Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Test Automation skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Test Automation over the 6 months to 17 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Automated Testing
UK
6 months to
17 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 42 43 35
Rank change year-on-year +1 -8 -2
Contract jobs citing Test Automation 4,442 2,911 2,751
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.08% 5.11% 5.51%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.68% 5.77% 6.40%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,200 2,002 1,905
10th Percentile £388 £336 £325
25th Percentile £450 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £545 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +14.74% - -
75th Percentile £650 £575 £575
90th Percentile £738 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £430 £450
% change year-on-year +16.28% -4.44% +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 53 67 29
10th Percentile £17.25 £24.80 £29.50
25th Percentile £37.00 £33.63 £31.25
Median hourly rate £54.25 £45.00 £39.00
Median % change year-on-year +20.56% +15.38% -2.50%
75th Percentile £65.00 £53.75 £47.97
90th Percentile £80.30 £63.00 £58.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £48.75 £42.00 £33.00
% change year-on-year +16.07% +27.27% -23.26%

Test Automation is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 78,230 50,407 43,015
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.44% 88.40% 86.21%
Number of daily rates quoted 54,968 34,539 28,635
10th Percentile £350 £312 £290
25th Percentile £431 £400 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £535 £495 £475
Median % change year-on-year +8.08% +4.21% -
75th Percentile £638 £588 £575
90th Percentile £738 £675 £663
UK excluding London median daily rate £485 £440 £450
% change year-on-year +10.23% -2.22% +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,734 1,478 1,330
10th Percentile £13.00 £12.00 £12.42
25th Percentile £16.25 £15.50 £15.95
Median hourly rate £28.33 £25.96 £22.00
Median % change year-on-year +9.15% +17.98% -2.22%
75th Percentile £51.75 £46.24 £46.00
90th Percentile £65.75 £58.75 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.99 £22.50 £20.03
% change year-on-year -2.29% +12.36% -10.60%

Test Automation
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Test Automation as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Daily rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 17 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Test Automation.

Hourly rate trend for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Test Automation over the 6 months to 17 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for Test Automation in the UK

Test Automation
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Test Automation within the UK over the 6 months to 17 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England 0 3,529 £550 +15.79% 969
Work from Home -1 2,288 £525 +10.53% 454
London +7 2,084 £600 +14.29% 399
UK excluding London -6 1,391 £500 +16.28% 633
South East +2 389 £500 +11.11% 141
North of England -4 328 £500 +17.65% 168
North West +14 201 £517 +23.10% 98
Scotland -17 176 £475 +11.76% 54
South West -12 170 £500 +5.26% 91
Midlands -12 166 £434 +8.50% 77
West Midlands -13 122 £450 +12.50% 49
Yorkshire -18 110 £478 +9.14% 48
Wales +11 75 £525 +25.37% 14
East of England -17 71 £485 +29.33% 82
East Midlands 0 43 £420 +11.26% 27
North East -17 22 £523 +18.75% 22
Northern Ireland +12 20 £500 - 8
Isle of Man - 1 £350 -

For the 6 months to 17 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing Test Automation also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Test Automation.

1 2,517 (56.66%) Agile
2 1,483 (33.39%) DevOps
3 1,464 (32.96%) Java
4 1,358 (30.57%) CI/CD
5 1,110 (24.99%) Azure
6 1,018 (22.92%) Python
7 947 (21.32%) JavaScript
8 927 (20.87%) Git (software)
9 893 (20.10%) AWS
10 883 (19.88%) Selenium
11 879 (19.79%) SQL
12 872 (19.63%) Scrum
13 866 (19.50%) TDD
14 836 (18.82%) Microservices
15 835 (18.80%) Social Skills
16 833 (18.75%) QA
17 801 (18.03%) Finance
18 789 (17.76%) JIRA
19 774 (17.42%) C#
20 770 (17.33%) Jenkins
21 709 (15.96%) Security Cleared
22 705 (15.87%) Continuous Integration
23 656 (14.77%) BDD
24 607 (13.67%) Docker
25 602 (13.55%) .NET
26 598 (13.46%) Software Engineering
27 597 (13.44%) Kubernetes
28 578 (13.01%) Cucumber
29 562 (12.65%) SC Cleared
30 549 (12.36%) Linux

Test Automation
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 378 (8.51%) Confluence
2 60 (1.35%) Apache Spark
3 51 (1.15%) CMS
4 50 (1.13%) Apache
5 44 (0.99%) Elasticsearch
6 43 (0.97%) SharePoint
7 35 (0.79%) Cloud Foundry
7 35 (0.79%) nginx
8 32 (0.72%) WebSphere
9 30 (0.68%) Tomcat
10 29 (0.65%) WebLogic
11 28 (0.63%) BizTalk Server
11 28 (0.63%) Oracle Workflow
12 22 (0.50%) SAS
13 21 (0.47%) Mule
14 20 (0.45%) Apache Airflow
15 14 (0.32%) Drupal
16 13 (0.29%) Headless CMS
16 13 (0.29%) OpenStack
17 11 (0.25%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 51 (1.15%) Microsoft Excel
2 30 (0.68%) Microsoft Office
3 13 (0.29%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 10 (0.23%) MS Visio
5 8 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
6 3 (0.068%) Chatbot
6 3 (0.068%) InVision
6 3 (0.068%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.045%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.023%) Adobe XD
Business Applications
1 27 (0.61%) Oracle Cash Management
1 27 (0.61%) Oracle ERP
1 27 (0.61%) Oracle Receivables
2 26 (0.59%) Oracle Payables
3 22 (0.50%) SAP FI-CA
3 22 (0.50%) SAP PSCD
4 20 (0.45%) Oracle General Ledger
5 18 (0.41%) SAP S/4HANA
6 16 (0.36%) Dynamics CRM
7 13 (0.29%) SunGard Martini
8 12 (0.27%) SAP IS-U
9 10 (0.23%) Remedy ITSM
9 10 (0.23%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 9 (0.20%) Maximo
11 8 (0.18%) assyst
12 7 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
12 7 (0.16%) SAP Hybris
13 5 (0.11%) MoSes
13 5 (0.11%) Oracle EBS
13 5 (0.11%) SAP FI
Cloud Services
1 1,110 (24.99%) Azure
2 893 (20.10%) AWS
3 299 (6.73%) Serverless
4 298 (6.71%) GitHub
5 236 (5.31%) GCP
6 172 (3.87%) AWS Lambda
7 145 (3.26%) PaaS
8 129 (2.90%) SaaS
9 126 (2.84%) AWS CloudFormation
10 121 (2.72%) Power Platform
11 119 (2.68%) OpenShift
12 100 (2.25%) IaaS
13 92 (2.07%) Amazon S3
14 80 (1.80%) BrowserStack
15 72 (1.62%) Azure Data Factory
16 70 (1.58%) Dynamics 365
17 65 (1.46%) Tricentis Tosca
18 62 (1.40%) Amazon EC2
18 62 (1.40%) Microsoft 365
19 57 (1.28%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 139 (3.13%) HTTP
2 81 (1.82%) DNS
3 63 (1.42%) TCP/IP
4 55 (1.24%) Firewall
5 37 (0.83%) Internet
6 30 (0.68%) HTTPS
7 28 (0.63%) IPv4
8 27 (0.61%) SSH
9 26 (0.59%) FIX Connectivity
9 26 (0.59%) FTP
10 20 (0.45%) Wireless
11 19 (0.43%) DHCP
12 18 (0.41%) Network Security
12 18 (0.41%) SMTP
13 17 (0.38%) SSL
14 16 (0.36%) VPN
14 16 (0.36%) WAN
14 16 (0.36%) Wi-Fi
15 15 (0.34%) Bluetooth
15 15 (0.34%) IPsec
Database & Business Intelligence
1 316 (7.11%) SQL Server
2 213 (4.80%) NoSQL
3 196 (4.41%) MongoDB
4 193 (4.34%) Relational Database
5 166 (3.74%) PostgreSQL
6 148 (3.33%) Big Data
6 148 (3.33%) MySQL
7 129 (2.90%) Data Warehouse
8 95 (2.14%) Power BI
9 84 (1.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 76 (1.71%) Oracle Database
11 64 (1.44%) Amazon RDS
12 56 (1.26%) Data Lake
13 44 (0.99%) Hadoop
14 41 (0.92%) Redis
15 37 (0.83%) Apache Cassandra
15 37 (0.83%) Azure SQL Database
16 35 (0.79%) Amazon Aurora
17 32 (0.72%) Amazon Redshift
17 32 (0.72%) DB2
Development Applications
1 927 (20.87%) Git (software)
2 883 (19.88%) Selenium
3 789 (17.76%) JIRA
4 770 (17.33%) Jenkins
5 578 (13.01%) Cucumber
6 289 (6.51%) Postman
7 248 (5.58%) GitLab
8 233 (5.25%) SpecFlow
9 229 (5.16%) Cypress.io
10 216 (4.86%) JMeter
11 205 (4.62%) JUnit
11 205 (4.62%) Maven
12 189 (4.25%) TeamCity
13 182 (4.10%) SoapUI
14 171 (3.85%) Bitbucket
15 146 (3.29%) WebDriver
16 132 (2.97%) REST Assured
17 103 (2.32%) Visual Studio
18 88 (1.98%) Gatling
19 83 (1.87%) Robot Framework
General
1 835 (18.80%) Social Skills
2 801 (18.03%) Finance
3 456 (10.27%) Public Sector
4 384 (8.64%) Banking
5 307 (6.91%) Analytical Skills
6 161 (3.62%) Investment Banking
7 97 (2.18%) Front Office
8 91 (2.05%) Telecoms
9 90 (2.03%) Retail
10 76 (1.71%) Games
11 74 (1.67%) Presentation Skills
12 73 (1.64%) Legal
13 68 (1.53%) Marketing
14 64 (1.44%) Manufacturing
15 56 (1.26%) Electronics
16 52 (1.17%) Influencing Skills
17 38 (0.86%) Retail Banking
18 37 (0.83%) Financial Institution
19 32 (0.72%) Billing
20 30 (0.68%) Law
Job Titles
1 1,439 (32.40%) Developer
2 506 (11.39%) Tester
3 368 (8.28%) Java Developer
4 360 (8.10%) Test Engineer
5 357 (8.04%) Automation Tester
6 349 (7.86%) Analyst
7 282 (6.35%) DevOps Engineer
8 244 (5.49%) Test Analyst
9 224 (5.04%) Senior Developer
10 182 (4.10%) Software Engineer
11 176 (3.96%) QA Engineer
12 162 (3.65%) Test Automation Engineer
13 153 (3.44%) Architect
13 153 (3.44%) Test Manager
14 144 (3.24%) Test Leader
15 136 (3.06%) Full Stack Developer
16 126 (2.84%) Software Developer
17 124 (2.79%) .NET Developer
18 121 (2.72%) Python Developer
19 107 (2.41%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 602 (13.55%) .NET
2 537 (12.09%) React
3 499 (11.23%) REST
4 461 (10.38%) HTML
5 428 (9.64%) Node.js
6 404 (9.10%) CSS
7 387 (8.71%) RESTful
8 376 (8.46%) Spring
9 306 (6.89%) Kafka
10 273 (6.15%) AngularJS
11 266 (5.99%) JSON
12 258 (5.81%) Spring Boot
13 243 (5.47%) Web Services
14 187 (4.21%) SOAP
15 181 (4.07%) XML
16 165 (3.71%) HTML5
17 152 (3.42%) .NET Framework
18 139 (3.13%) Gherkin
19 138 (3.11%) GraphQL
20 137 (3.08%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 237 (5.34%) User Experience
2 157 (3.53%) Mobile App
3 119 (2.68%) Algorithms
4 118 (2.66%) Cloud Native
5 105 (2.36%) Greenfield Project
6 96 (2.16%) Fixed Income
7 92 (2.07%) Self-Motivation
8 91 (2.05%) Public Cloud
9 80 (1.80%) Data Structures
10 68 (1.53%) Legacy Systems
11 64 (1.44%) Virtual Team
12 55 (1.24%) Linux Command Line
13 53 (1.19%) Management Information System
14 51 (1.15%) Derivative
15 40 (0.90%) Data Protection Act
16 38 (0.86%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 37 (0.83%) Enterprise Software
18 30 (0.68%) NHS
19 28 (0.63%) Hedge funds
20 22 (0.50%) IoT
Operating Systems
1 549 (12.36%) Linux
2 263 (5.92%) Windows
3 234 (5.27%) Unix
4 103 (2.32%) Apple iOS
5 93 (2.09%) Android
6 49 (1.10%) Mac OS X
7 39 (0.88%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 26 (0.59%) Windows Server
9 17 (0.38%) Ubuntu
10 16 (0.36%) CentOS
11 10 (0.23%) Mac OS
11 10 (0.23%) Windows Server 2019
12 7 (0.16%) Debian
13 6 (0.14%) Embedded Linux
13 6 (0.14%) VMS
14 5 (0.11%) AIX
14 5 (0.11%) Windows 10
15 3 (0.068%) Alpine Linux
15 3 (0.068%) Amazon Linux
15 3 (0.068%) Solaris
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,517 (56.66%) Agile
2 1,483 (33.39%) DevOps
3 1,358 (30.57%) CI/CD
4 872 (19.63%) Scrum
5 866 (19.50%) TDD
6 836 (18.82%) Microservices
7 705 (15.87%) Continuous Integration
8 656 (14.77%) BDD
9 598 (13.46%) Software Engineering
10 541 (12.18%) Software Testing
11 429 (9.66%) Problem-Solving
12 395 (8.89%) Continuous Delivery
13 361 (8.13%) Test Strategy
14 355 (7.99%) SDLC
15 350 (7.88%) Test Scripting
16 311 (7.00%) Mentoring
17 307 (6.91%) Full Stack Development
18 306 (6.89%) User Stories
19 304 (6.84%) Analytics
20 300 (6.75%) Functional Testing
Programming Languages
1 1,464 (32.96%) Java
2 1,018 (22.92%) Python
3 947 (21.32%) JavaScript
4 879 (19.79%) SQL
5 774 (17.42%) C#
6 380 (8.55%) TypeScript
7 225 (5.07%) PowerShell
8 201 (4.52%) Bash
9 134 (3.02%) Scala
10 120 (2.70%) C++
11 118 (2.66%) Go
12 87 (1.96%) Ruby
13 84 (1.89%) C
14 74 (1.67%) Shell Script
15 71 (1.60%) PL/SQL
16 68 (1.53%) Kotlin
17 58 (1.31%) Groovy
18 46 (1.04%) ES6
18 46 (1.04%) T-SQL
19 39 (0.88%) PHP
Qualifications
1 709 (15.96%) Security Cleared
2 562 (12.65%) SC Cleared
3 235 (5.29%) ISTQB
4 201 (4.52%) Degree
5 123 (2.77%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 108 (2.43%) ISEB
7 100 (2.25%) Computer Science Degree
8 87 (1.96%) DV Cleared
9 66 (1.49%) BPSS Clearance
10 18 (0.41%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
11 16 (0.36%) AWS Certification
11 16 (0.36%) Master's Degree
12 13 (0.29%) Cisco Certification
13 12 (0.27%) TOGAF Certification
14 11 (0.25%) CCNA
15 10 (0.23%) CISSP
15 10 (0.23%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
15 10 (0.23%) Microsoft Certification
16 9 (0.20%) Numerate Degree
17 8 (0.18%) HNC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 833 (18.75%) QA
2 206 (4.64%) Accessibility
3 55 (1.24%) WCAG
4 19 (0.43%) GDPR
5 15 (0.34%) Data Quality
5 15 (0.34%) PCI DSS
6 11 (0.25%) Disclosure Scotland
7 8 (0.18%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 8 (0.18%) NIST
8 7 (0.16%) EMIR
8 7 (0.16%) HL7
8 7 (0.16%) SLA
9 5 (0.11%) COBIT
9 5 (0.11%) IFRS
9 5 (0.11%) ISO 9000
9 5 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 17025
10 4 (0.090%) GRC
10 4 (0.090%) GxP
11 3 (0.068%) ISO 20022
11 3 (0.068%) PMO
System Software
1 607 (13.67%) Docker
2 56 (1.26%) Active Directory
3 32 (0.72%) VMware Infrastructure
4 26 (0.59%) Virtual Machines
5 18 (0.41%) vSphere
6 12 (0.27%) NFS
7 9 (0.20%) OpenSSH
8 8 (0.18%) HDFS
8 8 (0.18%) KVM
9 7 (0.16%) vCloud
9 7 (0.16%) VirtualBox
9 7 (0.16%) VMware ESXi
10 5 (0.11%) iptables
10 5 (0.11%) Varnish
10 5 (0.11%) Xen
11 4 (0.090%) Hyper-V
11 4 (0.090%) Oracle Clusterware
11 4 (0.090%) Oracle RAC
11 4 (0.090%) Slurm Workload Manager
12 2 (0.045%) NetIQ eDirectory
Systems Management
1 597 (13.44%) Kubernetes
2 435 (9.79%) Terraform
3 287 (6.46%) Ansible
4 85 (1.91%) Grafana
5 59 (1.33%) Puppet
6 49 (1.10%) Prometheus
7 40 (0.90%) HP ALM
8 39 (0.88%) Packer
9 34 (0.77%) Kibana
9 34 (0.77%) Opscode Chef
10 32 (0.72%) Consul
11 23 (0.52%) HP Quality Center
12 21 (0.47%) BladeLogic
13 17 (0.38%) Docker Swarm
14 16 (0.36%) Single Sign-On
15 13 (0.29%) Salt
16 12 (0.27%) Argo
16 12 (0.27%) Rancher
16 12 (0.27%) ZABBIX
17 11 (0.25%) MIIS
Vendors
1 476 (10.72%) Microsoft
2 356 (8.01%) Oracle
3 144 (3.24%) SAP
4 119 (2.68%) Google
5 108 (2.43%) Databricks
6 85 (1.91%) ServiceNow
7 75 (1.69%) Splunk
8 73 (1.64%) IBM
9 67 (1.51%) Salesforce.com
9 67 (1.51%) VMware
10 63 (1.42%) Atlassian
11 59 (1.33%) AppDynamics
12 57 (1.28%) HP
13 52 (1.17%) Red Hat
14 40 (0.90%) ION Trading
15 35 (0.79%) Dynatrace
16 32 (0.72%) Mercator
17 23 (0.52%) TIBCO
18 22 (0.50%) Adobe
19 20 (0.45%) Cloudera