Period
to 20 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Test Automation skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Test Automation over the 6 months to 20 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Automated Testing
UK
6 months to
20 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 41 30 39
Rank change year-on-year -11 +9 -9
Contract jobs citing Test Automation 4,640 1,807 4,553
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.50% 5.74% 5.39%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 6.17% 6.59% 6.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,362 1,284 3,032
10th Percentile £358 £315 £325
25th Percentile £413 £400 £398
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £463
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +2.70% +2.78%
75th Percentile £600 £561 £550
90th Percentile £688 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +6.06%
Number of hourly rates quoted 56 12 37
10th Percentile £25.75 £32.35 £23.00
25th Percentile £38.25 £40.94 £31.50
Median hourly rate £46.00 £48.75 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year -5.64% +8.33% +12.50%
75th Percentile £52.81 £53.13 £49.00
90th Percentile £71.72 £55.00 £51.05
UK excluding London median hourly rate £46.00 £50.00 £44.00
% change year-on-year -8.00% +13.64% +10.00%

Test Automation is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 75,163 27,440 73,668
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.10% 87.11% 87.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 52,263 18,579 49,330
10th Percentile £320 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £378 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £510 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £613 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £671 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £460 £445 £438
% change year-on-year +3.49% +1.60% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,698 784 2,168
10th Percentile £12.15 £11.83 £11.57
25th Percentile £14.75 £15.50 £14.84
Median hourly rate £25.00 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year - +11.11% +15.38%
75th Percentile £49.50 £45.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £63.75 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £22.50 £22.00
% change year-on-year -6.67% +2.27% +14.29%

Test Automation
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Test Automation as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Daily rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 20 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Hourly rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 20 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Test Automation within the UK over the 6 months to 20 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 3,589 £500 +5.26% 1,225
London -6 1,981 £550 +4.76% 448
UK excluding London -6 1,621 £450 - 905
Work from Home +3 1,441 £500 +7.53% 277
South East +3 383 £455 -1.62% 215
North of England -13 381 £458 +1.67% 233
Scotland -6 240 £450 - 88
South West +12 221 £450 +9.09% 102
Midlands -12 198 £427 +18.47% 131
North West -7 193 £455 +1.11% 126
Yorkshire -11 163 £455 +1.11% 77
West Midlands +2 149 £444 +22.84% 77
East of England -7 140 £425 -5.56% 88
Wales +9 48 £420 -1.18% 33
East Midlands -23 47 £404 +15.36% 54
North East -13 27 £475 - 30
Northern Ireland -6 10 £475 +10.47% 15
Isle of Man - 2 £463 -

For the 6 months to 20 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Test Automation also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Test Automation.

1 2,509 (54.07%) Agile Software Development
2 1,542 (33.23%) Java
3 1,384 (29.83%) DevOps
4 1,053 (22.69%) Azure
5 1,024 (22.07%) JavaScript
6 978 (21.08%) Social Skills
7 966 (20.82%) Selenium
8 965 (20.80%) TDD
9 959 (20.67%) Python
10 948 (20.43%) Git (software)
11 947 (20.41%) SQL
12 884 (19.05%) Jenkins
13 837 (18.04%) AWS
14 833 (17.95%) Continuous Integration
15 826 (17.80%) JIRA
16 802 (17.28%) Scrum
17 788 (16.98%) Microservices
18 760 (16.38%) Finance
19 720 (15.52%) C#
20 700 (15.09%) BDD
21 695 (14.98%) QA
22 673 (14.50%) Software Engineering
23 645 (13.90%) Software Testing
24 630 (13.58%) Cucumber
25 576 (12.41%) REST
26 566 (12.20%) Linux
27 549 (11.83%) Docker
28 543 (11.70%) Kubernetes
29 512 (11.03%) .NET
30 484 (10.43%) React

Test Automation
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 362 (7.80%) Confluence
2 100 (2.16%) Elasticsearch
3 72 (1.55%) Apache
4 71 (1.53%) Apache Spark
5 63 (1.36%) CMS
6 50 (1.08%) SharePoint
7 39 (0.84%) Apache Airflow
8 38 (0.82%) Tomcat
9 36 (0.78%) WebLogic
10 34 (0.73%) WebSphere
11 32 (0.69%) SAS
12 25 (0.54%) IIS
13 24 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
14 22 (0.47%) nginx
15 18 (0.39%) Oracle Workflow
16 17 (0.37%) BizTalk Server
16 17 (0.37%) OpenStack
17 15 (0.32%) Mule
18 14 (0.30%) Oracle SOA Suite
19 12 (0.26%) Drupal
Applications
1 53 (1.14%) Microsoft Excel
2 31 (0.67%) Microsoft Office
3 10 (0.22%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 9 (0.19%) Chatbot
5 8 (0.17%) MS Visio
6 4 (0.086%) Photoshop
7 3 (0.065%) GIMP
7 3 (0.065%) Mingle
7 3 (0.065%) Spreadsheet
8 2 (0.043%) Figma
8 2 (0.043%) Microsoft Project
8 2 (0.043%) Simulink
9 1 (0.022%) PlantUML
9 1 (0.022%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 35 (0.75%) SunGard Martini
2 28 (0.60%) Dynamics CRM
3 18 (0.39%) Magento
4 15 (0.32%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 15 (0.32%) SAP HCM
5 13 (0.28%) SAP S/4HANA
6 8 (0.17%) Oracle EBS
6 8 (0.17%) SAP FI-CA
6 8 (0.17%) SAP PSCD
7 4 (0.086%) ION MarketView
8 3 (0.065%) Distributed Ledger
8 3 (0.065%) Endur
8 3 (0.065%) Oracle BRM
8 3 (0.065%) Remedy ITSM
9 2 (0.043%) Dynamics NAV
9 2 (0.043%) Infor M3
9 2 (0.043%) Maximo
9 2 (0.043%) Oracle BPM
9 2 (0.043%) SAP APO
9 2 (0.043%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 1,053 (22.69%) Azure
2 837 (18.04%) AWS
3 343 (7.39%) GitHub
4 290 (6.25%) Serverless
5 232 (5.00%) GCP
6 181 (3.90%) AWS Lambda
7 142 (3.06%) SaaS
8 135 (2.91%) OpenShift
9 125 (2.69%) PaaS
10 108 (2.33%) Amazon S3
11 92 (1.98%) IaaS
12 89 (1.92%) AWS CloudFormation
13 86 (1.85%) Power Platform
14 80 (1.72%) BrowserStack
15 70 (1.51%) Amazon SQS
16 56 (1.21%) Azure Data Factory
17 55 (1.19%) Azure Functions
18 54 (1.16%) Dynamics 365
19 52 (1.12%) Azure Service Bus
20 49 (1.06%) Apigee
Communications & Networking
1 143 (3.08%) HTTP
2 57 (1.23%) Firewall
3 47 (1.01%) TCP/IP
4 43 (0.93%) Wi-Fi
5 35 (0.75%) DNS
6 32 (0.69%) Internet
7 31 (0.67%) Bluetooth
8 28 (0.60%) Wireless
9 21 (0.45%) SSL
10 19 (0.41%) VPN
11 17 (0.37%) FIX Connectivity
12 16 (0.34%) IPv6
13 15 (0.32%) ATM
14 14 (0.30%) IPv4
15 11 (0.24%) Intranet
15 11 (0.24%) Wireshark
16 10 (0.22%) 802.11
16 10 (0.22%) Broadband
16 10 (0.22%) DHCP
16 10 (0.22%) Kerberos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 294 (6.34%) SQL Server
2 231 (4.98%) Relational Database
3 214 (4.61%) NoSQL
4 189 (4.07%) MongoDB
5 176 (3.79%) PostgreSQL
6 171 (3.69%) MySQL
7 132 (2.84%) Oracle Database
8 108 (2.33%) Big Data
8 108 (2.33%) Data Warehouse
9 88 (1.90%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 76 (1.64%) Hadoop
11 71 (1.53%) Data Lake
12 66 (1.42%) Power BI
13 59 (1.27%) RDBMS
14 57 (1.23%) Apache Cassandra
14 57 (1.23%) DB2
15 48 (1.03%) Oracle Database 12c
16 42 (0.91%) Azure SQL Database
17 41 (0.88%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 38 (0.82%) Amazon Aurora
Development Applications
1 966 (20.82%) Selenium
2 948 (20.43%) Git (software)
3 884 (19.05%) Jenkins
4 826 (17.80%) JIRA
5 630 (13.58%) Cucumber
6 273 (5.88%) Maven
7 272 (5.86%) Postman
8 243 (5.24%) GitLab
9 242 (5.22%) SpecFlow
10 223 (4.81%) JMeter
11 200 (4.31%) JUnit
12 197 (4.25%) Cypress.io
13 186 (4.01%) TeamCity
14 184 (3.97%) WebDriver
15 177 (3.81%) Bitbucket
16 159 (3.43%) SoapUI
17 146 (3.15%) REST Assured
18 131 (2.82%) Sonatype Nexus
19 123 (2.65%) Gatling
20 119 (2.56%) Subversion
General
1 978 (21.08%) Social Skills
2 760 (16.38%) Finance
3 416 (8.97%) Banking
4 376 (8.10%) Public Sector
5 283 (6.10%) Analytical Skills
6 111 (2.39%) Investment Banking
7 108 (2.33%) Telecoms
8 100 (2.16%) Marketing
9 95 (2.05%) Presentation Skills
10 94 (2.03%) Retail
11 86 (1.85%) Front Office
12 75 (1.62%) Games
13 56 (1.21%) Documentation Skills
14 53 (1.14%) Manufacturing
15 52 (1.12%) Influencing Skills
16 48 (1.03%) Electronics
17 38 (0.82%) Retail Banking
18 37 (0.80%) Legal
19 32 (0.69%) Back Office
20 28 (0.60%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,634 (35.22%) Developer
2 581 (12.52%) Tester
3 460 (9.91%) Test Engineer
4 380 (8.19%) Automation Tester
5 375 (8.08%) Java Developer
6 337 (7.26%) Analyst
7 285 (6.14%) Test Analyst
8 275 (5.93%) Senior Developer
9 263 (5.67%) DevOps Engineer
10 254 (5.47%) Test Automation Engineer
11 196 (4.22%) Software Engineer
12 152 (3.28%) Architect
12 152 (3.28%) Full Stack Developer
13 147 (3.17%) Software Developer
14 131 (2.82%) Test Leader
15 127 (2.74%) .NET Developer
16 123 (2.65%) Developer in Test
17 119 (2.56%) QA Engineer
18 114 (2.46%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
19 112 (2.41%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 576 (12.41%) REST
2 512 (11.03%) .NET
3 484 (10.43%) React
4 453 (9.76%) Spring
5 441 (9.50%) Node.js
6 407 (8.77%) HTML
7 376 (8.10%) CSS
8 365 (7.87%) RESTful
9 350 (7.54%) AngularJS
10 326 (7.03%) Web Services
11 322 (6.94%) Spring Boot
12 262 (5.65%) JSON
13 254 (5.47%) Kafka
14 241 (5.19%) XML
15 194 (4.18%) Gherkin
16 165 (3.56%) .NET Framework
16 165 (3.56%) SOAP
17 156 (3.36%) HTML5
18 146 (3.15%) Redux
19 124 (2.67%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 240 (5.17%) User Experience
2 172 (3.71%) Mobile App
3 128 (2.76%) Self-Motivation
4 126 (2.72%) Cloud Native
5 107 (2.31%) Algorithms
6 105 (2.26%) Greenfield Project
7 96 (2.07%) Data Protection Act
8 80 (1.72%) Legacy Systems
9 75 (1.62%) Data Structures
10 61 (1.31%) Fixed Income
11 56 (1.21%) Management Information System
12 55 (1.19%) Enterprise Software
13 47 (1.01%) Public Cloud
14 39 (0.84%) Client/Server
15 38 (0.82%) Linux Command Line
16 36 (0.78%) Hybrid Cloud
17 31 (0.67%) Derivative
17 31 (0.67%) Virtual Team
18 27 (0.58%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
19 25 (0.54%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 566 (12.20%) Linux
2 295 (6.36%) Windows
3 252 (5.43%) Unix
4 148 (3.19%) Android
5 117 (2.52%) Apple iOS
6 48 (1.03%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 47 (1.01%) Mac OS X
8 42 (0.91%) Windows Server
9 16 (0.34%) CentOS
10 15 (0.32%) Mac OS
11 12 (0.26%) Ubuntu
12 9 (0.19%) OpenWrt
13 8 (0.17%) VMS
14 6 (0.13%) Debian
14 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
15 5 (0.11%) Alpine Linux
15 5 (0.11%) zOS
16 4 (0.086%) Android TV
16 4 (0.086%) Embedded Linux
16 4 (0.086%) Solaris
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,509 (54.07%) Agile Software Development
2 1,384 (29.83%) DevOps
3 965 (20.80%) TDD
4 833 (17.95%) Continuous Integration
5 802 (17.28%) Scrum
6 788 (16.98%) Microservices
7 700 (15.09%) BDD
8 673 (14.50%) Software Engineering
9 645 (13.90%) Software Testing
10 405 (8.73%) Problem-Solving
11 394 (8.49%) Test Scripting
12 367 (7.91%) Continuous Delivery
12 367 (7.91%) Test Strategy
13 334 (7.20%) SDLC
14 331 (7.13%) Unit Testing
15 308 (6.64%) Full Stack Development
16 303 (6.53%) Mentoring
17 301 (6.49%) Regression Testing
18 299 (6.44%) Deployment Automation
19 295 (6.36%) User Stories
Programming Languages
1 1,542 (33.23%) Java
2 1,024 (22.07%) JavaScript
3 959 (20.67%) Python
4 947 (20.41%) SQL
5 720 (15.52%) C#
6 301 (6.49%) TypeScript
7 192 (4.14%) Scala
8 190 (4.09%) C++
9 186 (4.01%) Java 8
10 180 (3.88%) Bash Shell
11 152 (3.28%) PowerShell
12 134 (2.89%) Ruby
13 118 (2.54%) Shell Script
14 98 (2.11%) C
15 96 (2.07%) Java 11
15 96 (2.07%) Kotlin
16 90 (1.94%) Groovy
16 90 (1.94%) PL/SQL
17 87 (1.88%) PHP
18 75 (1.62%) Go
Qualifications
1 478 (10.30%) Security Cleared
2 376 (8.10%) SC Cleared
3 226 (4.87%) Degree
4 220 (4.74%) ISTQB
5 114 (2.46%) ISEB
6 102 (2.20%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 75 (1.62%) BPSS Clearance
8 66 (1.42%) Computer Science Degree
9 62 (1.34%) DV Cleared
10 24 (0.52%) Numerate Degree
11 20 (0.43%) CISSP
12 19 (0.41%) Master's Degree
13 18 (0.39%) PhD
14 16 (0.34%) SANS
15 15 (0.32%) Sun Certification
16 13 (0.28%) OCPJP
17 12 (0.26%) Cisco Certification
18 11 (0.24%) DBS Check
18 11 (0.24%) Microsoft Certification
19 10 (0.22%) GIAC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 695 (14.98%) QA
2 267 (5.75%) Accessibility
3 32 (0.69%) WCAG
4 27 (0.58%) Data Quality
5 20 (0.43%) GRC
6 15 (0.32%) Disclosure Scotland
6 15 (0.32%) NIST
7 14 (0.30%) GDPR
8 13 (0.28%) SLA
9 11 (0.24%) NCSC
10 9 (0.19%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 9 (0.19%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 7 (0.15%) IFRS
12 6 (0.13%) ISO 22301
12 6 (0.13%) JTAG
13 5 (0.11%) HL7
14 4 (0.086%) ISO 20022
15 3 (0.065%) ISO 8583
15 3 (0.065%) SEPA
15 3 (0.065%) WAI
System Software
1 549 (11.83%) Docker
2 64 (1.38%) Active Directory
3 25 (0.54%) Firmware
4 21 (0.45%) HDFS
5 18 (0.39%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 16 (0.34%) VMware Infrastructure
7 15 (0.32%) vSphere
8 9 (0.19%) Virtual Machines
9 6 (0.13%) OpenAM
9 6 (0.13%) vCloud
10 5 (0.11%) Oracle RAC
10 5 (0.11%) Xen
11 4 (0.086%) iptables
11 4 (0.086%) KVM
11 4 (0.086%) Oracle Clusterware
11 4 (0.086%) Virtual Desktop
11 4 (0.086%) VirtualBox
12 3 (0.065%) Apache Flume
13 2 (0.043%) RACF
13 2 (0.043%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 543 (11.70%) Kubernetes
2 360 (7.76%) Terraform
3 293 (6.31%) Ansible
4 92 (1.98%) Grafana
5 79 (1.70%) Puppet
6 58 (1.25%) Kibana
7 56 (1.21%) HP Quality Center
8 41 (0.88%) HP ALM
9 39 (0.84%) BladeLogic
9 39 (0.84%) Prometheus
10 29 (0.63%) Opscode Chef
11 23 (0.50%) Istio
12 20 (0.43%) Consul
12 20 (0.43%) HP Fortify
13 17 (0.37%) Nagios
14 16 (0.34%) Packer
15 15 (0.32%) Rancher
16 14 (0.30%) logstash
17 12 (0.26%) ITRS Geneos
18 11 (0.24%) Control-M
Vendors
1 434 (9.35%) Microsoft
2 415 (8.94%) Oracle
3 132 (2.84%) Google
4 123 (2.65%) SAP
5 90 (1.94%) Salesforce.com
6 84 (1.81%) Splunk
7 72 (1.55%) Red Hat
8 71 (1.53%) Databricks
9 66 (1.42%) Atlassian
10 58 (1.25%) IBM
10 58 (1.25%) MuleSoft
11 55 (1.19%) HP
12 50 (1.08%) VMware
13 36 (0.78%) FIS
14 35 (0.75%) SunGard
15 30 (0.65%) Pega
16 29 (0.63%) ION Trading
17 28 (0.60%) Xamarin
18 26 (0.56%) Apple
19 23 (0.50%) Informatica