Period
to 25 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Kubernetes skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Kubernetes over the 6 months to 25 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Kubernetes (k8s)
UK
6 months to
25 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 26 36 51
Rank change year-on-year +10 +15 +60
Contract jobs citing Kubernetes 4,465 2,079 4,147
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.31% 5.54% 4.51%
As % of the Systems Management category 39.49% 36.56% 29.99%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,263 1,582 3,128
10th Percentile £425 £413 £425
25th Percentile £488 £475 £488
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £550 £550
75th Percentile £638 £625 £631
90th Percentile £713 £713 £691
UK excluding London median daily rate £513 £525 £525
% change year-on-year -2.38% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 16 5 11
10th Percentile £25.63 £25.91 £13.25
25th Percentile £34.75 £46.40 £44.86
Median hourly rate £52.03 £50.00 £49.86
Median % change year-on-year +4.06% +0.28% -24.74%
75th Percentile £78.00 £52.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £87.50 £57.00 £52.29
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.72 £50.00 £13.50
% change year-on-year -18.56% +270.37% -76.52%

Kubernetes is in the Systems Management category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills.

All Systems Management Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills 11,308 5,687 13,826
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 15.98% 15.16% 15.05%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,962 3,943 9,419
10th Percentile £350 £306 £300
25th Percentile £425 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £603 £600 £600
90th Percentile £688 £675 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £465 £467 £450
% change year-on-year -0.32% +3.67% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 157 127 310
10th Percentile £15.00 £12.47 £12.00
25th Percentile £18.00 £14.50 £14.00
Median hourly rate £29.00 £19.50 £20.00
Median % change year-on-year +48.72% -2.50% +5.26%
75th Percentile £51.00 £39.55 £27.00
90th Percentile £64.50 £52.50 £47.83
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.00 £19.00 £17.50
% change year-on-year +15.79% +8.57% -

Kubernetes
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Kubernetes as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Daily rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 25 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Hourly rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 25 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Kubernetes within the UK over the 6 months to 25 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +5 3,620 £550 - 1,687
London +3 2,476 £575 +4.55% 953
Work from Home +9 1,486 £550 - 379
UK excluding London +14 1,051 £513 -2.38% 803
South East +25 269 £510 +2.00% 180
North of England -11 264 £525 -4.02% 247
Scotland +34 159 £500 +5.26% 40
North West -7 135 £500 -4.76% 138
South West +36 134 £500 -9.09% 86
Yorkshire +3 118 £525 -3.18% 89
East of England +22 107 £550 +15.79% 77
Midlands -21 86 £528 +19.21% 126
West Midlands -12 58 £528 +17.22% 92
Wales -17 25 £450 -5.26% 30
East Midlands -17 24 £525 +16.67% 34
North East -29 13 £575 +0.52% 20
Northern Ireland +4 10 £431 +7.75% 17

For the 6 months to 25 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Kubernetes also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Kubernetes.

1 2,917 (65.33%) Docker
2 2,252 (50.44%) DevOps
3 1,866 (41.79%) AWS
4 1,730 (38.75%) Terraform
5 1,684 (37.72%) Agile Software Development
6 1,661 (37.20%) Azure
7 1,486 (33.28%) Java
8 1,311 (29.36%) Python
9 1,303 (29.18%) Microservices
10 1,019 (22.82%) Jenkins
11 941 (21.08%) Finance
12 895 (20.04%) Ansible
13 862 (19.31%) Linux
14 850 (19.04%) GCP
15 788 (17.65%) Software Engineering
16 764 (17.11%) JavaScript
17 686 (15.36%) Git (software)
18 678 (15.18%) Infrastructure as Code
19 623 (13.95%) Node.js
20 615 (13.77%) SQL
21 586 (13.12%) Kafka
22 580 (12.99%) Social Skills
23 552 (12.36%) React
24 531 (11.89%) TDD
25 519 (11.62%) Spring
26 503 (11.27%) Serverless
27 484 (10.84%) Security Cleared
28 443 (9.92%) Google
29 437 (9.79%) C#
30 430 (9.63%) Web Services

Kubernetes
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 216 (4.84%) Apache Spark
2 172 (3.85%) Elasticsearch
3 150 (3.36%) Apache
4 147 (3.29%) Confluence
5 93 (2.08%) nginx
6 76 (1.70%) OpenStack
6 76 (1.70%) Tomcat
7 62 (1.39%) Apache Airflow
8 47 (1.05%) Cloud Foundry
9 37 (0.83%) BizTalk Server
9 37 (0.83%) WebSphere
10 34 (0.76%) Oracle Coherence
11 28 (0.63%) JBoss
12 24 (0.54%) Mule
13 22 (0.49%) WebLogic
14 20 (0.45%) WebSphere Application Server
15 19 (0.43%) Red Hat Fuse
16 18 (0.40%) SharePoint
17 17 (0.38%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 15 (0.34%) IIS
Applications
1 24 (0.54%) Microsoft Office
2 3 (0.067%) Microsoft Excel
2 3 (0.067%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.022%) Chatbot
3 1 (0.022%) Photoshop
3 1 (0.022%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 9 (0.20%) Magento
2 8 (0.18%) assyst
2 8 (0.18%) Sentinel
3 6 (0.13%) Shopify
4 5 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
5 4 (0.090%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.067%) Cloudability
6 3 (0.067%) SAP ERP
7 2 (0.045%) Oracle BPM
7 2 (0.045%) SAP S/4HANA
8 1 (0.022%) Dynamics NAV
8 1 (0.022%) Payment Gateway
8 1 (0.022%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 1 (0.022%) Tesseract
8 1 (0.022%) Traffica
Cloud Services
1 1,866 (41.79%) AWS
2 1,661 (37.20%) Azure
3 850 (19.04%) GCP
4 503 (11.27%) Serverless
5 390 (8.73%) AWS Lambda
6 336 (7.53%) PaaS
7 334 (7.48%) GitHub
7 334 (7.48%) OpenShift
8 294 (6.58%) Amazon S3
9 267 (5.98%) IaaS
10 254 (5.69%) Amazon EKS
11 216 (4.84%) Amazon SQS
12 196 (4.39%) SaaS
13 191 (4.28%) AWS CloudFormation
14 185 (4.14%) AWS Step Functions
15 89 (1.99%) Azure Cosmos DB
16 88 (1.97%) Amazon ECS
16 88 (1.97%) npm
17 86 (1.93%) Amazon EC2
18 79 (1.77%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 118 (2.64%) Firewall
2 114 (2.55%) HTTP
3 85 (1.90%) DNS
4 61 (1.37%) SSL
5 53 (1.19%) VPN
6 43 (0.96%) TCP/IP
7 33 (0.74%) Internet
8 32 (0.72%) Network Security
9 29 (0.65%) WAN
10 28 (0.63%) Software-Defined Networking
11 26 (0.58%) Kerberos
12 22 (0.49%) VSAN
13 21 (0.47%) LAN
13 21 (0.47%) SAN
14 19 (0.43%) 3GPP
14 19 (0.43%) SGSN
15 17 (0.38%) IPv4
15 17 (0.38%) Wireless
16 15 (0.34%) SSH
17 14 (0.31%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 343 (7.68%) PostgreSQL
2 310 (6.94%) MongoDB
3 274 (6.14%) Big Data
4 270 (6.05%) NoSQL
5 236 (5.29%) Amazon DynamoDB
6 234 (5.24%) Amazon RDS
7 167 (3.74%) Hadoop
8 158 (3.54%) Relational Database
9 153 (3.43%) SQL Server
10 135 (3.02%) MySQL
11 107 (2.40%) BigQuery
12 99 (2.22%) Azure SQL Database
13 95 (2.13%) Apache Cassandra
14 90 (2.02%) Redis
15 83 (1.86%) Data Warehouse
16 78 (1.75%) Apache Hive
17 64 (1.43%) Data Lake
18 63 (1.41%) HBase
19 41 (0.92%) RDBMS
20 39 (0.87%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 1,019 (22.82%) Jenkins
2 686 (15.36%) Git (software)
3 301 (6.74%) JIRA
4 291 (6.52%) Maven
5 280 (6.27%) GitLab
6 184 (4.12%) Gradle
7 150 (3.36%) Bitbucket
8 136 (3.05%) CircleCI
9 126 (2.82%) TeamCity
10 119 (2.67%) Artifactory
11 104 (2.33%) JUnit
12 98 (2.19%) Cucumber
13 95 (2.13%) Travis CI
14 92 (2.06%) Sonatype Nexus
15 81 (1.81%) Mockito
16 73 (1.63%) SonarQube
17 71 (1.59%) gulp
18 59 (1.32%) Octopus Deploy
19 50 (1.12%) Selenium
20 47 (1.05%) Cypress.io
General
1 941 (21.08%) Finance
2 580 (12.99%) Social Skills
3 429 (9.61%) Banking
4 263 (5.89%) Front Office
5 233 (5.22%) Public Sector
6 125 (2.80%) Analytical Skills
7 108 (2.42%) Telecoms
8 101 (2.26%) Retail
9 77 (1.72%) Investment Banking
10 72 (1.61%) Presentation Skills
11 56 (1.25%) Influencing Skills
11 56 (1.25%) Marketing
12 47 (1.05%) Electronics
13 42 (0.94%) Manufacturing
14 41 (0.92%) Financial Institution
15 33 (0.74%) Games
16 29 (0.65%) Legal
17 19 (0.43%) Retail Banking
18 15 (0.34%) Law
19 12 (0.27%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 1,549 (34.69%) Developer
2 1,141 (25.55%) DevOps Engineer
3 559 (12.52%) Java Developer
4 457 (10.24%) Architect
5 324 (7.26%) Azure Engineer
6 319 (7.14%) AWS Engineer
7 261 (5.85%) Senior Developer
8 248 (5.55%) AWS DevOps
9 244 (5.46%) React Developer
10 239 (5.35%) Azure DevOps Engineer
11 225 (5.04%) Cloud Engineer
12 218 (4.88%) Full Stack Developer
13 216 (4.84%) AWS DevOps Engineer
14 213 (4.77%) Kubernetes Engineer
15 203 (4.55%) Software Engineer
16 181 (4.05%) AWS Developer
17 169 (3.78%) Azure DevOps
18 168 (3.76%) Cloud Architect
19 152 (3.40%) Data Engineer
20 144 (3.23%) .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 623 (13.95%) Node.js
2 586 (13.12%) Kafka
3 552 (12.36%) React
4 519 (11.62%) Spring
5 430 (9.63%) Web Services
6 427 (9.56%) .NET
7 423 (9.47%) Spring Boot
8 370 (8.29%) REST
9 252 (5.64%) .NET Core
10 234 (5.24%) RESTful
11 221 (4.95%) AngularJS
12 185 (4.14%) CSS
12 185 (4.14%) Material-UI
13 182 (4.08%) HTML
14 174 (3.90%) GraphQL
15 151 (3.38%) Elastic Stack
16 150 (3.36%) JSON
17 116 (2.60%) YAML
18 92 (2.06%) .NET Framework
19 85 (1.90%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 354 (7.93%) Cloud Native
2 214 (4.79%) Public Cloud
3 176 (3.94%) Greenfield Project
4 114 (2.55%) User Experience
5 108 (2.42%) Data Protection Act
6 107 (2.40%) Data Centre
7 78 (1.75%) Algorithms
8 77 (1.72%) Data Structures
9 76 (1.70%) Self-Motivation
10 74 (1.66%) Hybrid Cloud
11 70 (1.57%) Management Information System
12 60 (1.34%) Legacy Systems
13 58 (1.30%) Enterprise Software
14 53 (1.19%) Linux Command Line
15 52 (1.16%) iPad
16 49 (1.10%) Mobile App
17 46 (1.03%) Legacy Applications
18 37 (0.83%) Derivative
19 34 (0.76%) Private Cloud
20 33 (0.74%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 862 (19.31%) Linux
2 272 (6.09%) Windows
3 176 (3.94%) Unix
4 106 (2.37%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 65 (1.46%) CentOS
6 60 (1.34%) Windows Server
7 56 (1.25%) VMS
8 37 (0.83%) Ubuntu
9 30 (0.67%) CoreOS
10 24 (0.54%) Amazon Linux
11 21 (0.47%) Debian
12 15 (0.34%) Android
13 14 (0.31%) Apple iOS
14 13 (0.29%) Solaris
15 11 (0.25%) Mac OS X
16 8 (0.18%) Windows Server 2019
17 6 (0.13%) AIX
17 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
17 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2016
18 5 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,252 (50.44%) DevOps
2 1,684 (37.72%) Agile Software Development
3 1,303 (29.18%) Microservices
4 788 (17.65%) Software Engineering
5 678 (15.18%) Infrastructure as Code
6 531 (11.89%) TDD
7 427 (9.56%) Scrum
8 406 (9.09%) Test Automation
9 390 (8.73%) Continuous Integration
10 330 (7.39%) Open Source
11 313 (7.01%) BDD
12 281 (6.29%) Migration
13 250 (5.60%) Mentoring
14 241 (5.40%) Continuous Delivery
15 240 (5.38%) Asset Management
16 239 (5.35%) Configuration Management
17 231 (5.17%) Investment Management
18 229 (5.13%) Problem-Solving
19 204 (4.57%) SDLC
20 197 (4.41%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,486 (33.28%) Java
2 1,311 (29.36%) Python
3 764 (17.11%) JavaScript
4 615 (13.77%) SQL
5 437 (9.79%) C#
6 410 (9.18%) TypeScript
7 386 (8.65%) Bash Shell
8 363 (8.13%) Go
9 269 (6.02%) Scala
10 255 (5.71%) PowerShell
11 195 (4.37%) Java 8
12 171 (3.83%) Groovy
13 146 (3.27%) Ruby
14 135 (3.02%) Kotlin
15 127 (2.84%) C++
16 97 (2.17%) Java 11
17 91 (2.04%) Shell Script
18 86 (1.93%) PL/SQL
19 80 (1.79%) PHP
20 67 (1.50%) Perl
Qualifications
1 484 (10.84%) Security Cleared
2 397 (8.89%) SC Cleared
3 169 (3.78%) Degree
4 43 (0.96%) DV Cleared
5 38 (0.85%) BPSS Clearance
5 38 (0.85%) Computer Science Degree
6 35 (0.78%) AWS Certification
7 31 (0.69%) CISSP
8 15 (0.34%) SANS
9 12 (0.27%) CISM
10 9 (0.20%) CREST Certified
10 9 (0.20%) Master's Degree
11 8 (0.18%) Cisco Certification
12 6 (0.13%) CCA
13 5 (0.11%) DBS Check
13 5 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
13 5 (0.11%) OCP
13 5 (0.11%) Oracle Certification
13 5 (0.11%) SSCP
14 3 (0.067%) (ISC)2 CCSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 106 (2.37%) QA
2 51 (1.14%) GDPR
3 39 (0.87%) Accessibility
4 33 (0.74%) PCI DSS
5 20 (0.45%) Data Quality
6 19 (0.43%) OASIS TOSCA
7 15 (0.34%) SLA
8 11 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 11 (0.25%) NIST
9 8 (0.18%) NCSC
10 6 (0.13%) COBIT
11 4 (0.090%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 3 (0.067%) Disclosure Scotland
12 3 (0.067%) FedRAMP
13 2 (0.045%) PSD2
13 2 (0.045%) WCAG
14 1 (0.022%) HIPAA
14 1 (0.022%) HL7
14 1 (0.022%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 2,917 (65.33%) Docker
2 118 (2.64%) Active Directory
3 77 (1.72%) VMware Infrastructure
4 66 (1.48%) Virtual Machines
5 35 (0.78%) HDFS
6 33 (0.74%) VMware ESXi
7 32 (0.72%) VMware NSX
8 31 (0.69%) KVM
9 27 (0.60%) LXC
10 25 (0.56%) vSphere
11 15 (0.34%) Hyper-V
11 15 (0.34%) NFS
12 14 (0.31%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 9 (0.20%) Postfix
14 8 (0.18%) vCloud
14 8 (0.18%) Xen
15 7 (0.16%) Oracle RAC
15 7 (0.16%) SRDF
16 6 (0.13%) Apache Flume
16 6 (0.13%) qmail
Systems Management
1 1,730 (38.75%) Terraform
2 895 (20.04%) Ansible
3 292 (6.54%) Puppet
4 261 (5.85%) Prometheus
5 245 (5.49%) Grafana
6 216 (4.84%) Opscode Chef
7 161 (3.61%) Istio
8 113 (2.53%) Rancher
9 106 (2.37%) Kibana
10 91 (2.04%) Packer
11 69 (1.55%) Docker Swarm
12 47 (1.05%) Consul
12 47 (1.05%) logstash
13 34 (0.76%) Oozie
14 27 (0.60%) Fluentd
15 24 (0.54%) Nagios
16 23 (0.52%) Active Directory Federation Services
16 23 (0.52%) MIIS
17 22 (0.49%) Argo
18 21 (0.47%) Mesos
Vendors
1 443 (9.92%) Google
2 321 (7.19%) Microsoft
3 311 (6.97%) Oracle
4 176 (3.94%) Red Hat
5 159 (3.56%) Splunk
6 123 (2.75%) VMware
7 84 (1.88%) MuleSoft
8 78 (1.75%) IBM
9 69 (1.55%) Cisco
9 69 (1.55%) SAP
10 63 (1.41%) Dynatrace
11 58 (1.30%) Cloudera
11 58 (1.30%) Databricks
12 54 (1.21%) Atlassian
13 51 (1.14%) New Relic
14 50 (1.12%) AppDynamics
15 40 (0.90%) Hortonworks
16 35 (0.78%) Sybase
17 32 (0.72%) F5
17 32 (0.72%) Juniper