Period
to 24 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 24 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
24 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 8 7
Rank change year-on-year +1 -1 0
Contract jobs citing SQL 10,909 4,069 10,831
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.97% 12.78% 12.82%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.81% 30.27% 30.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,678 2,860 7,623
10th Percentile £338 £300 £310
25th Percentile £413 £375 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £473 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.82% +5.00% -
75th Percentile £610 £573 £550
90th Percentile £700 £663 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £420 £420
% change year-on-year +7.14% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 156 84 155
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.63 £14.32
25th Percentile £21.19 £17.49 £18.85
Median hourly rate £35.50 £24.77 £36.70
Median % change year-on-year +43.30% -32.50% +54.53%
75th Percentile £53.38 £42.19 £48.75
90th Percentile £62.15 £55.44 £60.65
UK excluding London median hourly rate £27.36 £23.43 £35.07
% change year-on-year +16.77% -33.18% +55.84%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 33,251 13,444 35,454
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.54% 42.22% 41.96%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,961 9,419 24,901
10th Percentile £363 £310 £320
25th Percentile £425 £394 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £480 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.38% +1.05% -
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +8.82% - +1.19%
Number of hourly rates quoted 445 279 643
10th Percentile £17.50 £12.40 £18.84
25th Percentile £25.50 £20.44 £34.00
Median hourly rate £45.50 £38.50 £44.50
Median % change year-on-year +18.18% -13.48% +6.15%
75th Percentile £60.00 £47.50 £50.88
90th Percentile £68.75 £57.17 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £37.75 £44.00
% change year-on-year +19.21% -14.20% +3.53%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 24 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 24 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +1 8,739 £515 +8.42% 3,500
London +2 5,250 £550 +6.80% 1,405
UK excluding London 0 3,489 £450 +7.14% 2,293
Work from Home +1 3,143 £500 +11.11% 785
South East -1 929 £475 +1.60% 501
North of England +1 721 £430 +14.67% 619
Midlands -2 691 £450 +12.50% 529
West Midlands 0 524 £460 +13.58% 344
Scotland -3 406 £438 +9.38% 133
North West -1 405 £425 +13.33% 363
South West +6 352 £450 +2.27% 221
Yorkshire +2 261 £438 +16.67% 179
East of England -3 243 £383 -8.81% 204
East Midlands -6 158 £400 +6.67% 179
Wales -2 104 £425 - 66
North East -3 61 £475 +11.76% 77
Northern Ireland +1 48 £475 +10.21% 22
Isle of Man - 2 £463 - 1

For the 6 months to 24 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 3,412 (31.28%) Agile Software Development
2 3,178 (29.13%) Azure
3 2,908 (26.66%) Python
4 2,481 (22.74%) Finance
5 2,302 (21.10%) Java
6 2,244 (20.57%) Social Skills
7 2,240 (20.53%) Oracle
8 2,175 (19.94%) Business Intelligence
9 2,159 (19.79%) SQL Server
10 1,992 (18.26%) DevOps
11 1,929 (17.68%) .NET
12 1,845 (16.91%) C#
13 1,812 (16.61%) Microsoft
14 1,664 (15.25%) Analytics
15 1,656 (15.18%) AWS
16 1,582 (14.50%) ETL
17 1,505 (13.80%) Power Platform
18 1,475 (13.52%) JavaScript
19 1,448 (13.27%) Data Warehouse
20 1,388 (12.72%) Data Modelling
21 1,371 (12.57%) Power BI
22 1,297 (11.89%) Git (software)
23 1,280 (11.73%) Analytical Skills
24 1,168 (10.71%) Windows
25 1,160 (10.63%) Banking
26 1,137 (10.42%) Scrum
27 1,102 (10.10%) Linux
28 1,081 (9.91%) Problem-Solving
29 1,058 (9.70%) Migration
30 1,018 (9.33%) Microservices

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 599 (5.49%) Apache Spark
2 432 (3.96%) Confluence
3 375 (3.44%) SharePoint
4 281 (2.58%) Apache
5 237 (2.17%) SAS
6 198 (1.82%) WebLogic
7 180 (1.65%) Apache Airflow
8 149 (1.37%) Tomcat
9 143 (1.31%) Elasticsearch
10 142 (1.30%) IIS
11 82 (0.75%) BizTalk Server
12 75 (0.69%) WebSphere
13 66 (0.61%) Jupyter
14 64 (0.59%) JBoss
15 63 (0.58%) MS Exchange
16 62 (0.57%) CMS
17 60 (0.55%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 34 (0.31%) nginx
19 31 (0.28%) Luigi
20 27 (0.25%) Oracle Coherence
Applications
1 687 (6.30%) Microsoft Excel
2 213 (1.95%) Microsoft Office
3 111 (1.02%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 61 (0.56%) MS Visio
5 45 (0.41%) Spreadsheet
6 34 (0.31%) SPSS
7 24 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
8 15 (0.14%) Chatbot
9 12 (0.11%) Stata
10 8 (0.073%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 8 (0.073%) InfoPath
11 7 (0.064%) Oracle Smart View
12 5 (0.046%) Photoshop
13 3 (0.028%) Mingle
14 1 (0.009%) Adobe Illustrator
14 1 (0.009%) CPLEX
14 1 (0.009%) Houdini
14 1 (0.009%) Maya
14 1 (0.009%) NUKE
14 1 (0.009%) PrintSoft PReS
Business Applications
1 185 (1.70%) Dynamics CRM
2 118 (1.08%) Dynamics AX
3 69 (0.63%) Oracle EBS
4 39 (0.36%) SunGard Martini
5 38 (0.35%) SAP S/4HANA
6 37 (0.34%) NetSuite
7 29 (0.27%) Oracle ERP
8 26 (0.24%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 23 (0.21%) Oracle Financials
10 22 (0.20%) Markit EDM
10 22 (0.20%) Oracle Payables
11 20 (0.18%) ION MarketView
12 19 (0.17%) Oracle Applications
12 19 (0.17%) Oracle EBS R12
12 19 (0.17%) Oracle General Ledger
13 18 (0.17%) Oracle Receivables
14 15 (0.14%) SAP HCM
15 14 (0.13%) Hyperion Planning
15 14 (0.13%) SAP EM
15 14 (0.13%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 3,178 (29.13%) Azure
2 1,656 (15.18%) AWS
3 1,505 (13.80%) Power Platform
4 590 (5.41%) Serverless
5 575 (5.27%) Azure Data Factory
6 574 (5.26%) GCP
7 365 (3.35%) PaaS
8 312 (2.86%) GitHub
9 288 (2.64%) AWS Lambda
9 288 (2.64%) Azure Cosmos DB
10 270 (2.48%) Amazon S3
11 264 (2.42%) Azure Synapse Analytics
12 262 (2.40%) Microsoft 365
13 246 (2.26%) Azure Functions
13 246 (2.26%) SaaS
14 229 (2.10%) Dynamics 365
15 224 (2.05%) PowerApps
16 216 (1.98%) IaaS
17 183 (1.68%) Azure Active Directory
18 177 (1.62%) Snowflake
Communications & Networking
1 217 (1.99%) Firewall
2 181 (1.66%) HTTP
3 158 (1.45%) DNS
4 143 (1.31%) TCP/IP
5 96 (0.88%) SAN
5 96 (0.88%) WAN
6 95 (0.87%) Internet
7 91 (0.83%) SSL
8 77 (0.71%) DHCP
9 72 (0.66%) LAN
10 61 (0.56%) VPN
11 48 (0.44%) FTP
12 37 (0.34%) Network Security
13 34 (0.31%) Kerberos
14 33 (0.30%) HTTPS
14 33 (0.30%) RTMP
15 28 (0.26%) NAS
15 28 (0.26%) Skype
16 26 (0.24%) Multicast
16 26 (0.24%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,159 (19.79%) SQL Server
2 1,448 (13.27%) Data Warehouse
3 1,371 (12.57%) Power BI
4 919 (8.42%) Relational Database
5 784 (7.19%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 765 (7.01%) NoSQL
7 687 (6.30%) Data Lake
8 682 (6.25%) Azure SQL Database
9 631 (5.78%) Big Data
10 576 (5.28%) Tableau
11 548 (5.02%) PostgreSQL
12 535 (4.90%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 502 (4.60%) Hadoop
14 458 (4.20%) MySQL
15 448 (4.11%) Oracle Database
16 413 (3.79%) MongoDB
17 362 (3.32%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 297 (2.72%) RDBMS
19 279 (2.56%) Apache Hive
20 252 (2.31%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 1,297 (11.89%) Git (software)
2 964 (8.84%) JIRA
3 864 (7.92%) Jenkins
4 335 (3.07%) Maven
5 314 (2.88%) Visual Studio
6 283 (2.59%) Bitbucket
6 283 (2.59%) Selenium
7 260 (2.38%) TeamCity
8 233 (2.14%) Cucumber
9 225 (2.06%) GitLab
10 210 (1.93%) Subversion
11 168 (1.54%) JUnit
12 139 (1.27%) Team Foundation Server
13 133 (1.22%) Postman
14 124 (1.14%) Artifactory
15 105 (0.96%) SpecFlow
16 94 (0.86%) Gradle
17 86 (0.79%) ERwin
18 76 (0.70%) JMeter
18 76 (0.70%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
General
1 2,481 (22.74%) Finance
2 2,244 (20.57%) Social Skills
3 1,280 (11.73%) Analytical Skills
4 1,160 (10.63%) Banking
5 662 (6.07%) Public Sector
6 488 (4.47%) Front Office
7 479 (4.39%) Investment Banking
8 360 (3.30%) Marketing
9 283 (2.59%) Presentation Skills
10 248 (2.27%) Retail
11 161 (1.48%) Telecoms
12 153 (1.40%) Legal
13 123 (1.13%) Documentation Skills
14 107 (0.98%) Manufacturing
15 89 (0.82%) Organisational Skills
16 86 (0.79%) Financial Institution
17 84 (0.77%) Electronics
18 83 (0.76%) Back Office
19 78 (0.72%) Law
20 73 (0.67%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 4,047 (37.10%) Developer
2 1,763 (16.16%) Analyst
3 1,135 (10.40%) Data Engineer
4 710 (6.51%) Data Analyst
5 648 (5.94%) Java Developer
6 620 (5.68%) Architect
7 602 (5.52%) .NET Developer
8 569 (5.22%) SQL Developer
9 542 (4.97%) C# Developer
10 498 (4.57%) Consultant
11 467 (4.28%) Azure Engineer
12 418 (3.83%) Python Developer
13 409 (3.75%) Senior Developer
14 375 (3.44%) Software Engineer
15 357 (3.27%) Business Analyst
16 347 (3.18%) Full Stack Developer
17 331 (3.03%) Business Intelligence Developer
18 316 (2.90%) SQL Analyst
19 266 (2.44%) Python Engineer
20 265 (2.43%) DBA
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,929 (17.68%) .NET
2 782 (7.17%) REST
3 771 (7.07%) HTML
4 736 (6.75%) AngularJS
4 736 (6.75%) Spring
5 641 (5.88%) Web Services
6 638 (5.85%) XML
7 595 (5.45%) CSS
8 590 (5.41%) React
9 578 (5.30%) Kafka
10 546 (5.01%) JSON
11 530 (4.86%) .NET Core
12 528 (4.84%) ASP.NET
13 526 (4.82%) .NET Framework
14 501 (4.59%) Spring Boot
15 464 (4.25%) RESTful
16 361 (3.31%) Node.js
17 286 (2.62%) J2EE
18 280 (2.57%) SOAP
19 273 (2.50%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 339 (3.11%) Data Structures
2 283 (2.59%) Fixed Income
3 280 (2.57%) Derivative
4 251 (2.30%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 240 (2.20%) Management Information System
6 218 (2.00%) Algorithms
7 202 (1.85%) NHS
8 200 (1.83%) Data Protection Act
9 197 (1.81%) Greenfield Project
10 183 (1.68%) User Experience
11 176 (1.61%) Self-Motivation
12 165 (1.51%) Equities
13 154 (1.41%) Virtual Team
14 148 (1.36%) Legacy Systems
15 142 (1.30%) Cloud Native
16 138 (1.27%) Public Cloud
17 133 (1.22%) Data Centre
18 120 (1.10%) Enterprise Software
19 111 (1.02%) Clustering
20 104 (0.95%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 1,168 (10.71%) Windows
2 1,102 (10.10%) Linux
3 811 (7.43%) Unix
4 315 (2.89%) Windows Server
5 124 (1.14%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 97 (0.89%) Windows Server 2012
7 85 (0.78%) Windows 10
8 83 (0.76%) Windows Server 2016
9 63 (0.58%) Windows Server 2008
10 60 (0.55%) Windows Server 2019
11 42 (0.39%) Ubuntu
12 39 (0.36%) Android
13 37 (0.34%) Apple iOS
13 37 (0.34%) Solaris
14 34 (0.31%) Windows 7
15 33 (0.30%) AIX
16 30 (0.28%) VMS
17 19 (0.17%) CentOS
18 15 (0.14%) Debian
19 12 (0.11%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,412 (31.28%) Agile Software Development
2 2,175 (19.94%) Business Intelligence
3 1,992 (18.26%) DevOps
4 1,664 (15.25%) Analytics
5 1,582 (14.50%) ETL
6 1,388 (12.72%) Data Modelling
7 1,137 (10.42%) Scrum
8 1,081 (9.91%) Problem-Solving
9 1,058 (9.70%) Migration
10 1,018 (9.33%) Microservices
11 943 (8.64%) Test Automation
12 941 (8.63%) Software Engineering
13 847 (7.76%) Visualisation
14 838 (7.68%) Data Analysis
15 752 (6.89%) TDD
16 740 (6.78%) Full Stack Development
17 600 (5.50%) Data Engineering
18 582 (5.34%) Continuous Integration
19 558 (5.12%) SDLC
20 556 (5.10%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 2,908 (26.66%) Python
2 2,302 (21.10%) Java
3 1,845 (16.91%) C#
4 1,475 (13.52%) JavaScript
5 889 (8.15%) PL/SQL
6 824 (7.55%) T-SQL
7 649 (5.95%) PowerShell
8 529 (4.85%) Scala
9 481 (4.41%) TypeScript
10 406 (3.72%) R
11 382 (3.50%) Shell Script
12 378 (3.47%) C++
13 335 (3.07%) VBA
14 330 (3.03%) Java 8
15 227 (2.08%) Bash Shell
16 191 (1.75%) Perl
17 165 (1.51%) VB
18 151 (1.38%) PHP
19 150 (1.38%) VB.NET
20 149 (1.37%) Go
Qualifications
1 743 (6.81%) Security Cleared
2 596 (5.46%) Degree
3 568 (5.21%) SC Cleared
4 202 (1.85%) Computer Science Degree
5 117 (1.07%) ISTQB
6 113 (1.04%) DV Cleared
7 105 (0.96%) BPSS Clearance
8 99 (0.91%) ISEB
9 66 (0.61%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 66 (0.61%) Microsoft Certification
10 42 (0.39%) Numerate Degree
11 33 (0.30%) DBS Check
12 31 (0.28%) AWS Certification
13 30 (0.28%) Master's Degree
14 27 (0.25%) MCSE
14 27 (0.25%) PhD
15 22 (0.20%) MCSA
16 21 (0.19%) ITIL Certification
17 17 (0.16%) CIMA
18 16 (0.15%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 507 (4.65%) QA
2 506 (4.64%) Data Quality
3 133 (1.22%) GDPR
4 85 (0.78%) Accessibility
5 74 (0.68%) SLA
6 57 (0.52%) IFRS
7 39 (0.36%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 36 (0.33%) MiFID
9 33 (0.30%) EMIR
10 31 (0.28%) Disclosure Scotland
11 21 (0.19%) Dodd-Frank
12 20 (0.18%) GAAP
12 20 (0.18%) IFRS 9
13 18 (0.17%) PMO
14 15 (0.14%) Basel II
14 15 (0.14%) GRC
15 13 (0.12%) PCI DSS
16 12 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
17 11 (0.10%) WCAG
18 9 (0.083%) Actionable Recommendations
System Software
1 827 (7.58%) Docker
2 504 (4.62%) Active Directory
3 210 (1.93%) VMware Infrastructure
4 103 (0.94%) HDFS
5 99 (0.91%) Virtual Machines
6 72 (0.66%) Hyper-V
7 50 (0.46%) vSphere
8 48 (0.44%) Oracle RAC
9 37 (0.34%) VMware ESXi
10 35 (0.32%) Virtual Desktop
11 33 (0.30%) XenApp
12 25 (0.23%) Virtual Servers
13 22 (0.20%) XenDesktop
14 19 (0.17%) NFS
15 18 (0.17%) RACF
15 18 (0.17%) VMware NSX
16 17 (0.16%) Microsoft App-V
16 17 (0.16%) VMware Workstation
17 15 (0.14%) BitLocker
18 10 (0.092%) Platform Symphony
Systems Management
1 751 (6.88%) Kubernetes
2 427 (3.91%) Terraform
3 373 (3.42%) Ansible
4 89 (0.82%) SCCM
5 88 (0.81%) Puppet
6 87 (0.80%) Kibana
7 81 (0.74%) Grafana
8 67 (0.61%) Prometheus
9 61 (0.56%) BladeLogic
10 56 (0.51%) Microsoft Intune
11 54 (0.50%) Opscode Chef
12 52 (0.48%) Data Guard
13 50 (0.46%) Control-M
14 47 (0.43%) ITRS Geneos
15 45 (0.41%) Single Sign-On
16 39 (0.36%) Microsoft Clustering
17 33 (0.30%) logstash
18 32 (0.29%) Nagios
18 32 (0.29%) Oozie
18 32 (0.29%) Oracle RMAN
Vendors
1 2,240 (20.53%) Oracle
2 1,812 (16.61%) Microsoft
3 664 (6.09%) Databricks
4 473 (4.34%) SAP
5 371 (3.40%) Google
6 328 (3.01%) Informatica
7 310 (2.84%) VMware
8 249 (2.28%) Salesforce.com
9 200 (1.83%) IBM
10 147 (1.35%) Red Hat
11 140 (1.28%) Citrix
12 133 (1.22%) Cloudera
13 130 (1.19%) Alteryx
14 128 (1.17%) webMethods
15 121 (1.11%) Splunk
16 110 (1.01%) BEA
17 107 (0.98%) MuleSoft
17 107 (0.98%) Teradata
18 104 (0.95%) Talend
19 102 (0.94%) Cisco