Period
to 13 August 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 13 August 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
13 Aug 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 7 4 6
Rank change year-on-year -3 +2 0
Contract jobs citing SQL 4,391 11,752 13,603
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.79% 12.95% 13.27%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.89% 30.57% 30.01%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,207 8,387 9,546
Median daily rate £475 £450 £438
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +2.86% +2.94%
10th Percentile £313 £306 £294
90th Percentile £663 £625 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £413 £400
% change year-on-year +3.03% +3.13% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 96 149 213
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £24.55
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +42.57% -31.82%
10th Percentile £12.63 £16.12 £11.75
90th Percentile £54.22 £57.05 £51.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.07 £23.88
% change year-on-year -0.19% +46.87% -36.33%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 14,215 38,437 45,330
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.39% 42.36% 44.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,399 26,601 31,800
Median daily rate £498 £475 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.74% +2.70% +2.78%
10th Percentile £320 £323 £313
90th Percentile £688 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £425 £413
% change year-on-year +5.88% +3.03% +3.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 361 696 746
Median hourly rate £35.00 £44.00 £41.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -20.45% +7.32% +1.23%
10th Percentile £17.50 £20.50 £16.25
90th Percentile £56.50 £55.50 £52.50
Median hourly rate £36.50 £44.00 £41.00
% change year-on-year -17.05% +7.32% -0.18%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 13 August 2020.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 13 August 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 13 August 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 3,905 £475 +5.56% 1,569
London -2 2,191 £520 +4.00% 483
UK excluding London -3 1,976 £425 +3.03% 1,214
South East +1 591 £475 +11.76% 248
Work from Home +6 424 £461 +8.53% 263
North of England -8 394 £375 -4.98% 337
Midlands 0 298 £425 +6.25% 238
North West -8 223 £375 -6.25% 196
West Midlands +2 217 £432 +5.37% 134
Scotland -2 212 £400 -5.88% 85
South West -11 201 £450 +6.51% 139
East of England -1 176 £425 - 122
Yorkshire -10 133 £393 -0.63% 113
East Midlands -3 80 £400 +1.91% 103
Wales 0 71 £438 +9.38% 38
Northern Ireland +3 41 £431 -10.21% 11
North East -2 39 £425 +15.65% 28

For the 6 months to 13 August 2020, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 1,344 (30.61%) Agile Software Development
2 1,130 (25.73%) SQL Server
3 1,084 (24.69%) Azure
4 1,054 (24.00%) Java
5 1,009 (22.98%) Finance
6 1,008 (22.96%) Oracle
7 968 (22.05%) Python
8 880 (20.04%) Microsoft
9 830 (18.90%) C#
10 808 (18.40%) Business Intelligence
11 782 (17.81%) .NET
12 740 (16.85%) DevOps
13 685 (15.60%) JavaScript
14 613 (13.96%) Windows
15 610 (13.89%) AWS
16 602 (13.71%) Security Cleared
17 565 (12.87%) Analytics
18 551 (12.55%) Data Warehouse
19 527 (12.00%) ETL
20 511 (11.64%) Migration
21 490 (11.16%) Power Platform
22 477 (10.86%) Power BI
22 477 (10.86%) Banking
23 472 (10.75%) SC Cleared
24 468 (10.66%) Linux
25 461 (10.50%) Test Automation
26 450 (10.25%) Git (software)
26 450 (10.25%) Data Modelling
27 442 (10.07%) T-SQL
28 431 (9.82%) PL/SQL

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 205 (4.67%) Apache Spark
2 181 (4.12%) SharePoint
3 177 (4.03%) Confluence
4 156 (3.55%) WebLogic
5 145 (3.30%) Apache
6 90 (2.05%) IIS
7 83 (1.89%) Tomcat
8 81 (1.84%) SAS
9 65 (1.48%) WebSphere
10 64 (1.46%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 56 (1.28%) Elasticsearch
12 36 (0.82%) CMS
13 29 (0.66%) MS Exchange
14 28 (0.64%) Oracle Workflow
15 27 (0.61%) JBoss
16 23 (0.52%) Apache Airflow
16 23 (0.52%) Mule
17 21 (0.48%) NServiceBus
18 18 (0.41%) BizTalk Server
19 14 (0.32%) MQSeries
Applications
1 302 (6.88%) Microsoft Excel
2 104 (2.37%) Microsoft Office
3 39 (0.89%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 17 (0.39%) MS Visio
5 16 (0.36%) Spreadsheet
6 15 (0.34%) Microsoft Project
7 14 (0.32%) Photoshop
8 11 (0.25%) Chatbot
9 7 (0.16%) Acrobat
9 7 (0.16%) RoboHelp
10 5 (0.11%) InfoPath
11 3 (0.068%) SPSS
12 2 (0.046%) Stata
13 1 (0.023%) Camtasia
13 1 (0.023%) Sketch
13 1 (0.023%) SOLIDWORKS
Business Applications
1 77 (1.75%) Dynamics CRM
2 56 (1.28%) Oracle Payables
3 50 (1.14%) Oracle EBS
4 37 (0.84%) Oracle Receivables
5 31 (0.71%) Oracle Cash Management
6 30 (0.68%) Maximo
7 27 (0.61%) Oracle ERP
8 22 (0.50%) Markit EDM
9 19 (0.43%) Oracle EBS R12
10 17 (0.39%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 16 (0.36%) Oracle Applications
12 13 (0.30%) Eagle PACE
13 12 (0.27%) Unit4 Business World
14 11 (0.25%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
15 10 (0.23%) Oracle Financials
15 10 (0.23%) Oracle General Ledger
16 9 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
16 9 (0.20%) SAP FI-CA
16 9 (0.20%) thinkFolio
17 8 (0.18%) PolarLake
Cloud Services
1 1,084 (24.69%) Azure
2 610 (13.89%) AWS
3 490 (11.16%) Power Platform
4 222 (5.06%) GCP
5 178 (4.05%) Serverless
6 141 (3.21%) Azure Data Factory
7 133 (3.03%) PaaS
8 124 (2.82%) AWS Lambda
9 113 (2.57%) Office 365
10 107 (2.44%) SaaS
11 82 (1.87%) IaaS
12 76 (1.73%) GitHub
13 74 (1.69%) Amazon S3
14 62 (1.41%) Amazon EC2
15 58 (1.32%) Dynamics 365
16 57 (1.30%) Apigee
17 54 (1.23%) Logic Apps
18 53 (1.21%) Amazon ECS
18 53 (1.21%) Azure Functions
19 52 (1.18%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 94 (2.14%) DNS
2 66 (1.50%) SSL
3 65 (1.48%) Firewall
4 59 (1.34%) DHCP
5 48 (1.09%) HTTP
6 40 (0.91%) TCP/IP
7 36 (0.82%) HTTPS
8 34 (0.77%) WAN
9 32 (0.73%) SAN
9 32 (0.73%) Skype
10 24 (0.55%) VPN
11 22 (0.50%) Internet
12 18 (0.41%) LAN
13 17 (0.39%) Kerberos
14 16 (0.36%) FTP
14 16 (0.36%) MPLS
14 16 (0.36%) VoIP
15 15 (0.34%) Wireless
16 14 (0.32%) SSH
17 12 (0.27%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,130 (25.73%) SQL Server
2 551 (12.55%) Data Warehouse
3 477 (10.86%) Power BI
4 425 (9.68%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 334 (7.61%) Relational Database
6 306 (6.97%) NoSQL
7 301 (6.85%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 285 (6.49%) Big Data
9 265 (6.04%) MySQL
10 237 (5.40%) PostgreSQL
11 223 (5.08%) Oracle Database
12 219 (4.99%) Azure SQL Database
13 184 (4.19%) Data Lake
14 175 (3.99%) Hadoop
15 174 (3.96%) MongoDB
16 159 (3.62%) SQL Server Analysis Services
17 126 (2.87%) Amazon Redshift
18 107 (2.44%) RDBMS
19 83 (1.89%) Apache Hive
20 82 (1.87%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 450 (10.25%) Git (software)
2 347 (7.90%) Jenkins
3 346 (7.88%) JIRA
4 191 (4.35%) Selenium
5 144 (3.28%) Visual Studio
6 143 (3.26%) Cucumber
7 142 (3.23%) GitLab
8 137 (3.12%) Maven
9 134 (3.05%) Team Foundation Server
10 111 (2.53%) Subversion
11 108 (2.46%) JUnit
12 97 (2.21%) Artifactory
13 83 (1.89%) TeamCity
14 74 (1.69%) Bitbucket
14 74 (1.69%) SoapUI
15 69 (1.57%) Eclipse
16 68 (1.55%) Postman
17 66 (1.50%) Toad
18 53 (1.21%) Ant
19 51 (1.16%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
General
1 1,009 (22.98%) Finance
2 477 (10.86%) Banking
3 316 (7.20%) Public Sector
4 246 (5.60%) Front Office
5 202 (4.60%) Investment Banking
6 103 (2.35%) Marketing
7 95 (2.16%) Back Office
8 83 (1.89%) Retail
9 63 (1.43%) Telecoms
10 57 (1.30%) General Ledger
11 55 (1.25%) Legal
12 53 (1.21%) Law
13 48 (1.09%) Manufacturing
14 37 (0.84%) Financial Institution
15 35 (0.80%) Pharmaceutical
16 29 (0.66%) Local Government
17 27 (0.61%) Electronics
18 21 (0.48%) Games
19 20 (0.46%) Police
20 18 (0.41%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 1,843 (41.97%) Developer
2 590 (13.44%) Analyst
3 348 (7.93%) SQL Developer
4 311 (7.08%) Java Developer
5 273 (6.22%) Data Engineer
6 272 (6.19%) Architect
7 251 (5.72%) .NET Developer
8 240 (5.47%) C# Developer
9 209 (4.76%) Consultant
10 166 (3.78%) Business Intelligence Developer
11 165 (3.76%) Software Engineer
12 160 (3.64%) Data Analyst
13 150 (3.42%) DBA
13 150 (3.42%) Senior Developer
14 131 (2.98%) Python Developer
15 117 (2.66%) Azure Engineer
16 111 (2.53%) Business Analyst
17 105 (2.39%) DevOps Engineer
18 102 (2.32%) C# .NET Developer
19 96 (2.19%) Administrator
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 782 (17.81%) .NET
2 416 (9.47%) HTML
3 395 (9.00%) Web Services
4 344 (7.83%) XML
5 321 (7.31%) CSS
6 297 (6.76%) AngularJS
7 263 (5.99%) Spring
8 246 (5.60%) REST
9 245 (5.58%) ASP.NET
10 227 (5.17%) React
11 204 (4.65%) Node.js
12 203 (4.62%) .NET Framework
13 189 (4.30%) SOAP
14 176 (4.01%) JSON
15 156 (3.55%) RESTful
16 148 (3.37%) jQuery
17 129 (2.94%) Kafka
18 128 (2.92%) .NET Core
19 110 (2.51%) Middleware
20 109 (2.48%) Entity Framework
Miscellaneous
1 428 (9.75%) Analytical Skills
2 190 (4.33%) Fixed Income
3 147 (3.35%) Derivative
4 145 (3.30%) Greenfield Project
5 140 (3.19%) Hedge funds
6 114 (2.60%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 94 (2.14%) Data Structures
8 88 (2.00%) Management Information System
9 87 (1.98%) User Experience
10 85 (1.94%) Equities
11 77 (1.75%) Self-Motivation
12 67 (1.53%) Data Centre
13 66 (1.50%) Algorithms
14 60 (1.37%) Linux Command Line
15 57 (1.30%) NHS
16 56 (1.28%) Credit Risk
17 54 (1.23%) Reference Data
18 52 (1.18%) Public Cloud
19 51 (1.16%) Enterprise Software
20 49 (1.12%) Cloud Native
Operating Systems
1 613 (13.96%) Windows
2 468 (10.66%) Linux
3 389 (8.86%) Unix
4 221 (5.03%) Windows Server
5 63 (1.43%) Windows Server 2016
6 60 (1.37%) Windows Server 2012
7 56 (1.28%) Windows Server 2008
8 53 (1.21%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 51 (1.16%) Windows 10
10 31 (0.71%) VMS
11 29 (0.66%) Ubuntu
12 28 (0.64%) AIX
12 28 (0.64%) Apple iOS
13 26 (0.59%) Windows Server 2019
14 23 (0.52%) Android
15 21 (0.48%) Windows Server 2003
16 19 (0.43%) Solaris
16 19 (0.43%) Windows 7
17 17 (0.39%) Mac OS X
18 15 (0.34%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,344 (30.61%) Agile Software Development
2 808 (18.40%) Business Intelligence
3 740 (16.85%) DevOps
4 565 (12.87%) Analytics
5 527 (12.00%) ETL
6 511 (11.64%) Migration
7 461 (10.50%) Test Automation
8 450 (10.25%) Data Modelling
9 423 (9.63%) Problem-Solving
10 414 (9.43%) Scrum
11 404 (9.20%) Microservices
12 323 (7.36%) Software Engineering
13 314 (7.15%) TDD
14 287 (6.54%) Continuous Integration
15 281 (6.40%) SDLC
16 253 (5.76%) Data Analysis
17 248 (5.65%) Visualisation
18 226 (5.15%) Unit Testing
19 223 (5.08%) Asset Management
20 209 (4.76%) Data Migration
Programming Languages
1 1,054 (24.00%) Java
2 968 (22.05%) Python
3 830 (18.90%) C#
4 685 (15.60%) JavaScript
5 442 (10.07%) T-SQL
6 431 (9.82%) PL/SQL
7 341 (7.77%) PowerShell
8 210 (4.78%) Shell Script
9 192 (4.37%) R
10 162 (3.69%) VBA
11 142 (3.23%) C++
12 139 (3.17%) Scala
13 114 (2.60%) VB
14 107 (2.44%) TypeScript
15 100 (2.28%) Bash Shell
16 96 (2.19%) Perl
17 93 (2.12%) Java 8
18 76 (1.73%) Ruby
19 74 (1.69%) PHP
20 63 (1.43%) C
Qualifications
1 602 (13.71%) Security Cleared
2 472 (10.75%) SC Cleared
3 261 (5.94%) Degree
4 113 (2.57%) DV Cleared
5 75 (1.71%) Computer Science Degree
6 60 (1.37%) ISEB
6 60 (1.37%) ISTQB
7 40 (0.91%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 36 (0.82%) Microsoft Certification
9 35 (0.80%) BPSS Clearance
10 22 (0.50%) Master's Degree
11 20 (0.46%) Sun Certification
12 15 (0.34%) ITIL Certification
13 12 (0.27%) MCSE
13 12 (0.27%) PhD
14 10 (0.23%) DBS Check
14 10 (0.23%) Numerate Degree
15 9 (0.20%) ISEB Practitioner
16 8 (0.18%) Cisco Certification
16 8 (0.18%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 184 (4.19%) QA
2 130 (2.96%) Data Quality
3 64 (1.46%) GDPR
4 50 (1.14%) SLA
5 18 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 14 (0.32%) MiFID
6 14 (0.32%) Solvency II
7 12 (0.27%) Cyber Essentials
7 12 (0.27%) HIPAA
7 12 (0.27%) PCI DSS
7 12 (0.27%) PMO
8 11 (0.25%) WCAG
9 9 (0.20%) IFRS
10 6 (0.14%) HL7
11 5 (0.11%) Disclosure Scotland
11 5 (0.11%) GxP
11 5 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 4 (0.091%) COBIT
12 4 (0.091%) DICOM
12 4 (0.091%) ISO 20022
System Software
1 368 (8.38%) Docker
2 227 (5.17%) Active Directory
3 64 (1.46%) VMware Infrastructure
4 46 (1.05%) Hyper-V
5 43 (0.98%) Virtual Machines
6 36 (0.82%) HDFS
7 28 (0.64%) Oracle RAC
8 26 (0.59%) XenApp
9 17 (0.39%) vSphere
10 16 (0.36%) Microsoft App-V
11 12 (0.27%) VMware ESXi
12 8 (0.18%) Citrix Hypervisor
12 8 (0.18%) RACF
12 8 (0.18%) Virtual Servers
13 6 (0.14%) Oracle Clusterware
13 6 (0.14%) XenDesktop
14 4 (0.091%) LXC
15 3 (0.068%) Apache Flume
15 3 (0.068%) Apache ZooKeeper
15 3 (0.068%) GridGain
Systems Management
1 346 (7.88%) Kubernetes
2 103 (2.35%) Terraform
3 99 (2.25%) Ansible
4 59 (1.34%) SCCM
5 45 (1.02%) Puppet
6 39 (0.89%) Prometheus
7 38 (0.87%) Opscode Chef
8 36 (0.82%) Kibana
9 29 (0.66%) SCOM
10 28 (0.64%) Data Guard
11 23 (0.52%) Grafana
11 23 (0.52%) Nagios
12 21 (0.48%) HP Quality Center
13 20 (0.46%) Zipkin
14 19 (0.43%) logstash
15 18 (0.41%) Microsoft Intune
16 17 (0.39%) Oracle RMAN
17 15 (0.34%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
18 14 (0.32%) Control-M
19 13 (0.30%) WMI
Vendors
1 1,008 (22.96%) Oracle
2 880 (20.04%) Microsoft
3 208 (4.74%) Tableau
4 168 (3.83%) SAP
5 160 (3.64%) Google
6 129 (2.94%) Databricks
7 101 (2.30%) VMware
8 95 (2.16%) IBM
9 82 (1.87%) Sybase
10 77 (1.75%) Informatica
11 73 (1.66%) Splunk
12 64 (1.46%) Salesforce.com
13 63 (1.43%) Cloudera
14 62 (1.41%) Red Hat
15 54 (1.23%) Bloomberg
16 47 (1.07%) Citrix
16 47 (1.07%) HP
17 42 (0.96%) Atlassian
18 39 (0.89%) webMethods
19 36 (0.82%) Teradata