09%) Azure Functions
19 33 (0.92%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 116 (3.23%) HTTP
2 50 (1.39%) Firewall
3 41 (1.14%) Wi-Fi
4 40 (1.11%) TCP/IP
5 31 (0.86%) Bluetooth
5 31 (0.86%) DNS
6 23 (0.64%) Wireless
7 21 (0.59%) Internet
7 21 (0.59%) SSL
8 18 (0.50%) VPN
9 17 (0.47%) FIX Connectivity
10 16 (0.45%) IPv6
11 14 (0.39%) ATM
12 13 (0.36%) IPv4
13 11 (0.31%) Intranet
14 10 (0.28%) DHCP
14 10 (0.28%) Kerberos
14 10 (0.28%) Wireshark
15 9 (0.25%) Broadband
16 8 (0.22%) 802.11
Database & Business Intelligence
1 239 (6.66%) SQL Server
2 200 (5.57%) Relational Database
3 150 (4.18%) NoSQL
4 147 (4.10%) MySQL
5 126 (3.51%) MongoDB
6 119 (3.32%) PostgreSQL
7 114 (3.18%) Oracle Database
8 91 (2.54%) Data Warehouse
9 76 (2.12%) Big Data
10 68 (1.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 67 (1.87%) Hadoop
12 56 (1.56%) Data Lake
13 55 (1.53%) Power BI
14 48 (1.34%) Oracle Database 12c
15 44 (1.23%) RDBMS
16 37 (1.03%) Azure SQL Database
17 36 (1.00%) DB2
18 33 (0.92%) Apache Cassandra
19 32 (0.89%) SQL Server Integration Services
20 31 (0.86%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 773 (21.54%) Git (software)
2 750 (20.90%) Selenium
3 695 (19.36%) Jenkins
4 673 (18.75%) JIRA
5 520 (14.49%) Cucumber
6 238 (6.63%) Postman
7 219 (6.10%) Maven
8 195 (5.43%) JMeter
9 186 (5.18%) SpecFlow
10 158 (4.40%) GitLab
11 153 (4.26%) Bitbucket
12 150 (4.18%) JUnit
13 148 (4.12%) WebDriver
14 146 (4.07%) SoapUI
15 142 (3.96%) TeamCity
16 130 (3.62%) Cypress.io
17 120 (3.34%) REST Assured
18 111 (3.09%) Sonatype Nexus
19 105 (2.93%) Gatling
20 97 (2.70%) Subversion
General
1 776 (21.62%) Social Skills
2 630 (17.55%) Finance
3 354 (9.86%) Banking
4 245 (6.83%) Public Sector
5 236 (6.58%) Analytical Skills
6 103 (2.87%) Investment Banking
7 88 (2.45%) Marketing
8 85 (2.37%) Telecoms
9 83 (2.31%) Presentation Skills
10 81 (2.26%) Front Office
11 79 (2.20%) Retail
12 53 (1.48%) Games
13 49 (1.37%) Manufacturing
14 45 (1.25%) Documentation Skills
15 44 (1.23%) Electronics
16 34 (0.95%) Influencing Skills
17 32 (0.89%) Legal
17 32 (0.89%) Retail Banking
18 30 (0.84%) Back Office
19 22 (0.61%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,314 (36.61%) Developer
2 437 (12.18%) Tester
3 373 (10.39%) Test Engineer
4 314 (8.75%) Java Developer
5 280 (7.80%) Automation Tester
6 255 (7.11%) Analyst
7 219 (6.10%) Senior Developer
8 216 (6.02%) Test Analyst
9 205 (5.71%) DevOps Engineer
10 199 (5.54%) Test Automation Engineer
11 152 (4.24%) Software Engineer
12 129 (3.59%) Full Stack Developer
13 120 (3.34%) Software Developer
14 111 (3.09%) Developer in Test
15 106 (2.95%) Test Leader
16 100 (2.79%) .NET Developer
16 100 (2.79%) Architect
17 87 (2.42%) C# Developer
18 82 (2.28%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
19 80 (2.23%) QA Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 472 (13.15%) REST
2 407 (11.34%) .NET
3 361 (10.06%) React
4 347 (9.67%) Spring
5 332 (9.25%) Node.js
6 305 (8.50%) HTML
7 304 (8.47%) RESTful
8 277 (7.72%) AngularJS
9 275 (7.66%) CSS
10 251 (6.99%) Web Services
11 232 (6.46%) Spring Boot
12 221 (6.16%) JSON
13 210 (5.85%) XML
14 181 (5.04%) Kafka
15 156 (4.35%) SOAP
16 151 (4.21%) Gherkin
17 129 (3.59%) .NET Framework
18 120 (3.34%) HTML5
18 120 (3.34%) Redux
19 105 (2.93%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 175 (4.88%) User Experience
2 138 (3.85%) Mobile App
3 101 (2.81%) Algorithms
4 97 (2.70%) Self-Motivation
5 87 (2.42%) Data Protection Act
6 77 (2.15%) Cloud Native
7 70 (1.95%) Data Structures
8 66 (1.84%) Greenfield Project
9 61 (1.70%) Fixed Income
10 51 (1.42%) Management Information System
11 38 (1.06%) Enterprise Software
12 34 (0.95%) Public Cloud
13 31 (0.86%) Legacy Systems
14 30 (0.84%) Client/Server
14 30 (0.84%) Derivative
15 27 (0.75%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 27 (0.75%) Linux Command Line
16 26 (0.72%) Hybrid Cloud
17 24 (0.67%) Market Risk
18 23 (0.64%) Embedded Systems
Operating Systems
1 431 (12.01%) Linux
2 253 (7.05%) Windows
3 238 (6.63%) Unix
4 127 (3.54%) Android
5 95 (2.65%) Apple iOS
6 44 (1.23%) Mac OS X
7 36 (1.00%) Windows Server
8 31 (0.86%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 13 (0.36%) Mac OS
10 10 (0.28%) CentOS
11 9 (0.25%) OpenWrt
12 7 (0.20%) Ubuntu
13 6 (0.17%) Debian
13 6 (0.17%) VMS
13 6 (0.17%) Windows Server 2012
14 4 (0.11%) Embedded Linux
14 4 (0.11%) Solaris
15 3 (0.084%) AIX
15 3 (0.084%) Windows 10
15 3 (0.084%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,969 (54.86%) Agile Software Development
2 1,081 (30.12%) DevOps
3 758 (21.12%) TDD
4 639 (17.80%) Continuous Integration
5 636 (17.72%) Scrum
6 625 (17.41%) Microservices
7 583 (16.24%) BDD
8 562 (15.66%) Software Testing
9 512 (14.27%) Software Engineering
10 343 (9.56%) Problem-Solving
11 319 (8.89%) Test Scripting
12 294 (8.19%) Test Strategy
13 277 (7.72%) Continuous Delivery
14 263 (7.33%) Regression Testing
15 261 (7.27%) SDLC
16 254 (7.08%) Full Stack Development
17 246 (6.85%) Deployment Automation
18 233 (6.49%) Mentoring
19 227 (6.32%) Performance Testing
20 225 (6.27%) Unit Testing
Programming Languages
1 1,218 (33.94%) Java
2 805 (22.43%) JavaScript
3 761 (21.20%) SQL
4 746 (20.79%) Python
5 582 (16.22%) C#
6 203 (5.66%) TypeScript
7 166 (4.63%) C++
8 155 (4.32%) Bash Shell
9 146 (4.07%) Scala
10 145 (4.04%) Java 8
11 133 (3.71%) PowerShell
12 106 (2.95%) Ruby
13 105 (2.93%) Shell Script
14 89 (2.48%) C
15 85 (2.37%) Kotlin
16 79 (2.20%) Groovy
17 76 (2.12%) Java 11
18 74 (2.06%) PL/SQL
19 73 (2.03%) PHP
20 58 (1.62%) ES6
Qualifications
1 373 (10.39%) Security Cleared
2 289 (8.05%) SC Cleared
3 183 (5.10%) Degree
4 177 (4.93%) ISTQB
5 97 (2.70%) ISEB
6 88 (2.45%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 56 (1.56%) Computer Science Degree
7 56 (1.56%) DV Cleared
8 40 (1.11%) BPSS Clearance
9 24 (0.67%) Numerate Degree
10 18 (0.50%) CISSP
10 18 (0.50%) PhD
11 16 (0.45%) SANS
12 15 (0.42%) Master's Degree
13 14 (0.39%) Sun Certification
14 12 (0.33%) Cisco Certification
14 12 (0.33%) OCPJP
15 10 (0.28%) GIAC
16 8 (0.22%) (ISC)2 CCSP
16 8 (0.22%) CCSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 537 (14.96%) QA
2 177 (4.93%) Accessibility
3 23 (0.64%) WCAG
4 20 (0.56%) GRC
5 15 (0.42%) Data Quality
6 14 (0.39%) GDPR
6 14 (0.39%) NIST
7 12 (0.33%) SLA
8 9 (0.25%) NCSC
9 7 (0.20%) Disclosure Scotland
9 7 (0.20%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 6 (0.17%) IFRS
10 6 (0.17%) ISO 22301
10 6 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 6 (0.17%) JTAG
11 4 (0.11%) HL7
11 4 (0.11%) ISO 20022
12 3 (0.084%) SEPA
12 3 (0.084%) SOC 2
12 3 (0.084%) WAI
System Software
1 402 (11.20%) Docker
2 54 (1.50%) Active Directory
3 23 (0.64%) Firmware
4 21 (0.59%) HDFS
5 18 (0.50%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 15 (0.42%) VMware Infrastructure
7 13 (0.36%) vSphere
8 8 (0.22%) Virtual Machines
9 6 (0.17%) OpenAM
9 6 (0.17%) vCloud
10 5 (0.14%) Oracle RAC
10 5 (0.14%) Xen
11 4 (0.11%) iptables
11 4 (0.11%) KVM
11 4 (0.11%) Oracle Clusterware
11 4 (0.11%) Virtual Desktop
11 4 (0.11%) VirtualBox
12 2 (0.056%) Apache Flume
12 2 (0.056%) RACF
12 2 (0.056%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 414 (11.54%) Kubernetes
2 249 (6.94%) Terraform
3 230 (6.41%) Ansible
4 72 (2.01%) Puppet
5 46 (1.28%) Grafana
6 39 (1.09%) BladeLogic
7 36 (1.00%) Kibana
8 35 (0.98%) Prometheus
9 32 (0.89%) HP Quality Center
10 27 (0.75%) HP ALM
11 25 (0.70%) Opscode Chef
12 19 (0.53%) Istio
13 16 (0.45%) Consul
13 16 (0.45%) Nagios
14 14 (0.39%) HP Fortify
14 14 (0.39%) logstash
15 12 (0.33%) ITRS Geneos
15 12 (0.33%) Packer
16 11 (0.31%) Control-M
17 9 (0.25%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 350 (9.75%) Oracle
2 331 (9.22%) Microsoft
3 117 (3.26%) Google
4 99 (2.76%) SAP
5 76 (2.12%) Splunk
6 53 (1.48%) Red Hat
6 53 (1.48%) Salesforce.com
7 50 (1.39%) Atlassian
8 47 (1.31%) IBM
9 46 (1.28%) HP
9 46 (1.28%) MuleSoft
10 44 (1.23%) VMware
11 43 (1.20%) Databricks
12 36 (1.00%) FIS
13 35 (0.98%) SunGard
14 29 (0.81%) ION Trading
15 26 (0.72%) Pega
15 26 (0.72%) Xamarin
16 23 (0.64%) Perfecto Mobile
17 21 (0.59%) CyberArk