Period
to 29 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Test Automation skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Test Automation over the 6 months to 29 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Automated Testing
UK
6 months to
29 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 40 32 36
Rank change year-on-year -8 +4 -2
Contract jobs citing Test Automation 3,806 2,121 5,204
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.30% 5.77% 5.68%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.98% 6.67% 6.48%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,644 1,459 3,488
10th Percentile £350 £325 £325
25th Percentile £406 £405 £395
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £495 £498 £475
Median % change year-on-year -0.62% +4.86% +5.56%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £550
90th Percentile £675 £650 £619
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -2.78% +2.86% +9.38%
Number of hourly rates quoted 51 18 35
10th Percentile £25.50 £27.24 £20.75
25th Percentile £36.25 £31.50 £31.38
Median hourly rate £45.50 £42.50 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year +7.06% - +3.66%
75th Percentile £53.13 £50.00 £45.88
90th Percentile £63.00 £59.13 £47.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.25 £42.50 £43.00
% change year-on-year +6.47% -1.16% +7.50%

Test Automation is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 63,664 31,822 80,337
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 88.71% 86.62% 87.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 43,840 21,247 53,690
10th Percentile £313 £300 £300
25th Percentile £406 £400 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £600 £580 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,701 914 2,186
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.38 £11.49
25th Percentile £14.60 £16.15 £14.50
Median hourly rate £23.45 £24.50 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -4.29% +8.89% +12.50%
75th Percentile £47.25 £46.02 £45.00
90th Percentile £60.87 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.80 £21.57 £22.93
% change year-on-year -3.57% -5.93% +20.68%

Test Automation
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Test Automation as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Daily rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Hourly rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 29 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Test Automation within the UK over the 6 months to 29 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -11 2,907 £500 - 1,250
London -10 1,595 £540 +2.86% 447
UK excluding London -1 1,401 £438 -2.78% 894
Work from Home 0 1,154 £500 +5.26% 247
South East +3 335 £451 +0.11% 221
North of England -9 301 £450 - 239
Scotland +3 261 £425 -5.56% 65
South West +13 218 £450 -10.00% 111
Midlands -21 149 £400 -5.04% 129
North West -9 143 £425 -5.56% 131
Yorkshire -9 125 £475 +11.76% 84
West Midlands -14 113 £405 -10.00% 80
East of England -3 93 £378 -16.00% 91
Wales +13 37 £381 -19.74% 23
North East -6 32 £419 -11.61% 24
East Midlands -28 30 £393 +24.60% 48
Northern Ireland -12 6 £425 +9.68% 15
Isle of Man - 2 £463 -

For the 6 months to 29 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Test Automation also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Test Automation.

1 2,034 (53.44%) Agile Software Development
2 1,254 (32.95%) Java
3 1,141 (29.98%) DevOps
4 899 (23.62%) Python
5 895 (23.52%) Azure
6 843 (22.15%) JavaScript
7 804 (21.12%) TDD
8 802 (21.07%) Social Skills
9 800 (21.02%) SQL
10 769 (20.20%) Jenkins
11 723 (19.00%) Git (software)
12 720 (18.92%) Selenium
12 720 (18.92%) Finance
13 699 (18.37%) Continuous Integration
14 678 (17.81%) Scrum
15 673 (17.68%) AWS
16 647 (17.00%) JIRA
17 620 (16.29%) QA
18 592 (15.55%) BDD
19 583 (15.32%) Microservices
20 567 (14.90%) C#
21 539 (14.16%) Software Engineering
22 506 (13.29%) Cucumber
23 490 (12.87%) Docker
24 487 (12.80%) Software Testing
25 470 (12.35%) Linux
26 465 (12.22%) React
27 445 (11.69%) REST
28 420 (11.04%) .NET
29 415 (10.90%) Kubernetes

Test Automation
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 295 (7.75%) Confluence
2 86 (2.26%) Apache
3 77 (2.02%) Apache Spark
4 73 (1.92%) Elasticsearch
5 49 (1.29%) CMS
6 41 (1.08%) SharePoint
7 35 (0.92%) WebSphere
8 33 (0.87%) Tomcat
9 27 (0.71%) WebLogic
10 24 (0.63%) IIS
11 22 (0.58%) Apache Airflow
11 22 (0.58%) Mule
12 18 (0.47%) SAS
13 14 (0.37%) Cloud Foundry
13 14 (0.37%) Oracle Coherence
13 14 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 13 (0.34%) Drupal
14 13 (0.34%) IBM Domino
14 13 (0.34%) nginx
15 12 (0.32%) OpenStack
Applications
1 38 (1.00%) Microsoft Excel
2 19 (0.50%) Microsoft Office
3 11 (0.29%) Chatbot
4 10 (0.26%) MS Visio
5 6 (0.16%) Figma
5 6 (0.16%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 4 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
7 3 (0.079%) Photoshop
8 2 (0.053%) GIMP
8 2 (0.053%) Mingle
9 1 (0.026%) Adobe XD
9 1 (0.026%) InVision
9 1 (0.026%) Simulink
9 1 (0.026%) Sketch
9 1 (0.026%) Spreadsheet
9 1 (0.026%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 33 (0.87%) SunGard Martini
2 19 (0.50%) Dynamics CRM
2 19 (0.50%) Magento
3 14 (0.37%) SAP S/4HANA
4 13 (0.34%) SAP HCM
5 9 (0.24%) Oracle EBS
5 9 (0.24%) SAP FI-CA
5 9 (0.24%) SAP PSCD
6 5 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 4 (0.11%) ION MarketView
8 3 (0.079%) Dynamics AX
8 3 (0.079%) Oracle BRM
8 3 (0.079%) Remedy ITSM
8 3 (0.079%) Summit
9 2 (0.053%) Infor M3
9 2 (0.053%) Sage CRM
9 2 (0.053%) SAP APO
9 2 (0.053%) SAP CAR
10 1 (0.026%) Oracle Payables
10 1 (0.026%) Oracle Receivables
Cloud Services
1 895 (23.52%) Azure
2 673 (17.68%) AWS
3 306 (8.04%) GitHub
4 260 (6.83%) Serverless
5 188 (4.94%) GCP
6 160 (4.20%) AWS Lambda
7 125 (3.28%) SaaS
8 107 (2.81%) PaaS
9 88 (2.31%) Amazon S3
10 85 (2.23%) OpenShift
11 77 (2.02%) IaaS
12 75 (1.97%) Power Platform
13 66 (1.73%) AWS CloudFormation
14 53 (1.39%) BrowserStack
15 52 (1.37%) Azure Functions
16 40 (1.05%) Azure Data Factory
17 39 (1.02%) Dynamics 365
18 34 (0.89%) Amazon SQS
19 33 (0.87%) Amazon EC2
20 31 (0.81%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 119 (3.13%) HTTP
2 45 (1.18%) TCP/IP
3 39 (1.02%) Wi-Fi
4 37 (0.97%) Internet
5 33 (0.87%) Firewall
6 31 (0.81%) DNS
7 29 (0.76%) Wireless
8 25 (0.66%) Bluetooth
9 22 (0.58%) SSL
10 19 (0.50%) Kerberos
11 17 (0.45%) DHCP
11 17 (0.45%) IPv6
12 14 (0.37%) ATM
13 13 (0.34%) IPv4
13 13 (0.34%) VPN
13 13 (0.34%) Wireshark
14 11 (0.29%) 802.11
14 11 (0.29%) WAN
15 10 (0.26%) LAN
16 9 (0.24%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 257 (6.75%) SQL Server
2 194 (5.10%) NoSQL
3 193 (5.07%) Relational Database
4 150 (3.94%) PostgreSQL
5 148 (3.89%) MongoDB
6 110 (2.89%) Oracle Database
7 101 (2.65%) MySQL
8 95 (2.50%) Data Warehouse
9 93 (2.44%) Big Data
10 65 (1.71%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 58 (1.52%) Power BI
12 54 (1.42%) Hadoop
13 51 (1.34%) Data Lake
13 51 (1.34%) DB2
14 48 (1.26%) Apache Cassandra
15 45 (1.18%) Azure SQL Database
16 43 (1.13%) Oracle Database 12c
17 37 (0.97%) RDBMS
17 37 (0.97%) Tableau
18 32 (0.84%) Amazon Aurora
Development Applications
1 769 (20.20%) Jenkins
2 723 (19.00%) Git (software)
3 720 (18.92%) Selenium
4 647 (17.00%) JIRA
5 506 (13.29%) Cucumber
6 215 (5.65%) Postman
7 204 (5.36%) Maven
8 197 (5.18%) GitLab
9 187 (4.91%) JMeter
10 172 (4.52%) JUnit
11 169 (4.44%) Cypress.io
12 164 (4.31%) SpecFlow
13 135 (3.55%) TeamCity
14 134 (3.52%) Bitbucket
15 130 (3.42%) WebDriver
16 116 (3.05%) Subversion
17 114 (3.00%) SoapUI
18 98 (2.57%) REST Assured
18 98 (2.57%) Visual Studio
19 96 (2.52%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 802 (21.07%) Social Skills
2 720 (18.92%) Finance
3 357 (9.38%) Banking
4 278 (7.30%) Public Sector
5 254 (6.67%) Analytical Skills
6 112 (2.94%) Telecoms
7 93 (2.44%) Front Office
8 89 (2.34%) Investment Banking
9 86 (2.26%) Marketing
10 79 (2.08%) Retail
11 73 (1.92%) Presentation Skills
12 57 (1.50%) Influencing Skills
13 56 (1.47%) Manufacturing
14 53 (1.39%) Documentation Skills
15 43 (1.13%) Games
16 42 (1.10%) Electronics
17 40 (1.05%) Back Office
18 35 (0.92%) Retail Banking
19 26 (0.68%) Legal
20 22 (0.58%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 1,334 (35.05%) Developer
2 471 (12.38%) Tester
3 362 (9.51%) Test Engineer
4 299 (7.86%) Automation Tester
5 287 (7.54%) Analyst
6 283 (7.44%) Java Developer
7 227 (5.96%) DevOps Engineer
8 225 (5.91%) Senior Developer
9 213 (5.60%) Test Analyst
10 200 (5.25%) Test Automation Engineer
11 153 (4.02%) Software Engineer
12 137 (3.60%) Full Stack Developer
13 130 (3.42%) Architect
14 119 (3.13%) Python Developer
15 111 (2.92%) Test Leader
16 105 (2.76%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
17 102 (2.68%) .NET Developer
18 100 (2.63%) Software Developer
19 96 (2.52%) QA Engineer
20 90 (2.36%) Test Manager
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 465 (12.22%) React
2 445 (11.69%) REST
3 420 (11.04%) .NET
4 393 (10.33%) Node.js
5 361 (9.49%) Spring
6 354 (9.30%) HTML
7 327 (8.59%) CSS
8 316 (8.30%) RESTful
9 288 (7.57%) AngularJS
10 270 (7.09%) Web Services
11 236 (6.20%) Spring Boot
12 215 (5.65%) Kafka
13 210 (5.52%) JSON
14 194 (5.10%) XML
15 171 (4.49%) Gherkin
16 159 (4.18%) HTML5
17 146 (3.84%) Redux
18 126 (3.31%) GraphQL
19 121 (3.18%) .NET Framework
19 121 (3.18%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 208 (5.47%) User Experience
2 170 (4.47%) Mobile App
3 132 (3.47%) Self-Motivation
4 102 (2.68%) Cloud Native
5 99 (2.60%) Algorithms
6 90 (2.36%) Greenfield Project
7 81 (2.13%) Fixed Income
8 75 (1.97%) Legacy Systems
9 67 (1.76%) Data Structures
10 58 (1.52%) Virtual Team
11 51 (1.34%) Data Protection Act
12 46 (1.21%) Enterprise Software
12 46 (1.21%) Management Information System
13 43 (1.13%) Public Cloud
14 37 (0.97%) Linux Command Line
15 35 (0.92%) Derivative
16 33 (0.87%) Client/Server
17 31 (0.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 24 (0.63%) Equities
19 23 (0.60%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 470 (12.35%) Linux
2 261 (6.86%) Windows
3 213 (5.60%) Unix
4 136 (3.57%) Android
5 106 (2.79%) Apple iOS
6 36 (0.95%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 34 (0.89%) Windows Server
8 33 (0.87%) Mac OS X
9 15 (0.39%) CentOS
10 14 (0.37%) Ubuntu
11 10 (0.26%) OpenWrt
12 9 (0.24%) Windows 10
13 7 (0.18%) Alpine Linux
13 7 (0.18%) VMS
14 5 (0.13%) Embedded Linux
15 4 (0.11%) Android TV
15 4 (0.11%) Mac OS
15 4 (0.11%) zOS
16 2 (0.053%) Solaris
16 2 (0.053%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,034 (53.44%) Agile Software Development
2 1,141 (29.98%) DevOps
3 804 (21.12%) TDD
4 699 (18.37%) Continuous Integration
5 678 (17.81%) Scrum
6 592 (15.55%) BDD
7 583 (15.32%) Microservices
8 539 (14.16%) Software Engineering
9 487 (12.80%) Software Testing
10 406 (10.67%) Problem-Solving
11 307 (8.07%) SDLC
12 290 (7.62%) Full Stack Development
13 288 (7.57%) Unit Testing
14 287 (7.54%) Test Scripting
15 284 (7.46%) Test Strategy
16 274 (7.20%) Continuous Delivery
17 248 (6.52%) Mentoring
18 244 (6.41%) User Stories
19 243 (6.38%) Performance Testing
20 241 (6.33%) Regression Testing
Programming Languages
1 1,254 (32.95%) Java
2 899 (23.62%) Python
3 843 (22.15%) JavaScript
4 800 (21.02%) SQL
5 567 (14.90%) C#
6 259 (6.81%) TypeScript
7 177 (4.65%) PowerShell
8 168 (4.41%) Scala
9 160 (4.20%) C++
10 159 (4.18%) Bash Shell
11 133 (3.49%) Java 8
12 129 (3.39%) Ruby
13 126 (3.31%) Shell Script
14 104 (2.73%) Kotlin
15 93 (2.44%) C
16 78 (2.05%) ES6
17 76 (2.00%) PL/SQL
18 68 (1.79%) Go
19 63 (1.66%) Groovy
20 56 (1.47%) PHP
Qualifications
1 349 (9.17%) Security Cleared
2 246 (6.46%) SC Cleared
3 197 (5.18%) Degree
4 172 (4.52%) ISTQB
5 89 (2.34%) ISEB
6 83 (2.18%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 68 (1.79%) DV Cleared
8 49 (1.29%) BPSS Clearance
8 49 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
9 21 (0.55%) Numerate Degree
10 20 (0.53%) Master's Degree
11 15 (0.39%) PhD
12 10 (0.26%) AWS Certification
13 8 (0.21%) CREST Certified
13 8 (0.21%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 8 (0.21%) SANS
14 7 (0.18%) CISSP
14 7 (0.18%) Microsoft Certification
15 6 (0.16%) Cisco Certification
16 5 (0.13%) CCNA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 620 (16.29%) QA
2 204 (5.36%) Accessibility
3 22 (0.58%) WCAG
4 18 (0.47%) GRC
5 16 (0.42%) Data Quality
5 16 (0.42%) GDPR
6 14 (0.37%) NIST
7 11 (0.29%) Disclosure Scotland
7 11 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 9 (0.24%) PCI DSS
9 8 (0.21%) SLA
10 7 (0.18%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 6 (0.16%) ISO 20022
12 5 (0.13%) JTAG
12 5 (0.13%) SEPA
13 4 (0.11%) HL7
13 4 (0.11%) ISO 9000
14 3 (0.079%) MiFID
14 3 (0.079%) SOC 2
14 3 (0.079%) TARGET2
System Software
1 490 (12.87%) Docker
2 74 (1.94%) Active Directory
3 25 (0.66%) HDFS
4 20 (0.53%) Firmware
5 19 (0.50%) VMware Infrastructure
6 16 (0.42%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 10 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
8 7 (0.18%) GridGain
8 7 (0.18%) Oracle RAC
9 6 (0.16%) Apache Flume
10 5 (0.13%) Virtual Desktop
10 5 (0.13%) VirtualBox
10 5 (0.13%) Xen
11 4 (0.11%) iptables
11 4 (0.11%) KVM
11 4 (0.11%) Oracle Clusterware
11 4 (0.11%) vSphere
12 3 (0.079%) Hyper-V
12 3 (0.079%) vCloud
13 2 (0.053%) RACF
Systems Management
1 415 (10.90%) Kubernetes
2 278 (7.30%) Ansible
3 265 (6.96%) Terraform
4 80 (2.10%) Puppet
5 76 (2.00%) Grafana
6 49 (1.29%) HP Quality Center
7 45 (1.18%) Opscode Chef
8 42 (1.10%) Kibana
9 33 (0.87%) HP ALM
10 28 (0.74%) Prometheus
11 20 (0.53%) Packer
12 18 (0.47%) BladeLogic
12 18 (0.47%) Rancher
13 17 (0.45%) HP Fortify
13 17 (0.45%) Istio
14 14 (0.37%) Oozie
15 13 (0.34%) Nagios
16 11 (0.29%) logstash
17 9 (0.24%) Control-M
17 9 (0.24%) Salt
Vendors
1 361 (9.49%) Oracle
2 310 (8.15%) Microsoft
3 130 (3.42%) SAP
4 109 (2.86%) Google
5 68 (1.79%) Splunk
6 63 (1.66%) Databricks
7 61 (1.60%) IBM
8 58 (1.52%) HP
8 58 (1.52%) MuleSoft
9 56 (1.47%) Atlassian
10 55 (1.45%) Salesforce.com
11 36 (0.95%) VMware
12 35 (0.92%) Red Hat
13 33 (0.87%) FIS
13 33 (0.87%) SunGard
14 25 (0.66%) AppDynamics
15 24 (0.63%) Pega
15 24 (0.63%) Xamarin
16 21 (0.55%) ServiceNow
17 20 (0.53%) Apple