Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 6 7 4
Rank change year-on-year +1 -3 +2
Contract jobs citing SQL 6,564 7,577 12,689
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.51% 12.65% 13.16%
As % of the Programming Languages category 30.83% 31.20% 30.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,479 5,297 8,797
10th Percentile £310 £313 £308
25th Percentile £388 £381 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
75th Percentile £575 £550 £538
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £410
% change year-on-year - +3.66% +5.81%
Number of hourly rates quoted 120 118 159
10th Percentile £14.48 £14.76 £14.37
25th Percentile £21.00 £18.25 £18.07
Median hourly rate £26.75 £24.71 £24.75
Median % change year-on-year +8.28% -0.18% -1.00%
75th Percentile £43.55 £43.06 £45.00
90th Percentile £55.37 £50.00 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.00 £22.50 £24.98
% change year-on-year +6.67% -9.93% -0.08%

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 21,293 24,286 41,540
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.57% 40.55% 43.07%
Number of daily rates quoted 15,003 17,073 29,369
10th Percentile £321 £325 £323
25th Percentile £400 £400 £394
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £485 £475
Median % change year-on-year +3.09% +2.11% +2.70%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £445 £425
% change year-on-year -4.49% +4.71% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 459 462 635
10th Percentile £15.46 £17.28 £17.03
25th Percentile £25.00 £22.55 £24.38
Median hourly rate £42.50 £43.50 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year -2.30% +2.35% +6.25%
75th Percentile £50.00 £50.00 £48.75
90th Percentile £61.05 £57.40 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £42.50 £42.81
% change year-on-year -5.88% -0.72% +7.02%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Daily rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Hourly rate trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +1 5,277 £475 +2.70% 2,775
London -3 3,024 £525 +5.00% 1,043
UK excluding London -2 2,339 £425 - 1,902
Work from Home +6 1,878 £475 +5.56% 598
South East -5 576 £468 +3.89% 428
North of England -1 507 £400 - 528
Midlands +1 444 £400 -5.33% 368
West Midlands +1 317 £400 -5.88% 259
Scotland -2 293 £413 +3.13% 110
North West 0 283 £385 -3.69% 280
South West 0 234 £474 +9.22% 202
East of England -1 174 £413 -2.94% 193
Yorkshire -2 159 £375 -3.23% 193
East Midlands -4 115 £375 - 107
Wales -1 90 £433 -3.89% 55
North East +9 65 £450 +5.88% 55
Northern Ireland +2 26 £431 +7.75% 17
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 2,025 (30.85%) Agile Software Development
2 1,816 (27.67%) Azure
3 1,544 (23.52%) Python
4 1,421 (21.65%) Oracle
5 1,381 (21.04%) Finance
6 1,325 (20.19%) Java
7 1,315 (20.03%) SQL Server
8 1,218 (18.56%) Business Intelligence
9 1,143 (17.41%) DevOps
10 1,032 (15.72%) Microsoft
11 1,029 (15.68%) .NET
12 991 (15.10%) AWS
13 964 (14.69%) C#
14 849 (12.93%) ETL
15 839 (12.78%) Data Modelling
16 837 (12.75%) Analytics
17 811 (12.36%) JavaScript
18 779 (11.87%) Data Warehouse
19 769 (11.72%) Power Platform
20 751 (11.44%) Analytical Skills
21 737 (11.23%) Power BI
22 715 (10.89%) PL/SQL
23 691 (10.53%) Migration
24 685 (10.44%) Security Cleared
25 649 (9.89%) Git (software)
26 647 (9.86%) Problem-Solving
27 628 (9.57%) Banking
28 626 (9.54%) Scrum
29 622 (9.48%) Windows
30 605 (9.22%) Linux

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 297 (4.52%) Apache Spark
2 224 (3.41%) Confluence
3 212 (3.23%) Apache
4 172 (2.62%) WebLogic
5 152 (2.32%) SharePoint
6 135 (2.06%) SAS
7 73 (1.11%) Apache Airflow
8 70 (1.07%) WebSphere
9 69 (1.05%) IIS
10 60 (0.91%) Tomcat
11 54 (0.82%) Elasticsearch
12 53 (0.81%) BizTalk Server
12 53 (0.81%) JBoss
13 45 (0.69%) CMS
13 45 (0.69%) Oracle Workflow
14 41 (0.62%) Jupyter
15 40 (0.61%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 32 (0.49%) MS Exchange
17 30 (0.46%) Oracle Coherence
18 25 (0.38%) Red Hat Fuse
Applications
1 346 (5.27%) Microsoft Excel
2 119 (1.81%) Microsoft Office
3 58 (0.88%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 39 (0.59%) MS Visio
5 33 (0.50%) Spreadsheet
6 18 (0.27%) Microsoft Project
7 15 (0.23%) SPSS
8 13 (0.20%) Chatbot
9 10 (0.15%) Stata
10 8 (0.12%) InfoPath
11 4 (0.061%) SOLIDWORKS
12 3 (0.046%) Photoshop
13 1 (0.015%) Adobe Creative Suite
13 1 (0.015%) Adobe Illustrator
13 1 (0.015%) Adobe XD
13 1 (0.015%) AutoCAD
13 1 (0.015%) Figma
13 1 (0.015%) InDesign
13 1 (0.015%) Pipeline Pilot
Business Applications
1 90 (1.37%) Oracle EBS
2 69 (1.05%) Dynamics CRM
3 46 (0.70%) Oracle EBS R12
4 40 (0.61%) Oracle Payables
5 33 (0.50%) Oracle Applications
6 31 (0.47%) Oracle General Ledger
7 25 (0.38%) Oracle Assets
8 24 (0.37%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 21 (0.32%) Magento
9 21 (0.32%) Maximo
10 20 (0.30%) Markit EDM
11 19 (0.29%) Oracle Receivables
12 18 (0.27%) NetSuite
13 17 (0.26%) Summit
14 16 (0.24%) Dynamics AX
15 14 (0.21%) SAP FI-CA
15 14 (0.21%) SAP PSCD
16 13 (0.20%) ION MarketView
17 12 (0.18%) assyst
17 12 (0.18%) Eagle PACE
Cloud Services
1 1,816 (27.67%) Azure
2 991 (15.10%) AWS
3 769 (11.72%) Power Platform
4 333 (5.07%) GCP
5 309 (4.71%) Serverless
6 306 (4.66%) Azure Data Factory
7 184 (2.80%) AWS Lambda
8 167 (2.54%) PaaS
9 164 (2.50%) SaaS
10 159 (2.42%) Amazon S3
11 145 (2.21%) GitHub
12 121 (1.84%) Azure Functions
13 117 (1.78%) Azure Active Directory
13 117 (1.78%) Microsoft 365
14 107 (1.63%) Logic Apps
15 97 (1.48%) IaaS
16 87 (1.33%) Amazon EC2
17 81 (1.23%) PowerApps
18 73 (1.11%) Dynamics 365
19 61 (0.93%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 106 (1.61%) Firewall
2 73 (1.11%) HTTP
3 62 (0.94%) SSL
4 61 (0.93%) DNS
5 58 (0.88%) SAN
6 48 (0.73%) TCP/IP
7 46 (0.70%) Kerberos
8 37 (0.56%) FTP
9 32 (0.49%) WAN
10 31 (0.47%) DHCP
11 29 (0.44%) SSH
12 27 (0.41%) IPsec
12 27 (0.41%) LAN
13 25 (0.38%) VPN
14 21 (0.32%) Multicast
15 20 (0.30%) Internet
15 20 (0.30%) Skype
15 20 (0.30%) SNMP
16 19 (0.29%) Network Security
17 18 (0.27%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,315 (20.03%) SQL Server
2 779 (11.87%) Data Warehouse
3 737 (11.23%) Power BI
4 506 (7.71%) NoSQL
5 505 (7.69%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 472 (7.19%) Azure SQL Database
7 462 (7.04%) Relational Database
8 387 (5.90%) Tableau
9 353 (5.38%) Big Data
10 346 (5.27%) PostgreSQL
11 337 (5.13%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 288 (4.39%) Data Lake
13 283 (4.31%) MySQL
14 272 (4.14%) Hadoop
15 268 (4.08%) Oracle Database
16 241 (3.67%) MongoDB
17 207 (3.15%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 171 (2.61%) RDBMS
19 142 (2.16%) Apache Hive
20 122 (1.86%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 649 (9.89%) Git (software)
2 496 (7.56%) Jenkins
3 486 (7.40%) JIRA
4 177 (2.70%) Selenium
5 162 (2.47%) Maven
6 148 (2.25%) Visual Studio
7 128 (1.95%) Cucumber
8 127 (1.93%) Bitbucket
9 89 (1.36%) GitLab
10 81 (1.23%) JUnit
11 73 (1.11%) TeamCity
12 70 (1.07%) Subversion
13 68 (1.04%) Eclipse
13 68 (1.04%) Oracle APEX
14 67 (1.02%) Team Foundation Server
15 66 (1.01%) Oracle Forms
15 66 (1.01%) Postman
16 61 (0.93%) Gradle
17 59 (0.90%) CA Gen
18 57 (0.87%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
General
1 1,381 (21.04%) Finance
2 628 (9.57%) Banking
3 443 (6.75%) Public Sector
4 295 (4.49%) Front Office
5 240 (3.66%) Investment Banking
6 192 (2.93%) Retail
7 191 (2.91%) Marketing
8 96 (1.46%) Telecoms
9 73 (1.11%) Back Office
9 73 (1.11%) Legal
9 73 (1.11%) Manufacturing
10 49 (0.75%) Law
11 47 (0.72%) Electronics
12 42 (0.64%) Pharmaceutical
13 41 (0.62%) Publishing
14 34 (0.52%) Games
15 30 (0.46%) Financial Institution
16 26 (0.40%) Local Government
17 24 (0.37%) Retail Banking
18 23 (0.35%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 2,449 (37.31%) Developer
2 1,055 (16.07%) Analyst
3 617 (9.40%) Data Engineer
4 475 (7.24%) Architect
5 413 (6.29%) Data Analyst
6 404 (6.15%) Java Developer
7 368 (5.61%) SQL Developer
8 357 (5.44%) .NET Developer
9 353 (5.38%) Consultant
10 262 (3.99%) C# Developer
11 248 (3.78%) Senior Developer
12 244 (3.72%) Azure Engineer
13 226 (3.44%) Business Intelligence Developer
14 213 (3.24%) Business Analyst
15 205 (3.12%) DBA
16 200 (3.05%) Software Engineer
17 196 (2.99%) SQL Analyst
18 186 (2.83%) Full Stack Developer
19 173 (2.64%) Python Engineer
20 158 (2.41%) Data Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,029 (15.68%) .NET
2 494 (7.53%) HTML
3 438 (6.67%) Spring
4 423 (6.44%) XML
5 396 (6.03%) Web Services
6 385 (5.87%) CSS
7 384 (5.85%) AngularJS
8 370 (5.64%) REST
9 326 (4.97%) JSON
10 324 (4.94%) RESTful
11 308 (4.69%) React
12 307 (4.68%) .NET Core
13 285 (4.34%) Kafka
14 266 (4.05%) Node.js
15 248 (3.78%) Spring Boot
16 237 (3.61%) ASP.NET
17 212 (3.23%) .NET Framework
18 172 (2.62%) HTML5
19 169 (2.57%) J2EE
20 160 (2.44%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 751 (11.44%) Analytical Skills
2 206 (3.14%) Data Structures
3 160 (2.44%) Derivative
3 160 (2.44%) NHS
4 154 (2.35%) Greenfield Project
5 149 (2.27%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 145 (2.21%) Fixed Income
7 138 (2.10%) User Experience
8 134 (2.04%) Cloud Native
9 125 (1.90%) Self-Motivation
10 123 (1.87%) Equities
11 118 (1.80%) Algorithms
12 102 (1.55%) Management Information System
13 101 (1.54%) Hedge funds
14 86 (1.31%) Virtual Team
15 84 (1.28%) Enterprise Software
16 83 (1.26%) Reference Data
17 75 (1.14%) Data Centre
18 70 (1.07%) Public Cloud
19 61 (0.93%) Equity Derivative
Operating Systems
1 622 (9.48%) Windows
2 605 (9.22%) Linux
3 532 (8.10%) Unix
4 213 (3.24%) Windows Server
5 70 (1.07%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 59 (0.90%) Android
7 54 (0.82%) AIX
8 52 (0.79%) Windows Server 2012
9 46 (0.70%) Apple iOS
10 41 (0.62%) Windows 10
10 41 (0.62%) Windows Server 2016
11 39 (0.59%) Windows Server 2008
12 30 (0.46%) Solaris
13 28 (0.43%) CentOS
14 26 (0.40%) Ubuntu
15 17 (0.26%) VMS
16 16 (0.24%) Windows Server 2019
17 13 (0.20%) Windows 7
18 12 (0.18%) Mac OS X
19 11 (0.17%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,025 (30.85%) Agile Software Development
2 1,218 (18.56%) Business Intelligence
3 1,143 (17.41%) DevOps
4 849 (12.93%) ETL
5 839 (12.78%) Data Modelling
6 837 (12.75%) Analytics
7 691 (10.53%) Migration
8 647 (9.86%) Problem-Solving
9 626 (9.54%) Scrum
10 547 (8.33%) Microservices
10 547 (8.33%) Test Automation
11 522 (7.95%) Software Engineering
12 472 (7.19%) TDD
13 434 (6.61%) Visualisation
14 392 (5.97%) Data Analysis
15 356 (5.42%) Continuous Integration
16 328 (5.00%) BDD
17 321 (4.89%) Data Migration
18 320 (4.88%) Data Engineering
19 312 (4.75%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 1,544 (23.52%) Python
2 1,325 (20.19%) Java
3 964 (14.69%) C#
4 811 (12.36%) JavaScript
5 715 (10.89%) PL/SQL
6 502 (7.65%) T-SQL
7 405 (6.17%) PowerShell
8 281 (4.28%) Scala
9 265 (4.04%) R
10 222 (3.38%) TypeScript
11 221 (3.37%) Shell Script
12 195 (2.97%) C++
13 170 (2.59%) Java 8
14 140 (2.13%) C
15 138 (2.10%) VBA
16 130 (1.98%) Perl
17 122 (1.86%) Bash Shell
18 110 (1.68%) PHP
19 100 (1.52%) Go
20 97 (1.48%) VB
Qualifications
1 685 (10.44%) Security Cleared
2 537 (8.18%) SC Cleared
3 312 (4.75%) Degree
4 105 (1.60%) DV Cleared
5 67 (1.02%) ISEB
6 63 (0.96%) ISTQB
7 59 (0.90%) Computer Science Degree
8 51 (0.78%) Microsoft Certification
9 46 (0.70%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 44 (0.67%) BPSS Clearance
11 24 (0.37%) AWS Certification
11 24 (0.37%) Master's Degree
12 20 (0.30%) MCSE
13 18 (0.27%) ITIL Certification
13 18 (0.27%) PhD
14 16 (0.24%) TOGAF Certification
14 16 (0.24%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
15 15 (0.23%) CCNA
15 15 (0.23%) Cisco Certification
16 12 (0.18%) CISSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 355 (5.41%) QA
2 246 (3.75%) Data Quality
3 65 (0.99%) GDPR
4 51 (0.78%) SLA
5 17 (0.26%) MiFID
6 13 (0.20%) IFRS
7 11 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
7 11 (0.17%) PMO
8 10 (0.15%) COREP
8 10 (0.15%) NIST
9 9 (0.14%) WCAG
10 8 (0.12%) FINREP
11 7 (0.11%) COBIT
11 7 (0.11%) PCI DSS
12 6 (0.091%) EMIR
12 6 (0.091%) IFRS 9
12 6 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 6 (0.091%) ISO/IEC 27001
12 6 (0.091%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 5 (0.076%) Dodd-Frank
System Software
1 442 (6.73%) Docker
2 256 (3.90%) Active Directory
3 146 (2.22%) VMware Infrastructure
4 81 (1.23%) Hyper-V
5 79 (1.20%) HDFS
6 43 (0.66%) Virtual Machines
7 36 (0.55%) Oracle RAC
8 34 (0.52%) Microsoft App-V
9 25 (0.38%) VMware ESXi
10 23 (0.35%) RACF
11 18 (0.27%) GlusterFS
12 16 (0.24%) XenApp
13 14 (0.21%) Platform Symphony
13 14 (0.21%) vSphere
14 13 (0.20%) Virtual Desktop
15 11 (0.17%) Apache Flume
16 10 (0.15%) Time Sharing Option
17 9 (0.14%) Oracle Clusterware
18 8 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
19 7 (0.11%) Terminal Server
Systems Management
1 431 (6.57%) Kubernetes
2 292 (4.45%) Terraform
3 188 (2.86%) Ansible
4 74 (1.13%) Puppet
5 63 (0.96%) Grafana
6 58 (0.88%) Single Sign-On
7 48 (0.73%) Prometheus
8 45 (0.69%) SCCM
9 40 (0.61%) Opscode Chef
10 32 (0.49%) Oracle RMAN
11 31 (0.47%) Control-M
12 29 (0.44%) Hadoop YARN
12 29 (0.44%) HP Quality Center
13 28 (0.43%) Data Guard
14 27 (0.41%) SCOM
15 21 (0.32%) Oozie
16 20 (0.30%) HP ALM
16 20 (0.30%) NetBackup
17 19 (0.29%) WSUS
18 18 (0.27%) Microsoft Intune
Vendors
1 1,421 (21.65%) Oracle
2 1,032 (15.72%) Microsoft
3 259 (3.95%) Databricks
4 255 (3.88%) SAP
5 235 (3.58%) Google
6 203 (3.09%) VMware
7 161 (2.45%) Informatica
8 132 (2.01%) IBM
9 98 (1.49%) webMethods
10 94 (1.43%) MuleSoft
10 94 (1.43%) Salesforce.com
11 88 (1.34%) BEA
12 79 (1.20%) Red Hat
13 77 (1.17%) Citrix
14 72 (1.10%) Cloudera
15 68 (1.04%) Talend
16 67 (1.02%) Splunk
17 59 (0.90%) Atlassian
18 58 (0.88%) Pega
19 56 (0.85%) HP