Period
to 24 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 24 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
UK
6 months to
24 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 97 156 233
Rank change year-on-year +59 +77 +71
Contract jobs citing Infrastructure as Code 2,041 519 1,100
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.54% 1.75% 1.24%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.85% 2.00% 1.42%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,501 375 751
10th Percentile £425 £406 £425
25th Percentile £475 £461 £500
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £575
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% -8.70% +8.49%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £650
90th Percentile £700 £670 £713
UK excluding London median daily rate £525 £500 £550
% change year-on-year +5.00% -9.09% +10.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 3 1
10th Percentile £35.00 " "
25th Percentile £53.44 " £66.25
Median hourly rate £62.25 £40.00 £67.50
Median % change year-on-year +55.63% -40.74% -
75th Percentile £76.69 £46.00 £68.75
90th Percentile £83.40 £49.60 "
UK excluding London median hourly rate £68.75 £52.00 -
% change year-on-year +32.21% - -

Infrastructure as Code is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 71,542 25,903 77,402
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 88.98% 87.12% 87.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 49,434 17,409 51,733
10th Percentile £319 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £388 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,716 742 2,199
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.67
25th Percentile £14.66 £15.75 £14.50
Median hourly rate £24.50 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -2.00% +11.11% +16.07%
75th Percentile £48.75 £45.00 £45.75
90th Percentile £63.00 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.75 £22.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year -7.78% - +21.49%

Infrastructure as Code
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Infrastructure as Code as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code.

Daily rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 24 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code.

Hourly rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 24 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in the UK

Infrastructure as Code
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Infrastructure as Code within the UK over the 6 months to 24 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +54 1,516 £550 +4.76% 593
London +52 933 £575 +4.55% 300
Work from Home +14 633 £555 +11.00% 130
UK excluding London +14 591 £525 +5.00% 318
Scotland +5 149 £475 -5.00% 21
North of England -36 147 £525 +8.25% 100
South East -22 118 £550 +7.84% 59
North West -27 86 £525 +7.14% 55
Midlands -21 66 £525 +22.81% 60
West Midlands -13 59 £525 -4.55% 40
East of England -1 50 £575 +15.00% 35
Yorkshire -29 42 £525 +16.67% 34
Wales +5 33 £525 - 10
South West -25 29 £540 +13.68% 32
North East -1 21 £575 +0.52% 11
East Midlands -42 7 £405 +3.18% 20

For the 6 months to 24 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Infrastructure as Code also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code.

1 1,505 (73.74%) DevOps
2 1,392 (68.20%) Terraform
3 1,063 (52.08%) Azure
4 1,049 (51.40%) AWS
5 808 (39.59%) Kubernetes
6 784 (38.41%) Python
7 728 (35.67%) Docker
8 649 (31.80%) Agile Software Development
9 578 (28.32%) Ansible
10 567 (27.78%) Jenkins
11 487 (23.86%) Linux
12 400 (19.60%) AWS CloudFormation
13 399 (19.55%) Serverless
14 397 (19.45%) Java
15 396 (19.40%) Bash Shell
16 383 (18.77%) PaaS
17 370 (18.13%) PowerShell
18 360 (17.64%) Microservices
19 334 (16.36%) GitHub
20 321 (15.73%) Microsoft
21 319 (15.63%) GCP
22 301 (14.75%) IaaS
22 301 (14.75%) Git (software)
23 277 (13.57%) Finance
24 264 (12.93%) AWS Lambda
25 252 (12.35%) Windows
26 237 (11.61%) Social Skills
27 232 (11.37%) Test Automation
28 229 (11.22%) Configuration Management
29 223 (10.93%) JavaScript

Infrastructure as Code
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 102 (5.00%) Confluence
2 79 (3.87%) Elasticsearch
3 73 (3.58%) Apache Spark
4 65 (3.18%) Apache
5 39 (1.91%) Apache Airflow
6 26 (1.27%) nginx
7 18 (0.88%) OpenStack
8 13 (0.64%) SharePoint
9 10 (0.49%) Cloud Foundry
10 9 (0.44%) Jupyter
10 9 (0.44%) Tomcat
11 8 (0.39%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 8 (0.39%) IIS
12 6 (0.29%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 5 (0.24%) CMS
13 5 (0.24%) Drupal
13 5 (0.24%) GeoServer
13 5 (0.24%) Mule
14 4 (0.20%) WebSphere
14 4 (0.20%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 7 (0.34%) Microsoft Project
2 5 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
3 2 (0.098%) Chatbot
4 1 (0.049%) Microsoft Excel
4 1 (0.049%) MS Visio
4 1 (0.049%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 6 (0.29%) Payment Gateway
2 5 (0.24%) SAP Hybris
3 3 (0.15%) Sentinel
4 2 (0.098%) Adobe Campaign
4 2 (0.098%) Dynamics AX
4 2 (0.098%) Dynamics CRM
4 2 (0.098%) Oracle EBS
4 2 (0.098%) SAP CRM
5 1 (0.049%) Magento
5 1 (0.049%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 1,063 (52.08%) Azure
2 1,049 (51.40%) AWS
3 400 (19.60%) AWS CloudFormation
4 399 (19.55%) Serverless
5 383 (18.77%) PaaS
6 334 (16.36%) GitHub
7 319 (15.63%) GCP
8 301 (14.75%) IaaS
9 264 (12.93%) AWS Lambda
10 150 (7.35%) Amazon EKS
10 150 (7.35%) Amazon S3
11 135 (6.61%) SaaS
12 116 (5.68%) Amazon ECS
13 106 (5.19%) OpenShift
14 103 (5.05%) Amazon EC2
15 80 (3.92%) Cloud Computing
16 64 (3.14%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 60 (2.94%) Azure Cosmos DB
18 56 (2.74%) Virtual Private Cloud
19 55 (2.69%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 128 (6.27%) Firewall
2 101 (4.95%) DNS
3 58 (2.84%) VPN
4 49 (2.40%) Network Security
5 43 (2.11%) WAN
6 41 (2.01%) HTTP
7 39 (1.91%) SSL
8 24 (1.18%) LAN
9 23 (1.13%) BGP
10 18 (0.88%) TCP/IP
11 15 (0.73%) Internet
11 15 (0.73%) OSPF
11 15 (0.73%) Reverse Proxy
12 14 (0.69%) DHCP
13 13 (0.64%) Wireless
14 10 (0.49%) Cisco Nexus
14 10 (0.49%) Kerberos
15 9 (0.44%) VLAN
16 8 (0.39%) SAN
17 7 (0.34%) EIGRP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 151 (7.40%) PostgreSQL
2 116 (5.68%) NoSQL
3 90 (4.41%) MongoDB
4 72 (3.53%) Amazon RDS
5 71 (3.48%) Big Data
6 68 (3.33%) Hadoop
7 64 (3.14%) SQL Server
8 61 (2.99%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 58 (2.84%) Data Lake
10 57 (2.79%) Relational Database
11 53 (2.60%) Azure SQL Database
12 51 (2.50%) Amazon Aurora
13 38 (1.86%) MySQL
14 34 (1.67%) Amazon Redshift
14 34 (1.67%) Data Warehouse
15 28 (1.37%) Power BI
16 25 (1.22%) Amazon Athena
17 22 (1.08%) RDBMS
18 19 (0.93%) Apache Cassandra
18 19 (0.93%) Redis
Development Applications
1 567 (27.78%) Jenkins
2 301 (14.75%) Git (software)
3 162 (7.94%) GitLab
4 148 (7.25%) JIRA
5 94 (4.61%) TeamCity
6 82 (4.02%) Bitbucket
7 68 (3.33%) Maven
8 67 (3.28%) Gradle
9 52 (2.55%) Sonatype Nexus
10 51 (2.50%) CircleCI
11 39 (1.91%) Octopus Deploy
12 38 (1.86%) Artifactory
13 37 (1.81%) SonarQube
14 33 (1.62%) Subversion
15 31 (1.52%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 25 (1.22%) Cypress.io
17 22 (1.08%) Travis CI
18 20 (0.98%) Spinnaker
19 16 (0.78%) git-flow
20 15 (0.73%) Selenium
General
1 277 (13.57%) Finance
2 237 (11.61%) Social Skills
3 212 (10.39%) Public Sector
4 72 (3.53%) Banking
5 67 (3.28%) Analytical Skills
6 43 (2.11%) Legal
6 43 (2.11%) Retail
6 43 (2.11%) Telecoms
7 40 (1.96%) Financial Institution
7 40 (1.96%) Presentation Skills
8 33 (1.62%) Marketing
9 26 (1.27%) Investment Banking
10 23 (1.13%) Law
10 23 (1.13%) Manufacturing
11 22 (1.08%) Electronics
12 17 (0.83%) Influencing Skills
13 11 (0.54%) Games
14 7 (0.34%) Advertising
14 7 (0.34%) Documentation Skills
14 7 (0.34%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 692 (33.90%) DevOps Engineer
2 381 (18.67%) Azure Engineer
3 287 (14.06%) Architect
4 283 (13.87%) AWS Engineer
5 244 (11.95%) Cloud Engineer
6 202 (9.90%) Azure DevOps Engineer
7 178 (8.72%) Developer
8 152 (7.45%) Azure DevOps
9 149 (7.30%) AWS DevOps
10 130 (6.37%) AWS DevOps Engineer
11 123 (6.03%) Azure Architect
12 107 (5.24%) Platform Engineer
13 95 (4.65%) Cloud Architect
14 90 (4.41%) Consultant
15 82 (4.02%) Solutions Architect
16 78 (3.82%) Senior DevOps
17 74 (3.63%) Site Reliability Engineer
18 70 (3.43%) Site Engineer
19 68 (3.33%) Data Engineer
19 68 (3.33%) Senior DevOps Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 138 (6.76%) Node.js
2 137 (6.71%) ARM Templates
3 130 (6.37%) React
4 129 (6.32%) Kafka
5 126 (6.17%) .NET
6 96 (4.70%) Web Services
7 85 (4.16%) REST
8 79 (3.87%) Spring Boot
9 72 (3.53%) Spring
10 65 (3.18%) Elastic Stack
11 62 (3.04%) YAML
12 50 (2.45%) HTML
13 47 (2.30%) JSON
14 42 (2.06%) CSS
14 42 (2.06%) RESTful
15 39 (1.91%) OAuth
16 38 (1.86%) AngularJS
17 35 (1.71%) OAuth2
18 32 (1.57%) .NET Core
19 31 (1.52%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 182 (8.92%) Cloud Native
2 162 (7.94%) Public Cloud
3 98 (4.80%) Data Centre
4 88 (4.31%) Data Protection Act
5 72 (3.53%) Legacy Systems
6 53 (2.60%) Management Information System
7 52 (2.55%) User Experience
8 50 (2.45%) Hybrid Cloud
9 48 (2.35%) Linux Command Line
10 41 (2.01%) Enterprise Cloud
11 34 (1.67%) Greenfield Project
11 34 (1.67%) Hedge funds
12 33 (1.62%) PKI
13 24 (1.18%) Virtual Team
14 19 (0.93%) Private Cloud
15 18 (0.88%) CMDB
16 17 (0.83%) Legacy Applications
16 17 (0.83%) Self-Motivation
17 16 (0.78%) Mobile App
18 13 (0.64%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 487 (23.86%) Linux
2 252 (12.35%) Windows
3 62 (3.04%) Unix
4 52 (2.55%) Windows Server
5 46 (2.25%) CentOS
6 44 (2.16%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 30 (1.47%) Ubuntu
8 29 (1.42%) Amazon Linux
9 12 (0.59%) Solaris
10 10 (0.49%) VMS
11 7 (0.34%) Apple iOS
12 5 (0.24%) Android
13 4 (0.20%) Windows Server 2019
14 3 (0.15%) Kali Linux
14 3 (0.15%) Oracle Linux
14 3 (0.15%) Windows Server 2016
15 2 (0.098%) openSUSE
15 2 (0.098%) Windows Server 2008
15 2 (0.098%) Windows Server 2012
16 1 (0.049%) AIX
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,505 (73.74%) DevOps
2 649 (31.80%) Agile Software Development
3 360 (17.64%) Microservices
4 232 (11.37%) Test Automation
5 229 (11.22%) Configuration Management
6 222 (10.88%) Scrum
7 216 (10.58%) Continuous Integration
8 199 (9.75%) Site Reliability Engineering
9 179 (8.77%) Migration
10 177 (8.67%) Software Engineering
11 173 (8.48%) Analytics
12 154 (7.55%) Continuous Delivery
13 146 (7.15%) TDD
14 139 (6.81%) Data Protection
15 135 (6.61%) Deployment Automation
15 135 (6.61%) Open Source
16 130 (6.37%) Problem-Solving
17 122 (5.98%) Infrastructure Engineering
18 119 (5.83%) Mentoring
19 89 (4.36%) Coaching
Programming Languages
1 784 (38.41%) Python
2 397 (19.45%) Java
3 396 (19.40%) Bash Shell
4 370 (18.13%) PowerShell
5 223 (10.93%) JavaScript
6 211 (10.34%) SQL
7 144 (7.06%) Go
8 121 (5.93%) C#
9 96 (4.70%) TypeScript
10 90 (4.41%) Ruby
11 72 (3.53%) Groovy
12 49 (2.40%) C
12 49 (2.40%) C++
13 41 (2.01%) Shell Script
14 38 (1.86%) Scala
15 35 (1.71%) Perl
16 28 (1.37%) Java 11
17 27 (1.32%) PHP
18 16 (0.78%) R
19 11 (0.54%) Bicep
Qualifications
1 215 (10.53%) Security Cleared
2 161 (7.89%) SC Cleared
3 71 (3.48%) Degree
4 61 (2.99%) AWS Certification
5 25 (1.22%) BPSS Clearance
6 19 (0.93%) Computer Science Degree
7 15 (0.73%) CCNP
7 15 (0.73%) Cisco Certification
8 14 (0.69%) CISSP
8 14 (0.69%) Microsoft Certification
9 8 (0.39%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
10 7 (0.34%) TOGAF Certification
11 6 (0.29%) ITIL Certification
12 5 (0.24%) DBS Check
12 5 (0.24%) MCSE
12 5 (0.24%) OCP
12 5 (0.24%) Oracle Certification
13 4 (0.20%) CCIE
13 4 (0.20%) CCNA
13 4 (0.20%) DV Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 56 (2.74%) Accessibility
2 48 (2.35%) QA
3 45 (2.20%) GDPR
4 18 (0.88%) SLA
5 16 (0.78%) Data Quality
6 13 (0.64%) PCI DSS
7 8 (0.39%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 8 (0.39%) NIST
8 5 (0.24%) Disclosure Scotland
8 5 (0.24%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 2 (0.098%) COBIT
9 2 (0.098%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
9 2 (0.098%) PSD2
10 1 (0.049%) Cyber Essentials
10 1 (0.049%) GRC
10 1 (0.049%) SOC 1
10 1 (0.049%) SOC 2
System Software
1 728 (35.67%) Docker
2 95 (4.65%) Active Directory
3 59 (2.89%) VMware Infrastructure
4 49 (2.40%) Virtual Machines
5 28 (1.37%) vSphere
6 22 (1.08%) Hyper-V
7 11 (0.54%) VMware ESXi
8 9 (0.44%) NFS
8 9 (0.44%) VMware NSX
9 8 (0.39%) KVM
10 7 (0.34%) HDFS
10 7 (0.34%) Virtual Desktop
11 5 (0.24%) Oracle RAC
12 4 (0.20%) LXC
13 3 (0.15%) Ceph
13 3 (0.15%) VirtualBox
14 2 (0.098%) Apache ZooKeeper
14 2 (0.098%) SRDF
14 2 (0.098%) Varnish
14 2 (0.098%) Xen
Systems Management
1 1,392 (68.20%) Terraform
2 808 (39.59%) Kubernetes
3 578 (28.32%) Ansible
4 182 (8.92%) Puppet
5 156 (7.64%) Grafana
6 148 (7.25%) Opscode Chef
7 146 (7.15%) Prometheus
8 77 (3.77%) Istio
9 62 (3.04%) Packer
10 55 (2.69%) Kibana
11 42 (2.06%) Rancher
12 37 (1.81%) Nagios
13 19 (0.93%) Docker Swarm
13 19 (0.93%) logstash
14 16 (0.78%) Consul
15 15 (0.73%) Mesos
16 12 (0.59%) Microsoft Intune
16 12 (0.59%) vCenter Server
17 11 (0.54%) SCCM
18 9 (0.44%) Fluentd
Vendors
1 321 (15.73%) Microsoft
2 162 (7.94%) Google
3 98 (4.80%) VMware
4 84 (4.12%) Oracle
5 82 (4.02%) Splunk
6 79 (3.87%) Databricks
7 59 (2.89%) Red Hat
8 58 (2.84%) Atlassian
9 41 (2.01%) SAP
10 35 (1.71%) Cisco
11 26 (1.27%) NetApp
11 26 (1.27%) New Relic
12 24 (1.18%) AppDynamics
13 23 (1.13%) IBM
14 22 (1.08%) ServiceNow
15 15 (0.73%) Palo Alto
16 14 (0.69%) SaltStack
17 13 (0.64%) Dynatrace
18 12 (0.59%) Arista
19 11 (0.54%) MuleSoft