Period
to 12 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Artificial Intelligence skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Artificial Intelligence over the 6 months to 12 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
UK
6 months to
12 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 223 215 294
Rank change year-on-year -8 +79 +220
Contract jobs citing Artificial Intelligence 564 707 864
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.08% 1.19% 0.90%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 1.24% 1.39% 1.02%
Number of daily rates quoted 410 487 571
10th Percentile £350 £381 £363
25th Percentile £425 £463 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £538 £525
Median % change year-on-year -6.98% +2.38% -
75th Percentile £638 £638 £625
90th Percentile £700 £713 £688
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £475 £500
% change year-on-year -5.26% -5.00% +4.17%
Number of hourly rates quoted 15 7 19
10th Percentile " £13.05 £13.05
25th Percentile £25.50 £14.78 £13.20
Median hourly rate £31.00 £17.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year +82.35% -66.00% +11.11%
75th Percentile £44.13 £37.25 £52.50
90th Percentile £53.33 £66.50 £52.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £25.50 £17.00 £50.00
% change year-on-year +50.00% -66.00% +42.86%

Artificial Intelligence is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 45,350 50,829 84,409
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.76% 85.23% 87.53%
Number of daily rates quoted 31,056 33,828 56,991
10th Percentile £305 £281 £300
25th Percentile £400 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £480 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +1.05% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £575 £575 £575
90th Percentile £669 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £433 £445 £430
% change year-on-year -2.81% +3.49% +3.49%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,431 1,617 1,986
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.30 £11.62
25th Percentile £15.77 £15.75 £14.50
Median hourly rate £26.00 £21.50 £22.70
Median % change year-on-year +20.93% -5.29% +6.45%
75th Percentile £47.17 £45.75 £43.75
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.00 £20.03 £22.40
% change year-on-year +14.86% -10.60% +12.00%

Artificial Intelligence
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Artificial Intelligence as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Artificial Intelligence.

Daily rate trend for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Artificial Intelligence over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Artificial Intelligence.

Hourly rate trend for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Artificial Intelligence over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Top 15 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Artificial Intelligence within the UK over the 6 months to 12 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -22 440 £513 -4.65% 510
London -66 270 £536 -2.50% 240
Work from Home -102 190 £525 - 148
UK excluding London +73 155 £450 -5.26% 299
South East +72 74 £438 -10.26% 54
North of England +49 20 £425 -5.56% 81
Midlands +40 17 £388 - 30
Scotland +16 17 £450 - 19
West Midlands +26 16 £388 - 24
North West +28 15 £400 -11.11% 41
South West +62 14 £444 -6.58% 44
East of England +11 10 £600 +20.00% 58
Yorkshire +34 5 £500 +25.00% 26
Northern Ireland - 3 £500 - 6
East Midlands - 1 - - 6

For the 6 months to 12 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Artificial Intelligence also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Artificial Intelligence.

1 259 (45.92%) Machine Learning
2 243 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
3 235 (41.67%) Python
4 173 (30.67%) AWS
5 166 (29.43%) Azure
6 164 (29.08%) Analytics
7 137 (24.29%) Data Science
8 134 (23.76%) DevOps
9 119 (21.10%) SQL
10 97 (17.20%) Finance
11 76 (13.48%) Big Data
12 75 (13.30%) GCP
13 74 (13.12%) Kubernetes
14 71 (12.59%) Git (software)
15 69 (12.23%) Software Engineering
15 69 (12.23%) Analytical Skills
16 66 (11.70%) Algorithms
17 60 (10.64%) Java
18 59 (10.46%) Degree
19 58 (10.28%) Apache Spark
19 58 (10.28%) Terraform
20 57 (10.11%) JavaScript
21 55 (9.75%) Business Intelligence
22 53 (9.40%) Docker
23 52 (9.22%) Microsoft
24 51 (9.04%) Natural Language Processing
25 50 (8.87%) Visualisation
26 49 (8.69%) Jenkins
27 48 (8.51%) Data Lake
27 48 (8.51%) Problem-Solving

Artificial Intelligence
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 58 (10.28%) Apache Spark
2 29 (5.14%) Apache Airflow
3 27 (4.79%) Elasticsearch
4 24 (4.26%) Apache
5 11 (1.95%) Jadu
6 10 (1.77%) JBoss
7 9 (1.60%) Jupyter
8 7 (1.24%) Apache Synapse
9 5 (0.89%) CMS
9 5 (0.89%) Confluence
9 5 (0.89%) OpenStack
10 4 (0.71%) Camunda
11 3 (0.53%) Mule
11 3 (0.53%) SAS
11 3 (0.53%) SharePoint
12 2 (0.35%) EPiServer
12 2 (0.35%) IBM Domino
12 2 (0.35%) nginx
12 2 (0.35%) Sitecore CMS
12 2 (0.35%) Umbraco
Applications
1 42 (7.45%) Chatbot
2 7 (1.24%) Figma
3 5 (0.89%) Microsoft Excel
3 5 (0.89%) Sketch
4 4 (0.71%) InVision
5 3 (0.53%) UserZoom
6 2 (0.35%) Adobe After Effects
6 2 (0.35%) Adobe Illustrator
6 2 (0.35%) Adobe Premiere
6 2 (0.35%) Photoshop
7 1 (0.18%) Adobe Captivate
7 1 (0.18%) CINEMA 4D
7 1 (0.18%) Final Cut Pro
7 1 (0.18%) Maya
7 1 (0.18%) Microsoft Office
7 1 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 1 (0.18%) SPSS
7 1 (0.18%) Stata
Business Applications
1 1 (0.18%) Primavera
1 1 (0.18%) Remedy ITSM
1 1 (0.18%) SAP Oil and Gas
1 1 (0.18%) SAP PM
1 1 (0.18%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 173 (30.67%) AWS
2 166 (29.43%) Azure
3 75 (13.30%) GCP
4 48 (8.51%) Power Platform
5 42 (7.45%) Serverless
6 30 (5.32%) Azure Data Factory
7 29 (5.14%) GitHub
8 28 (4.96%) AWS Lambda
9 19 (3.37%) PaaS
10 16 (2.84%) Azure Machine Learning
10 16 (2.84%) OpenShift
10 16 (2.84%) SaaS
11 15 (2.66%) Amazon EKS
11 15 (2.66%) Amazon S3
12 11 (1.95%) IaaS
13 10 (1.77%) Amazon Kinesis
13 10 (1.77%) Amazon SageMaker
13 10 (1.77%) AWS CloudFormation
13 10 (1.77%) Cloud Computing
13 10 (1.77%) Microsoft 365
Communications & Networking
1 6 (1.06%) Firewall
1 6 (1.06%) HTTP
1 6 (1.06%) Reverse Proxy
1 6 (1.06%) RTMP
1 6 (1.06%) WAN
2 4 (0.71%) Internet
2 4 (0.71%) Network Security
2 4 (0.71%) SD-WAN
3 3 (0.53%) Intranet
4 2 (0.35%) DNS
4 2 (0.35%) LAN
5 1 (0.18%) Broadband
5 1 (0.18%) FTP
5 1 (0.18%) IP Telephony
5 1 (0.18%) PSTN
5 1 (0.18%) SAN
5 1 (0.18%) TCP/IP
5 1 (0.18%) VPN
5 1 (0.18%) Wi-Fi
5 1 (0.18%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 76 (13.48%) Big Data
2 48 (8.51%) Data Lake
3 47 (8.33%) Power BI
4 35 (6.21%) SQL Server
5 29 (5.14%) Data Warehouse
6 26 (4.61%) Hadoop
7 23 (4.08%) Tableau
8 18 (3.19%) PostgreSQL
9 17 (3.01%) MongoDB
10 16 (2.84%) Blockchain
10 16 (2.84%) Data Mining
11 15 (2.66%) NoSQL
12 14 (2.48%) Relational Database
13 13 (2.30%) Azure SQL Database
13 13 (2.30%) Cosmos DB
14 11 (1.95%) MySQL
15 10 (1.77%) Amazon Athena
15 10 (1.77%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 10 (1.77%) Apache Hive
15 10 (1.77%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 71 (12.59%) Git (software)
2 49 (8.69%) Jenkins
3 29 (5.14%) JIRA
4 16 (2.84%) MLflow
4 16 (2.84%) Visual Studio
5 12 (2.13%) Visual Studio Team System
6 9 (1.60%) GitLab
7 7 (1.24%) Artifactory
8 4 (0.71%) Cucumber
9 3 (0.53%) Atlassian Bamboo
9 3 (0.53%) CircleCI
9 3 (0.53%) Cypress.io
9 3 (0.53%) JMeter
9 3 (0.53%) JUnit
9 3 (0.53%) Maven
9 3 (0.53%) Postman
9 3 (0.53%) ProC
9 3 (0.53%) Selenium
9 3 (0.53%) Team Foundation Server
10 2 (0.35%) Sourcetree
General
1 97 (17.20%) Finance
2 32 (5.67%) Banking
3 22 (3.90%) Front Office
4 20 (3.55%) Marketing
5 17 (3.01%) Public Sector
6 16 (2.84%) Law
7 15 (2.66%) Local Government
7 15 (2.66%) Retail
8 14 (2.48%) Telecoms
9 13 (2.30%) Games
10 12 (2.13%) Investment Banking
11 9 (1.60%) Legal
12 8 (1.42%) Manufacturing
13 6 (1.06%) Pharmaceutical
14 5 (0.89%) Electronics
15 4 (0.71%) French Language
16 3 (0.53%) Back Office
16 3 (0.53%) Publishing
16 3 (0.53%) Retail Banking
17 2 (0.35%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 89 (15.78%) Developer
2 84 (14.89%) Architect
3 63 (11.17%) Data Scientist
4 40 (7.09%) Analyst
5 38 (6.74%) Data Engineer
6 37 (6.56%) Consultant
7 36 (6.38%) DevOps Engineer
8 34 (6.03%) Software Engineer
9 28 (4.96%) Senior Data Scientist
10 25 (4.43%) Data Architect
11 24 (4.26%) AWS Engineer
12 22 (3.90%) Python Developer
12 22 (3.90%) Solutions Architect
13 21 (3.72%) Technical Architect
14 17 (3.01%) Business Analyst
14 17 (3.01%) Cloud Engineer
14 17 (3.01%) Security Engineer
15 16 (2.84%) Full Stack Developer
15 16 (2.84%) Senior Consultant
16 15 (2.66%) Azure Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 51 (9.04%) Natural Language Processing
2 38 (6.74%) HTML
3 37 (6.56%) Kafka
4 35 (6.21%) TensorFlow
4 35 (6.21%) Web Services
5 31 (5.50%) PyTorch
6 30 (5.32%) .NET
7 29 (5.14%) CSS
8 27 (4.79%) JSON
8 27 (4.79%) RESTful
9 26 (4.61%) NumPy
10 25 (4.43%) scikit-learn
11 23 (4.08%) Pandas
12 22 (3.90%) HTML5
13 21 (3.72%) React
14 20 (3.55%) ADO
14 20 (3.55%) Node.js
15 18 (3.19%) CSS3
16 15 (2.66%) Keras
17 14 (2.48%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 69 (12.23%) Analytical Skills
2 66 (11.70%) Algorithms
3 36 (6.38%) Cloud Native
4 31 (5.50%) User Experience
5 21 (3.72%) Robotics
6 20 (3.55%) Data Structures
7 18 (3.19%) Social Media
8 12 (2.13%) Fixed Income
9 11 (1.95%) Hybrid Cloud
9 11 (1.95%) Self-Motivation
10 10 (1.77%) Greenfield Project
11 9 (1.60%) Industry 4.0
11 9 (1.60%) NHS
12 7 (1.24%) Equities
12 7 (1.24%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 7 (1.24%) Management Information System
12 7 (1.24%) Public Cloud
13 6 (1.06%) Client/Server
14 5 (0.89%) CUDA
14 5 (0.89%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 30 (5.32%) Linux
2 11 (1.95%) Windows
3 9 (1.60%) Android
4 8 (1.42%) Apple iOS
4 8 (1.42%) Unix
5 2 (0.35%) Embedded Linux
5 2 (0.35%) Ubuntu
6 1 (0.18%) Windows 10
6 1 (0.18%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 259 (45.92%) Machine Learning
2 243 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
3 164 (29.08%) Analytics
4 137 (24.29%) Data Science
5 134 (23.76%) DevOps
6 69 (12.23%) Software Engineering
7 55 (9.75%) Business Intelligence
8 50 (8.87%) Visualisation
9 48 (8.51%) Problem-Solving
10 47 (8.33%) Conversational UI
11 46 (8.16%) Mathematics
12 43 (7.62%) Computer Science
12 43 (7.62%) Infrastructure as Code
12 43 (7.62%) Microservices
13 41 (7.27%) Data Modelling
14 39 (6.91%) Data Engineering
15 37 (6.56%) Data Analytics
16 36 (6.38%) Scrum
16 36 (6.38%) Stakeholder Management
17 33 (5.85%) Information Security
Programming Languages
1 235 (41.67%) Python
2 119 (21.10%) SQL
3 60 (10.64%) Java
4 57 (10.11%) JavaScript
5 33 (5.85%) C#
6 27 (4.79%) R
7 24 (4.26%) Bash Shell
8 23 (4.08%) PowerShell
9 22 (3.90%) PHP
10 21 (3.72%) Scala
11 20 (3.55%) Go
12 19 (3.37%) TypeScript
13 18 (3.19%) C
13 18 (3.19%) C++
14 12 (2.13%) Shell Script
15 5 (0.89%) Perl
15 5 (0.89%) PL/SQL
16 2 (0.35%) Haskell
16 2 (0.35%) Objective-C
16 2 (0.35%) VBA
Qualifications
1 59 (10.46%) Degree
2 30 (5.32%) Security Cleared
3 22 (3.90%) PhD
4 21 (3.72%) SC Cleared
5 11 (1.95%) Computer Science Degree
6 8 (1.42%) CISSP
7 7 (1.24%) CISM
8 6 (1.06%) DV Cleared
8 6 (1.06%) Master's Degree
9 5 (0.89%) Microsoft Certification
9 5 (0.89%) Numerate Degree
10 4 (0.71%) AWS Certification
11 3 (0.53%) CESG Certified Professional
11 3 (0.53%) Postgraduate
12 2 (0.35%) PMI Certification
12 2 (0.35%) PMP
13 1 (0.18%) ISEB
13 1 (0.18%) ISTQB
13 1 (0.18%) MCSE
13 1 (0.18%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 32 (5.67%) Data Quality
2 26 (4.61%) QA
3 24 (4.26%) GDPR
4 5 (0.89%) MiFID
5 4 (0.71%) PCI DSS
6 3 (0.53%) Actionable Recommendations
6 3 (0.53%) EMIR
6 3 (0.53%) HMG Security Policy Framework
6 3 (0.53%) NCSC
7 2 (0.35%) Dodd-Frank
7 2 (0.35%) PMO
8 1 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.18%) HL7
8 1 (0.18%) ISO 9000
System Software
1 53 (9.40%) Docker
2 5 (0.89%) VMware Infrastructure
3 4 (0.71%) Virtual Machines
4 3 (0.53%) Active Directory
5 2 (0.35%) HDFS
6 1 (0.18%) Apache Flume
6 1 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 1 (0.18%) etcd
6 1 (0.18%) Hyper-V
6 1 (0.18%) Varnish
6 1 (0.18%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 74 (13.12%) Kubernetes
2 58 (10.28%) Terraform
3 26 (4.61%) Ansible
4 8 (1.42%) HP SIM
4 8 (1.42%) Icinga
4 8 (1.42%) Nagios
4 8 (1.42%) Opsview
5 6 (1.06%) Grafana
5 6 (1.06%) Kubeflow
5 6 (1.06%) Prometheus
6 4 (0.71%) Kibana
6 4 (0.71%) Single Sign-On
7 2 (0.35%) Microsoft Intune
7 2 (0.35%) Opscode Chef
7 2 (0.35%) Puppet
7 2 (0.35%) Rancher
8 1 (0.18%) AssetCenter
8 1 (0.18%) Consul
8 1 (0.18%) Istio
8 1 (0.18%) Netcool
Vendors
1 52 (9.22%) Microsoft
2 38 (6.74%) Databricks
3 31 (5.50%) Oracle
4 23 (4.08%) Google
5 11 (1.95%) SAP
6 10 (1.77%) Dynatrace
7 9 (1.60%) AppDynamics
7 9 (1.60%) HP
8 7 (1.24%) IBM
8 7 (1.24%) Sage
8 7 (1.24%) VMware
9 6 (1.06%) ServiceNow
10 4 (0.71%) Alibaba
10 4 (0.71%) Cisco
10 4 (0.71%) Rackspace
11 3 (0.53%) ION Trading
11 3 (0.53%) JD Edwards
11 3 (0.53%) MuleSoft
11 3 (0.53%) Qualtrics
12 2 (0.35%) Blue Prism