Period
to 20 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Kubernetes skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Kubernetes over the 6 months to 20 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Kubernetes (k8s)
UK
6 months to
20 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 23 46 53
Rank change year-on-year +23 +7 +101
Contract jobs citing Kubernetes 3,456 2,604 3,990
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.45% 4.53% 4.17%
As % of the Systems Management category 39.70% 31.26% 28.48%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,612 1,966 2,996
10th Percentile £413 £413 £425
25th Percentile £463 £475 £500
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £550 £550
Median % change year-on-year -4.55% - -
75th Percentile £625 £625 £638
90th Percentile £700 £700 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £519 £525
% change year-on-year -3.61% -1.19% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 20 4 3
10th Percentile £27.13 £22.83 £16.45
25th Percentile £38.75 £38.69 £25.75
Median hourly rate £47.47 £50.00 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year -5.06% +17.65% +6.25%
75th Percentile £57.50 £54.38 £46.88
90th Percentile £60.80 £57.75 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.00 £50.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year - +17.65% +6.25%

Kubernetes is in the Systems Management category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills.

All Systems Management Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills 8,705 8,330 14,008
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 16.25% 14.51% 14.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,208 5,738 9,538
10th Percentile £334 £263 £313
25th Percentile £413 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £500
75th Percentile £588 £588 £588
90th Percentile £675 £672 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 148 246 317
10th Percentile £14.00 £12.44 £12.00
25th Percentile £16.81 £14.50 £14.00
Median hourly rate £24.00 £18.11 £18.50
Median % change year-on-year +32.56% -2.14% +5.71%
75th Percentile £53.00 £26.75 £36.67
90th Percentile £62.48 £47.67 £49.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.00 £17.50 £17.47
% change year-on-year +25.71% +0.20% +12.68%

Kubernetes
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Kubernetes as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Daily rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Hourly rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 20 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Kubernetes within the UK over the 6 months to 20 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +23 2,826 £525 -4.55% 1,356
London +10 1,921 £550 -3.51% 743
Work from Home +8 1,263 £525 -2.78% 348
UK excluding London +20 833 £500 -3.61% 679
South East +40 230 £500 - 166
North of England 0 202 £500 -4.76% 219
South West +28 134 £475 -13.64% 78
North West -1 109 £500 -6.98% 108
Scotland +35 92 £494 +6.76% 45
East of England +46 86 £525 +10.53% 53
Yorkshire +13 77 £500 -4.76% 83
Midlands -7 52 £468 +3.89% 90
West Midlands +12 36 £425 -15.00% 73
Wales -4 36 £463 -3.14% 15
North East -7 16 £450 -10.00% 28
East Midlands -12 15 £538 +26.47% 17
Northern Ireland +11 3 £437 +9.25% 13

For the 6 months to 20 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Kubernetes also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Kubernetes.

1 2,283 (66.06%) Docker
2 1,650 (47.74%) DevOps
3 1,492 (43.17%) AWS
4 1,313 (37.99%) Terraform
5 1,268 (36.69%) Agile Software Development
6 1,264 (36.57%) Azure
7 1,237 (35.79%) Java
8 1,019 (29.48%) Python
9 959 (27.75%) Microservices
10 786 (22.74%) Linux
11 737 (21.33%) Jenkins
12 704 (20.37%) Finance
13 701 (20.28%) GCP
14 697 (20.17%) JavaScript
15 686 (19.85%) Ansible
16 662 (19.16%) Software Engineering
17 658 (19.04%) Node.js
18 512 (14.81%) Git (software)
19 508 (14.70%) React
20 450 (13.02%) Security Cleared
21 446 (12.91%) Infrastructure as Code
22 445 (12.88%) SQL
23 411 (11.89%) Spring
24 409 (11.83%) Web Services
25 384 (11.11%) SC Cleared
25 384 (11.11%) Serverless
26 379 (10.97%) Kafka
27 375 (10.85%) TDD
28 349 (10.10%) Google
29 348 (10.07%) TypeScript

Kubernetes
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 159 (4.60%) Elasticsearch
2 144 (4.17%) Apache Spark
3 140 (4.05%) Apache
4 108 (3.13%) Confluence
5 91 (2.63%) nginx
6 66 (1.91%) Mule
7 54 (1.56%) Cloud Foundry
8 49 (1.42%) OpenStack
9 40 (1.16%) Tomcat
10 39 (1.13%) Apache Airflow
11 36 (1.04%) JBoss
12 33 (0.95%) BizTalk Server
13 27 (0.78%) WebSphere
14 26 (0.75%) Oracle Coherence
15 23 (0.67%) Red Hat Fuse
16 20 (0.58%) WebLogic
17 19 (0.55%) Camunda
18 15 (0.43%) WebSphere Application Server
19 13 (0.38%) SharePoint
20 12 (0.35%) IIS
Applications
1 15 (0.43%) Microsoft Office
2 6 (0.17%) Chatbot
3 4 (0.12%) MS Visio
4 2 (0.058%) Microsoft Excel
Business Applications
1 11 (0.32%) Distributed Ledger
2 10 (0.29%) Magento
3 7 (0.20%) Shopify
4 4 (0.12%) Sentinel
5 3 (0.087%) assyst
5 3 (0.087%) BusinessWorks
6 2 (0.058%) R3 Corda
7 1 (0.029%) Finacle
7 1 (0.029%) Maximo
7 1 (0.029%) Oracle BPM
7 1 (0.029%) Oracle BRM
7 1 (0.029%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.029%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.029%) SAP Hybris
7 1 (0.029%) SAP S/4HANA
7 1 (0.029%) Tesseract
7 1 (0.029%) Traffica
Cloud Services
1 1,492 (43.17%) AWS
2 1,264 (36.57%) Azure
3 701 (20.28%) GCP
4 384 (11.11%) Serverless
5 300 (8.68%) AWS Lambda
6 277 (8.02%) OpenShift
7 230 (6.66%) GitHub
8 228 (6.60%) Amazon S3
9 213 (6.16%) PaaS
10 199 (5.76%) Amazon EKS
11 180 (5.21%) Amazon SQS
12 149 (4.31%) AWS Step Functions
13 136 (3.94%) IaaS
14 128 (3.70%) AWS CloudFormation
15 111 (3.21%) SaaS
16 90 (2.60%) Amazon ECS
17 81 (2.34%) Amazon EC2
18 77 (2.23%) Azure Cosmos DB
19 74 (2.14%) Cloud Computing
20 67 (1.94%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 75 (2.17%) HTTP
2 72 (2.08%) Firewall
3 63 (1.82%) DNS
4 56 (1.62%) SSL
5 45 (1.30%) TCP/IP
6 30 (0.87%) VPN
7 27 (0.78%) Software-Defined Networking
8 22 (0.64%) FTP
8 22 (0.64%) Internet
9 21 (0.61%) Network Security
10 19 (0.55%) 3GPP
10 19 (0.55%) Kerberos
11 18 (0.52%) SGSN
12 15 (0.43%) WAN
13 14 (0.41%) Calico
13 14 (0.41%) SSH
14 13 (0.38%) HTTPS
15 12 (0.35%) SAN
16 11 (0.32%) Multicast
16 11 (0.32%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 228 (6.60%) PostgreSQL
2 226 (6.54%) MongoDB
3 215 (6.22%) Amazon RDS
4 197 (5.70%) NoSQL
5 194 (5.61%) Amazon DynamoDB
6 175 (5.06%) Big Data
7 153 (4.43%) Relational Database
8 125 (3.62%) SQL Server
9 113 (3.27%) MySQL
10 91 (2.63%) BigQuery
11 88 (2.55%) Hadoop
12 76 (2.20%) Azure SQL Database
13 60 (1.74%) Redis
14 57 (1.65%) Apache Cassandra
15 50 (1.45%) Apache Hive
16 35 (1.01%) Blockchain
17 31 (0.90%) Cloud Spanner
18 28 (0.81%) Data Lake
18 28 (0.81%) Data Warehouse
19 27 (0.78%) Apache Ignite
Development Applications
1 737 (21.33%) Jenkins
2 512 (14.81%) Git (software)
3 245 (7.09%) Maven
4 223 (6.45%) JIRA
5 200 (5.79%) GitLab
6 135 (3.91%) Gradle
7 97 (2.81%) CircleCI
8 93 (2.69%) JUnit
9 87 (2.52%) Cucumber
10 85 (2.46%) Sonatype Nexus
11 78 (2.26%) Bitbucket
11 78 (2.26%) SonarQube
11 78 (2.26%) TeamCity
12 73 (2.11%) Artifactory
13 68 (1.97%) Travis CI
14 63 (1.82%) gulp
15 53 (1.53%) Mockito
16 51 (1.48%) Selenium
17 40 (1.16%) Ant
17 40 (1.16%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 704 (20.37%) Finance
2 332 (9.61%) Banking
3 311 (9.00%) Front Office
4 176 (5.09%) Public Sector
5 98 (2.84%) Telecoms
6 58 (1.68%) Marketing
7 53 (1.53%) Retail
8 52 (1.50%) Investment Banking
9 39 (1.13%) Electronics
9 39 (1.13%) Manufacturing
10 27 (0.78%) Law
11 18 (0.52%) Games
12 15 (0.43%) Automotive
13 13 (0.38%) Pharmaceutical
14 11 (0.32%) Publishing
15 10 (0.29%) Back Office
15 10 (0.29%) Retail Banking
16 9 (0.26%) Aerospace
17 8 (0.23%) Advertising
18 7 (0.20%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 1,344 (38.89%) Developer
2 905 (26.19%) DevOps Engineer
3 474 (13.72%) Java Developer
4 307 (8.88%) AWS Engineer
5 291 (8.42%) AWS DevOps
6 280 (8.10%) Architect
7 260 (7.52%) React Developer
8 241 (6.97%) AWS DevOps Engineer
9 231 (6.68%) Azure Engineer
10 225 (6.51%) Senior Developer
11 208 (6.02%) AWS Developer
12 202 (5.84%) Full Stack Developer
13 183 (5.30%) Cloud Engineer
14 174 (5.03%) Kubernetes Engineer
15 173 (5.01%) Azure DevOps Engineer
16 131 (3.79%) Azure DevOps
16 131 (3.79%) Software Engineer
17 117 (3.39%) Node.js Developer
18 113 (3.27%) JavaScript Developer
19 109 (3.15%) .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 658 (19.04%) Node.js
2 508 (14.70%) React
3 411 (11.89%) Spring
4 409 (11.83%) Web Services
5 379 (10.97%) Kafka
6 310 (8.97%) .NET
7 306 (8.85%) REST
8 298 (8.62%) Spring Boot
9 190 (5.50%) .NET Core
10 159 (4.60%) RESTful
11 154 (4.46%) AngularJS
12 143 (4.14%) Elastic Stack
13 136 (3.94%) JSON
14 133 (3.85%) CSS
15 124 (3.59%) HTML
16 103 (2.98%) GraphQL
16 103 (2.98%) Middleware
17 90 (2.60%) XML
18 85 (2.46%) YAML
19 74 (2.14%) gRPC
Miscellaneous
1 252 (7.29%) Cloud Native
2 229 (6.63%) Greenfield Project
3 133 (3.85%) Public Cloud
4 126 (3.65%) User Experience
5 94 (2.72%) Data Centre
6 88 (2.55%) Analytical Skills
7 66 (1.91%) Self-Motivation
8 55 (1.59%) Private Cloud
9 49 (1.42%) Fixed Income
10 47 (1.36%) Enterprise Software
11 46 (1.33%) Derivative
12 44 (1.27%) Hybrid Cloud
13 42 (1.22%) Algorithms
14 40 (1.16%) Management Information System
15 39 (1.13%) Linux Command Line
16 38 (1.10%) iPad
16 38 (1.10%) Mobile App
17 29 (0.84%) Market Risk
18 27 (0.78%) Grid Computing
18 27 (0.78%) PKI
Operating Systems
1 786 (22.74%) Linux
2 216 (6.25%) Windows
3 210 (6.08%) Unix
4 76 (2.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 46 (1.33%) Windows Server
6 33 (0.95%) CentOS
7 19 (0.55%) Mac OS X
7 19 (0.55%) VMS
8 18 (0.52%) Android
8 18 (0.52%) Ubuntu
9 17 (0.49%) Apple iOS
9 17 (0.49%) Windows Server 2016
10 16 (0.46%) Windows Server 2008
11 14 (0.41%) CoreOS
12 12 (0.35%) Solaris
13 10 (0.29%) Debian
14 7 (0.20%) Windows Server 2012
15 6 (0.17%) AIX
15 6 (0.17%) HPUX
15 6 (0.17%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,650 (47.74%) DevOps
2 1,268 (36.69%) Agile Software Development
3 959 (27.75%) Microservices
4 662 (19.16%) Software Engineering
5 446 (12.91%) Infrastructure as Code
6 375 (10.85%) TDD
7 346 (10.01%) Test Automation
8 322 (9.32%) Scrum
9 280 (8.10%) Continuous Integration
10 252 (7.29%) Asset Management
11 244 (7.06%) Investment Management
12 227 (6.57%) Open Source
13 217 (6.28%) BDD
14 196 (5.67%) Migration
15 187 (5.41%) Configuration Management
16 180 (5.21%) Mentoring
17 161 (4.66%) Continuous Delivery
18 157 (4.54%) SDLC
19 144 (4.17%) Problem-Solving
20 139 (4.02%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 1,237 (35.79%) Java
2 1,019 (29.48%) Python
3 697 (20.17%) JavaScript
4 445 (12.88%) SQL
5 348 (10.07%) TypeScript
6 309 (8.94%) C#
7 300 (8.68%) Go
8 273 (7.90%) Bash Shell
9 204 (5.90%) Java 8
10 184 (5.32%) Scala
11 182 (5.27%) PowerShell
12 152 (4.40%) Kotlin
13 134 (3.88%) C++
14 126 (3.65%) Ruby
15 112 (3.24%) Groovy
16 74 (2.14%) Shell Script
17 65 (1.88%) C
18 64 (1.85%) PHP
19 61 (1.77%) Perl
20 60 (1.74%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 450 (13.02%) Security Cleared
2 384 (11.11%) SC Cleared
3 131 (3.79%) Degree
4 41 (1.19%) DV Cleared
5 27 (0.78%) AWS Certification
6 23 (0.67%) BPSS Clearance
7 20 (0.58%) Computer Science Degree
8 11 (0.32%) CISSP
9 9 (0.26%) Cisco Certification
9 9 (0.26%) CISM
10 8 (0.23%) RHCE
11 7 (0.20%) CCNA
12 6 (0.17%) Master's Degree
13 5 (0.14%) CCNP
13 5 (0.14%) DBS Check
13 5 (0.14%) Microsoft Certification
14 4 (0.12%) CCA
14 4 (0.12%) RHCSA
14 4 (0.12%) RHCVA
14 4 (0.12%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 56 (1.62%) QA
2 22 (0.64%) SLA
3 18 (0.52%) OASIS TOSCA
4 12 (0.35%) PCI DSS
5 9 (0.26%) GDPR
5 9 (0.26%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 8 (0.23%) NIST
7 6 (0.17%) Data Quality
8 4 (0.12%) COBIT
8 4 (0.12%) WCAG
9 3 (0.087%) Disclosure Scotland
10 2 (0.058%) HIPAA
10 2 (0.058%) IFRS
10 2 (0.058%) ISO 20022
10 2 (0.058%) RMADS
10 2 (0.058%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 1 (0.029%) Government Security Classifications
11 1 (0.029%) HL7
11 1 (0.029%) IFRS 9
11 1 (0.029%) NCSC
System Software
1 2,283 (66.06%) Docker
2 92 (2.66%) VMware Infrastructure
3 90 (2.60%) Virtual Machines
4 70 (2.03%) Active Directory
5 32 (0.93%) VMware ESXi
6 29 (0.84%) VMware NSX
7 27 (0.78%) KVM
8 25 (0.72%) LXC
9 22 (0.64%) Hyper-V
10 17 (0.49%) HDFS
11 15 (0.43%) NFS
12 13 (0.38%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 11 (0.32%) Time Sharing Option
13 11 (0.32%) vSphere
14 7 (0.20%) Postfix
14 7 (0.20%) qmail
14 7 (0.20%) Xen
15 4 (0.12%) Oracle RAC
15 4 (0.12%) SRDF
15 4 (0.12%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 1,313 (37.99%) Terraform
2 686 (19.85%) Ansible
3 230 (6.66%) Puppet
4 187 (5.41%) Opscode Chef
5 166 (4.80%) Prometheus
6 162 (4.69%) Grafana
7 121 (3.50%) Istio
8 78 (2.26%) Kibana
9 58 (1.68%) Rancher
10 55 (1.59%) Packer
11 43 (1.24%) Docker Swarm
12 42 (1.22%) Argo
13 39 (1.13%) Consul
14 37 (1.07%) logstash
15 27 (0.78%) Fluentd
16 23 (0.67%) Nagios
17 20 (0.58%) Oozie
18 18 (0.52%) Cloudify
18 18 (0.52%) Juju
19 13 (0.38%) vRealize
Vendors
1 349 (10.10%) Google
2 224 (6.48%) Microsoft
3 196 (5.67%) Oracle
4 142 (4.11%) VMware
5 132 (3.82%) Splunk
6 105 (3.04%) Red Hat
7 70 (2.03%) MuleSoft
8 60 (1.74%) SAP
9 53 (1.53%) AppDynamics
10 52 (1.50%) Cisco
11 50 (1.45%) IBM
12 40 (1.16%) Atlassian
13 33 (0.95%) Dynatrace
14 32 (0.93%) Sybase
15 30 (0.87%) Juniper
16 29 (0.84%) New Relic
17 28 (0.81%) F5
18 27 (0.78%) Cloudera
19 24 (0.69%) Confluent
20 23 (0.67%) Bloomberg