Period
to 29 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 8 5
Rank change year-on-year +1 -3 +2
Contract jobs citing SQL 9,270 4,710 11,972
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.92% 12.82% 13.06%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.12% 31.06% 30.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,299 3,332 8,430
10th Percentile £325 £313 £306
25th Percentile £406 £400 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +2.86%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £538
90th Percentile £694 £662 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £431 £405
% change year-on-year +1.51% +6.42% +1.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 156 68 133
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.63 £15.08
25th Percentile £19.38 £17.92 £18.14
Median hourly rate £27.36 £26.26 £30.00
Median % change year-on-year +4.20% -12.48% +33.33%
75th Percentile £48.75 £45.25 £46.50
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.75 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £25.00 £24.70 £35.28
% change year-on-year +1.21% -29.99% +58.57%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 28,859 15,162 39,071
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.21% 41.27% 42.63%
Number of daily rates quoted 20,449 10,687 27,316
10th Percentile £350 £325 £323
25th Percentile £413 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.70%
75th Percentile £606 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £679 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 470 274 662
10th Percentile £16.11 £16.08 £20.31
25th Percentile £25.00 £21.68 £34.00
Median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £44.96
Median % change year-on-year - -5.47% +11.01%
75th Percentile £55.00 £50.00 £50.97
90th Percentile £65.28 £57.85 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.25 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year -0.59% -5.56% +11.11%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +2 7,546 £500 +5.26% 3,342
London +1 4,541 £550 +7.32% 1,263
UK excluding London +1 3,022 £438 +1.51% 2,247
Work from Home -1 2,561 £495 +10.00% 730
South East -2 819 £475 - 498
North of England 0 631 £425 +6.25% 664
Midlands +1 557 £425 - 469
West Midlands -1 411 £450 +3.45% 308
Scotland -5 365 £425 +6.25% 123
North West -4 334 £425 +13.33% 357
South West +6 296 £450 - 218
Yorkshire 0 237 £425 +6.25% 241
East of England +4 234 £400 -8.57% 211
East Midlands 0 137 £398 -0.63% 160
Wales -4 85 £419 -6.94% 45
North East -4 60 £465 +7.51% 66
Northern Ireland -3 38 £475 +10.47% 19
Isle of Man - 2 £463 -

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 2,932 (31.63%) Agile Software Development
2 2,666 (28.76%) Azure
3 2,485 (26.81%) Python
4 2,043 (22.04%) Finance
5 1,998 (21.55%) Oracle
6 1,983 (21.39%) Java
7 1,958 (21.12%) Social Skills
8 1,736 (18.73%) Business Intelligence
9 1,721 (18.57%) SQL Server
10 1,703 (18.37%) DevOps
11 1,631 (17.59%) .NET
12 1,527 (16.47%) Microsoft
13 1,504 (16.22%) C#
14 1,396 (15.06%) AWS
15 1,381 (14.90%) Analytics
16 1,252 (13.51%) ETL
17 1,231 (13.28%) JavaScript
18 1,195 (12.89%) Power Platform
19 1,179 (12.72%) Data Modelling
20 1,178 (12.71%) Data Warehouse
21 1,106 (11.93%) Analytical Skills
22 1,105 (11.92%) Power BI
23 1,083 (11.68%) Git (software)
24 1,065 (11.49%) Banking
25 994 (10.72%) Problem-Solving
26 990 (10.68%) Migration
27 978 (10.55%) Scrum
28 933 (10.06%) Windows
29 897 (9.68%) Linux
30 819 (8.83%) Microservices

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 478 (5.16%) Apache Spark
2 326 (3.52%) Confluence
3 300 (3.24%) SharePoint
4 284 (3.06%) Apache
5 191 (2.06%) SAS
6 175 (1.89%) WebLogic
7 163 (1.76%) Apache Airflow
8 125 (1.35%) IIS
9 121 (1.31%) Tomcat
10 95 (1.02%) Elasticsearch
11 87 (0.94%) BizTalk Server
12 86 (0.93%) WebSphere
13 69 (0.74%) JBoss
14 68 (0.73%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 63 (0.68%) MS Exchange
16 56 (0.60%) Oracle Coherence
17 53 (0.57%) Jupyter
18 52 (0.56%) CMS
19 34 (0.37%) nginx
20 28 (0.30%) Luigi
Applications
1 518 (5.59%) Microsoft Excel
2 178 (1.92%) Microsoft Office
3 98 (1.06%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 45 (0.49%) MS Visio
5 36 (0.39%) Spreadsheet
6 29 (0.31%) SPSS
7 20 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
8 14 (0.15%) Stata
9 12 (0.13%) Chatbot
10 8 (0.086%) InfoPath
11 5 (0.054%) Photoshop
12 4 (0.043%) Oracle Smart View
13 2 (0.022%) Mingle
14 1 (0.011%) Adobe Creative Suite
14 1 (0.011%) Adobe Illustrator
14 1 (0.011%) AutoCAD
14 1 (0.011%) Figma
14 1 (0.011%) InDesign
14 1 (0.011%) Pipeline Pilot
14 1 (0.011%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 153 (1.65%) Dynamics CRM
2 84 (0.91%) Dynamics AX
3 65 (0.70%) Oracle EBS
4 36 (0.39%) NetSuite
5 33 (0.36%) SunGard Martini
6 26 (0.28%) ION MarketView
6 26 (0.28%) SAP S/4HANA
7 23 (0.25%) Oracle ERP
7 23 (0.25%) Oracle Payables
8 22 (0.24%) Oracle Applications
9 21 (0.23%) Oracle Financials
9 21 (0.23%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
10 19 (0.20%) Maximo
10 19 (0.20%) Oracle Receivables
11 18 (0.19%) Oracle General Ledger
12 17 (0.18%) Unit4 Business World
13 16 (0.17%) Magento
14 15 (0.16%) Dynamics NAV
14 15 (0.16%) Markit EDM
14 15 (0.16%) Oracle EBS R12
Cloud Services
1 2,666 (28.76%) Azure
2 1,396 (15.06%) AWS
3 1,195 (12.89%) Power Platform
4 532 (5.74%) Serverless
5 503 (5.43%) GCP
6 499 (5.38%) Azure Data Factory
7 286 (3.09%) PaaS
8 270 (2.91%) AWS Lambda
9 259 (2.79%) Azure Cosmos DB
10 257 (2.77%) SaaS
11 244 (2.63%) Azure Functions
12 234 (2.52%) GitHub
13 227 (2.45%) Azure Synapse Analytics
14 219 (2.36%) Microsoft 365
15 209 (2.25%) Amazon S3
16 188 (2.03%) IaaS
17 175 (1.89%) Dynamics 365
18 169 (1.82%) Azure Storage
19 158 (1.70%) PowerApps
20 152 (1.64%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 202 (2.18%) Firewall
2 123 (1.33%) TCP/IP
3 120 (1.29%) DNS
4 117 (1.26%) HTTP
5 88 (0.95%) SSL
6 79 (0.85%) WAN
7 73 (0.79%) DHCP
8 71 (0.77%) SAN
9 62 (0.67%) LAN
10 48 (0.52%) Internet
11 45 (0.49%) VPN
12 39 (0.42%) Kerberos
13 37 (0.40%) SSH
14 35 (0.38%) FTP
15 30 (0.32%) Multicast
16 29 (0.31%) Network Security
16 29 (0.31%) Wi-Fi
17 28 (0.30%) Wireless
18 27 (0.29%) HTTPS
19 25 (0.27%) Skype
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,721 (18.57%) SQL Server
2 1,178 (12.71%) Data Warehouse
3 1,105 (11.92%) Power BI
4 696 (7.51%) Relational Database
5 659 (7.11%) NoSQL
6 651 (7.02%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 610 (6.58%) Azure SQL Database
8 536 (5.78%) Big Data
9 532 (5.74%) Data Lake
10 484 (5.22%) Tableau
11 452 (4.88%) PostgreSQL
12 450 (4.85%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 418 (4.51%) Hadoop
14 380 (4.10%) MySQL
15 368 (3.97%) Oracle Database
16 365 (3.94%) MongoDB
17 295 (3.18%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 218 (2.35%) Apache Hive
19 214 (2.31%) RDBMS
20 195 (2.10%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 1,083 (11.68%) Git (software)
2 757 (8.17%) JIRA
3 732 (7.90%) Jenkins
4 282 (3.04%) Maven
5 254 (2.74%) Visual Studio
6 237 (2.56%) Bitbucket
7 235 (2.54%) Selenium
8 217 (2.34%) TeamCity
9 183 (1.97%) Cucumber
10 175 (1.89%) Subversion
11 160 (1.73%) GitLab
12 136 (1.47%) JUnit
13 104 (1.12%) Postman
14 97 (1.05%) Artifactory
15 95 (1.02%) Team Foundation Server
16 86 (0.93%) Oracle APEX
17 83 (0.90%) Eclipse
18 78 (0.84%) Octopus Deploy
19 74 (0.80%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
20 73 (0.79%) Mockito
General
1 2,043 (22.04%) Finance
2 1,958 (21.12%) Social Skills
3 1,106 (11.93%) Analytical Skills
4 1,065 (11.49%) Banking
5 525 (5.66%) Public Sector
6 446 (4.81%) Investment Banking
7 439 (4.74%) Front Office
8 323 (3.48%) Marketing
9 252 (2.72%) Retail
10 247 (2.66%) Presentation Skills
11 147 (1.59%) Telecoms
12 122 (1.32%) Documentation Skills
13 118 (1.27%) Legal
14 94 (1.01%) Manufacturing
15 88 (0.95%) Organisational Skills
16 80 (0.86%) Back Office
17 72 (0.78%) Electronics
18 60 (0.65%) Influencing Skills
18 60 (0.65%) Law
19 59 (0.64%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 3,436 (37.07%) Developer
2 1,522 (16.42%) Analyst
3 882 (9.51%) Data Engineer
4 612 (6.60%) Data Analyst
5 595 (6.42%) Architect
6 565 (6.09%) Java Developer
7 513 (5.53%) .NET Developer
8 470 (5.07%) C# Developer
9 469 (5.06%) SQL Developer
10 438 (4.72%) Consultant
11 364 (3.93%) Azure Engineer
12 356 (3.84%) Senior Developer
13 298 (3.21%) Full Stack Developer
14 296 (3.19%) Software Engineer
15 286 (3.09%) Business Analyst
16 281 (3.03%) Python Developer
17 259 (2.79%) Business Intelligence Developer
18 258 (2.78%) SQL Analyst
19 223 (2.41%) DBA
20 213 (2.30%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,631 (17.59%) .NET
2 699 (7.54%) HTML
3 665 (7.17%) AngularJS
4 650 (7.01%) Spring
5 606 (6.54%) REST
6 542 (5.85%) Web Services
7 525 (5.66%) XML
8 510 (5.50%) CSS
9 489 (5.28%) React
10 475 (5.12%) .NET Core
10 475 (5.12%) JSON
11 462 (4.98%) RESTful
12 454 (4.90%) Kafka
13 411 (4.43%) ASP.NET
14 390 (4.21%) .NET Framework
15 388 (4.19%) Spring Boot
16 361 (3.89%) Node.js
17 273 (2.94%) HTML5
18 259 (2.79%) SOAP
19 252 (2.72%) J2EE
Miscellaneous
1 326 (3.52%) Data Structures
2 253 (2.73%) Fixed Income
3 240 (2.59%) Derivative
4 214 (2.31%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 209 (2.25%) Algorithms
6 197 (2.13%) Management Information System
7 170 (1.83%) Greenfield Project
8 165 (1.78%) NHS
9 164 (1.77%) User Experience
10 154 (1.66%) Self-Motivation
11 151 (1.63%) Virtual Team
12 146 (1.57%) Legacy Systems
13 142 (1.53%) Cloud Native
14 129 (1.39%) Data Centre
15 113 (1.22%) Enterprise Software
16 110 (1.19%) Data Protection Act
17 104 (1.12%) Public Cloud
18 98 (1.06%) Equities
19 84 (0.91%) Clustering
20 77 (0.83%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 933 (10.06%) Windows
2 897 (9.68%) Linux
3 698 (7.53%) Unix
4 276 (2.98%) Windows Server
5 108 (1.17%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 98 (1.06%) Windows Server 2012
7 82 (0.88%) Windows 10
8 81 (0.87%) Windows Server 2016
9 49 (0.53%) AIX
10 47 (0.51%) Android
11 44 (0.47%) Solaris
11 44 (0.47%) Windows Server 2019
12 43 (0.46%) Windows Server 2008
13 42 (0.45%) Ubuntu
14 34 (0.37%) VMS
15 33 (0.36%) Apple iOS
15 33 (0.36%) Windows 7
16 23 (0.25%) CentOS
17 11 (0.12%) zOS
18 10 (0.11%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,932 (31.63%) Agile Software Development
2 1,736 (18.73%) Business Intelligence
3 1,703 (18.37%) DevOps
4 1,381 (14.90%) Analytics
5 1,252 (13.51%) ETL
6 1,179 (12.72%) Data Modelling
7 994 (10.72%) Problem-Solving
8 990 (10.68%) Migration
9 978 (10.55%) Scrum
10 819 (8.83%) Microservices
11 800 (8.63%) Test Automation
12 764 (8.24%) Software Engineering
13 682 (7.36%) TDD
14 678 (7.31%) Visualisation
15 639 (6.89%) Full Stack Development
16 622 (6.71%) Data Analysis
17 578 (6.24%) Continuous Integration
18 486 (5.24%) Data Engineering
19 469 (5.06%) Data Science
20 461 (4.97%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 2,485 (26.81%) Python
2 1,983 (21.39%) Java
3 1,504 (16.22%) C#
4 1,231 (13.28%) JavaScript
5 814 (8.78%) PL/SQL
6 680 (7.34%) T-SQL
7 544 (5.87%) PowerShell
8 462 (4.98%) Scala
9 407 (4.39%) TypeScript
10 370 (3.99%) R
11 353 (3.81%) C++
12 316 (3.41%) Shell Script
13 264 (2.85%) Java 8
14 229 (2.47%) VBA
15 192 (2.07%) Perl
16 159 (1.72%) Bash Shell
17 147 (1.59%) C
18 142 (1.53%) PHP
19 139 (1.50%) Go
20 133 (1.43%) VB
Qualifications
1 663 (7.15%) Security Cleared
2 551 (5.94%) Degree
3 488 (5.26%) SC Cleared
4 137 (1.48%) Computer Science Degree
5 123 (1.33%) DV Cleared
6 93 (1.00%) ISTQB
7 92 (0.99%) ISEB
8 69 (0.74%) BPSS Clearance
9 58 (0.63%) Microsoft Certification
10 50 (0.54%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 34 (0.37%) Numerate Degree
12 29 (0.31%) AWS Certification
12 29 (0.31%) DBS Check
13 27 (0.29%) Master's Degree
13 27 (0.29%) PhD
14 24 (0.26%) ITIL Certification
15 19 (0.20%) MCSE
16 17 (0.18%) TOGAF Certification
17 15 (0.16%) CISSP
17 15 (0.16%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 416 (4.49%) Data Quality
2 413 (4.46%) QA
3 92 (0.99%) GDPR
4 59 (0.64%) Accessibility
4 59 (0.64%) SLA
5 40 (0.43%) IFRS
6 31 (0.33%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 25 (0.27%) Disclosure Scotland
8 22 (0.24%) MiFID
9 18 (0.19%) GRC
10 16 (0.17%) IFRS 9
11 13 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 13 (0.14%) PMO
12 12 (0.13%) GAAP
12 12 (0.13%) PCI DSS
13 10 (0.11%) EMIR
13 10 (0.11%) NIST
14 9 (0.097%) FINREP
14 9 (0.097%) HL7
15 8 (0.086%) WCAG
System Software
1 607 (6.55%) Docker
2 402 (4.34%) Active Directory
3 185 (2.00%) VMware Infrastructure
4 103 (1.11%) Hyper-V
5 83 (0.90%) HDFS
6 74 (0.80%) Virtual Machines
7 52 (0.56%) VMware ESXi
8 45 (0.49%) Microsoft App-V
9 43 (0.46%) XenApp
10 42 (0.45%) Oracle RAC
11 40 (0.43%) Virtual Desktop
12 26 (0.28%) vSphere
13 25 (0.27%) XenDesktop
14 23 (0.25%) Platform Symphony
15 17 (0.18%) Virtual Servers
16 16 (0.17%) RACF
17 14 (0.15%) Apache Flume
17 14 (0.15%) NFS
18 13 (0.14%) VMware Workstation
19 12 (0.13%) BitLocker
Systems Management
1 627 (6.76%) Kubernetes
2 340 (3.67%) Terraform
3 299 (3.23%) Ansible
4 105 (1.13%) SCCM
5 93 (1.00%) Puppet
6 66 (0.71%) Grafana
7 59 (0.64%) Opscode Chef
8 52 (0.56%) Control-M
9 47 (0.51%) Kibana
10 46 (0.50%) Data Guard
11 44 (0.47%) Microsoft Intune
12 39 (0.42%) Prometheus
13 38 (0.41%) Single Sign-On
14 36 (0.39%) Oozie
15 31 (0.33%) SCOM
16 28 (0.30%) Hadoop YARN
16 28 (0.30%) ITRS Geneos
17 27 (0.29%) Oracle RMAN
17 27 (0.29%) WSUS
18 25 (0.27%) BladeLogic
Vendors
1 1,998 (21.55%) Oracle
2 1,527 (16.47%) Microsoft
3 528 (5.70%) Databricks
4 388 (4.19%) SAP
5 359 (3.87%) Google
6 273 (2.94%) VMware
7 267 (2.88%) Informatica
8 203 (2.19%) IBM
9 194 (2.09%) Salesforce.com
10 121 (1.31%) Red Hat
11 120 (1.29%) Citrix
12 116 (1.25%) Splunk
13 101 (1.09%) Alteryx
13 101 (1.09%) Cloudera
13 101 (1.09%) webMethods
14 98 (1.06%) MuleSoft
15 96 (1.04%) Talend
16 92 (0.99%) BEA
17 90 (0.97%) Adobe
18 80 (0.86%) ServiceNow