Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 20 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
20 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 9 6 7
Rank change year-on-year -3 +1 -2
Contract jobs citing SQL 10,826 7,391 6,289
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.26% 12.76% 12.91%
As % of the Programming Languages category 33.44% 31.48% 31.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,807 4,987 4,442
10th Percentile £363 £313 £313
25th Percentile £431 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £488 £453
Median % change year-on-year +7.69% +7.56% +0.72%
75th Percentile £638 £588 £550
90th Percentile £747 £675 £645
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +11.76% - +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 140 128 101
10th Percentile £16.25 £14.60 £13.75
25th Percentile £20.56 £21.00 £18.00
Median hourly rate £35.00 £27.00 £24.70
Median % change year-on-year +29.63% +9.31% +2.43%
75th Percentile £51.27 £45.78 £43.75
90th Percentile £63.62 £58.71 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £26.49 £24.00 £20.96
% change year-on-year +10.38% +14.49% -9.50%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 32,375 23,480 19,878
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 36.67% 40.53% 40.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,581 16,527 14,024
10th Percentile £383 £325 £325
25th Percentile £455 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £655 £599 £575
90th Percentile £750 £688 £663
UK excluding London median daily rate £495 £430 £450
% change year-on-year +15.12% -4.44% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 533 456 353
10th Percentile £19.52 £17.13 £17.50
25th Percentile £35.00 £25.00 £21.57
Median hourly rate £50.00 £41.66 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year +20.02% -1.98% -1.16%
75th Percentile £61.75 £52.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £74.10 £62.25 £57.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.00 £40.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year +25.00% -5.88% -3.41%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 20 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 20 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 20 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -3 8,778 £540 +8.00% 2,512
Work from Home 0 5,389 £525 +10.53% 1,095
London -1 5,286 £576 +4.64% 959
UK excluding London -1 3,349 £475 +11.76% 1,726
North of England +2 802 £463 +15.63% 476
South East -2 797 £500 +5.26% 350
Midlands -3 630 £440 +10.00% 350
North West +7 538 £475 +18.75% 250
West Midlands -3 468 £450 +11.11% 206
Scotland -2 372 £475 +11.76% 117
South West +1 367 £475 +5.56% 190
East of England -2 254 £425 - 175
Yorkshire -3 237 £450 +12.50% 165
East Midlands -2 157 £398 +6.00% 142
Wales -2 106 £525 +23.53% 40
North East -14 32 £500 +5.26% 64
Northern Ireland -1 30 £475 +9.83% 32
Isle of Man - 2 £350 - 1

For the 6 months to 20 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 3,230 (29.84%) Agile
2 3,201 (29.57%) Azure
3 2,798 (25.85%) Python
4 2,502 (23.11%) Finance
5 2,292 (21.17%) SQL Server
6 2,201 (20.33%) Social Skills
7 2,174 (20.08%) Oracle
8 2,046 (18.90%) Microsoft
9 1,971 (18.21%) DevOps
10 1,913 (17.67%) Java
11 1,881 (17.37%) C#
12 1,857 (17.15%) .NET
13 1,832 (16.92%) Business Intelligence
14 1,759 (16.25%) AWS
15 1,601 (14.79%) Analytics
16 1,537 (14.20%) JavaScript
17 1,433 (13.24%) Power Platform
18 1,409 (13.01%) CI/CD
19 1,375 (12.70%) ETL
20 1,299 (12.00%) Power BI
21 1,296 (11.97%) Windows
22 1,295 (11.96%) Git (software)
23 1,239 (11.44%) Data Modelling
24 1,221 (11.28%) Banking
25 1,192 (11.01%) Data Warehouse
26 1,190 (10.99%) Analytical Skills
27 1,163 (10.74%) Linux
28 1,160 (10.71%) Problem-Solving
29 1,092 (10.09%) Scrum
30 1,066 (9.85%) Migration

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 456 (4.21%) Confluence
2 439 (4.06%) Apache Spark
3 304 (2.81%) SharePoint
4 231 (2.13%) Apache
5 191 (1.76%) SAS
6 178 (1.64%) Apache Airflow
7 152 (1.40%) WebLogic
8 141 (1.30%) Elasticsearch
9 120 (1.11%) IIS
10 100 (0.92%) Tomcat
11 86 (0.79%) WebSphere
12 78 (0.72%) BizTalk Server
13 63 (0.58%) MS Exchange
14 53 (0.49%) CMS
15 51 (0.47%) JBoss
16 43 (0.40%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 41 (0.38%) Oracle Workflow
18 39 (0.36%) nginx
19 38 (0.35%) Oracle Coherence
20 35 (0.32%) Exchange Server 2013
Applications
1 575 (5.31%) Microsoft Excel
2 188 (1.74%) Microsoft Office
3 85 (0.79%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 61 (0.56%) MS Visio
5 46 (0.42%) Microsoft Project
6 36 (0.33%) SPSS
7 18 (0.17%) Spreadsheet
8 14 (0.13%) Stata
9 8 (0.074%) CATIA
10 6 (0.055%) Chatbot
11 5 (0.046%) Adobe Illustrator
11 5 (0.046%) Oracle Smart View
12 4 (0.037%) InfoPath
12 4 (0.037%) Simulink
13 3 (0.028%) Siemens NX
13 3 (0.028%) Windchill
14 2 (0.018%) AutoCAD
14 2 (0.018%) Autodesk Inventor
14 2 (0.018%) Mathcad
14 2 (0.018%) SOLIDWORKS
Business Applications
1 114 (1.05%) Dynamics CRM
2 85 (0.79%) Oracle EBS
3 75 (0.69%) Dynamics AX
4 46 (0.42%) assyst
5 42 (0.39%) Oracle Receivables
6 36 (0.33%) Oracle Payables
7 33 (0.30%) Oracle Applications
8 32 (0.30%) NetSuite
8 32 (0.30%) Oracle ERP
9 27 (0.25%) Oracle EBS R12
10 22 (0.20%) SAP S/4HANA
11 21 (0.19%) SAP FI-CA
11 21 (0.19%) SAP PSCD
12 20 (0.18%) Oracle 11i
13 19 (0.18%) ION MarketView
13 19 (0.18%) Oracle Financials
14 17 (0.16%) BusinessWorks
14 17 (0.16%) Endur
14 17 (0.16%) Oracle Assets
15 15 (0.14%) HiPortfolio
Cloud Services
1 3,201 (29.57%) Azure
2 1,759 (16.25%) AWS
3 1,433 (13.24%) Power Platform
4 753 (6.96%) GCP
5 532 (4.91%) Azure Data Factory
6 440 (4.06%) Serverless
7 339 (3.13%) Microsoft 365
8 309 (2.85%) GitHub
9 298 (2.75%) PaaS
10 254 (2.35%) SaaS
11 230 (2.12%) Azure Synapse Analytics
12 223 (2.06%) Amazon S3
13 211 (1.95%) PowerApps
14 201 (1.86%) Snowflake
15 198 (1.83%) Azure Cosmos DB
16 195 (1.80%) AWS Lambda
17 193 (1.78%) Azure Functions
18 191 (1.76%) IaaS
19 188 (1.74%) Azure Active Directory
20 168 (1.55%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 230 (2.12%) Firewall
2 204 (1.88%) DNS
3 172 (1.59%) TCP/IP
4 154 (1.42%) HTTP
5 123 (1.14%) DHCP
6 116 (1.07%) Internet
7 77 (0.71%) SAN
8 67 (0.62%) SSL
9 57 (0.53%) VPN
10 55 (0.51%) WAN
11 53 (0.49%) Wi-Fi
12 49 (0.45%) HTTPS
13 46 (0.42%) FTP
14 44 (0.41%) Skype
15 43 (0.40%) SSH
16 42 (0.39%) Kerberos
17 40 (0.37%) Network Security
18 34 (0.31%) LAN
19 31 (0.29%) RTMP
20 29 (0.27%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,292 (21.17%) SQL Server
2 1,299 (12.00%) Power BI
3 1,192 (11.01%) Data Warehouse
4 755 (6.97%) Relational Database
5 737 (6.81%) NoSQL
6 660 (6.10%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 623 (5.75%) PostgreSQL
8 574 (5.30%) Oracle Database
9 553 (5.11%) Azure SQL Database
10 546 (5.04%) Big Data
11 531 (4.90%) Tableau
12 504 (4.66%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 483 (4.46%) Data Lake
14 474 (4.38%) MySQL
15 409 (3.78%) MongoDB
16 341 (3.15%) Hadoop
17 268 (2.48%) RDBMS
18 265 (2.45%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 241 (2.23%) BigQuery
20 207 (1.91%) Amazon Redshift
Development Applications
1 1,295 (11.96%) Git (software)
2 1,057 (9.76%) JIRA
3 711 (6.57%) Jenkins
4 306 (2.83%) GitLab
5 279 (2.58%) Selenium
6 275 (2.54%) Visual Studio
7 253 (2.34%) Bitbucket
8 238 (2.20%) Maven
9 210 (1.94%) Cucumber
10 208 (1.92%) TeamCity
11 173 (1.60%) Postman
12 162 (1.50%) Team Foundation Server
13 137 (1.27%) SoapUI
14 132 (1.22%) Subversion
15 123 (1.14%) Artifactory
16 118 (1.09%) JUnit
17 117 (1.08%) SonarQube
18 105 (0.97%) JMeter
19 102 (0.94%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
20 97 (0.90%) Oracle Forms
General
1 2,502 (23.11%) Finance
2 2,201 (20.33%) Social Skills
3 1,221 (11.28%) Banking
4 1,190 (10.99%) Analytical Skills
5 677 (6.25%) Public Sector
6 614 (5.67%) Front Office
7 496 (4.58%) Investment Banking
8 299 (2.76%) Retail
9 269 (2.48%) Marketing
10 182 (1.68%) Telecoms
11 175 (1.62%) Legal
12 173 (1.60%) Presentation Skills
13 115 (1.06%) Law
14 106 (0.98%) Back Office
15 103 (0.95%) Manufacturing
16 100 (0.92%) Influencing Skills
17 85 (0.79%) Financial Institution
17 85 (0.79%) Organisational Skills
18 72 (0.67%) Documentation Skills
19 68 (0.63%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 3,897 (36.00%) Developer
2 1,911 (17.65%) Analyst
3 1,053 (9.73%) Data Engineer
4 737 (6.81%) Data Analyst
5 613 (5.66%) Architect
6 594 (5.49%) .NET Developer
7 537 (4.96%) Java Developer
8 536 (4.95%) SQL Developer
9 451 (4.17%) Python Developer
10 447 (4.13%) C# Developer
11 428 (3.95%) Senior Developer
12 418 (3.86%) Business Analyst
13 377 (3.48%) DBA
14 366 (3.38%) Full Stack Developer
15 356 (3.29%) Consultant
16 355 (3.28%) Software Engineer
17 341 (3.15%) Azure Engineer
18 313 (2.89%) Python Engineer
19 285 (2.63%) Business Intelligence Developer
20 247 (2.28%) SQL Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,857 (17.15%) .NET
2 891 (8.23%) HTML
3 866 (8.00%) React
4 711 (6.57%) CSS
5 694 (6.41%) REST
6 655 (6.05%) XML
7 566 (5.23%) AngularJS
8 545 (5.03%) Spring
9 538 (4.97%) Kafka
10 533 (4.92%) JSON
11 458 (4.23%) Node.js
12 443 (4.09%) .NET Framework
13 433 (4.00%) ASP.NET
14 429 (3.96%) RESTful
15 426 (3.93%) Web Services
16 411 (3.80%) .NET Core
17 397 (3.67%) Spring Boot
18 321 (2.97%) HTML5
19 308 (2.85%) SOAP
20 282 (2.60%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 277 (2.56%) User Experience
2 268 (2.48%) Derivative
3 256 (2.36%) Data Structures
4 241 (2.23%) Self-Motivation
5 201 (1.86%) Equities
6 199 (1.84%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 187 (1.73%) NHS
8 186 (1.72%) Greenfield Project
9 184 (1.70%) Management Information System
10 169 (1.56%) Cloud Native
11 168 (1.55%) Algorithms
12 152 (1.40%) Fixed Income
13 147 (1.36%) Clustering
13 147 (1.36%) Data Protection Act
14 143 (1.32%) Hedge funds
15 142 (1.31%) Replication
16 135 (1.25%) Legacy Systems
17 121 (1.12%) Public Cloud
18 119 (1.10%) Virtual Team
19 116 (1.07%) Reference Data
Operating Systems
1 1,296 (11.97%) Windows
2 1,163 (10.74%) Linux
3 846 (7.81%) Unix
4 420 (3.88%) Windows Server
5 161 (1.49%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 127 (1.17%) Windows Server 2012
7 100 (0.92%) Windows 10
8 90 (0.83%) Windows Server 2019
9 75 (0.69%) Windows Server 2016
10 74 (0.68%) Apple iOS
11 55 (0.51%) Solaris
12 52 (0.48%) Windows Server 2008
13 47 (0.43%) AIX
14 37 (0.34%) VMS
15 36 (0.33%) Android
16 32 (0.30%) Ubuntu
16 32 (0.30%) Windows 7
17 25 (0.23%) Windows Server 2003
18 19 (0.18%) Oracle Linux
19 17 (0.16%) CentOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,230 (29.84%) Agile
2 1,971 (18.21%) DevOps
3 1,832 (16.92%) Business Intelligence
4 1,601 (14.79%) Analytics
5 1,409 (13.01%) CI/CD
6 1,375 (12.70%) ETL
7 1,239 (11.44%) Data Modelling
8 1,160 (10.71%) Problem-Solving
9 1,092 (10.09%) Scrum
10 1,066 (9.85%) Migration
11 947 (8.75%) Microservices
12 920 (8.50%) Software Engineering
13 878 (8.11%) Test Automation
14 738 (6.82%) Full Stack Development
15 727 (6.72%) TDD
16 719 (6.64%) Visualisation
17 670 (6.19%) Data Analysis
18 592 (5.47%) Data Engineering
19 569 (5.26%) Continuous Integration
20 531 (4.90%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 2,798 (25.85%) Python
2 1,913 (17.67%) Java
3 1,881 (17.37%) C#
4 1,537 (14.20%) JavaScript
5 950 (8.78%) PL/SQL
6 793 (7.32%) T-SQL
7 712 (6.58%) PowerShell
8 565 (5.22%) TypeScript
9 336 (3.10%) Shell Script
10 334 (3.09%) R
11 310 (2.86%) Scala
12 303 (2.80%) C++
13 235 (2.17%) VBA
14 219 (2.02%) Bash
15 217 (2.00%) C
16 193 (1.78%) Go
17 155 (1.43%) Perl
18 133 (1.23%) VB
19 124 (1.15%) PHP
20 113 (1.04%) Data Analysis Expressions (DAX)
Qualifications
1 1,052 (9.72%) Security Cleared
2 887 (8.19%) SC Cleared
3 522 (4.82%) Degree
4 171 (1.58%) Computer Science Degree
5 128 (1.18%) DV Cleared
6 103 (0.95%) BPSS Clearance
7 98 (0.91%) ISTQB
8 78 (0.72%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 72 (0.67%) Microsoft Certification
10 65 (0.60%) ISEB
11 62 (0.57%) PMP
12 53 (0.49%) Master's Degree
13 50 (0.46%) Numerate Degree
14 48 (0.44%) PhD
15 42 (0.39%) AWS Certification
16 26 (0.24%) PMI Certification
17 23 (0.21%) ITIL Certification
18 22 (0.20%) FFIEC
19 19 (0.18%) MCSA
19 19 (0.18%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 637 (5.88%) QA
2 468 (4.32%) Data Quality
3 162 (1.50%) SLA
4 105 (0.97%) GDPR
5 79 (0.73%) Accessibility
6 40 (0.37%) PCI DSS
7 38 (0.35%) MiFID
8 34 (0.31%) IFRS
9 31 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 26 (0.24%) PMO
11 24 (0.22%) NIST
12 22 (0.20%) EMIR
12 22 (0.20%) GLBA
12 22 (0.20%) IFRS 17
12 22 (0.20%) WCAG
13 17 (0.16%) Actionable Recommendations
13 17 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
14 13 (0.12%) Dodd-Frank
14 13 (0.12%) SEPA
15 11 (0.10%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 817 (7.55%) Docker
2 517 (4.78%) Active Directory
3 299 (2.76%) VMware Infrastructure
4 145 (1.34%) Hyper-V
5 126 (1.16%) Virtual Machines
6 101 (0.93%) Oracle RAC
7 93 (0.86%) HDFS
8 65 (0.60%) vSphere
9 38 (0.35%) VMware ESXi
10 30 (0.28%) XenApp
11 24 (0.22%) Microsoft App-V
12 21 (0.19%) NFS
13 20 (0.18%) VMware NSX
14 18 (0.17%) Virtual Desktop
15 14 (0.13%) XenDesktop
16 12 (0.11%) Apache ZooKeeper
16 12 (0.11%) Ceph
16 12 (0.11%) Virtual Servers
17 11 (0.10%) Oracle Clusterware
18 9 (0.083%) GridGain
Systems Management
1 796 (7.35%) Kubernetes
2 541 (5.00%) Terraform
3 391 (3.61%) Ansible
4 103 (0.95%) SCCM
5 101 (0.93%) Puppet
6 98 (0.91%) ITRS Geneos
7 87 (0.80%) Data Guard
8 83 (0.77%) Oracle RMAN
9 80 (0.74%) Grafana
10 71 (0.66%) BladeLogic
10 71 (0.66%) Prometheus
11 67 (0.62%) Kibana
11 67 (0.62%) Single Sign-On
12 58 (0.54%) Microsoft Intune
13 56 (0.52%) Opscode Chef
14 49 (0.45%) Microsoft Clustering
15 42 (0.39%) Active Directory Federation Services
16 37 (0.34%) Oracle Enterprise Manager
17 35 (0.32%) Istio
18 29 (0.27%) SCOM
Vendors
1 2,174 (20.08%) Oracle
2 2,046 (18.90%) Microsoft
3 580 (5.36%) Databricks
4 435 (4.02%) VMware
5 423 (3.91%) Google
6 379 (3.50%) SAP
7 222 (2.05%) Informatica
8 202 (1.87%) IBM
9 192 (1.77%) Red Hat
10 164 (1.51%) TIBCO
11 158 (1.46%) Splunk
12 143 (1.32%) Citrix
13 133 (1.23%) Salesforce.com
14 127 (1.17%) Cisco
15 125 (1.15%) ServiceNow
16 122 (1.13%) Talend
17 107 (0.99%) Alteryx
18 92 (0.85%) Bloomberg
19 87 (0.80%) Cloudera
19 87 (0.80%) Teradata