Period
to 8 December 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 8 December 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
8 Dec 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 6 5 6
Rank change year-on-year -1 +1 -1
Contract jobs citing SQL 10,352 14,016 13,614
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 12.90% 13.43% 13.20%
As % of the Programming Languages category 31.25% 30.06% 31.42%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,121 9,750 9,390
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £313 £305 £285
90th Percentile £625 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £420 £400 £380
% change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +4.83%
Number of hourly rates quoted 177 187 250
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £26.91 £26.69
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +30.09% +0.82% -4.70%
10th Percentile £14.33 £12.94 £13.10
90th Percentile £53.75 £55.00 £52.28
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £26.11 £27.50
% change year-on-year +34.07% -5.07% -1.79%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 33,125 46,630 43,325
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.26% 44.69% 42.00%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,812 32,862 30,385
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £325 £319 £307
90th Percentile £650 £640 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £400
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 676 688 790
UK median hourly rate £43.00 £42.00 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.38% +5.00% +2.56%
10th Percentile £17.38 £16.54 £16.25
90th Percentile £55.00 £52.50 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +2.04%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing SQL.

Contractor daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 8 December 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL.

Contractor hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 8 December 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 8 December 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 9,518 £450 - 4,161
UK excluding London -1 5,452 £420 +5.00% 3,120
London 0 4,735 £500 - 1,351
South East +1 1,763 £438 +2.94% 800
North of England -3 1,185 £400 +3.23% 854
Midlands 0 767 £400 - 552
South West -4 674 £415 +0.61% 319
North West -2 636 £400 +6.67% 475
West Midlands 0 494 £400 - 355
Scotland -2 490 £425 +6.25% 193
Yorkshire -3 447 £400 - 316
East of England +2 376 £415 +0.61% 283
East Midlands +2 267 £400 +3.23% 196
Wales -5 143 £400 -3.61% 103
North East -5 103 £425 +13.33% 63
Northern Ireland -1 57 £435 +5.58% 21
Channel Islands -6 4 £475 +11.76%
Isle of Man +3 3 - - 2

For the 6 months to 8 December 2019, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 3,033 (29.30%) Agile Software Development
2 2,722 (26.29%) SQL Server
3 2,309 (22.30%) Azure
4 2,248 (21.72%) Microsoft
5 2,128 (20.56%) Finance
6 2,042 (19.73%) Oracle
7 2,030 (19.61%) C#
8 1,971 (19.04%) .NET
9 1,920 (18.55%) Business Intelligence
10 1,810 (17.48%) Java
11 1,790 (17.29%) Python
12 1,506 (14.55%) JavaScript
13 1,386 (13.39%) ETL
14 1,300 (12.56%) Data Warehouse
15 1,238 (11.96%) Windows
16 1,221 (11.79%) Analytics
17 1,208 (11.67%) AWS
18 1,186 (11.46%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 1,169 (11.29%) DevOps
20 1,148 (11.09%) Migration
21 1,136 (10.97%) Power Platform
22 1,107 (10.69%) Power BI
23 1,017 (9.82%) Linux
24 1,016 (9.81%) Analytical Skills
25 992 (9.58%) T-SQL
26 973 (9.40%) Security Cleared
27 969 (9.36%) Data Modelling
28 927 (8.95%) HTML
29 865 (8.36%) Git (software)
30 864 (8.35%) Problem-Solving

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 435 (4.20%) Apache Spark
2 385 (3.72%) SharePoint
3 370 (3.57%) Confluence
4 247 (2.39%) IIS
5 212 (2.05%) SAS
6 206 (1.99%) WebLogic
7 205 (1.98%) Apache
8 151 (1.46%) Elasticsearch
9 106 (1.02%) Tomcat
10 85 (0.82%) CMS
11 83 (0.80%) MS Exchange
12 77 (0.74%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 76 (0.73%) JBoss
14 63 (0.61%) Apache Airflow
15 61 (0.59%) WebSphere
16 60 (0.58%) BizTalk Server
17 59 (0.57%) Jupyter
18 56 (0.54%) Skype for Business
19 47 (0.45%) Umbraco
20 46 (0.44%) Oracle Workflow
Applications
1 696 (6.72%) Microsoft Excel
2 289 (2.79%) Microsoft Office
3 106 (1.02%) MS Visio
4 72 (0.70%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 40 (0.39%) SPSS
6 39 (0.38%) Microsoft Project
7 31 (0.30%) Spreadsheet
8 14 (0.14%) FileZilla
9 8 (0.077%) Notepad++
10 7 (0.068%) Stata
11 5 (0.048%) InfoPath
12 4 (0.039%) Photoshop
13 3 (0.029%) Chatbot
13 3 (0.029%) GNU Octave
14 2 (0.019%) XMetaL
15 1 (0.010%) Abaqus
15 1 (0.010%) Sketch
15 1 (0.010%) S-PLUS
15 1 (0.010%) UXPin
15 1 (0.010%) Weka
Business Applications
1 163 (1.57%) Dynamics CRM
2 117 (1.13%) Oracle EBS
3 60 (0.58%) Dynamics AX
4 51 (0.49%) Oracle Receivables
5 48 (0.46%) Oracle EBS R12
6 43 (0.42%) Dynamics NAV
7 35 (0.34%) FINCAD Analytics
8 28 (0.27%) Oracle Financials
8 28 (0.27%) Oracle Payables
9 25 (0.24%) NetSuite
9 25 (0.24%) Oracle General Ledger
9 25 (0.24%) Siebel CRM
10 24 (0.23%) Oracle ERP
11 23 (0.22%) Oracle TCA
12 22 (0.21%) Markit EDM
13 21 (0.20%) Oracle Applications
14 20 (0.19%) Maximo
14 20 (0.19%) Oracle Cash Management
15 19 (0.18%) Sonata
15 19 (0.18%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 2,309 (22.30%) Azure
2 1,208 (11.67%) AWS
3 1,136 (10.97%) Power Platform
4 424 (4.10%) GCP
5 369 (3.56%) Office 365
6 305 (2.95%) PaaS
7 289 (2.79%) Azure Data Factory
8 280 (2.70%) Serverless
9 278 (2.69%) GitHub
10 217 (2.10%) SaaS
11 187 (1.81%) IaaS
12 166 (1.60%) Azure Active Directory
13 164 (1.58%) Dynamics 365
14 151 (1.46%) Amazon S3
15 114 (1.10%) Azure Functions
16 108 (1.04%) AWS Lambda
17 96 (0.93%) Amazon EC2
18 85 (0.82%) Data Lake Analytics
19 75 (0.72%) Cloud Computing
20 73 (0.71%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 265 (2.56%) DNS
2 229 (2.21%) Firewall
3 153 (1.48%) TCP/IP
4 131 (1.27%) SAN
5 127 (1.23%) HTTP
6 125 (1.21%) DHCP
7 118 (1.14%) Internet
8 111 (1.07%) WAN
9 104 (1.00%) LAN
10 92 (0.89%) VPN
11 63 (0.61%) Skype
12 59 (0.57%) FTP
13 57 (0.55%) SSL
14 47 (0.45%) SSH
15 43 (0.42%) NAS
16 41 (0.40%) SMTP
17 39 (0.38%) VoIP
18 34 (0.33%) HTTPS
19 30 (0.29%) Reverse Proxy
20 28 (0.27%) Kerberos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,722 (26.29%) SQL Server
2 1,300 (12.56%) Data Warehouse
3 1,186 (11.46%) SQL Server Integration Services
4 1,107 (10.69%) Power BI
5 818 (7.90%) SQL Server Reporting Services
6 735 (7.10%) NoSQL
7 698 (6.74%) Relational Database
8 623 (6.02%) Big Data
9 554 (5.35%) Oracle Database
10 542 (5.24%) SQL Server Analysis Services
11 516 (4.98%) PostgreSQL
12 485 (4.69%) Hadoop
13 479 (4.63%) Azure SQL Database
14 399 (3.85%) MySQL
15 386 (3.73%) MongoDB
16 367 (3.55%) Data Lake
17 250 (2.41%) RDBMS
18 219 (2.12%) SQL Server 2012
19 212 (2.05%) DB2
20 209 (2.02%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 865 (8.36%) Git (software)
2 742 (7.17%) JIRA
3 557 (5.38%) Jenkins
4 385 (3.72%) Selenium
5 356 (3.44%) Visual Studio
6 321 (3.10%) Team Foundation Server
7 229 (2.21%) Maven
8 218 (2.11%) Visual Studio Team System
9 214 (2.07%) Cucumber
10 189 (1.83%) JUnit
11 184 (1.78%) TeamCity
12 153 (1.48%) Subversion
13 141 (1.36%) Bitbucket
14 127 (1.23%) SpecFlow
15 119 (1.15%) NUnit
16 104 (1.00%) Octopus Deploy
17 97 (0.94%) Eclipse
18 88 (0.85%) Gradle
19 87 (0.84%) JMeter
19 87 (0.84%) SoapUI
General
1 2,128 (20.56%) Finance
2 780 (7.53%) Banking
3 560 (5.41%) Public Sector
4 315 (3.04%) Retail
5 286 (2.76%) Front Office
6 215 (2.08%) Investment Banking
7 201 (1.94%) Marketing
8 187 (1.81%) Telecoms
9 133 (1.28%) Legal
10 107 (1.03%) Law
10 107 (1.03%) Manufacturing
11 96 (0.93%) Back Office
12 62 (0.60%) Publishing
13 60 (0.58%) Financial Institution
14 55 (0.53%) Billing
15 48 (0.46%) Games
16 47 (0.45%) Electronics
17 41 (0.40%) Advertising
17 41 (0.40%) Local Government
18 40 (0.39%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 4,658 (45.00%) Developer
2 1,496 (14.45%) Analyst
3 925 (8.94%) SQL Developer
4 734 (7.09%) .NET Developer
5 582 (5.62%) C# Developer
6 567 (5.48%) Architect
7 550 (5.31%) Java Developer
8 528 (5.10%) Data Engineer
9 507 (4.90%) Data Analyst
10 471 (4.55%) Business Intelligence Developer
11 468 (4.52%) Consultant
12 402 (3.88%) Senior Developer
13 389 (3.76%) DBA
14 293 (2.83%) C# .NET Developer
15 264 (2.55%) Full Stack Developer
16 259 (2.50%) SQL Analyst
17 249 (2.41%) Python Developer
18 226 (2.18%) SQL DBA
19 217 (2.10%) DevOps Engineer
20 213 (2.06%) Business Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,971 (19.04%) .NET
2 927 (8.95%) HTML
3 834 (8.06%) XML
4 810 (7.82%) CSS
5 785 (7.58%) AngularJS
6 704 (6.80%) Web Services
7 560 (5.41%) ASP.NET
8 558 (5.39%) REST
9 540 (5.22%) JSON
10 516 (4.98%) Spring
11 474 (4.58%) React
12 412 (3.98%) .NET Framework
13 399 (3.85%) RESTful
14 349 (3.37%) Node.js
15 335 (3.24%) SOAP
16 331 (3.20%) .NET Core
17 323 (3.12%) ASP.NET Web API
18 303 (2.93%) jQuery
19 282 (2.72%) HTML5
20 276 (2.67%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 1,016 (9.81%) Analytical Skills
2 302 (2.92%) Greenfield Project
3 230 (2.22%) Data Structures
4 205 (1.98%) Management Information System
5 198 (1.91%) Self-Motivation
6 193 (1.86%) Derivative
7 182 (1.76%) Enterprise Software
8 179 (1.73%) Algorithms
9 164 (1.58%) User Experience
10 155 (1.50%) Fixed Income
11 150 (1.45%) Clustering
12 136 (1.31%) Public Cloud
13 129 (1.25%) Replication
14 125 (1.21%) Data Centre
15 119 (1.15%) NHS
16 118 (1.14%) Equities
16 118 (1.14%) Virtual Team
17 113 (1.09%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 106 (1.02%) Hedge funds
19 89 (0.86%) Equity Derivative
Operating Systems
1 1,238 (11.96%) Windows
2 1,017 (9.82%) Linux
3 752 (7.26%) Unix
4 452 (4.37%) Windows Server
5 193 (1.86%) Windows Server 2012
6 187 (1.81%) Windows Server 2008
7 141 (1.36%) Windows 10
8 94 (0.91%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 89 (0.86%) Android
10 73 (0.71%) Windows 7
11 69 (0.67%) Apple iOS
12 66 (0.64%) AIX
13 64 (0.62%) Windows Server 2003
14 58 (0.56%) Solaris
15 47 (0.45%) VMS
16 40 (0.39%) CentOS
17 38 (0.37%) Ubuntu
18 27 (0.26%) OpenVMS
19 24 (0.23%) Windows XP
20 22 (0.21%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,033 (29.30%) Agile Software Development
2 1,920 (18.55%) Business Intelligence
3 1,386 (13.39%) ETL
4 1,221 (11.79%) Analytics
5 1,169 (11.29%) DevOps
6 1,148 (11.09%) Migration
7 969 (9.36%) Data Modelling
8 864 (8.35%) Problem-Solving
9 850 (8.21%) Scrum
10 847 (8.18%) Test Automation
11 830 (8.02%) TDD
12 768 (7.42%) Microservices
13 671 (6.48%) MVC
14 606 (5.85%) Continuous Integration
15 553 (5.34%) Data Analysis
16 545 (5.26%) Software Engineering
16 545 (5.26%) Visualisation
17 515 (4.97%) Data Science
18 502 (4.85%) SDLC
19 466 (4.50%) Data Migration
Programming Languages
1 2,030 (19.61%) C#
2 1,810 (17.48%) Java
3 1,790 (17.29%) Python
4 1,506 (14.55%) JavaScript
5 992 (9.58%) T-SQL
6 862 (8.33%) PL/SQL
7 768 (7.42%) PowerShell
8 378 (3.65%) Scala
9 357 (3.45%) R
10 289 (2.79%) VBA
11 279 (2.70%) Shell Script
12 271 (2.62%) C++
13 234 (2.26%) TypeScript
14 186 (1.80%) C
15 185 (1.79%) Perl
16 183 (1.77%) Bash Shell
17 180 (1.74%) VB
18 163 (1.57%) Ruby
18 163 (1.57%) VB.NET
19 157 (1.52%) PHP
Qualifications
1 973 (9.40%) Security Cleared
2 787 (7.60%) SC Cleared
3 574 (5.54%) Degree
4 156 (1.51%) Microsoft Certification
5 152 (1.47%) ISTQB
6 137 (1.32%) Computer Science Degree
7 113 (1.09%) DV Cleared
8 112 (1.08%) ISEB
9 77 (0.74%) PhD
10 71 (0.69%) MCSE
11 64 (0.62%) Cisco Certification
12 61 (0.59%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 58 (0.56%) Master's Degree
14 53 (0.51%) MCSA
15 48 (0.46%) CCNA
16 47 (0.45%) BPSS Clearance
17 32 (0.31%) DBS Check
17 32 (0.31%) Numerate Degree
18 31 (0.30%) CCNP
19 30 (0.29%) MCITP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 407 (3.93%) QA
2 315 (3.04%) Data Quality
3 110 (1.06%) SLA
4 76 (0.73%) GDPR
5 37 (0.36%) MiFID
6 30 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 24 (0.23%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 21 (0.20%) PMO
9 19 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
10 18 (0.17%) EMIR
11 12 (0.12%) NIST
12 10 (0.097%) Dodd-Frank
12 10 (0.097%) IFRS
13 8 (0.077%) Cyber Essentials
13 8 (0.077%) GxP
13 8 (0.077%) HL7
13 8 (0.077%) HMG Security Policy Framework
13 8 (0.077%) NCSC
13 8 (0.077%) WCAG
14 7 (0.068%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 629 (6.08%) Active Directory
2 588 (5.68%) Docker
3 286 (2.76%) VMware Infrastructure
4 130 (1.26%) Hyper-V
5 101 (0.98%) Virtual Machines
6 82 (0.79%) HDFS
7 70 (0.68%) VMware ESXi
8 66 (0.64%) Oracle RAC
9 64 (0.62%) vSphere
10 58 (0.56%) XenApp
11 38 (0.37%) XenDesktop
12 35 (0.34%) Microsoft App-V
13 26 (0.25%) Virtual Desktop
13 26 (0.25%) Virtual Servers
14 23 (0.22%) Postfix
15 19 (0.18%) NFS
15 19 (0.18%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
16 16 (0.15%) Citrix Hypervisor
17 15 (0.14%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
18 14 (0.14%) Apache Flume
Systems Management
1 377 (3.64%) Kubernetes
2 242 (2.34%) SCCM
3 197 (1.90%) Ansible
4 183 (1.77%) Terraform
5 126 (1.22%) Puppet
6 84 (0.81%) Opscode Chef
7 66 (0.64%) Hadoop YARN
8 59 (0.57%) Microsoft Intune
9 50 (0.48%) SCOM
10 45 (0.43%) Single Sign-On
11 43 (0.42%) Data Guard
12 41 (0.40%) Kibana
13 39 (0.38%) NetBackup
14 37 (0.36%) Oracle RMAN
15 34 (0.33%) Nagios
15 34 (0.33%) Oozie
16 32 (0.31%) HP Quality Center
16 32 (0.31%) Microsoft Clustering
16 32 (0.31%) WSUS
17 29 (0.28%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 2,248 (21.72%) Microsoft
2 2,042 (19.73%) Oracle
3 611 (5.90%) Tableau
4 419 (4.05%) VMware
5 369 (3.56%) Google
6 304 (2.94%) SAP
7 229 (2.21%) Citrix
7 229 (2.21%) IBM
8 191 (1.85%) Informatica
9 153 (1.48%) Databricks
10 139 (1.34%) Cisco
11 136 (1.31%) Sybase
12 125 (1.21%) HP
12 125 (1.21%) Salesforce.com
13 115 (1.11%) Cognos
14 111 (1.07%) Red Hat
15 106 (1.02%) MuleSoft
16 104 (1.00%) Cloudera
17 95 (0.92%) webMethods
18 93 (0.90%) Talend