Period
to 16 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Kubernetes skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Kubernetes over the 6 months to 16 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Kubernetes (k8s)
UK
6 months to
16 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 26 25 53
Rank change year-on-year -1 +28 +35
Contract jobs citing Kubernetes 5,414 1,894 3,635
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 6.51% 6.13% 4.27%
As % of the Systems Management category 40.69% 38.09% 28.80%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,983 1,413 2,737
10th Percentile £438 £400 £415
25th Percentile £500 £460 £481
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £565 £538 £550
Median % change year-on-year +5.12% -2.27% -
75th Percentile £663 £625 £638
90th Percentile £725 £713 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £525 £505 £513
% change year-on-year +4.06% -1.56% +2.50%
Number of hourly rates quoted 14 13 18
10th Percentile £49.46 " £37.50
25th Percentile £65.63 £31.25 £42.07
Median hourly rate £75.75 £40.00 £48.82
Median % change year-on-year +89.38% -18.06% -21.27%
75th Percentile £81.25 £46.40 £50.19
90th Percentile £89.50 £63.40 £68.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £74.00 £39.00 £41.00
% change year-on-year +89.74% -4.88% -28.70%

Kubernetes is in the Systems Management category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills.

All Systems Management Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for systems management skills 13,307 4,973 12,622
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 16.00% 16.11% 14.82%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,505 3,412 8,674
10th Percentile £356 £313 £275
25th Percentile £450 £402 £394
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £538 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +7.50% - +2.56%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £600
90th Percentile £700 £655 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 173 92 293
10th Percentile £14.25 £12.50 £12.45
25th Percentile £16.00 £14.44 £14.94
Median hourly rate £23.00 £19.75 £20.50
Median % change year-on-year +16.46% -3.66% +17.14%
75th Percentile £50.75 £40.19 £40.00
90th Percentile £64.90 £53.98 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £19.00 £19.38 £19.64
% change year-on-year -1.94% -1.35% +12.23%

Kubernetes
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Kubernetes as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Daily rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 16 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Kubernetes.

Hourly rate trend for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Kubernetes over the 6 months to 16 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Kubernetes in the UK

Kubernetes
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Kubernetes within the UK over the 6 months to 16 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 4,353 £575 +5.99% 1,776
London +5 3,010 £588 +6.82% 1,011
Work from Home +1 1,665 £550 +4.76% 415
UK excluding London +5 1,246 £525 +4.06% 862
North of England -9 330 £525 - 238
South East -3 293 £545 +6.86% 205
Scotland +41 185 £513 +3.80% 65
North West -12 168 £525 - 133
Yorkshire +6 157 £525 - 85
South West +20 152 £500 +23.08% 103
Midlands -4 138 £525 +20.69% 123
East of England -3 104 £575 +18.18% 88
West Midlands -16 84 £525 +20.69% 79
East Midlands -3 50 £523 +8.85% 43
Wales +4 42 £491 -10.68% 27
North East -10 16 £588 +18.09% 20
Northern Ireland +1 10 £475 +18.75% 13

For the 6 months to 16 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Kubernetes also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Kubernetes.

1 3,510 (64.83%) Docker
2 2,834 (52.35%) DevOps
3 2,219 (40.99%) Terraform
4 2,183 (40.32%) AWS
5 2,065 (38.14%) Agile Software Development
6 1,966 (36.31%) Azure
7 1,760 (32.51%) Java
8 1,576 (29.11%) Microservices
9 1,462 (27.00%) Python
10 1,364 (25.19%) Jenkins
11 1,116 (20.61%) Ansible
12 1,113 (20.56%) Finance
13 1,049 (19.38%) Linux
14 978 (18.06%) JavaScript
15 930 (17.18%) GCP
16 886 (16.36%) Software Engineering
17 881 (16.27%) Git (software)
18 864 (15.96%) Infrastructure as Code
19 772 (14.26%) Kafka
20 744 (13.74%) SQL
21 703 (12.98%) Node.js
22 702 (12.97%) Social Skills
23 657 (12.14%) React
24 649 (11.99%) Spring
25 628 (11.60%) TDD
26 612 (11.30%) Serverless
27 589 (10.88%) Full Stack Development
28 561 (10.36%) Security Cleared
29 540 (9.97%) Test Automation
29 540 (9.97%) C#

Kubernetes
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 240 (4.43%) Apache Spark
2 205 (3.79%) Confluence
3 179 (3.31%) Elasticsearch
4 145 (2.68%) Apache
5 103 (1.90%) OpenStack
6 100 (1.85%) nginx
7 99 (1.83%) Tomcat
8 59 (1.09%) Apache Airflow
9 36 (0.66%) BizTalk Server
10 35 (0.65%) Cloud Foundry
11 34 (0.63%) JBoss
12 23 (0.42%) WebSphere
13 22 (0.41%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 22 (0.41%) WebLogic
14 21 (0.39%) Mule
15 20 (0.37%) IIS
16 16 (0.30%) SAS
17 15 (0.28%) SharePoint
18 14 (0.26%) Appian
18 14 (0.26%) CMS
Applications
1 13 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
2 5 (0.092%) Microsoft Excel
3 2 (0.037%) Spreadsheet
4 1 (0.018%) CPLEX
4 1 (0.018%) Figma
4 1 (0.018%) Photoshop
4 1 (0.018%) Sketch
4 1 (0.018%) SPSS
4 1 (0.018%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 8 (0.15%) Sentinel
2 6 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
3 5 (0.092%) assyst
4 4 (0.074%) Cloudability
4 4 (0.074%) SAP Hybris
4 4 (0.074%) SAP S/4HANA
5 3 (0.055%) Magento
5 3 (0.055%) NetSuite
6 2 (0.037%) Dynamics NAV
6 2 (0.037%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.018%) Distributed Ledger
7 1 (0.018%) Dynamics CRM
7 1 (0.018%) JDE OneWorld
7 1 (0.018%) Payment Gateway
7 1 (0.018%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.018%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 2,183 (40.32%) AWS
2 1,966 (36.31%) Azure
3 930 (17.18%) GCP
4 612 (11.30%) Serverless
5 478 (8.83%) GitHub
6 435 (8.03%) PaaS
7 420 (7.76%) AWS Lambda
8 410 (7.57%) OpenShift
9 348 (6.43%) Amazon S3
10 330 (6.10%) IaaS
11 297 (5.49%) AWS CloudFormation
12 296 (5.47%) Amazon EKS
13 273 (5.04%) SaaS
14 253 (4.67%) Amazon SQS
15 210 (3.88%) AWS Step Functions
16 131 (2.42%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 119 (2.20%) Amazon ECS
18 118 (2.18%) Amazon EC2
19 103 (1.90%) Azure Active Directory
20 100 (1.85%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 158 (2.92%) Firewall
2 110 (2.03%) DNS
3 109 (2.01%) HTTP
4 74 (1.37%) SSL
5 73 (1.35%) VPN
6 52 (0.96%) Network Security
7 51 (0.94%) TCP/IP
8 47 (0.87%) Internet
9 31 (0.57%) Kerberos
10 30 (0.55%) WAN
11 24 (0.44%) VSAN
12 22 (0.41%) IPsec
13 21 (0.39%) Software-Defined Networking
14 20 (0.37%) IPv4
14 20 (0.37%) LAN
15 19 (0.35%) HTTPS
16 17 (0.31%) SAN
17 15 (0.28%) VLAN
17 15 (0.28%) Wireless
18 14 (0.26%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 411 (7.59%) PostgreSQL
2 332 (6.13%) MongoDB
3 328 (6.06%) NoSQL
4 289 (5.34%) Amazon RDS
5 272 (5.02%) Big Data
6 258 (4.77%) Amazon DynamoDB
7 234 (4.32%) SQL Server
8 182 (3.36%) Hadoop
9 181 (3.34%) Relational Database
10 165 (3.05%) MySQL
11 117 (2.16%) Apache Cassandra
12 111 (2.05%) Redis
13 110 (2.03%) Azure SQL Database
13 110 (2.03%) BigQuery
14 102 (1.88%) Data Warehouse
15 80 (1.48%) Data Lake
16 74 (1.37%) Apache Hive
17 68 (1.26%) RDBMS
18 60 (1.11%) HBase
19 51 (0.94%) Amazon Redshift
Development Applications
1 1,364 (25.19%) Jenkins
2 881 (16.27%) Git (software)
3 422 (7.79%) JIRA
4 399 (7.37%) GitLab
5 352 (6.50%) Maven
6 242 (4.47%) Gradle
7 188 (3.47%) Bitbucket
8 186 (3.44%) TeamCity
9 153 (2.83%) Artifactory
10 139 (2.57%) SonarQube
10 139 (2.57%) Sonatype Nexus
11 133 (2.46%) Cucumber
12 127 (2.35%) CircleCI
13 123 (2.27%) JUnit
14 105 (1.94%) Mockito
15 92 (1.70%) Selenium
16 89 (1.64%) Cypress.io
17 84 (1.55%) Travis CI
18 68 (1.26%) Gatling
19 67 (1.24%) Subversion
General
1 1,113 (20.56%) Finance
2 702 (12.97%) Social Skills
3 473 (8.74%) Banking
4 299 (5.52%) Front Office
5 290 (5.36%) Public Sector
6 180 (3.32%) Analytical Skills
7 124 (2.29%) Retail
8 105 (1.94%) Telecoms
9 101 (1.87%) Investment Banking
10 83 (1.53%) Presentation Skills
11 74 (1.37%) Financial Institution
12 69 (1.27%) Legal
13 60 (1.11%) Games
14 50 (0.92%) Marketing
15 48 (0.89%) Influencing Skills
16 36 (0.66%) Electronics
17 32 (0.59%) Law
18 26 (0.48%) Manufacturing
19 22 (0.41%) Back Office
19 22 (0.41%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 1,643 (30.35%) Developer
2 1,370 (25.30%) DevOps Engineer
3 585 (10.81%) Java Developer
4 576 (10.64%) Architect
5 417 (7.70%) Azure Engineer
6 375 (6.93%) AWS Engineer
7 318 (5.87%) Software Engineer
8 281 (5.19%) Azure DevOps Engineer
9 264 (4.88%) Cloud Engineer
10 258 (4.77%) Senior Developer
11 238 (4.40%) AWS DevOps
12 233 (4.30%) React Developer
13 230 (4.25%) Kubernetes Engineer
14 209 (3.86%) AWS DevOps Engineer
15 200 (3.69%) Data Engineer
16 199 (3.68%) Full Stack Developer
17 196 (3.62%) Azure DevOps
18 190 (3.51%) Cloud Architect
19 172 (3.18%) .NET Developer
20 165 (3.05%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 772 (14.26%) Kafka
2 703 (12.98%) Node.js
3 657 (12.14%) React
4 649 (11.99%) Spring
5 525 (9.70%) Spring Boot
6 492 (9.09%) .NET
7 471 (8.70%) Web Services
8 434 (8.02%) REST
9 299 (5.52%) RESTful
10 283 (5.23%) .NET Core
11 260 (4.80%) CSS
12 254 (4.69%) HTML
13 253 (4.67%) AngularJS
14 214 (3.95%) GraphQL
15 213 (3.93%) Material-UI
16 181 (3.34%) Elastic Stack
17 146 (2.70%) JSON
18 121 (2.23%) .NET Framework
19 119 (2.20%) YAML
20 108 (1.99%) OAuth
Miscellaneous
1 350 (6.46%) Cloud Native
2 240 (4.43%) Public Cloud
3 213 (3.93%) Greenfield Project
4 144 (2.66%) Data Protection Act
5 129 (2.38%) User Experience
6 127 (2.35%) Data Centre
7 93 (1.72%) Linux Command Line
8 88 (1.63%) Self-Motivation
9 82 (1.51%) Hybrid Cloud
10 80 (1.48%) Enterprise Software
11 79 (1.46%) Legacy Applications
12 77 (1.42%) Algorithms
12 77 (1.42%) Data Structures
13 76 (1.40%) Hedge funds
14 73 (1.35%) Legacy Systems
15 57 (1.05%) iPad
16 56 (1.03%) Management Information System
17 50 (0.92%) Fixed Income
18 45 (0.83%) Mobile App
18 45 (0.83%) PKI
Operating Systems
1 1,049 (19.38%) Linux
2 335 (6.19%) Windows
3 214 (3.95%) Unix
4 134 (2.48%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 72 (1.33%) CentOS
6 70 (1.29%) Windows Server
7 52 (0.96%) VMS
8 51 (0.94%) Ubuntu
9 29 (0.54%) Amazon Linux
10 26 (0.48%) CoreOS
10 26 (0.48%) Debian
11 18 (0.33%) Windows Server 2019
12 15 (0.28%) Windows Server 2016
13 14 (0.26%) Mac OS X
14 13 (0.24%) Android
15 12 (0.22%) Apple iOS
15 12 (0.22%) Solaris
16 10 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
17 6 (0.11%) AIX
18 5 (0.092%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,834 (52.35%) DevOps
2 2,065 (38.14%) Agile Software Development
3 1,576 (29.11%) Microservices
4 886 (16.36%) Software Engineering
5 864 (15.96%) Infrastructure as Code
6 628 (11.60%) TDD
7 589 (10.88%) Full Stack Development
8 540 (9.97%) Test Automation
9 529 (9.77%) Scrum
10 443 (8.18%) Continuous Integration
11 401 (7.41%) BDD
12 341 (6.30%) Migration
13 328 (6.06%) Open Source
14 307 (5.67%) Configuration Management
15 293 (5.41%) Continuous Delivery
16 291 (5.37%) Problem-Solving
17 280 (5.17%) SDLC
18 272 (5.02%) Analytics
18 272 (5.02%) Site Reliability Engineering
19 264 (4.88%) Asset Management
Programming Languages
1 1,760 (32.51%) Java
2 1,462 (27.00%) Python
3 978 (18.06%) JavaScript
4 744 (13.74%) SQL
5 540 (9.97%) C#
6 520 (9.60%) Bash Shell
7 486 (8.98%) TypeScript
8 408 (7.54%) Go
9 356 (6.58%) PowerShell
10 299 (5.52%) Scala
11 212 (3.92%) Java 8
12 201 (3.71%) Groovy
13 149 (2.75%) Ruby
14 138 (2.55%) C++
15 137 (2.53%) Java 11
16 122 (2.25%) Kotlin
17 101 (1.87%) PL/SQL
18 91 (1.68%) PHP
19 83 (1.53%) Shell Script
20 82 (1.51%) Perl
Qualifications
1 561 (10.36%) Security Cleared
2 452 (8.35%) SC Cleared
3 212 (3.92%) Degree
4 69 (1.27%) DV Cleared
5 63 (1.16%) BPSS Clearance
6 59 (1.09%) Computer Science Degree
7 47 (0.87%) CISSP
8 46 (0.85%) AWS Certification
9 24 (0.44%) SANS
10 17 (0.31%) CREST Certified
11 13 (0.24%) Master's Degree
12 12 (0.22%) Cisco Certification
13 10 (0.18%) (ISC)2 CCSP
14 8 (0.15%) CCSP
14 8 (0.15%) DBS Check
14 8 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
15 7 (0.13%) CISM
15 7 (0.13%) GIAC
15 7 (0.13%) OCP
15 7 (0.13%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 140 (2.59%) QA
2 87 (1.61%) GDPR
3 37 (0.68%) Accessibility
4 34 (0.63%) PCI DSS
5 31 (0.57%) NCSC
6 29 (0.54%) Data Quality
7 24 (0.44%) SLA
8 13 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 10 (0.18%) NIST
10 8 (0.15%) OASIS TOSCA
11 7 (0.13%) COBIT
11 7 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
11 7 (0.13%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 4 (0.074%) IFRS
13 3 (0.055%) FedRAMP
13 3 (0.055%) PMO
13 3 (0.055%) PSD2
14 2 (0.037%) Basel II
15 1 (0.018%) DICOM
15 1 (0.018%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 3,510 (64.83%) Docker
2 169 (3.12%) Active Directory
3 80 (1.48%) VMware Infrastructure
4 50 (0.92%) Virtual Machines
5 39 (0.72%) vSphere
6 36 (0.66%) HDFS
7 31 (0.57%) VMware ESXi
8 30 (0.55%) VMware NSX
9 28 (0.52%) vCloud
10 26 (0.48%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 19 (0.35%) LXC
12 18 (0.33%) KVM
13 14 (0.26%) NFS
13 14 (0.26%) OpenAM
14 11 (0.20%) Ceph
15 10 (0.18%) Squid
15 10 (0.18%) VMware Workstation
16 9 (0.17%) Hyper-V
17 7 (0.13%) OpenIDM
18 5 (0.092%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 2,219 (40.99%) Terraform
2 1,116 (20.61%) Ansible
3 375 (6.93%) Puppet
4 334 (6.17%) Prometheus
5 318 (5.87%) Grafana
6 240 (4.43%) Opscode Chef
7 182 (3.36%) Istio
8 124 (2.29%) Kibana
9 122 (2.25%) Rancher
10 104 (1.92%) Packer
11 96 (1.77%) Docker Swarm
12 70 (1.29%) Consul
13 45 (0.83%) logstash
14 32 (0.59%) ZABBIX
15 29 (0.54%) Oozie
16 28 (0.52%) Nagios
17 27 (0.50%) Argo
18 25 (0.46%) MIIS
19 24 (0.44%) Fluentd
20 22 (0.41%) Mesos
Vendors
1 464 (8.57%) Google
2 427 (7.89%) Microsoft
3 331 (6.11%) Oracle
4 206 (3.80%) Red Hat
5 202 (3.73%) Splunk
6 135 (2.49%) VMware
7 120 (2.22%) MuleSoft
8 97 (1.79%) Databricks
9 83 (1.53%) IBM
10 80 (1.48%) Atlassian
11 73 (1.35%) Dynatrace
12 68 (1.26%) AppDynamics
13 62 (1.15%) Cisco
14 60 (1.11%) Cloudera
15 58 (1.07%) SAP
16 56 (1.03%) New Relic
17 46 (0.85%) Hortonworks
18 35 (0.65%) Sybase
19 31 (0.57%) F5
20 29 (0.54%) Salesforce.com