Period
to 15 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Test Automation skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Test Automation over the 6 months to 15 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Automated Testing
UK > England
6 months to
15 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 43 35 30
Rank change year-on-year -8 -5 +6
Contract jobs citing Test Automation 2,077 2,895 5,653
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.94% 5.46% 6.42%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.67% 6.39% 7.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,461 2,027 3,826
10th Percentile £343 £325 £325
25th Percentile £400 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £475 £475
75th Percentile £575 £575 £550
90th Percentile £650 £650 £610
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £475
Number of hourly rates quoted 40 40 40
10th Percentile £23.68 £21.25 £22.28
25th Percentile £31.25 £29.38 £33.25
Median hourly rate £45.00 £37.75 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +19.21% -16.11% -
75th Percentile £55.00 £49.25 £47.50
90th Percentile £62.78 £65.28 £48.88
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £40.75 £42.50
% change year-on-year +0.61% -4.12% -1.16%

Test Automation is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 36,625 45,328 77,325
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 87.10% 85.46% 87.77%
Number of daily rates quoted 25,238 30,538 52,785
10th Percentile £305 £290 £304
25th Percentile £400 £381 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £489 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.95% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £665 £650
UK median daily rate £485 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +2.11% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,204 1,396 1,775
10th Percentile £12.16 £12.32 £11.85
25th Percentile £15.50 £15.75 £14.53
Median hourly rate £25.50 £21.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year +21.43% -6.67% +4.65%
75th Percentile £46.50 £45.00 £43.75
90th Percentile £58.00 £53.51 £50.83
UK median hourly rate £26.50 £21.50 £22.92
% change year-on-year +23.26% -6.17% +9.12%

Test Automation
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Test Automation as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Test Automation in England.

Daily rate trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Test Automation in England over the 6 months to 15 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Test Automation in England.

Hourly rate trend for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Test Automation in England over the 6 months to 15 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Test Automation in England

Test Automation
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Test Automation within the England region over the 6 months to 15 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -4 1,195 £513 -2.38% 305
North of England +14 243 £434 +7.16% 149
South East -13 224 £450 -0.58% 128
South West -2 138 £475 +5.56% 61
Yorkshire +15 112 £450 +5.88% 55
Midlands -16 110 £389 -8.47% 87
North West +10 97 £425 +6.25% 71
West Midlands -23 75 £382 -15.11% 61
East of England -18 52 £425 -3.95% 51
North East +5 34 £450 +9.09% 23
East Midlands -4 25 £380 -7.88% 25
Test Automation
UK

For the 6 months to 15 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Test Automation also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Test Automation.

1 1,135 (54.65%) Agile Software Development
2 718 (34.57%) Java
3 589 (28.36%) DevOps
4 513 (24.70%) Azure
5 492 (23.69%) Python
6 462 (22.24%) JavaScript
7 451 (21.71%) SQL
8 447 (21.52%) TDD
9 428 (20.61%) Finance
10 424 (20.41%) Jenkins
11 414 (19.93%) Git (software)
12 412 (19.84%) Scrum
13 400 (19.26%) Selenium
14 389 (18.73%) Continuous Integration
15 380 (18.30%) JIRA
16 368 (17.72%) QA
16 368 (17.72%) BDD
17 334 (16.08%) AWS
18 317 (15.26%) Microservices
19 314 (15.12%) Docker
20 311 (14.97%) C#
21 284 (13.67%) Linux
22 280 (13.48%) Software Engineering
23 279 (13.43%) Security Cleared
24 271 (13.05%) Kubernetes
25 268 (12.90%) .NET
26 261 (12.57%) Cucumber
27 248 (11.94%) Software Testing
28 247 (11.89%) Problem-Solving
29 244 (11.75%) Node.js

Test Automation
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 174 (8.38%) Confluence
2 60 (2.89%) Apache
3 49 (2.36%) Apache Spark
4 41 (1.97%) Elasticsearch
5 24 (1.16%) SharePoint
6 21 (1.01%) CMS
7 20 (0.96%) Mule
8 14 (0.67%) Anypoint
9 13 (0.63%) WebSphere
10 11 (0.53%) Mule ESB
10 11 (0.53%) Oracle Coherence
10 11 (0.53%) Tomcat
11 10 (0.48%) WebLogic
12 9 (0.43%) Apache Airflow
12 9 (0.43%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 8 (0.39%) Cloud Foundry
13 8 (0.39%) IBM Domino
14 7 (0.34%) Red Hat Fuse
15 6 (0.29%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 6 (0.29%) IIS
Applications
1 29 (1.40%) Microsoft Excel
2 10 (0.48%) MS Visio
3 7 (0.34%) Chatbot
4 6 (0.29%) Microsoft Office
5 4 (0.19%) Figma
5 4 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 2 (0.096%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.096%) Sketch
7 1 (0.048%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.048%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 14 (0.67%) SAP FI-CA
1 14 (0.67%) SAP PSCD
2 9 (0.43%) SAP S/4HANA
3 8 (0.39%) Magento
4 7 (0.34%) SunGard Martini
5 6 (0.29%) Dynamics CRM
5 6 (0.29%) SAP HCM
6 4 (0.19%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 2 (0.096%) BASE24
7 2 (0.096%) Distributed Ledger
7 2 (0.096%) Loan IQ
7 2 (0.096%) Oracle Applications
7 2 (0.096%) Oracle EBS
7 2 (0.096%) Payment Gateway
7 2 (0.096%) R3 Corda
7 2 (0.096%) Sage CRM
7 2 (0.096%) SAP Hybris
7 2 (0.096%) Summit
8 1 (0.048%) Maximo
8 1 (0.048%) Teamcenter
Cloud Services
1 513 (24.70%) Azure
2 334 (16.08%) AWS
3 191 (9.20%) GitHub
4 113 (5.44%) Serverless
5 91 (4.38%) PaaS
6 73 (3.51%) GCP
7 60 (2.89%) AWS Lambda
8 54 (2.60%) Azure Functions
8 54 (2.60%) Power Platform
9 52 (2.50%) SaaS
10 48 (2.31%) Slack
11 45 (2.17%) IaaS
12 31 (1.49%) Logic Apps
13 23 (1.11%) Azure Data Factory
14 22 (1.06%) Cloud Computing
14 22 (1.06%) Heroku
15 19 (0.91%) Amazon SQS
15 19 (0.91%) PowerApps
16 18 (0.87%) AWS CloudFormation
17 17 (0.82%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 53 (2.55%) HTTP
2 25 (1.20%) TCP/IP
3 22 (1.06%) Wi-Fi
4 17 (0.82%) Firewall
4 17 (0.82%) Internet
4 17 (0.82%) Kerberos
5 16 (0.77%) IPv6
5 16 (0.77%) SSL
6 15 (0.72%) DNS
6 15 (0.72%) Wireless
7 13 (0.63%) ATM
8 11 (0.53%) DHCP
9 10 (0.48%) IPv4
9 10 (0.48%) Multicast
9 10 (0.48%) Wireshark
10 9 (0.43%) 4G
10 9 (0.43%) Bluetooth
10 9 (0.43%) HTTPS
11 8 (0.39%) DECT
11 8 (0.39%) PPP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 146 (7.03%) SQL Server
2 105 (5.06%) NoSQL
3 102 (4.91%) Relational Database
4 73 (3.51%) MongoDB
5 70 (3.37%) PostgreSQL
6 63 (3.03%) MySQL
7 55 (2.65%) Big Data
8 54 (2.60%) Data Warehouse
9 46 (2.21%) Oracle Database
10 45 (2.17%) Azure SQL Database
11 36 (1.73%) Hadoop
11 36 (1.73%) Power BI
12 34 (1.64%) Data Lake
13 33 (1.59%) Tableau
14 30 (1.44%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 22 (1.06%) Apache Hive
15 22 (1.06%) OLTP
15 22 (1.06%) RDBMS
16 21 (1.01%) Amazon RDS
17 18 (0.87%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 424 (20.41%) Jenkins
2 414 (19.93%) Git (software)
3 400 (19.26%) Selenium
4 380 (18.30%) JIRA
5 261 (12.57%) Cucumber
6 132 (6.36%) Postman
7 131 (6.31%) Maven
8 102 (4.91%) SoapUI
9 91 (4.38%) JUnit
10 89 (4.29%) GitLab
11 85 (4.09%) JMeter
12 76 (3.66%) Cypress.io
13 74 (3.56%) WebDriver
14 64 (3.08%) SpecFlow
15 63 (3.03%) Subversion
16 61 (2.94%) REST Assured
17 59 (2.84%) Sonatype Nexus
18 56 (2.70%) Bitbucket
19 50 (2.41%) webpack
20 47 (2.26%) TeamCity
General
1 428 (20.61%) Finance
2 229 (11.03%) Banking
3 162 (7.80%) Public Sector
4 66 (3.18%) Investment Banking
5 65 (3.13%) Front Office
6 64 (3.08%) Marketing
7 60 (2.89%) Telecoms
8 32 (1.54%) Retail
9 29 (1.40%) Back Office
10 28 (1.35%) Manufacturing
11 25 (1.20%) Electronics
12 21 (1.01%) Automotive
13 17 (0.82%) Financial Institution
13 17 (0.82%) Games
14 16 (0.77%) Law
15 15 (0.72%) Legal
16 14 (0.67%) Retail Banking
17 13 (0.63%) Publishing
18 7 (0.34%) Advertising
19 5 (0.24%) Police
Job Titles
1 738 (35.53%) Developer
2 257 (12.37%) Tester
3 172 (8.28%) Test Engineer
4 164 (7.90%) Java Developer
5 146 (7.03%) Analyst
6 145 (6.98%) Automation Tester
7 137 (6.60%) Senior Developer
8 113 (5.44%) DevOps Engineer
9 104 (5.01%) Test Analyst
10 102 (4.91%) Test Automation Engineer
11 83 (4.00%) Full Stack Developer
12 81 (3.90%) Architect
13 75 (3.61%) Software Engineer
14 71 (3.42%) QA Engineer
15 67 (3.23%) Python Developer
16 65 (3.13%) .NET Developer
17 62 (2.99%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
18 61 (2.94%) React Developer
19 57 (2.74%) Test Leader
19 57 (2.74%) Test Manager
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 268 (12.90%) .NET
2 244 (11.75%) Node.js
3 230 (11.07%) React
4 213 (10.26%) REST
5 190 (9.15%) HTML
6 180 (8.67%) CSS
7 166 (7.99%) RESTful
8 147 (7.08%) Spring
9 144 (6.93%) JSON
10 139 (6.69%) Web Services
11 126 (6.07%) XML
12 123 (5.92%) AngularJS
13 102 (4.91%) Spring Boot
14 99 (4.77%) Redux
14 99 (4.77%) SOAP
15 98 (4.72%) Kafka
16 84 (4.04%) GraphQL
17 82 (3.95%) HTML5
18 70 (3.37%) Gherkin
19 64 (3.08%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 161 (7.75%) Analytical Skills
2 157 (7.56%) User Experience
3 119 (5.73%) Mobile App
4 62 (2.99%) Self-Motivation
5 57 (2.74%) Greenfield Project
6 52 (2.50%) Cloud Native
6 52 (2.50%) Fixed Income
7 44 (2.12%) Algorithms
8 38 (1.83%) Data Structures
9 34 (1.64%) Equities
9 34 (1.64%) Virtual Team
10 30 (1.44%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 30 (1.44%) Public Cloud
11 27 (1.30%) Derivative
12 26 (1.25%) Management Information System
13 22 (1.06%) Embedded Systems
13 22 (1.06%) Enterprise Software
14 21 (1.01%) N-Tier
15 19 (0.91%) NHS
16 18 (0.87%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 284 (13.67%) Linux
2 156 (7.51%) Unix
3 146 (7.03%) Windows
4 93 (4.48%) Apple iOS
5 87 (4.19%) Android
6 43 (2.07%) Mac OS X
7 23 (1.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 13 (0.63%) OpenWrt
8 13 (0.63%) Windows Server
9 12 (0.58%) Windows 10
10 10 (0.48%) Ubuntu
11 6 (0.29%) CentOS
11 6 (0.29%) Mac OS
12 2 (0.096%) VMS
13 1 (0.048%) AIX
13 1 (0.048%) Debian
13 1 (0.048%) Embedded Linux
13 1 (0.048%) MVS
13 1 (0.048%) SUSE
13 1 (0.048%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,135 (54.65%) Agile Software Development
2 589 (28.36%) DevOps
3 447 (21.52%) TDD
4 412 (19.84%) Scrum
5 389 (18.73%) Continuous Integration
6 368 (17.72%) BDD
7 317 (15.26%) Microservices
8 280 (13.48%) Software Engineering
9 248 (11.94%) Software Testing
10 247 (11.89%) Problem-Solving
11 210 (10.11%) SDLC
12 173 (8.33%) Test Strategy
13 169 (8.14%) Continuous Delivery
14 164 (7.90%) Open Source
15 161 (7.75%) Deployment Automation
16 154 (7.41%) Kanban
17 146 (7.03%) Test Scripting
18 137 (6.60%) Continuous Deployment
19 133 (6.40%) Functional Testing
20 123 (5.92%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 718 (34.57%) Java
2 492 (23.69%) Python
3 462 (22.24%) JavaScript
4 451 (21.71%) SQL
5 311 (14.97%) C#
6 129 (6.21%) PowerShell
7 123 (5.92%) TypeScript
8 105 (5.06%) Java 8
9 100 (4.81%) Ruby
10 90 (4.33%) Bash Shell
11 84 (4.04%) Scala
12 81 (3.90%) Shell Script
13 78 (3.76%) Kotlin
14 70 (3.37%) C++
15 57 (2.74%) Go
16 53 (2.55%) C
16 53 (2.55%) ES6
17 41 (1.97%) PL/SQL
18 36 (1.73%) Apple Swift
19 30 (1.44%) PHP
Qualifications
1 279 (13.43%) Security Cleared
2 214 (10.30%) SC Cleared
3 119 (5.73%) Degree
4 92 (4.43%) ISTQB
5 63 (3.03%) ISEB
6 50 (2.41%) DV Cleared
7 48 (2.31%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 28 (1.35%) Computer Science Degree
9 22 (1.06%) BPSS Clearance
10 10 (0.48%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
11 9 (0.43%) Master's Degree
11 9 (0.43%) PhD
12 5 (0.24%) AWS Certification
12 5 (0.24%) CHECK Team Leader
12 5 (0.24%) CREST Certified
12 5 (0.24%) Numerate Degree
13 4 (0.19%) HNC
13 4 (0.19%) ISEB Practitioner
13 4 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
14 3 (0.14%) ITIL Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 368 (17.72%) QA
2 18 (0.87%) NIST
3 15 (0.72%) WCAG
4 11 (0.53%) Data Quality
5 9 (0.43%) GDPR
6 8 (0.39%) ISO 9000
6 8 (0.39%) JTAG
6 8 (0.39%) PCI DSS
7 7 (0.34%) SLA
8 5 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 12207
9 4 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
9 4 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 17025
9 4 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 4 (0.19%) MiFID
10 3 (0.14%) HL7
10 3 (0.14%) NCSC
11 2 (0.096%) Cyber Essentials
11 2 (0.096%) Dodd-Frank
11 2 (0.096%) ISO 9001
11 2 (0.096%) TARGET2
System Software
1 314 (15.12%) Docker
2 30 (1.44%) Active Directory
3 20 (0.96%) HDFS
4 14 (0.67%) Hyper-V
5 11 (0.53%) GridGain
5 11 (0.53%) VMware Infrastructure
6 9 (0.43%) Virtual Machines
7 8 (0.39%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 7 (0.34%) Oracle RAC
9 6 (0.29%) Firmware
10 5 (0.24%) Oracle Clusterware
11 2 (0.096%) Apache Flume
11 2 (0.096%) KVM
11 2 (0.096%) NFS
12 1 (0.048%) VirtualBox
12 1 (0.048%) VMware ESXi
12 1 (0.048%) VMware Workstation
12 1 (0.048%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 271 (13.05%) Kubernetes
2 157 (7.56%) Terraform
3 124 (5.97%) Ansible
4 54 (2.60%) Puppet
5 48 (2.31%) Opscode Chef
6 24 (1.16%) Kibana
7 20 (0.96%) HP ALM
7 20 (0.96%) HP Quality Center
8 19 (0.91%) Grafana
8 19 (0.91%) Prometheus
9 11 (0.53%) Hadoop YARN
10 10 (0.48%) logstash
10 10 (0.48%) Packer
10 10 (0.48%) Rancher
11 9 (0.43%) Consul
11 9 (0.43%) Oozie
12 8 (0.39%) CloudHub
12 8 (0.39%) Istio
12 8 (0.39%) Zipkin
13 7 (0.34%) Data Guard
Vendors
1 170 (8.18%) Oracle
2 153 (7.37%) Microsoft
3 69 (3.32%) SAP
4 50 (2.41%) Google
5 37 (1.78%) MuleSoft
6 34 (1.64%) Splunk
7 32 (1.54%) Databricks
7 32 (1.54%) HP
8 23 (1.11%) IBM
9 22 (1.06%) Salesforce.com
10 20 (0.96%) AppDynamics
11 18 (0.87%) Atlassian
12 16 (0.77%) Apple
12 16 (0.77%) Red Hat
13 14 (0.67%) VMware
14 11 (0.53%) Cloudera
14 11 (0.53%) Xamarin
15 10 (0.48%) Bloomberg
16 9 (0.43%) Adobe
16 9 (0.43%) hybris