Period
to 9 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 9 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
UK
6 months to
9 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 111 176 273
Rank change year-on-year +65 +97 +65
Contract jobs citing Infrastructure as Code 1,249 763 935
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.23% 1.47% 1.01%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.56% 1.72% 1.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 956 551 611
10th Percentile £406 £420 £413
25th Percentile £462 £488 £476
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £550 £550
Median % change year-on-year -4.55% - +3.77%
75th Percentile £600 £625 £613
90th Percentile £650 £713 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £525 £530
% change year-on-year -9.52% -0.94% +6.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 1 2
10th Percentile £27.13 " £17.65
25th Percentile £35.80 " £25.75
Median hourly rate £61.50 £60.00 £40.00
Median % change year-on-year +2.50% +50.00% -
75th Percentile £63.00 " £54.75
90th Percentile " " £63.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.75 - £12.50

Infrastructure as Code is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 48,824 44,273 80,719
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 87.21% 85.27% 87.53%
Number of daily rates quoted 33,443 29,390 54,237
10th Percentile £310 £288 £300
25th Percentile £400 £380 £380
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £490 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +3.16% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £663 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -2.22% +2.86% +4.17%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,469 1,371 2,007
10th Percentile £12.22 £12.36 £11.50
25th Percentile £15.70 £15.97 £14.25
Median hourly rate £26.50 £22.00 £22.93
Median % change year-on-year +20.45% -4.06% +11.01%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £44.50
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £50.60
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.00 £20.01 £22.50
% change year-on-year +14.93% -11.06% +15.38%

Infrastructure as Code
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Infrastructure as Code as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code.

Daily rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 9 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code.

Hourly rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 9 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Infrastructure as Code within the UK over the 6 months to 9 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +39 873 £525 -4.55% 463
Work from Home +4 494 £550 +4.76% 129
London +28 489 £550 -4.35% 226
UK excluding London +48 406 £475 -9.52% 264
South East +63 101 £495 -6.60% 55
Scotland +43 100 £473 -7.80% 20
North of England +4 76 £490 -6.67% 93
North West +5 52 £500 -4.76% 50
South West +26 43 £450 -26.83% 31
Midlands +23 42 £405 -10.00% 37
West Midlands +13 35 £350 -26.32% 26
Wales +28 30 £533 +6.50% 9
East of England +18 16 £575 +15.00% 19
Yorkshire -7 16 £450 -18.77% 34
North East +29 8 £535 +25.88% 9
East Midlands +17 3 £405 +13.17% 11

For the 6 months to 9 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Infrastructure as Code also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code.

1 930 (74.46%) DevOps
2 830 (66.45%) Terraform
3 665 (53.24%) AWS
4 602 (48.20%) Azure
5 467 (37.39%) Python
6 442 (35.39%) Kubernetes
7 425 (34.03%) Ansible
8 411 (32.91%) Agile Software Development
9 388 (31.06%) Docker
10 367 (29.38%) Linux
11 304 (24.34%) Jenkins
12 247 (19.78%) Java
13 246 (19.70%) Microservices
14 228 (18.25%) AWS CloudFormation
15 221 (17.69%) PowerShell
16 212 (16.97%) Bash Shell
17 198 (15.85%) Serverless
18 197 (15.77%) Git (software)
19 190 (15.21%) PaaS
20 188 (15.05%) Windows
21 184 (14.73%) Social Skills
22 181 (14.49%) Security Cleared
23 176 (14.09%) Test Automation
24 170 (13.61%) Public Sector
24 170 (13.61%) Microsoft
25 167 (13.37%) GitHub
26 166 (13.29%) AWS Lambda
27 160 (12.81%) GCP
28 151 (12.09%) JavaScript
29 150 (12.01%) Finance

Infrastructure as Code
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 54 (4.32%) Elasticsearch
2 47 (3.76%) Confluence
3 28 (2.24%) Apache
4 22 (1.76%) Apache Spark
5 19 (1.52%) nginx
6 10 (0.80%) Apache Airflow
7 9 (0.72%) IIS
8 8 (0.64%) Tomcat
9 7 (0.56%) MS Exchange
9 7 (0.56%) WebLogic
10 6 (0.48%) Jupyter
11 5 (0.40%) Cloud Foundry
12 4 (0.32%) Drupal
12 4 (0.32%) SharePoint
12 4 (0.32%) WebSphere
12 4 (0.32%) WebSphere Application Server
13 3 (0.24%) Apache Solr
13 3 (0.24%) DataSynapse
13 3 (0.24%) JBoss
13 3 (0.24%) Oracle Coherence
Applications
1 4 (0.32%) Chatbot
2 3 (0.24%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.080%) Microsoft Excel
Business Applications
1 6 (0.48%) Sentinel
2 2 (0.16%) Dynamics AX
2 2 (0.16%) Dynamics CRM
2 2 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
2 2 (0.16%) R3 Corda
3 1 (0.080%) NetSuite
3 1 (0.080%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 665 (53.24%) AWS
2 602 (48.20%) Azure
3 228 (18.25%) AWS CloudFormation
4 198 (15.85%) Serverless
5 190 (15.21%) PaaS
6 167 (13.37%) GitHub
7 166 (13.29%) AWS Lambda
8 160 (12.81%) GCP
9 138 (11.05%) IaaS
10 109 (8.73%) Amazon EKS
11 103 (8.25%) Amazon S3
12 87 (6.97%) OpenShift
13 51 (4.08%) Azure Active Directory
13 51 (4.08%) Azure Cosmos DB
14 50 (4.00%) Amazon EC2
15 49 (3.92%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 48 (3.84%) Amazon ECS
17 46 (3.68%) Amazon GuardDuty
17 46 (3.68%) SaaS
18 43 (3.44%) AWS CodeBuild
Communications & Networking
1 101 (8.09%) Firewall
2 31 (2.48%) VPN
3 27 (2.16%) DNS
4 24 (1.92%) HTTP
5 23 (1.84%) Network Security
6 20 (1.60%) WAN
7 12 (0.96%) LAN
7 12 (0.96%) SAN
7 12 (0.96%) TCP/IP
8 10 (0.80%) Fibre Channel
9 9 (0.72%) Unified Communications
10 7 (0.56%) Cisco Nexus
10 7 (0.56%) NAS
10 7 (0.56%) Reverse Proxy
11 6 (0.48%) Internet
11 6 (0.48%) OSPF
11 6 (0.48%) SSL
12 5 (0.40%) IPv4
12 5 (0.40%) Wireless
13 4 (0.32%) DHCP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 94 (7.53%) PostgreSQL
2 56 (4.48%) MongoDB
3 53 (4.24%) NoSQL
4 46 (3.68%) Amazon Aurora
5 45 (3.60%) Big Data
6 39 (3.12%) Relational Database
7 38 (3.04%) Amazon RDS
8 34 (2.72%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 34 (2.72%) Azure SQL Database
9 29 (2.32%) MySQL
10 28 (2.24%) SQL Server
11 25 (2.00%) Hadoop
12 15 (1.20%) Data Warehouse
12 15 (1.20%) Redis
13 14 (1.12%) Oracle Database
14 13 (1.04%) Amazon Athena
14 13 (1.04%) Amazon Redshift
14 13 (1.04%) Apache Cassandra
14 13 (1.04%) RDBMS
15 10 (0.80%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 304 (24.34%) Jenkins
2 197 (15.77%) Git (software)
3 147 (11.77%) GitLab
4 68 (5.44%) JIRA
5 50 (4.00%) Visual Studio
6 45 (3.60%) Artifactory
7 40 (3.20%) Octopus Deploy
8 34 (2.72%) SonarQube
9 32 (2.56%) Bitbucket
9 32 (2.56%) TeamCity
10 25 (2.00%) git-flow
11 23 (1.84%) Maven
11 23 (1.84%) Selenium
11 23 (1.84%) Sonatype Nexus
12 19 (1.52%) CircleCI
13 17 (1.36%) JUnit
13 17 (1.36%) Travis CI
14 16 (1.28%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 16 (1.28%) Cypress.io
15 14 (1.12%) Gradle
General
1 184 (14.73%) Social Skills
2 170 (13.61%) Public Sector
3 150 (12.01%) Finance
4 49 (3.92%) Telecoms
5 43 (3.44%) Banking
6 40 (3.20%) Marketing
7 35 (2.80%) Analytical Skills
8 33 (2.64%) Electronics
8 33 (2.64%) Manufacturing
9 21 (1.68%) Influencing Skills
10 17 (1.36%) Retail
11 10 (0.80%) Law
12 9 (0.72%) Investment Banking
13 6 (0.48%) Front Office
13 6 (0.48%) iGaming
14 5 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
14 5 (0.40%) Presentation Skills
15 3 (0.24%) Games
15 3 (0.24%) Publishing
16 2 (0.16%) Billing
Job Titles
1 460 (36.83%) DevOps Engineer
2 246 (19.70%) Azure Engineer
3 176 (14.09%) AWS Engineer
4 173 (13.85%) Cloud Engineer
5 169 (13.53%) Architect
6 136 (10.89%) Azure DevOps Engineer
7 134 (10.73%) Developer
8 109 (8.73%) AWS DevOps
9 95 (7.61%) AWS DevOps Engineer
10 93 (7.45%) Azure DevOps
11 74 (5.92%) Platform Engineer
12 64 (5.12%) Cloud Architect
13 59 (4.72%) Senior DevOps
14 58 (4.64%) Senior DevOps Engineer
15 55 (4.40%) Security Engineer
16 51 (4.08%) Azure Architect
17 46 (3.68%) Technical Architect
18 45 (3.60%) Solutions Architect
19 37 (2.96%) Infrastructure Engineer
20 35 (2.80%) Consultant
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 107 (8.57%) .NET
2 98 (7.85%) Kafka
3 95 (7.61%) Node.js
4 78 (6.24%) Web Services
5 77 (6.16%) REST
6 66 (5.28%) Elastic Stack
7 48 (3.84%) React
8 45 (3.60%) Spring
9 43 (3.44%) HTML
10 42 (3.36%) CSS
11 41 (3.28%) YAML
12 39 (3.12%) JSON
13 34 (2.72%) .NET Core
14 32 (2.56%) OAuth
15 29 (2.32%) OAuth2
15 29 (2.32%) Spring Boot
16 25 (2.00%) AngularJS
17 23 (1.84%) .NET Framework
18 22 (1.76%) ADO
19 21 (1.68%) RESTful
Miscellaneous
1 129 (10.33%) Cloud Native
2 91 (7.29%) Public Cloud
3 50 (4.00%) User Experience
4 38 (3.04%) Greenfield Project
5 37 (2.96%) Data Centre
6 27 (2.16%) Hybrid Cloud
6 27 (2.16%) Linux Command Line
7 19 (1.52%) Management Information System
8 17 (1.36%) Enterprise Software
9 15 (1.20%) Enterprise Cloud
9 15 (1.20%) PKI
10 12 (0.96%) Virtual Team
11 11 (0.88%) Algorithms
12 10 (0.80%) Private Cloud
12 10 (0.80%) Wiki
13 9 (0.72%) Self-Motivation
14 8 (0.64%) Data Structures
15 6 (0.48%) Hedge funds
15 6 (0.48%) VxBlock/Vblock
16 5 (0.40%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
Operating Systems
1 367 (29.38%) Linux
2 188 (15.05%) Windows
3 64 (5.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 48 (3.84%) Unix
5 34 (2.72%) Windows Server
6 28 (2.24%) CentOS
7 21 (1.68%) Ubuntu
8 12 (0.96%) Windows Server 2016
9 10 (0.80%) Solaris
10 9 (0.72%) Windows 10
10 9 (0.72%) Windows Server 2008
11 6 (0.48%) Amazon Linux
11 6 (0.48%) Windows Server 2012
12 5 (0.40%) VMS
13 2 (0.16%) AIX
14 1 (0.080%) Android
14 1 (0.080%) CoreOS
14 1 (0.080%) DC/OS
14 1 (0.080%) Kali Linux
14 1 (0.080%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 930 (74.46%) DevOps
2 411 (32.91%) Agile Software Development
3 246 (19.70%) Microservices
4 176 (14.09%) Test Automation
5 149 (11.93%) Configuration Management
6 143 (11.45%) Continuous Integration
6 143 (11.45%) Software Engineering
7 140 (11.21%) Scrum
8 110 (8.81%) TDD
9 100 (8.01%) Analytics
10 95 (7.61%) Continuous Delivery
11 93 (7.45%) Migration
12 82 (6.57%) Site Reliability Engineering
13 72 (5.76%) Mentoring
14 70 (5.60%) Kanban
15 69 (5.52%) Deployment Automation
16 67 (5.36%) Open Source
17 63 (5.04%) Information Security
17 63 (5.04%) Infrastructure Engineering
18 62 (4.96%) Infrastructure Automation
Programming Languages
1 467 (37.39%) Python
2 247 (19.78%) Java
3 221 (17.69%) PowerShell
4 212 (16.97%) Bash Shell
5 151 (12.09%) JavaScript
6 128 (10.25%) SQL
7 88 (7.05%) TypeScript
8 80 (6.41%) Go
9 74 (5.92%) C#
10 61 (4.88%) Ruby
11 43 (3.44%) Perl
12 40 (3.20%) Shell Script
13 36 (2.88%) Groovy
14 34 (2.72%) Scala
15 27 (2.16%) PHP
16 21 (1.68%) C
17 18 (1.44%) C++
18 10 (0.80%) R
19 7 (0.56%) Rust
20 6 (0.48%) Ada
Qualifications
1 181 (14.49%) Security Cleared
2 146 (11.69%) SC Cleared
3 38 (3.04%) Degree
4 26 (2.08%) AWS Certification
5 23 (1.84%) Computer Science Degree
6 13 (1.04%) DV Cleared
7 10 (0.80%) BPSS Clearance
7 10 (0.80%) Cisco Certification
8 9 (0.72%) CCNA
8 9 (0.72%) CCNP
9 7 (0.56%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
10 6 (0.48%) Microsoft Certification
11 5 (0.40%) DBS Check
11 5 (0.40%) OCP
11 5 (0.40%) Oracle Certification
12 4 (0.32%) GIAC
12 4 (0.32%) RHCE
13 3 (0.24%) CISSP
13 3 (0.24%) VCP6
14 2 (0.16%) NCDA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 32 (2.56%) QA
2 14 (1.12%) NIST
3 6 (0.48%) PCI DSS
4 5 (0.40%) GDPR
5 4 (0.32%) SLA
6 2 (0.16%) Data Quality
6 2 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.080%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.080%) PMO
7 1 (0.080%) PSD2
7 1 (0.080%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 1 (0.080%) WCAG
System Software
1 388 (31.06%) Docker
2 73 (5.84%) Active Directory
3 56 (4.48%) VMware Infrastructure
4 38 (3.04%) Hyper-V
5 31 (2.48%) Virtual Machines
6 12 (0.96%) KVM
7 11 (0.88%) Microsoft App-V
8 10 (0.80%) VMware NSX
9 7 (0.56%) vSphere
10 4 (0.32%) NFS
10 4 (0.32%) Oracle RAC
10 4 (0.32%) SRDF
10 4 (0.32%) VMware ESXi
10 4 (0.32%) Xen
11 3 (0.24%) VirtualBox
12 2 (0.16%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
12 2 (0.16%) LXC
13 1 (0.080%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 1 (0.080%) GlusterFS
13 1 (0.080%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 830 (66.45%) Terraform
2 442 (35.39%) Kubernetes
3 425 (34.03%) Ansible
4 113 (9.05%) Grafana
5 103 (8.25%) Opscode Chef
6 101 (8.09%) Puppet
7 89 (7.13%) Prometheus
8 53 (4.24%) Kibana
9 47 (3.76%) Istio
10 40 (3.20%) Packer
11 35 (2.80%) Rancher
12 26 (2.08%) Consul
12 26 (2.08%) logstash
13 23 (1.84%) Fluentd
14 20 (1.60%) Nagios
15 11 (0.88%) Docker Swarm
16 10 (0.80%) Microsoft Intune
16 10 (0.80%) SCCM
17 9 (0.72%) Salt
17 9 (0.72%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 170 (13.61%) Microsoft
2 98 (7.85%) Google
3 96 (7.69%) VMware
4 63 (5.04%) Splunk
5 54 (4.32%) Oracle
6 50 (4.00%) Red Hat
7 39 (3.12%) SAP
8 32 (2.56%) Cisco
9 27 (2.16%) AppDynamics
10 22 (1.76%) New Relic
11 20 (1.60%) Atlassian
12 19 (1.52%) Databricks
13 15 (1.20%) Dell
13 15 (1.20%) Fortinet
13 15 (1.20%) IBM
14 13 (1.04%) NetApp
15 9 (0.72%) Dynatrace
15 9 (0.72%) Okta
16 8 (0.64%) EMC
16 8 (0.64%) F5