Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CI/CD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CI/CD over the 6 months to 2 July 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CI/CD
UK
6 months to
2 Jul 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 19 16 25
Rank change year-on-year -3 +9 +9
Contract jobs citing CI/CD 7,611 5,793 2,734
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 8.55% 8.73% 6.62%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 9.55% 9.82% 7.63%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,361 4,267 2,020
10th Percentile £438 £405 £400
25th Percentile £500 £463 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +14.29% - -2.33%
75th Percentile £700 £625 £630
90th Percentile £775 £700 £713
UK excluding London median daily rate £530 £490 £475
% change year-on-year +8.16% +3.16% -5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 64 47 6
10th Percentile £36.88 £26.70 £23.75
25th Percentile £57.69 £38.00 £28.88
Median hourly rate £65.25 £60.00 £47.50
Median % change year-on-year +8.75% +26.32% -5.00%
75th Percentile £70.94 £68.36 £60.25
90th Percentile £77.50 £74.47 £61.13
UK excluding London median hourly rate £65.00 £63.25 £40.25
% change year-on-year +2.77% +57.14% -19.50%

CI/CD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 79,707 58,992 35,855
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.58% 88.94% 86.85%
Number of daily rates quoted 56,104 40,492 24,006
10th Percentile £350 £313 £300
25th Percentile £444 £405 £391
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £650 £595 £575
90th Percentile £750 £688 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,730 1,641 1,014
10th Percentile £13.25 £12.00 £12.50
25th Percentile £17.00 £15.17 £16.15
Median hourly rate £29.32 £24.80 £23.00
Median % change year-on-year +18.23% +7.80% +1.10%
75th Percentile £53.96 £47.50 £46.00
90th Percentile £67.26 £60.00 £55.70
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.12 £21.50 £21.00
% change year-on-year +12.19% +2.38% -8.04%

CI/CD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CI/CD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CI/CD in the UK

CI/CD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CI/CD.

Daily rate trend for CI/CD in the UK

CI/CD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CI/CD over the 6 months to 2 July 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CI/CD in the UK

CI/CD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CI/CD.

Hourly rate trend for CI/CD in the UK

CI/CD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CI/CD over the 6 months to 2 July 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CI/CD in the UK

CI/CD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CI/CD within the UK over the 6 months to 2 July 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -2 6,123 £600 +13.21% 1,331
London 0 4,119 £625 +13.64% 673
Work from Home -3 4,040 £575 +9.52% 674
UK excluding London +1 1,855 £530 +8.16% 731
North of England +1 504 £550 +10.00% 234
South East +1 388 £563 +12.50% 136
Scotland +5 337 £513 +13.89% 55
North West +5 302 £550 +10.00% 134
Midlands -7 237 £513 +7.89% 92
South West +4 209 £525 +7.86% 104
Yorkshire +2 187 £525 +5.00% 77
West Midlands -14 167 £525 +10.53% 67
East of England -2 138 £590 +12.38% 77
East Midlands +15 69 £498 +4.74% 25
North East +3 47 £600 +6.67% 23
Wales -15 39 £575 +27.78% 25
Northern Ireland -10 11 £500 +5.26% 8
Isle of Man - 2 £683 -

For the 6 months to 2 July 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CI/CD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CI/CD.

1 4,498 (59.10%) DevOps
2 3,612 (47.46%) Agile
3 3,139 (41.24%) Azure
4 2,929 (38.48%) AWS
5 2,584 (33.95%) Kubernetes
6 2,437 (32.02%) Python
7 2,314 (30.40%) Terraform
8 2,284 (30.01%) Java
9 2,268 (29.80%) Jenkins
10 2,241 (29.44%) Docker
11 1,712 (22.49%) Microservices
12 1,626 (21.36%) Finance
13 1,613 (21.19%) Git (software)
14 1,498 (19.68%) Test Automation
15 1,411 (18.54%) JavaScript
16 1,340 (17.61%) Social Skills
17 1,339 (17.59%) SQL
18 1,299 (17.07%) Infrastructure as Code
19 1,298 (17.05%) Ansible
20 1,253 (16.46%) Continuous Integration
21 1,248 (16.40%) TDD
22 1,229 (16.15%) Linux
23 1,225 (16.10%) Azure DevOps
24 1,157 (15.20%) Software Engineering
25 1,151 (15.12%) Scrum
26 1,017 (13.36%) GCP
27 986 (12.95%) C#
28 981 (12.89%) JIRA
29 954 (12.53%) Serverless
30 941 (12.36%) React

CI/CD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 556 (7.31%) Confluence
2 323 (4.24%) Apache Spark
3 158 (2.08%) Apache
4 112 (1.47%) nginx
5 93 (1.22%) Apache Airflow
6 83 (1.09%) Cloud Foundry
7 71 (0.93%) CMS
8 60 (0.79%) IIS
9 44 (0.58%) OpenStack
9 44 (0.58%) SAS
9 44 (0.58%) Tomcat
10 43 (0.56%) BizTalk Server
11 42 (0.55%) WebSphere
12 41 (0.54%) Mule
12 41 (0.54%) WebLogic
13 38 (0.50%) SharePoint
14 36 (0.47%) Traefik
15 35 (0.46%) Oracle Coherence
16 29 (0.38%) Sitecore CMS
17 22 (0.29%) Drupal
Applications
1 32 (0.42%) Microsoft Excel
2 15 (0.20%) MS Visio
3 8 (0.11%) Chatbot
4 7 (0.092%) Adobe Illustrator
5 6 (0.079%) Microsoft Project
6 4 (0.053%) Microsoft Office
7 3 (0.039%) Sketch
8 2 (0.026%) Spreadsheet
9 1 (0.013%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.013%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 28 (0.37%) Dynamics CRM
2 10 (0.13%) SAP FI-CA
2 10 (0.13%) SAP PSCD
2 10 (0.13%) SAP S/4HANA
3 7 (0.092%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 7 (0.092%) Shopify
4 5 (0.066%) Oracle EBS
4 5 (0.066%) SAP IS-U
4 5 (0.066%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
5 4 (0.053%) Bloomberg AIM
5 4 (0.053%) Dynamics AX
5 4 (0.053%) Finacle
5 4 (0.053%) Magento
5 4 (0.053%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.053%) Teamcenter
6 3 (0.039%) Cloudability
6 3 (0.039%) Oracle Applications
6 3 (0.039%) Oracle EBS R12
6 3 (0.039%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
6 3 (0.039%) SAP FI
Cloud Services
1 3,139 (41.24%) Azure
2 2,929 (38.48%) AWS
3 1,225 (16.10%) Azure DevOps
4 1,017 (13.36%) GCP
5 954 (12.53%) Serverless
6 890 (11.69%) GitHub
7 539 (7.08%) PaaS
8 516 (6.78%) AWS Lambda
9 476 (6.25%) AWS CloudFormation
10 446 (5.86%) OpenShift
11 375 (4.93%) IaaS
12 371 (4.87%) Amazon S3
13 291 (3.82%) Power Platform
14 283 (3.72%) Amazon EC2
15 275 (3.61%) Azure AKS
16 264 (3.47%) SaaS
17 256 (3.36%) Amazon EKS
18 240 (3.15%) Azure Data Factory
19 203 (2.67%) Azure Monitor
20 201 (2.64%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 224 (2.94%) DNS
2 201 (2.64%) Firewall
3 106 (1.39%) HTTP
4 87 (1.14%) TCP/IP
5 86 (1.13%) VPN
6 82 (1.08%) Internet
7 78 (1.02%) SSL
8 70 (0.92%) Network Security
9 43 (0.56%) SSH
10 38 (0.50%) IPv4
11 35 (0.46%) HTTPS
12 34 (0.45%) FTP
13 33 (0.43%) DHCP
14 29 (0.38%) Ethernet
14 29 (0.38%) SMTP
15 26 (0.34%) SAN
16 25 (0.33%) Reverse Proxy
17 24 (0.32%) NAS
18 23 (0.30%) IPv6
19 22 (0.29%) BGP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 538 (7.07%) SQL Server
2 505 (6.64%) NoSQL
3 440 (5.78%) PostgreSQL
4 391 (5.14%) MongoDB
5 300 (3.94%) Big Data
6 239 (3.14%) Relational Database
7 216 (2.84%) Data Warehouse
8 209 (2.75%) Power BI
9 206 (2.71%) MySQL
10 204 (2.68%) Amazon RDS
11 203 (2.67%) Data Lake
12 184 (2.42%) Elasticsearch
13 182 (2.39%) DynamoDB
14 165 (2.17%) Azure SQL Database
15 161 (2.12%) Hadoop
16 111 (1.46%) Oracle Database
17 101 (1.33%) RDBMS
18 98 (1.29%) Amazon Aurora
19 91 (1.20%) Amazon Redshift
20 90 (1.18%) Delta Lake
Development Applications
1 2,268 (29.80%) Jenkins
2 1,613 (21.19%) Git (software)
3 981 (12.89%) JIRA
4 889 (11.68%) GitLab
5 526 (6.91%) Maven
6 346 (4.55%) TeamCity
7 312 (4.10%) Selenium
8 299 (3.93%) Cucumber
9 268 (3.52%) Bitbucket
10 222 (2.92%) SonarQube
11 207 (2.72%) Gradle
12 192 (2.52%) JUnit
13 190 (2.50%) Artifactory
14 175 (2.30%) Sonatype Nexus
15 133 (1.75%) Visual Studio
16 118 (1.55%) Postman
17 115 (1.51%) JMeter
18 111 (1.46%) Cypress.io
19 104 (1.37%) CircleCI
20 89 (1.17%) SpecFlow
General
1 1,626 (21.36%) Finance
2 1,340 (17.61%) Social Skills
3 736 (9.67%) Banking
4 611 (8.03%) Public Sector
5 460 (6.04%) Analytical Skills
6 235 (3.09%) Front Office
7 199 (2.61%) Investment Banking
8 163 (2.14%) Presentation Skills
9 155 (2.04%) Retail
10 134 (1.76%) Legal
11 127 (1.67%) Telecoms
12 105 (1.38%) Financial Institution
13 103 (1.35%) Influencing Skills
14 86 (1.13%) Marketing
15 69 (0.91%) Law
16 60 (0.79%) Documentation Skills
17 37 (0.49%) Manufacturing
18 33 (0.43%) Back Office
19 32 (0.42%) Billing
19 32 (0.42%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 2,386 (31.35%) Developer
2 1,647 (21.64%) DevOps Engineer
3 667 (8.76%) Java Developer
4 608 (7.99%) Architect
5 596 (7.83%) Azure Engineer
6 551 (7.24%) AWS Engineer
7 400 (5.26%) Data Engineer
8 399 (5.24%) Cloud Engineer
9 367 (4.82%) Senior Developer
10 348 (4.57%) Software Engineer
11 343 (4.51%) AWS DevOps
12 319 (4.19%) Azure DevOps Engineer
13 302 (3.97%) .NET Developer
14 298 (3.92%) AWS DevOps Engineer
15 250 (3.28%) Python Developer
16 246 (3.23%) Java Engineer
17 244 (3.21%) Full Stack Developer
18 187 (2.46%) AWS Developer
19 183 (2.40%) Cloud Architect
20 171 (2.25%) Senior DevOps
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 941 (12.36%) React
2 874 (11.48%) .NET
3 848 (11.14%) Spring
4 751 (9.87%) REST
5 663 (8.71%) Spring Boot
6 648 (8.51%) Kafka
7 585 (7.69%) Node.js
8 505 (6.64%) RESTful
9 503 (6.61%) HTML
10 467 (6.14%) AngularJS
11 464 (6.10%) CSS
12 360 (4.73%) JSON
13 293 (3.85%) .NET Core
14 264 (3.47%) Web Services
15 229 (3.01%) HTML5
16 220 (2.89%) ASP.NET
17 187 (2.46%) .NET Framework
17 187 (2.46%) GraphQL
18 174 (2.29%) SOAP
19 172 (2.26%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 433 (5.69%) Cloud Native
2 352 (4.62%) Public Cloud
3 290 (3.81%) User Experience
4 274 (3.60%) Greenfield Project
5 224 (2.94%) Data Protection Act
6 160 (2.10%) Hedge funds
7 156 (2.05%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 152 (2.00%) Mobile App
9 148 (1.94%) Legacy Systems
10 139 (1.83%) Fixed Income
11 135 (1.77%) Self-Motivation
12 134 (1.76%) Derivative
12 134 (1.76%) Enterprise Software
13 130 (1.71%) Hybrid Cloud
14 121 (1.59%) Algorithms
15 113 (1.48%) Equities
16 109 (1.43%) Data Structures
17 94 (1.24%) Linux Command Line
18 91 (1.20%) Clustering
18 91 (1.20%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 1,229 (16.15%) Linux
2 455 (5.98%) Windows
3 318 (4.18%) Unix
4 224 (2.94%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 131 (1.72%) Android
6 130 (1.71%) Apple iOS
7 105 (1.38%) CentOS
8 94 (1.24%) Windows Server
9 81 (1.06%) Ubuntu
10 34 (0.45%) VMS
11 29 (0.38%) Windows Server 2012
12 25 (0.33%) Windows Server 2016
13 22 (0.29%) Amazon Linux
14 18 (0.24%) Debian
14 18 (0.24%) Solaris
14 18 (0.24%) Windows Server 2008
15 11 (0.14%) Windows Server 2019
16 10 (0.13%) Mac OS
17 8 (0.11%) Alpine Linux
18 7 (0.092%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,498 (59.10%) DevOps
2 3,612 (47.46%) Agile
3 1,712 (22.49%) Microservices
4 1,498 (19.68%) Test Automation
5 1,299 (17.07%) Infrastructure as Code
6 1,253 (16.46%) Continuous Integration
7 1,248 (16.40%) TDD
8 1,157 (15.20%) Software Engineering
9 1,151 (15.12%) Scrum
10 793 (10.42%) Continuous Delivery
11 740 (9.72%) Problem-Solving
12 707 (9.29%) Analytics
13 650 (8.54%) Full Stack Development
14 573 (7.53%) BDD
15 567 (7.45%) Configuration Management
16 509 (6.69%) SDLC
17 506 (6.65%) Migration
18 471 (6.19%) Kanban
19 444 (5.83%) Unit Testing
20 414 (5.44%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 2,437 (32.02%) Python
2 2,284 (30.01%) Java
3 1,411 (18.54%) JavaScript
4 1,339 (17.59%) SQL
5 986 (12.95%) C#
6 651 (8.55%) Bash
7 634 (8.33%) PowerShell
8 563 (7.40%) TypeScript
9 425 (5.58%) Go
10 320 (4.20%) Scala
11 218 (2.86%) Shell Script
12 192 (2.52%) Ruby
13 191 (2.51%) C++
14 187 (2.46%) Groovy
15 148 (1.94%) Kotlin
16 107 (1.41%) C
17 105 (1.38%) Perl
18 96 (1.26%) PL/SQL
19 79 (1.04%) T-SQL
20 77 (1.01%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 920 (12.09%) Security Cleared
2 820 (10.77%) SC Cleared
3 277 (3.64%) Degree
4 123 (1.62%) AWS Certification
5 108 (1.42%) Computer Science Degree
6 84 (1.10%) BPSS Clearance
7 78 (1.02%) DV Cleared
8 61 (0.80%) ISTQB
9 45 (0.59%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 33 (0.43%) Microsoft Certification
11 30 (0.39%) CISSP
12 24 (0.32%) ISEB
13 23 (0.30%) Cisco Certification
13 23 (0.30%) Numerate Degree
14 21 (0.28%) PMP
15 20 (0.26%) FFIEC
16 17 (0.22%) CISM
17 14 (0.18%) CCIE
17 14 (0.18%) PMI Certification
18 13 (0.17%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 452 (5.94%) QA
2 178 (2.34%) Accessibility
3 86 (1.13%) GDPR
4 64 (0.84%) Data Quality
5 43 (0.56%) NIST
6 40 (0.53%) SLA
7 34 (0.45%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 33 (0.43%) NCSC
9 22 (0.29%) PCI DSS
10 21 (0.28%) Disclosure Scotland
11 20 (0.26%) GLBA
12 15 (0.20%) COBIT
13 12 (0.16%) PMO
14 10 (0.13%) WCAG
15 9 (0.12%) MiFID
16 6 (0.079%) HMG Security Policy Framework
16 6 (0.079%) Sarbanes-Oxley
17 4 (0.053%) Cyber Essentials
18 3 (0.039%) NIST 800
18 3 (0.039%) OASIS TOSCA
System Software
1 2,241 (29.44%) Docker
2 145 (1.91%) Active Directory
3 119 (1.56%) VMware Infrastructure
4 74 (0.97%) Virtual Machines
5 45 (0.59%) vSphere
6 29 (0.38%) Hyper-V
7 23 (0.30%) Veritas Volume Manager
8 22 (0.29%) Veritas Cluster Server
9 21 (0.28%) NFS
10 20 (0.26%) HDFS
11 18 (0.24%) Apache ZooKeeper
12 16 (0.21%) VMware NSX
13 15 (0.20%) vCloud
13 15 (0.20%) VMware ESXi
14 14 (0.18%) Ceph
15 12 (0.16%) Oracle RAC
15 12 (0.16%) Virtual Desktop
16 9 (0.12%) OpenSSH
17 8 (0.11%) Virtual Servers
18 7 (0.092%) etcd
Systems Management
1 2,584 (33.95%) Kubernetes
2 2,314 (30.40%) Terraform
3 1,298 (17.05%) Ansible
4 404 (5.31%) Puppet
5 322 (4.23%) Grafana
6 292 (3.84%) Prometheus
7 251 (3.30%) Opscode Chef
8 172 (2.26%) Istio
9 149 (1.96%) Packer
10 117 (1.54%) Consul
11 96 (1.26%) Docker Swarm
12 83 (1.09%) Kibana
13 72 (0.95%) Argo
14 66 (0.87%) ZABBIX
15 55 (0.72%) Rancher
16 53 (0.70%) HAProxy
17 47 (0.62%) Nagios
18 36 (0.47%) Graphite
18 36 (0.47%) logstash
19 34 (0.45%) Podman
Vendors
1 911 (11.97%) Microsoft
2 502 (6.60%) Oracle
3 476 (6.25%) Google
4 341 (4.48%) Databricks
5 271 (3.56%) Splunk
6 187 (2.46%) VMware
7 161 (2.12%) Red Hat
8 142 (1.87%) AppDynamics
9 123 (1.62%) IBM
10 120 (1.58%) Salesforce.com
11 112 (1.47%) SAP
12 109 (1.43%) Atlassian
13 97 (1.27%) ServiceNow
14 91 (1.20%) Dynatrace
15 72 (0.95%) Informatica
16 65 (0.85%) MuleSoft
17 63 (0.83%) Sitecore
18 51 (0.67%) PagerDuty
19 46 (0.60%) New Relic
20 38 (0.50%) Citrix