Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Python skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Python over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Python
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 12 13 15
Rank change year-on-year +1 +2 +8
Contract jobs citing Python 8,123 3,298 7,699
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 10.27% 11.31% 8.67%
As % of the Programming Languages category 25.83% 26.73% 20.61%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,790 2,340 5,216
10th Percentile £400 £352 £385
25th Percentile £456 £425 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - -
75th Percentile £638 £650 £625
90th Percentile £713 £750 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £488 £450 £475
% change year-on-year +8.33% -5.26% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 95 67 120
10th Percentile £21.50 £18.18 £20.48
25th Percentile £25.50 £21.88 £37.25
Median hourly rate £41.00 £36.00 £46.25
Median % change year-on-year +13.89% -22.16% +10.74%
75th Percentile £53.75 £46.40 £50.00
90th Percentile £61.45 £55.60 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £33.75 £45.00
% change year-on-year +21.48% -25.00% +9.76%

Python is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 31,443 12,336 37,351
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.76% 42.30% 42.08%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,474 8,617 26,124
10th Percentile £350 £313 £320
25th Percentile £424 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £520 £490 £475
Median % change year-on-year +6.12% +3.16% +1.06%
75th Percentile £619 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £688 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £437 £425
% change year-on-year +2.97% +2.82% +2.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 459 240 629
10th Percentile £16.47 £13.00 £19.22
25th Percentile £25.00 £21.25 £34.00
Median hourly rate £45.00 £39.88 £44.92
Median % change year-on-year +12.85% -11.22% +8.23%
75th Percentile £57.56 £47.50 £51.00
90th Percentile £66.15 £55.06 £55.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £42.50 £44.25
% change year-on-year +5.88% -3.95% +5.36%

Python
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Python as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Python in the UK

Python
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Python.

Daily rate trend for Python in the UK

Python
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Python over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Python in the UK

Python
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Python.

Hourly rate trend for Python in the UK

Python
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Python over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Python in the UK

Python
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Python within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +1 6,454 £550 +4.76% 2,626
London -4 4,303 £575 +4.55% 1,412
Work from Home +3 2,418 £525 +4.48% 487
UK excluding London -4 2,113 £488 +8.33% 1,370
South East +3 522 £500 +5.26% 264
North of England -8 442 £500 +11.11% 308
Scotland +1 340 £475 +18.75% 118
South West +2 330 £475 -1.20% 176
North West -10 220 £501 +5.53% 168
Yorkshire -6 202 £500 +16.28% 117
East of England -2 192 £514 +20.88% 257
Midlands -14 167 £461 +2.50% 190
West Midlands -12 130 £470 +4.44% 119
Wales -2 100 £450 -5.26% 37
East Midlands -13 35 £450 +12.85% 70
Northern Ireland +3 31 £473 +18.13% 20
North East -17 23 £563 +19.05% 23

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Python also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Python.

1 2,740 (33.73%) AWS
2 2,723 (33.52%) SQL
3 2,542 (31.29%) DevOps
4 2,388 (29.40%) Agile Software Development
5 2,198 (27.06%) Azure
6 2,185 (26.90%) Java
7 1,658 (20.41%) Finance
8 1,602 (19.72%) Linux
9 1,466 (18.05%) Terraform
10 1,408 (17.33%) Kubernetes
11 1,402 (17.26%) Social Skills
12 1,377 (16.95%) Docker
13 1,325 (16.31%) Analytics
14 1,319 (16.24%) JavaScript
15 1,312 (16.15%) Git (software)
16 1,267 (15.60%) Jenkins
17 1,237 (15.23%) Ansible
18 1,075 (13.23%) Software Engineering
19 1,009 (12.42%) GCP
20 962 (11.84%) Bash Shell
21 949 (11.68%) Serverless
22 929 (11.44%) Test Automation
23 796 (9.80%) Microservices
24 773 (9.52%) Infrastructure as Code
25 763 (9.39%) Data Science
26 720 (8.86%) Banking
27 713 (8.78%) ETL
28 697 (8.58%) Windows
29 695 (8.56%) Analytical Skills
30 678 (8.35%) C#

Python
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 615 (7.57%) Apache Spark
2 327 (4.03%) Apache
3 301 (3.71%) Confluence
4 251 (3.09%) Apache Airflow
5 201 (2.47%) Elasticsearch
6 167 (2.06%) SAS
7 93 (1.14%) nginx
8 90 (1.11%) Jupyter
9 85 (1.05%) SharePoint
9 85 (1.05%) Tomcat
10 53 (0.65%) OpenStack
11 47 (0.58%) WebSphere
12 38 (0.47%) IIS
13 37 (0.46%) WebLogic
14 36 (0.44%) Cloud Foundry
15 35 (0.43%) Luigi
16 34 (0.42%) BizTalk Server
17 30 (0.37%) Oracle Coherence
18 27 (0.33%) CMS
19 21 (0.26%) Apache Pig
Applications
1 233 (2.87%) Microsoft Excel
2 65 (0.80%) Microsoft Office
3 35 (0.43%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 25 (0.31%) SPSS
5 15 (0.18%) MS Visio
6 13 (0.16%) Chatbot
6 13 (0.16%) Stata
7 11 (0.14%) Spreadsheet
8 10 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
9 9 (0.11%) Blender
10 6 (0.074%) FrameMaker
11 4 (0.049%) Maya
11 4 (0.049%) Photoshop
12 3 (0.037%) GIMP
12 3 (0.037%) Simulink
12 3 (0.037%) SOLIDWORKS
13 2 (0.025%) Houdini
14 1 (0.012%) CPLEX
14 1 (0.012%) Doxygen
14 1 (0.012%) PrintSoft PReS
Business Applications
1 35 (0.43%) SunGard Martini
2 28 (0.34%) Dynamics CRM
3 21 (0.26%) ION MarketView
4 17 (0.21%) Sentinel
5 11 (0.14%) Magento
6 7 (0.086%) Maximo
6 7 (0.086%) RMDS
6 7 (0.086%) SAP Hybris
7 6 (0.074%) Relativity
8 4 (0.049%) Dynamics AX
8 4 (0.049%) Remedy ITSM
8 4 (0.049%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 4 (0.049%) SAP S/4HANA
8 4 (0.049%) Shopify
8 4 (0.049%) Towers Watson Igloo
9 3 (0.037%) ContrOCC
9 3 (0.037%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.037%) FINCAD Analytics
9 3 (0.037%) Oracle EBS
9 3 (0.037%) thinkFolio
Cloud Services
1 2,740 (33.73%) AWS
2 2,198 (27.06%) Azure
3 1,009 (12.42%) GCP
4 949 (11.68%) Serverless
5 633 (7.79%) AWS Lambda
6 550 (6.77%) GitHub
7 520 (6.40%) Power Platform
8 471 (5.80%) Amazon S3
9 432 (5.32%) AWS CloudFormation
10 367 (4.52%) Azure Data Factory
11 299 (3.68%) PaaS
12 283 (3.48%) Amazon EC2
13 242 (2.98%) IaaS
14 221 (2.72%) SaaS
15 170 (2.09%) Azure Functions
16 164 (2.02%) Azure Synapse Analytics
17 153 (1.88%) Amazon ECS
18 150 (1.85%) OpenShift
19 148 (1.82%) Amazon EKS
20 147 (1.81%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 253 (3.11%) Firewall
2 181 (2.23%) DNS
3 165 (2.03%) HTTP
4 137 (1.69%) TCP/IP
5 88 (1.08%) Internet
6 80 (0.98%) WAN
7 72 (0.89%) Network Security
8 67 (0.82%) LAN
9 64 (0.79%) VPN
9 64 (0.79%) Wireless
10 60 (0.74%) SSL
11 55 (0.68%) Wi-Fi
12 50 (0.62%) SAN
13 47 (0.58%) BGP
14 42 (0.52%) Kerberos
15 35 (0.43%) DHCP
16 29 (0.36%) Multicast
17 28 (0.34%) FTP
17 28 (0.34%) MPLS
17 28 (0.34%) OSPF
Database & Business Intelligence
1 618 (7.61%) Big Data
2 557 (6.86%) Data Warehouse
3 491 (6.04%) Power BI
4 481 (5.92%) PostgreSQL
5 447 (5.50%) Hadoop
6 422 (5.20%) NoSQL
7 411 (5.06%) Relational Database
8 410 (5.05%) Data Lake
9 405 (4.99%) SQL Server
10 315 (3.88%) Tableau
11 304 (3.74%) MongoDB
12 253 (3.11%) MySQL
13 249 (3.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 241 (2.97%) Apache Hive
15 228 (2.81%) Amazon Redshift
16 216 (2.66%) BigQuery
17 192 (2.36%) Azure SQL Database
18 166 (2.04%) Amazon RDS
19 154 (1.90%) Oracle Database
20 141 (1.74%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 1,312 (16.15%) Git (software)
2 1,267 (15.60%) Jenkins
3 624 (7.68%) JIRA
4 359 (4.42%) GitLab
5 241 (2.97%) Maven
6 237 (2.92%) Bitbucket
7 184 (2.27%) TeamCity
8 178 (2.19%) Artifactory
9 162 (1.99%) Selenium
10 156 (1.92%) Subversion
11 139 (1.71%) Sonatype Nexus
12 109 (1.34%) Gradle
13 108 (1.33%) CircleCI
14 105 (1.29%) Cucumber
15 99 (1.22%) Visual Studio
16 84 (1.03%) Travis CI
17 79 (0.97%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 73 (0.90%) gulp
18 73 (0.90%) JUnit
19 71 (0.87%) SonarQube
General
1 1,658 (20.41%) Finance
2 1,402 (17.26%) Social Skills
3 720 (8.86%) Banking
4 695 (8.56%) Analytical Skills
5 431 (5.31%) Public Sector
6 404 (4.97%) Front Office
7 261 (3.21%) Investment Banking
8 190 (2.34%) Presentation Skills
9 153 (1.88%) Marketing
10 143 (1.76%) Retail
11 139 (1.71%) Telecoms
12 90 (1.11%) Legal
13 85 (1.05%) Financial Institution
14 79 (0.97%) Documentation Skills
15 67 (0.82%) Electronics
16 65 (0.80%) Law
16 65 (0.80%) Publishing
17 64 (0.79%) Pharmaceutical
18 60 (0.74%) Manufacturing
19 48 (0.59%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 2,362 (29.08%) Developer
2 1,107 (13.63%) Data Engineer
3 1,090 (13.42%) Python Developer
4 902 (11.10%) DevOps Engineer
5 562 (6.92%) Python Engineer
6 525 (6.46%) AWS Engineer
7 486 (5.98%) Analyst
8 460 (5.66%) Azure Engineer
9 418 (5.15%) Architect
9 418 (5.15%) Software Engineer
10 301 (3.71%) Data Scientist
11 298 (3.67%) Cloud Engineer
12 244 (3.00%) Data Analyst
13 227 (2.79%) Java Developer
14 225 (2.77%) Consultant
15 220 (2.71%) Senior Developer
16 177 (2.18%) AWS DevOps
17 174 (2.14%) Full Stack Developer
18 161 (1.98%) React Developer
19 160 (1.97%) AWS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 647 (7.97%) React
2 547 (6.73%) Kafka
3 530 (6.52%) Node.js
4 488 (6.01%) .NET
5 471 (5.80%) Web Services
6 456 (5.61%) REST
7 425 (5.23%) AngularJS
8 414 (5.10%) HTML
9 384 (4.73%) Django
10 334 (4.11%) CSS
11 322 (3.96%) PySpark
12 321 (3.95%) JSON
13 312 (3.84%) Flask
14 296 (3.64%) Pandas
15 291 (3.58%) RESTful
16 255 (3.14%) Spring
17 223 (2.75%) NumPy
18 198 (2.44%) XML
19 162 (1.99%) Spring Boot
20 148 (1.82%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 287 (3.53%) Algorithms
2 277 (3.41%) Cloud Native
3 232 (2.86%) Derivative
4 212 (2.61%) Data Protection Act
5 208 (2.56%) Fixed Income
6 194 (2.39%) User Experience
7 184 (2.27%) Equities
8 177 (2.18%) Data Structures
9 176 (2.17%) Public Cloud
10 171 (2.11%) Data Centre
11 170 (2.09%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 159 (1.96%) Hedge funds
13 157 (1.93%) Greenfield Project
14 140 (1.72%) Legacy Systems
15 138 (1.70%) Self-Motivation
16 133 (1.64%) Management Information System
17 113 (1.39%) Linux Command Line
18 93 (1.14%) Credit Risk
19 79 (0.97%) Enterprise Software
20 74 (0.91%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 1,602 (19.72%) Linux
2 697 (8.58%) Windows
3 470 (5.79%) Unix
4 214 (2.63%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 122 (1.50%) Windows Server
6 85 (1.05%) Ubuntu
7 71 (0.87%) CentOS
8 45 (0.55%) Solaris
9 35 (0.43%) Android
10 25 (0.31%) Windows Server 2016
11 23 (0.28%) Embedded Linux
12 22 (0.27%) AIX
12 22 (0.27%) Apple iOS
12 22 (0.27%) VMS
13 19 (0.23%) Debian
13 19 (0.23%) Windows Server 2019
14 18 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
15 13 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
16 12 (0.15%) Mac OS X
17 10 (0.12%) OpenWrt
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,542 (31.29%) DevOps
2 2,388 (29.40%) Agile Software Development
3 1,325 (16.31%) Analytics
4 1,075 (13.23%) Software Engineering
5 929 (11.44%) Test Automation
6 796 (9.80%) Microservices
7 773 (9.52%) Infrastructure as Code
8 763 (9.39%) Data Science
9 713 (8.78%) ETL
10 671 (8.26%) Business Intelligence
11 639 (7.87%) Problem-Solving
12 623 (7.67%) Scrum
13 615 (7.57%) Data Engineering
14 599 (7.37%) Data Modelling
15 598 (7.36%) Continuous Integration
16 561 (6.91%) Full Stack Development
17 555 (6.83%) Visualisation
18 519 (6.39%) Machine Learning
19 506 (6.23%) Data Pipeline
20 503 (6.19%) TDD
Programming Languages
1 2,723 (33.52%) SQL
2 2,185 (26.90%) Java
3 1,319 (16.24%) JavaScript
4 962 (11.84%) Bash Shell
5 678 (8.35%) C#
6 660 (8.13%) PowerShell
7 641 (7.89%) Scala
8 640 (7.88%) C++
9 490 (6.03%) R
10 444 (5.47%) Go
11 393 (4.84%) TypeScript
12 375 (4.62%) Ruby
13 333 (4.10%) Perl
14 276 (3.40%) Groovy
15 268 (3.30%) Shell Script
16 260 (3.20%) C
17 192 (2.36%) PHP
18 161 (1.98%) VBA
19 151 (1.86%) PL/SQL
19 151 (1.86%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 635 (7.82%) Degree
2 626 (7.71%) Security Cleared
3 472 (5.81%) SC Cleared
4 170 (2.09%) Computer Science Degree
5 97 (1.19%) AWS Certification
6 89 (1.10%) PhD
7 85 (1.05%) BPSS Clearance
8 72 (0.89%) Cisco Certification
9 67 (0.82%) DV Cleared
10 57 (0.70%) CISSP
11 50 (0.62%) Master's Degree
12 47 (0.58%) CCNP
13 46 (0.57%) Numerate Degree
14 35 (0.43%) CCNA
15 30 (0.37%) DBS Check
16 27 (0.33%) RHCE
17 24 (0.30%) CISM
18 22 (0.27%) CCIE
19 20 (0.25%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
20 18 (0.22%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 262 (3.23%) QA
2 238 (2.93%) Data Quality
3 108 (1.33%) Accessibility
4 80 (0.98%) GDPR
5 36 (0.44%) SLA
6 34 (0.42%) IFRS
7 29 (0.36%) Disclosure Scotland
8 23 (0.28%) IFRS 9
9 20 (0.25%) Sarbanes-Oxley
10 15 (0.18%) Basel II
10 15 (0.18%) GRC
10 15 (0.18%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 15 (0.18%) NCSC
11 14 (0.17%) WCAG
12 9 (0.11%) MiFID
13 7 (0.086%) PMO
14 6 (0.074%) JTAG
14 6 (0.074%) NIST
15 5 (0.062%) HIPAA
15 5 (0.062%) HL7
System Software
1 1,377 (16.95%) Docker
2 197 (2.43%) Active Directory
3 175 (2.15%) VMware Infrastructure
4 103 (1.27%) HDFS
5 62 (0.76%) Virtual Machines
6 61 (0.75%) vSphere
7 47 (0.58%) VMware NSX
8 41 (0.50%) VMware ESXi
9 37 (0.46%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 30 (0.37%) Virtual Desktop
11 29 (0.36%) Firmware
12 26 (0.32%) NFS
13 20 (0.25%) Hyper-V
14 17 (0.21%) Apache Flume
15 15 (0.18%) KVM
16 13 (0.16%) Oracle RAC
16 13 (0.16%) Virtual Servers
17 11 (0.14%) Platform Symphony
17 11 (0.14%) Varnish
18 10 (0.12%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 1,466 (18.05%) Terraform
2 1,408 (17.33%) Kubernetes
3 1,237 (15.23%) Ansible
4 422 (5.20%) Puppet
5 275 (3.39%) Opscode Chef
6 256 (3.15%) Grafana
7 144 (1.77%) Prometheus
8 96 (1.18%) Kibana
9 83 (1.02%) Istio
10 75 (0.92%) Packer
11 65 (0.80%) Rancher
12 58 (0.71%) Docker Swarm
13 55 (0.68%) Nagios
14 51 (0.63%) BladeLogic
15 41 (0.50%) logstash
16 40 (0.49%) vRealize
17 39 (0.48%) Bosun
18 33 (0.41%) Control-M
19 32 (0.39%) VictorOps
20 31 (0.38%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 664 (8.17%) Oracle
2 552 (6.80%) Google
3 549 (6.76%) Databricks
4 498 (6.13%) Microsoft
5 281 (3.46%) VMware
6 215 (2.65%) Red Hat
7 192 (2.36%) Splunk
8 119 (1.46%) Cisco
9 118 (1.45%) Cloudera
10 106 (1.30%) Informatica
11 104 (1.28%) SAP
12 102 (1.26%) IBM
13 87 (1.07%) MuleSoft
14 84 (1.03%) Atlassian
14 84 (1.03%) Salesforce.com
15 82 (1.01%) Alteryx
16 61 (0.75%) ServiceNow
17 55 (0.68%) New Relic
17 55 (0.68%) Teradata
18 53 (0.65%) HP