Period
to 27 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 27 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
27 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 7 6 6
Rank change year-on-year -1 0 0
Contract jobs citing SQL 4,126 10,817 13,634
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.75% 12.83% 13.27%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.25% 30.56% 29.77%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,267 7,706 9,671
Median daily rate £460 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.22% - +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £313 £300
90th Percentile £650 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £420 £400
% change year-on-year +1.19% +5.00% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 128 166 171
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.28 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.80% +41.13% -7.95%
10th Percentile £12.63 £14.57 £12.47
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £26.00 £35.00 £24.00
% change year-on-year -25.71% +45.83% -20.00%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 13,639 35,396 45,800
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 42.13% 41.98% 44.57%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,968 24,527 32,214
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £309 £320 £315
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £420
% change year-on-year - +1.19% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 372 687 694
Median hourly rate £35.00 £44.00 £41.92
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -20.45% +4.96% +4.81%
10th Percentile £13.00 £19.25 £16.25
90th Percentile £55.00 £55.00 £52.50
Median hourly rate £35.00 £43.50 £42.13
% change year-on-year -19.54% +3.25% +4.28%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 27 October 2020.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 27 October 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 27 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 3,593 £475 +5.56% 1,941
London -4 2,051 £500 - 662
UK excluding London -3 1,685 £425 +1.19% 1,462
Work from Home +5 775 £450 +1.58% 370
South East 0 420 £463 +7.56% 302
North of England -5 397 £385 -3.75% 440
Midlands +2 313 £400 - 270
North West -3 237 £375 -6.25% 265
West Midlands +3 218 £405 +1.25% 151
Scotland 0 163 £400 -5.88% 110
East of England +2 156 £425 - 125
South West -7 154 £450 +7.14% 140
Yorkshire -7 104 £370 -7.50% 139
East Midlands +2 92 £375 -6.25% 116
North East +5 56 £425 - 36
Wales 0 51 £425 +13.33% 49
Northern Ireland +2 36 £430 -14.00% 27

For the 6 months to 27 October 2020, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 1,263 (30.61%) Agile Software Development
2 1,061 (25.71%) Python
3 1,020 (24.72%) Java
4 992 (24.04%) Azure
5 984 (23.85%) Oracle
6 964 (23.36%) SQL Server
7 941 (22.81%) Finance
8 775 (18.78%) Business Intelligence
9 735 (17.81%) Microsoft
10 674 (16.34%) DevOps
11 663 (16.07%) C#
12 614 (14.88%) AWS
13 608 (14.74%) .NET
14 551 (13.35%) JavaScript
15 539 (13.06%) Banking
16 538 (13.04%) Security Cleared
17 512 (12.41%) Data Modelling
18 495 (12.00%) Windows
19 473 (11.46%) ETL
20 460 (11.15%) Power Platform
21 457 (11.08%) Analytics
22 444 (10.76%) Power BI
23 443 (10.74%) Data Warehouse
24 436 (10.57%) Linux
25 428 (10.37%) PL/SQL
26 425 (10.30%) Unix
27 420 (10.18%) Migration
28 416 (10.08%) SC Cleared
29 409 (9.91%) Microservices
30 396 (9.60%) Git (software)

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 184 (4.46%) Apache
2 181 (4.39%) Apache Spark
3 168 (4.07%) Confluence
4 161 (3.90%) SharePoint
5 138 (3.34%) WebLogic
6 76 (1.84%) IIS
7 70 (1.70%) SAS
8 68 (1.65%) Tomcat
9 58 (1.41%) Elasticsearch
10 54 (1.31%) WebSphere
11 43 (1.04%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 36 (0.87%) CMS
13 35 (0.85%) Oracle Workflow
14 28 (0.68%) Mule
15 21 (0.51%) Apache Airflow
15 21 (0.51%) MS Exchange
15 21 (0.51%) NServiceBus
16 20 (0.48%) Skype for Business
17 19 (0.46%) nginx
18 18 (0.44%) JBoss
Applications
1 259 (6.28%) Microsoft Excel
2 94 (2.28%) Microsoft Office
3 40 (0.97%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 14 (0.34%) MS Visio
5 12 (0.29%) Chatbot
5 12 (0.29%) Spreadsheet
6 11 (0.27%) Photoshop
7 8 (0.19%) Microsoft Project
7 8 (0.19%) SPSS
8 7 (0.17%) RoboHelp
8 7 (0.17%) SOLIDWORKS
9 6 (0.15%) InfoPath
10 2 (0.048%) Acrobat
10 2 (0.048%) Stata
10 2 (0.048%) Windchill
11 1 (0.024%) Camtasia
11 1 (0.024%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 63 (1.53%) Dynamics CRM
2 61 (1.48%) Oracle EBS
3 33 (0.80%) Oracle EBS R12
4 31 (0.75%) Markit EDM
5 29 (0.70%) Maximo
6 26 (0.63%) Eagle PACE
6 26 (0.63%) Oracle Applications
7 21 (0.51%) Oracle Payables
8 20 (0.48%) Oracle ERP
9 15 (0.36%) Oracle General Ledger
9 15 (0.36%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
10 13 (0.32%) SAP FI-CA
11 11 (0.27%) Oracle Assets
11 11 (0.27%) Oracle Financials
11 11 (0.27%) SunGard Martini
12 9 (0.22%) Oracle Receivables
13 8 (0.19%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 8 (0.19%) thinkFolio
14 6 (0.15%) Oracle BPM
14 6 (0.15%) Siebel CRM
Cloud Services
1 992 (24.04%) Azure
2 614 (14.88%) AWS
3 460 (11.15%) Power Platform
4 226 (5.48%) GCP
4 226 (5.48%) Serverless
5 172 (4.17%) Azure Data Factory
6 169 (4.10%) AWS Lambda
7 124 (3.01%) Amazon S3
8 106 (2.57%) Amazon EC2
9 89 (2.16%) PaaS
10 88 (2.13%) GitHub
11 87 (2.11%) Office 365
12 73 (1.77%) Amazon ECS
13 70 (1.70%) Apigee
14 64 (1.55%) SaaS
15 56 (1.36%) Dynamics 365
16 54 (1.31%) Logic Apps
17 53 (1.28%) IaaS
18 52 (1.26%) Azure Active Directory
19 47 (1.14%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 90 (2.18%) DNS
2 51 (1.24%) SSL
3 49 (1.19%) Firewall
4 45 (1.09%) DHCP
5 41 (0.99%) Skype
6 37 (0.90%) HTTP
7 26 (0.63%) SNMP
8 25 (0.61%) TCP/IP
9 22 (0.53%) VPN
10 21 (0.51%) Kerberos
11 20 (0.48%) VoIP
12 19 (0.46%) HTTPS
12 19 (0.46%) Internet
12 19 (0.46%) WAN
13 18 (0.44%) MPLS
14 16 (0.39%) SSH
15 14 (0.34%) Network Security
16 13 (0.32%) FTP
17 12 (0.29%) Wireless
18 10 (0.24%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 964 (23.36%) SQL Server
2 444 (10.76%) Power BI
3 443 (10.74%) Data Warehouse
4 315 (7.63%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 288 (6.98%) Relational Database
6 277 (6.71%) MySQL
7 274 (6.64%) NoSQL
8 270 (6.54%) PostgreSQL
9 250 (6.06%) Azure SQL Database
10 234 (5.67%) Big Data
11 231 (5.60%) Oracle Database
12 220 (5.33%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 190 (4.60%) Tableau
14 178 (4.31%) MongoDB
15 168 (4.07%) Hadoop
16 158 (3.83%) Data Lake
17 135 (3.27%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 110 (2.67%) Amazon Redshift
19 89 (2.16%) RDBMS
20 86 (2.08%) Oracle Reports
Development Applications
1 396 (9.60%) Git (software)
2 377 (9.14%) Jenkins
3 326 (7.90%) JIRA
4 164 (3.97%) Selenium
5 157 (3.81%) GitLab
6 121 (2.93%) Cucumber
7 97 (2.35%) Maven
8 96 (2.33%) Artifactory
9 89 (2.16%) Bitbucket
10 87 (2.11%) Visual Studio
11 84 (2.04%) Team Foundation Server
12 83 (2.01%) Subversion
13 80 (1.94%) Toad
14 60 (1.45%) JUnit
15 59 (1.43%) TeamCity
16 55 (1.33%) Oracle APEX
17 50 (1.21%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 49 (1.19%) CA Gen
18 49 (1.19%) Eclipse
19 47 (1.14%) Postman
General
1 941 (22.81%) Finance
2 539 (13.06%) Banking
3 310 (7.51%) Public Sector
4 260 (6.30%) Front Office
5 206 (4.99%) Investment Banking
6 98 (2.38%) Back Office
7 96 (2.33%) Marketing
8 88 (2.13%) Retail
9 53 (1.28%) Manufacturing
10 42 (1.02%) Law
11 40 (0.97%) Financial Institution
12 39 (0.95%) Telecoms
13 38 (0.92%) Legal
13 38 (0.92%) Pharmaceutical
14 29 (0.70%) Electronics
14 29 (0.70%) Games
15 24 (0.58%) Local Government
16 23 (0.56%) Advertising
17 15 (0.36%) Billing
18 12 (0.29%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 1,662 (40.28%) Developer
2 566 (13.72%) Analyst
3 296 (7.17%) Data Engineer
4 295 (7.15%) SQL Developer
5 294 (7.13%) Java Developer
6 262 (6.35%) Architect
7 207 (5.02%) .NET Developer
8 183 (4.44%) Consultant
9 181 (4.39%) Software Engineer
10 169 (4.10%) Data Analyst
11 164 (3.97%) DBA
12 157 (3.81%) C# Developer
13 144 (3.49%) Business Intelligence Developer
14 138 (3.34%) Developer/Software Engineer
15 133 (3.22%) Python Developer
16 129 (3.13%) Azure Engineer
17 128 (3.10%) Business Analyst
18 123 (2.98%) Senior Developer
19 116 (2.81%) Administrator
20 106 (2.57%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 608 (14.74%) .NET
2 383 (9.28%) Web Services
3 309 (7.49%) AngularJS
3 309 (7.49%) HTML
4 290 (7.03%) XML
5 256 (6.20%) REST
6 248 (6.01%) Spring
7 245 (5.94%) CSS
8 233 (5.65%) React
9 199 (4.82%) ASP.NET
10 173 (4.19%) JSON
11 170 (4.12%) .NET Framework
12 163 (3.95%) Node.js
13 151 (3.66%) RESTful
14 144 (3.49%) SOAP
15 139 (3.37%) Kafka
16 126 (3.05%) .NET Core
17 114 (2.76%) Spring Boot
18 109 (2.64%) J2EE
19 107 (2.59%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 369 (8.94%) Analytical Skills
2 195 (4.73%) Fixed Income
3 193 (4.68%) Hedge funds
4 184 (4.46%) Derivative
5 141 (3.42%) Greenfield Project
6 140 (3.39%) Equities
7 135 (3.27%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 90 (2.18%) Data Structures
9 82 (1.99%) Management Information System
10 78 (1.89%) User Experience
11 75 (1.82%) NHS
12 71 (1.72%) Linux Command Line
13 61 (1.48%) Reference Data
14 57 (1.38%) Algorithms
15 56 (1.36%) Self-Motivation
16 53 (1.28%) Public Cloud
17 47 (1.14%) Data Centre
18 43 (1.04%) Virtual Team
19 42 (1.02%) Cloud Native
20 38 (0.92%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 495 (12.00%) Windows
2 436 (10.57%) Linux
3 425 (10.30%) Unix
4 180 (4.36%) Windows Server
5 64 (1.55%) Windows Server 2016
6 61 (1.48%) AIX
7 51 (1.24%) Windows Server 2012
8 49 (1.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 46 (1.11%) Windows 10
10 42 (1.02%) Apple iOS
11 32 (0.78%) Windows Server 2008
12 29 (0.70%) Android
12 29 (0.70%) Solaris
13 23 (0.56%) Windows Server 2019
14 18 (0.44%) CentOS
14 18 (0.44%) Mac OS X
14 18 (0.44%) Windows 7
15 15 (0.36%) Ubuntu
16 14 (0.34%) VMS
17 11 (0.27%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,263 (30.61%) Agile Software Development
2 775 (18.78%) Business Intelligence
3 674 (16.34%) DevOps
4 512 (12.41%) Data Modelling
5 473 (11.46%) ETL
6 457 (11.08%) Analytics
7 420 (10.18%) Migration
8 409 (9.91%) Microservices
9 373 (9.04%) Problem-Solving
10 353 (8.56%) Test Automation
11 352 (8.53%) Scrum
12 318 (7.71%) Software Engineering
13 274 (6.64%) Asset Management
14 253 (6.13%) Data Analysis
15 237 (5.74%) TDD
16 230 (5.57%) Visualisation
17 221 (5.36%) Continuous Integration
18 219 (5.31%) Data Science
19 194 (4.70%) BDD
20 178 (4.31%) Investment Management
Programming Languages
1 1,061 (25.71%) Python
2 1,020 (24.72%) Java
3 663 (16.07%) C#
4 551 (13.35%) JavaScript
5 428 (10.37%) PL/SQL
6 324 (7.85%) T-SQL
7 319 (7.73%) PowerShell
8 176 (4.27%) R
9 167 (4.05%) Shell Script
10 150 (3.64%) C++
11 145 (3.51%) Scala
12 124 (3.01%) TypeScript
13 113 (2.74%) VBA
14 105 (2.54%) Bash Shell
15 104 (2.52%) Kotlin
16 101 (2.45%) Java 8
17 96 (2.33%) Perl
18 78 (1.89%) VB
19 76 (1.84%) C
20 69 (1.67%) Ruby
Qualifications
1 538 (13.04%) Security Cleared
2 416 (10.08%) SC Cleared
3 219 (5.31%) Degree
4 99 (2.40%) DV Cleared
5 68 (1.65%) ISEB
6 67 (1.62%) Computer Science Degree
7 57 (1.38%) ISTQB
8 46 (1.11%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 35 (0.85%) Microsoft Certification
10 33 (0.80%) Master's Degree
11 27 (0.65%) BPSS Clearance
12 26 (0.63%) Sun Certification
13 18 (0.44%) TOGAF Certification
14 16 (0.39%) Numerate Degree
15 14 (0.34%) PhD
16 12 (0.29%) MCSE
17 11 (0.27%) ITIL Certification
18 10 (0.24%) AWS Certification
19 8 (0.19%) ISEB Practitioner
19 8 (0.19%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 175 (4.24%) QA
2 146 (3.54%) Data Quality
3 69 (1.67%) GDPR
4 36 (0.87%) SLA
5 17 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 17 (0.41%) PCI DSS
6 12 (0.29%) Cyber Essentials
6 12 (0.29%) HIPAA
7 10 (0.24%) MiFID
8 9 (0.22%) COBIT
8 9 (0.22%) IFRS
9 8 (0.19%) NCSC
9 8 (0.19%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 6 (0.15%) COREP
10 6 (0.15%) ISO 9001
10 6 (0.15%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 5 (0.12%) DICOM
11 5 (0.12%) HL7
11 5 (0.12%) WCAG
12 4 (0.097%) FINREP
System Software
1 363 (8.80%) Docker
2 184 (4.46%) Active Directory
3 56 (1.36%) VMware Infrastructure
4 43 (1.04%) HDFS
5 38 (0.92%) Oracle RAC
6 30 (0.73%) Hyper-V
7 21 (0.51%) Virtual Machines
8 19 (0.46%) Microsoft App-V
9 15 (0.36%) GlusterFS
10 14 (0.34%) vSphere
11 10 (0.24%) Oracle Clusterware
12 7 (0.17%) Apache ZooKeeper
12 7 (0.17%) VMware NSX
13 6 (0.15%) LXC
13 6 (0.15%) XenApp
14 4 (0.097%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
14 4 (0.097%) RACF
14 4 (0.097%) Virtual Desktop
14 4 (0.097%) VMware ESXi
15 3 (0.073%) Terminal Server
Systems Management
1 341 (8.26%) Kubernetes
2 128 (3.10%) Terraform
3 119 (2.88%) Ansible
4 62 (1.50%) Puppet
5 60 (1.45%) Prometheus
6 51 (1.24%) SCCM
7 48 (1.16%) Grafana
8 43 (1.04%) Oracle RMAN
9 41 (0.99%) Opscode Chef
10 35 (0.85%) Data Guard
11 31 (0.75%) HP Quality Center
11 31 (0.75%) Kibana
11 31 (0.75%) Nagios
12 27 (0.65%) Single Sign-On
13 18 (0.44%) logstash
13 18 (0.44%) Netcool
14 17 (0.41%) Tivoli
15 16 (0.39%) Microsoft Intune
15 16 (0.39%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
16 14 (0.34%) SCOM
Vendors
1 984 (23.85%) Oracle
2 735 (17.81%) Microsoft
3 159 (3.85%) Google
4 158 (3.83%) SAP
5 153 (3.71%) Databricks
6 118 (2.86%) IBM
7 88 (2.13%) Informatica
8 85 (2.06%) Splunk
9 77 (1.87%) VMware
10 72 (1.75%) Sybase
11 62 (1.50%) Bloomberg
11 62 (1.50%) Salesforce.com
12 59 (1.43%) Talend
13 55 (1.33%) webMethods
14 52 (1.26%) Cloudera
15 50 (1.21%) Atlassian
15 50 (1.21%) Red Hat
16 49 (1.19%) HP
17 45 (1.09%) CA
18 42 (1.02%) Teradata