Period
to 27 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 27 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
27 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 6 6 5
Rank change year-on-year 0 -1 +1
Contract jobs citing SQL 5,386 9,157 12,937
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.57% 12.80% 13.20%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.35% 31.42% 29.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,777 6,506 9,250
Median daily rate £463 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.78% - +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £313 £306
90th Percentile £644 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £413 £425 £413
% change year-on-year -2.94% +3.03% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 139 158 168
Median hourly rate £29.00 £27.25 £27.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.42% -0.91% +2.71%
10th Percentile £13.47 £13.92 £14.13
90th Percentile £58.71 £53.75 £55.30
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.61 £22.50 £26.65
% change year-on-year +4.92% -15.57% -3.09%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 17,744 29,142 43,431
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.42% 40.74% 44.33%
Number of daily rates quoted 12,376 20,410 30,883
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £313 £325 £320
90th Percentile £663 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £430 £425
% change year-on-year -1.16% +1.18% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 428 535 658
Median hourly rate £42.50 £43.00 £42.22
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -1.16% +1.85% +5.55%
10th Percentile £14.93 £16.50 £16.68
90th Percentile £59.13 £55.00 £51.25
Median hourly rate £42.00 £42.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -1.18% - +6.25%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 27 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 27 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 27 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 4,457 £460 +2.22% 2,175
London -3 2,491 £500 - 735
UK excluding London -2 2,067 £413 -2.94% 1,607
Work from Home +3 1,397 £454 +0.89% 482
North of England -3 504 £400 - 496
South East -5 475 £450 - 323
Midlands +4 453 £394 -1.56% 326
West Midlands +4 317 £400 -5.88% 202
North West +1 302 £400 - 274
Scotland -3 212 £400 - 92
South West -7 169 £450 +5.88% 159
East of England +2 157 £426 +0.29% 128
Yorkshire -5 140 £350 -12.50% 170
East Midlands +1 126 £375 - 123
Wales -2 77 £433 +6.13% 41
North East +9 62 £431 +3.92% 52
Northern Ireland -4 23 £431 +0.12% 39

For the 6 months to 27 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 1,621 (30.10%) Agile Software Development
2 1,402 (26.03%) Azure
3 1,225 (22.74%) Python
4 1,221 (22.67%) Oracle
5 1,203 (22.34%) Java
6 1,198 (22.24%) SQL Server
7 1,126 (20.91%) Finance
8 1,066 (19.79%) Business Intelligence
9 910 (16.90%) Microsoft
10 860 (15.97%) DevOps
11 840 (15.60%) AWS
12 790 (14.67%) .NET
13 774 (14.37%) C#
14 738 (13.70%) Data Modelling
15 722 (13.41%) JavaScript
16 686 (12.74%) ETL
17 634 (11.77%) PL/SQL
18 633 (11.75%) Power Platform
19 622 (11.55%) Security Cleared
20 611 (11.34%) Power BI
21 607 (11.27%) Data Warehouse
22 571 (10.60%) Analytics
23 558 (10.36%) Migration
24 533 (9.90%) Analytical Skills
25 531 (9.86%) Banking
26 530 (9.84%) Windows
27 527 (9.78%) Microservices
28 517 (9.60%) Git (software)
29 509 (9.45%) Linux
30 500 (9.28%) Unix

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 246 (4.57%) Apache Spark
2 216 (4.01%) Apache
3 209 (3.88%) Confluence
4 187 (3.47%) WebLogic
5 147 (2.73%) SharePoint
6 120 (2.23%) SAS
7 64 (1.19%) WebSphere
8 60 (1.11%) Elasticsearch
8 60 (1.11%) IIS
9 54 (1.00%) Tomcat
10 52 (0.97%) Oracle Workflow
11 50 (0.93%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 40 (0.74%) JBoss
13 39 (0.72%) Apache Airflow
14 37 (0.69%) CMS
15 34 (0.63%) Jupyter
16 29 (0.54%) BizTalk Server
17 26 (0.48%) MS Exchange
18 23 (0.43%) Mule
18 23 (0.43%) nginx
Applications
1 293 (5.44%) Microsoft Excel
2 111 (2.06%) Microsoft Office
3 57 (1.06%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 33 (0.61%) MS Visio
5 19 (0.35%) Spreadsheet
6 16 (0.30%) SPSS
7 15 (0.28%) Microsoft Project
8 9 (0.17%) InfoPath
8 9 (0.17%) SOLIDWORKS
8 9 (0.17%) Stata
9 7 (0.13%) Chatbot
10 6 (0.11%) Photoshop
11 2 (0.037%) Windchill
12 1 (0.019%) Adobe Creative Suite
12 1 (0.019%) Adobe XD
12 1 (0.019%) Figma
Business Applications
1 90 (1.67%) Oracle EBS
2 60 (1.11%) Oracle EBS R12
3 49 (0.91%) Dynamics CRM
4 41 (0.76%) Oracle Applications
5 34 (0.63%) Markit EDM
6 32 (0.59%) Oracle Payables
7 30 (0.56%) Eagle PACE
8 26 (0.48%) Oracle General Ledger
9 24 (0.45%) Oracle Assets
10 23 (0.43%) Maximo
11 19 (0.35%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
12 18 (0.33%) Oracle ERP
12 18 (0.33%) SAP FI-CA
13 14 (0.26%) Magento
14 11 (0.20%) Oracle Financials
15 10 (0.19%) Salesforce.com CRM
15 10 (0.19%) SAP PSCD
16 9 (0.17%) Oracle BPM
16 9 (0.17%) Oracle Receivables
16 9 (0.17%) SunGard Martini
Cloud Services
1 1,402 (26.03%) Azure
2 840 (15.60%) AWS
3 633 (11.75%) Power Platform
4 281 (5.22%) Serverless
5 268 (4.98%) GCP
6 214 (3.97%) Azure Data Factory
7 191 (3.55%) AWS Lambda
8 161 (2.99%) Amazon S3
9 137 (2.54%) PaaS
10 128 (2.38%) GitHub
11 119 (2.21%) Amazon EC2
12 101 (1.88%) Office 365
13 91 (1.69%) SaaS
14 87 (1.62%) Azure Active Directory
15 83 (1.54%) Logic Apps
16 80 (1.49%) IaaS
17 75 (1.39%) Azure Functions
18 66 (1.23%) Dynamics 365
19 65 (1.21%) PowerApps
20 55 (1.02%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 76 (1.41%) DNS
1 76 (1.41%) Firewall
2 59 (1.10%) SSL
3 45 (0.84%) HTTP
3 45 (0.84%) Kerberos
4 43 (0.80%) SAN
5 37 (0.69%) Skype
5 37 (0.69%) TCP/IP
6 35 (0.65%) DHCP
7 32 (0.59%) SNMP
8 31 (0.58%) FTP
9 28 (0.52%) IPsec
10 26 (0.48%) Internet
11 23 (0.43%) VPN
12 21 (0.39%) Network Security
12 21 (0.39%) VoIP
13 18 (0.33%) SSH
14 17 (0.32%) WAN
15 16 (0.30%) Multicast
16 13 (0.24%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,198 (22.24%) SQL Server
2 611 (11.34%) Power BI
3 607 (11.27%) Data Warehouse
4 448 (8.32%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 381 (7.07%) NoSQL
6 380 (7.06%) Azure SQL Database
7 373 (6.93%) Relational Database
8 322 (5.98%) PostgreSQL
9 307 (5.70%) MySQL
10 298 (5.53%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 293 (5.44%) Big Data
12 285 (5.29%) Oracle Database
13 268 (4.98%) Tableau
14 231 (4.29%) Data Lake
15 214 (3.97%) Hadoop
16 192 (3.56%) SQL Server Analysis Services
17 186 (3.45%) MongoDB
18 140 (2.60%) RDBMS
19 124 (2.30%) Apache Hive
20 116 (2.15%) Oracle Reports
Development Applications
1 517 (9.60%) Git (software)
2 481 (8.93%) Jenkins
3 426 (7.91%) JIRA
4 182 (3.38%) Selenium
5 149 (2.77%) Cucumber
6 131 (2.43%) GitLab
6 131 (2.43%) Maven
7 108 (2.01%) Bitbucket
8 93 (1.73%) Visual Studio
9 85 (1.58%) Subversion
10 83 (1.54%) CA Gen
11 70 (1.30%) Oracle APEX
12 68 (1.26%) Postman
13 67 (1.24%) JUnit
13 67 (1.24%) Team Foundation Server
13 67 (1.24%) Toad
14 63 (1.17%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 63 (1.17%) TeamCity
15 61 (1.13%) Oracle Forms
16 57 (1.06%) Artifactory
General
1 1,126 (20.91%) Finance
2 531 (9.86%) Banking
3 419 (7.78%) Public Sector
4 280 (5.20%) Front Office
5 170 (3.16%) Investment Banking
6 138 (2.56%) Retail
7 127 (2.36%) Marketing
8 92 (1.71%) Back Office
9 59 (1.10%) Manufacturing
10 52 (0.97%) Telecoms
11 49 (0.91%) Law
12 44 (0.82%) Pharmaceutical
13 37 (0.69%) Legal
14 36 (0.67%) Games
15 34 (0.63%) Electronics
16 29 (0.54%) Advertising
16 29 (0.54%) Financial Institution
17 25 (0.46%) Local Government
17 25 (0.46%) Publishing
18 22 (0.41%) Billing
Job Titles
1 2,053 (38.12%) Developer
2 806 (14.96%) Analyst
3 488 (9.06%) Data Engineer
4 411 (7.63%) Architect
5 335 (6.22%) Java Developer
6 332 (6.16%) SQL Developer
7 308 (5.72%) Data Analyst
8 291 (5.40%) .NET Developer
9 271 (5.03%) Consultant
10 230 (4.27%) Software Engineer
11 199 (3.69%) Azure Engineer
12 194 (3.60%) DBA
13 188 (3.49%) Business Intelligence Developer
14 170 (3.16%) C# Developer
15 169 (3.14%) Python Engineer
16 168 (3.12%) Senior Developer
17 154 (2.86%) Full Stack Developer
18 151 (2.80%) Business Analyst
19 147 (2.73%) Data Architect
20 135 (2.51%) SQL Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 790 (14.67%) .NET
2 408 (7.58%) Web Services
3 395 (7.33%) HTML
4 386 (7.17%) XML
5 350 (6.50%) Spring
6 336 (6.24%) AngularJS
7 331 (6.15%) CSS
8 329 (6.11%) REST
9 301 (5.59%) React
10 258 (4.79%) JSON
11 216 (4.01%) .NET Core
12 212 (3.94%) Kafka
13 211 (3.92%) Spring Boot
14 209 (3.88%) RESTful
15 204 (3.79%) Node.js
16 194 (3.60%) ASP.NET
17 178 (3.30%) .NET Framework
18 157 (2.91%) J2EE
19 151 (2.80%) SOAP
20 126 (2.34%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 533 (9.90%) Analytical Skills
2 177 (3.29%) Derivative
3 165 (3.06%) Hedge funds
4 161 (2.99%) Equities
5 151 (2.80%) Fixed Income
6 147 (2.73%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 144 (2.67%) NHS
8 136 (2.53%) Greenfield Project
9 124 (2.30%) Data Structures
10 108 (2.01%) User Experience
11 92 (1.71%) Management Information System
12 87 (1.62%) Reference Data
13 85 (1.58%) Cloud Native
14 79 (1.47%) Self-Motivation
15 71 (1.32%) Algorithms
16 64 (1.19%) Data Centre
17 58 (1.08%) Virtual Team
18 55 (1.02%) Public Cloud
19 54 (1.00%) Linux Command Line
20 52 (0.97%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 530 (9.84%) Windows
2 509 (9.45%) Linux
3 500 (9.28%) Unix
4 196 (3.64%) Windows Server
5 62 (1.15%) Windows Server 2012
6 61 (1.13%) Android
6 61 (1.13%) Apple iOS
7 60 (1.11%) AIX
8 54 (1.00%) Windows Server 2008
8 54 (1.00%) Windows Server 2016
9 46 (0.85%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 45 (0.84%) Windows 10
11 36 (0.67%) Solaris
12 20 (0.37%) CentOS
13 19 (0.35%) Windows 7
14 18 (0.33%) Windows Server 2019
15 16 (0.30%) Oracle Linux
16 15 (0.28%) Ubuntu
17 13 (0.24%) SUSE
18 12 (0.22%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,621 (30.10%) Agile Software Development
2 1,066 (19.79%) Business Intelligence
3 860 (15.97%) DevOps
4 738 (13.70%) Data Modelling
5 686 (12.74%) ETL
6 571 (10.60%) Analytics
7 558 (10.36%) Migration
8 527 (9.78%) Microservices
9 485 (9.00%) Problem-Solving
10 451 (8.37%) Software Engineering
11 440 (8.17%) Scrum
12 432 (8.02%) Test Automation
13 346 (6.42%) TDD
14 309 (5.74%) Data Analysis
15 288 (5.35%) BDD
16 287 (5.33%) Visualisation
17 269 (4.99%) Continuous Integration
18 261 (4.85%) Data Migration
19 249 (4.62%) Asset Management
20 245 (4.55%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 1,225 (22.74%) Python
2 1,203 (22.34%) Java
3 774 (14.37%) C#
4 722 (13.41%) JavaScript
5 634 (11.77%) PL/SQL
6 401 (7.45%) T-SQL
7 335 (6.22%) PowerShell
8 234 (4.34%) Scala
9 207 (3.84%) Shell Script
10 185 (3.43%) R
11 159 (2.95%) TypeScript
12 147 (2.73%) C++
13 143 (2.66%) Java 8
14 122 (2.27%) C
15 121 (2.25%) Perl
16 118 (2.19%) Kotlin
17 116 (2.15%) Bash Shell
18 108 (2.01%) VBA
19 87 (1.62%) PHP
20 77 (1.43%) VB
Qualifications
1 622 (11.55%) Security Cleared
2 490 (9.10%) SC Cleared
3 229 (4.25%) Degree
4 82 (1.52%) DV Cleared
5 75 (1.39%) ISEB
6 69 (1.28%) ISTQB
7 64 (1.19%) Computer Science Degree
8 56 (1.04%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 46 (0.85%) Microsoft Certification
10 37 (0.69%) BPSS Clearance
11 31 (0.58%) Master's Degree
12 22 (0.41%) MCSE
12 22 (0.41%) TOGAF Certification
13 21 (0.39%) AWS Certification
14 14 (0.26%) PhD
15 13 (0.24%) ITIL Certification
15 13 (0.24%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
16 12 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
17 11 (0.20%) Sun Certification
18 10 (0.19%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 284 (5.27%) QA
2 195 (3.62%) Data Quality
3 61 (1.13%) GDPR
4 42 (0.78%) SLA
5 12 (0.22%) COREP
5 12 (0.22%) MiFID
5 12 (0.22%) PCI DSS
6 10 (0.19%) COBIT
6 10 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 20000
7 8 (0.15%) NCSC
7 8 (0.15%) PMO
7 8 (0.15%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 7 (0.13%) EMIR
8 7 (0.13%) FINREP
8 7 (0.13%) IFRS
8 7 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 7 (0.13%) NIST
9 6 (0.11%) CDISC
9 6 (0.11%) WCAG
10 5 (0.093%) Disclosure Scotland
System Software
1 440 (8.17%) Docker
2 215 (3.99%) Active Directory
3 103 (1.91%) VMware Infrastructure
4 72 (1.34%) HDFS
5 46 (0.85%) Oracle RAC
6 39 (0.72%) Hyper-V
7 34 (0.63%) Virtual Machines
8 24 (0.45%) GlusterFS
8 24 (0.45%) RACF
9 19 (0.35%) Microsoft App-V
10 14 (0.26%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 14 (0.26%) VMware ESXi
11 12 (0.22%) Oracle Clusterware
11 12 (0.22%) vSphere
12 9 (0.17%) Time Sharing Option
13 8 (0.15%) VMware NSX
14 7 (0.13%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
14 7 (0.13%) Terminal Server
14 7 (0.13%) Virtual Desktop
15 5 (0.093%) Apache Flume
Systems Management
1 376 (6.98%) Kubernetes
2 230 (4.27%) Terraform
3 147 (2.73%) Ansible
4 78 (1.45%) Puppet
5 70 (1.30%) Single Sign-On
6 58 (1.08%) Grafana
7 57 (1.06%) Prometheus
8 51 (0.95%) Oracle RMAN
9 43 (0.80%) SCCM
10 42 (0.78%) Opscode Chef
11 36 (0.67%) Data Guard
12 31 (0.58%) HP Quality Center
13 25 (0.46%) Control-M
14 22 (0.41%) Hadoop YARN
14 22 (0.41%) HP ALM
15 21 (0.39%) Tivoli
16 20 (0.37%) NetBackup
17 19 (0.35%) Netcool
18 17 (0.32%) SCOM
18 17 (0.32%) WSUS
Vendors
1 1,221 (22.67%) Oracle
2 910 (16.90%) Microsoft
3 224 (4.16%) SAP
4 218 (4.05%) Databricks
5 200 (3.71%) Google
6 153 (2.84%) Informatica
7 147 (2.73%) VMware
8 140 (2.60%) IBM
9 110 (2.04%) webMethods
10 90 (1.67%) BEA
11 76 (1.41%) MuleSoft
11 76 (1.41%) Talend
12 73 (1.36%) HP
12 73 (1.36%) Salesforce.com
13 65 (1.21%) Splunk
14 61 (1.13%) Cloudera
15 57 (1.06%) Sybase
16 56 (1.04%) Pega
17 53 (0.98%) Red Hat
18 50 (0.93%) Atlassian