Period
to 30 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 30 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
30 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 9 7 7
Rank change year-on-year -2 0 -1
Contract jobs citing Java 8,410 4,776 11,265
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 11.64% 13.07% 12.30%
As % of the Programming Languages category 28.95% 31.72% 28.84%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,869 3,470 7,573
10th Percentile £400 £380 £376
25th Percentile £456 £450 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
75th Percentile £650 £638 £613
90th Percentile £725 £725 £688
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £473
% change year-on-year - +0.53% +7.39%
Number of hourly rates quoted 75 50 78
10th Percentile £33.20 £19.71 £23.00
25th Percentile £41.13 £24.43 £37.56
Median hourly rate £60.00 £44.50 £47.09
Median % change year-on-year +34.83% -5.49% +10.79%
75th Percentile £65.77 £62.56 £53.44
90th Percentile £71.65 £68.75 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £56.50 £40.84 £45.00
% change year-on-year +38.36% -9.26% +5.88%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 29,052 15,057 39,061
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.20% 41.21% 42.64%
Number of daily rates quoted 20,574 10,609 27,292
10th Percentile £350 £325 £323
25th Percentile £413 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.70%
75th Percentile £607 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £686 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 472 276 660
10th Percentile £16.01 £16.38 £20.30
25th Percentile £25.00 £22.00 £33.81
Median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £44.96
Median % change year-on-year - -5.47% +11.01%
75th Percentile £55.00 £50.00 £50.78
90th Percentile £65.25 £57.75 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year -1.18% -5.56% +10.43%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 30 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 30 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 30 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 6,812 £550 +1.85% 2,493
London -3 4,542 £600 +5.26% 1,312
UK excluding London -1 2,439 £475 - 1,351
Work from Home +4 2,219 £525 +5.00% 533
North of England -3 548 £500 +5.26% 429
Scotland +8 506 £450 +1.12% 125
South East -5 490 £475 - 262
South West -2 315 £488 -7.14% 144
North West -5 298 £475 +5.56% 251
Midlands -8 290 £461 +9.17% 195
West Midlands -3 232 £471 +10.88% 146
East of England -6 194 £525 +5.00% 129
Yorkshire -10 162 £500 - 131
North East +6 88 £525 +6.06% 47
East Midlands -26 54 £425 +0.59% 48
Northern Ireland -1 53 £475 +5.56% 27
Wales -2 49 £488 +1.56% 40

For the 6 months to 30 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 3,606 (42.88%) Agile Software Development
2 2,396 (28.49%) Spring
3 2,213 (26.31%) Microservices
4 2,125 (25.27%) AWS
5 2,022 (24.04%) Python
6 1,991 (23.67%) SQL
7 1,886 (22.43%) DevOps
8 1,824 (21.69%) JavaScript
9 1,800 (21.40%) Finance
10 1,772 (21.07%) Jenkins
11 1,606 (19.10%) Docker
12 1,563 (18.59%) Spring Boot
13 1,544 (18.36%) Kubernetes
14 1,523 (18.11%) Social Skills
15 1,475 (17.54%) Azure
16 1,434 (17.05%) TDD
17 1,432 (17.03%) Git (software)
18 1,390 (16.53%) Banking
19 1,332 (15.84%) Software Engineering
20 1,261 (14.99%) Test Automation
21 1,235 (14.68%) Oracle
22 1,147 (13.64%) Scrum
23 1,128 (13.41%) REST
24 1,080 (12.84%) Linux
25 1,041 (12.38%) React
26 969 (11.52%) Kafka
27 933 (11.09%) Java 8
28 912 (10.84%) Maven
29 908 (10.80%) JIRA
30 873 (10.38%) BDD

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 452 (5.37%) Confluence
2 387 (4.60%) Apache Spark
3 345 (4.10%) Apache
4 216 (2.57%) Tomcat
5 190 (2.26%) Elasticsearch
6 182 (2.16%) WebLogic
7 145 (1.72%) WebSphere
8 143 (1.70%) SharePoint
9 138 (1.64%) Mule
10 112 (1.33%) JBoss
11 104 (1.24%) CMS
12 97 (1.15%) Apache Airflow
13 83 (0.99%) Cloud Foundry
14 73 (0.87%) nginx
15 66 (0.78%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 65 (0.77%) Red Hat Fuse
17 57 (0.68%) Oracle Coherence
18 41 (0.49%) WebSphere Application Server
19 39 (0.46%) IBM Domino
20 37 (0.44%) SAS
Applications
1 73 (0.87%) Microsoft Office
2 63 (0.75%) Microsoft Excel
3 13 (0.15%) Photoshop
4 9 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 9 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
5 4 (0.048%) MS Visio
5 4 (0.048%) Spreadsheet
6 2 (0.024%) Chatbot
6 2 (0.024%) CPLEX
6 2 (0.024%) Sketch
6 2 (0.024%) SPSS
7 1 (0.012%) 3ds Max
7 1 (0.012%) Doxygen
7 1 (0.012%) Figma
7 1 (0.012%) InfoPath
7 1 (0.012%) Maya
7 1 (0.012%) ZBrush
Business Applications
1 118 (1.40%) Dynamics CRM
2 80 (0.95%) Dynamics AX
3 43 (0.51%) Magento
4 36 (0.43%) SAP Hybris
5 29 (0.34%) ION MarketView
6 20 (0.24%) Shopify
7 12 (0.14%) Payment Gateway
8 10 (0.12%) Oracle BPM
8 10 (0.12%) SAP ERP
9 9 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 8 (0.095%) Adobe Campaign
10 8 (0.095%) Maximo
11 7 (0.083%) Distributed Ledger
11 7 (0.083%) Oracle Financials
12 6 (0.071%) SAP CRM
12 6 (0.071%) SAP Oil and Gas
13 5 (0.059%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
14 4 (0.048%) IBM Planning Analytics
14 4 (0.048%) Oracle Applications
14 4 (0.048%) Temenos T24
Cloud Services
1 2,125 (25.27%) AWS
2 1,475 (17.54%) Azure
3 810 (9.63%) GCP
4 527 (6.27%) Serverless
5 440 (5.23%) GitHub
6 361 (4.29%) AWS Lambda
7 299 (3.56%) Amazon S3
8 247 (2.94%) OpenShift
9 212 (2.52%) SaaS
10 205 (2.44%) AWS CloudFormation
11 196 (2.33%) PaaS
12 187 (2.22%) Amazon EC2
13 144 (1.71%) Power Platform
14 133 (1.58%) IaaS
15 124 (1.47%) Amazon SQS
16 99 (1.18%) Dynamics 365
17 97 (1.15%) Amazon ECS
18 95 (1.13%) Cloud Computing
19 94 (1.12%) Amazon EKS
20 81 (0.96%) Apigee
Communications & Networking
1 198 (2.35%) HTTP
2 96 (1.14%) TCP/IP
3 93 (1.11%) SSL
4 86 (1.02%) Firewall
5 74 (0.88%) DNS
6 60 (0.71%) Internet
7 42 (0.50%) Kerberos
8 35 (0.42%) LAN
9 32 (0.38%) FTP
10 26 (0.31%) DHCP
10 26 (0.31%) HTTPS
11 25 (0.30%) SAN
11 25 (0.30%) VPN
12 23 (0.27%) NAS
12 23 (0.27%) WAN
13 16 (0.19%) Ethernet
13 16 (0.19%) SSH
14 15 (0.18%) Multicast
14 15 (0.18%) SMTP
15 14 (0.17%) Cisco Nexus
Database & Business Intelligence
1 637 (7.57%) NoSQL
2 543 (6.46%) MongoDB
3 533 (6.34%) Relational Database
4 501 (5.96%) PostgreSQL
5 392 (4.66%) Big Data
6 378 (4.49%) SQL Server
7 365 (4.34%) Hadoop
8 357 (4.24%) MySQL
9 207 (2.46%) Data Warehouse
10 194 (2.31%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 183 (2.18%) Apache Cassandra
12 173 (2.06%) Oracle Database
13 164 (1.95%) Redis
14 157 (1.87%) Apache Hive
15 147 (1.75%) RDBMS
16 139 (1.65%) BigQuery
17 115 (1.37%) HBase
18 106 (1.26%) Data Lake
19 95 (1.13%) DB2
20 89 (1.06%) BusinessObjects
Development Applications
1 1,772 (21.07%) Jenkins
2 1,432 (17.03%) Git (software)
3 912 (10.84%) Maven
4 908 (10.80%) JIRA
5 544 (6.47%) JUnit
6 520 (6.18%) Cucumber
7 455 (5.41%) Selenium
8 312 (3.71%) GitLab
9 303 (3.60%) Bitbucket
10 255 (3.03%) Gradle
11 231 (2.75%) Mockito
12 189 (2.25%) Subversion
13 185 (2.20%) TeamCity
14 181 (2.15%) Postman
15 156 (1.85%) SonarQube
15 156 (1.85%) Sonatype Nexus
16 151 (1.80%) IntelliJ
17 146 (1.74%) JMeter
18 133 (1.58%) Eclipse
19 123 (1.46%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 1,800 (21.40%) Finance
2 1,523 (18.11%) Social Skills
3 1,390 (16.53%) Banking
4 692 (8.23%) Front Office
5 572 (6.80%) Investment Banking
6 546 (6.49%) Analytical Skills
7 491 (5.84%) Public Sector
8 256 (3.04%) Retail
9 150 (1.78%) Marketing
10 130 (1.55%) Presentation Skills
11 104 (1.24%) Telecoms
12 96 (1.14%) Manufacturing
13 79 (0.94%) Documentation Skills
14 70 (0.83%) Financial Institution
15 60 (0.71%) Influencing Skills
16 55 (0.65%) Electronics
17 53 (0.63%) Retail Banking
18 50 (0.59%) Games
19 49 (0.58%) Back Office
20 47 (0.56%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 4,531 (53.88%) Developer
2 2,788 (33.15%) Java Developer
3 675 (8.03%) Architect
4 661 (7.86%) Senior Developer
5 500 (5.95%) Senior Java Developer
6 483 (5.74%) Software Engineer
7 458 (5.45%) Java Engineer
8 388 (4.61%) DevOps Engineer
9 386 (4.59%) Full Stack Developer
10 371 (4.41%) Data Engineer
11 251 (2.98%) Consultant
12 227 (2.70%) React Developer
13 222 (2.64%) Solutions Architect
14 215 (2.56%) Front Office Developer
15 213 (2.53%) Tester
16 201 (2.39%) Analyst
17 180 (2.14%) AWS Engineer
18 176 (2.09%) AWS Developer
18 176 (2.09%) Java Software Engineer
19 171 (2.03%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,396 (28.49%) Spring
2 1,563 (18.59%) Spring Boot
3 1,128 (13.41%) REST
4 1,041 (12.38%) React
5 969 (11.52%) Kafka
6 860 (10.23%) Node.js
7 844 (10.04%) Web Services
8 795 (9.45%) AngularJS
9 783 (9.31%) RESTful
10 759 (9.02%) HTML
11 584 (6.94%) .NET
12 583 (6.93%) CSS
13 533 (6.34%) J2EE
14 487 (5.79%) XML
15 477 (5.67%) JSON
16 427 (5.08%) Hibernate
17 345 (4.10%) SOAP
18 285 (3.39%) Middleware
19 256 (3.04%) HTML5
20 248 (2.95%) OAuth
Miscellaneous
1 441 (5.24%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 342 (4.07%) User Experience
3 340 (4.04%) Fixed Income
4 311 (3.70%) Greenfield Project
5 257 (3.06%) Data Structures
6 253 (3.01%) Derivative
7 216 (2.57%) Mobile App
8 206 (2.45%) Algorithms
9 205 (2.44%) Equities
10 196 (2.33%) Enterprise Software
11 195 (2.32%) Cloud Native
12 183 (2.18%) Data Protection Act
13 140 (1.66%) Legacy Systems
13 140 (1.66%) Public Cloud
13 140 (1.66%) Self-Motivation
14 102 (1.21%) Management Information System
15 93 (1.11%) Hedge funds
16 88 (1.05%) Virtual Team
17 69 (0.82%) Client/Server
18 67 (0.80%) Clustering
Operating Systems
1 1,080 (12.84%) Linux
2 717 (8.53%) Unix
3 407 (4.84%) Windows
4 285 (3.39%) Android
5 101 (1.20%) Apple iOS
6 86 (1.02%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 56 (0.67%) Windows Server
8 43 (0.51%) CentOS
9 39 (0.46%) Ubuntu
10 37 (0.44%) Windows 10
11 30 (0.36%) VMS
12 27 (0.32%) Solaris
12 27 (0.32%) Windows Server 2012
13 20 (0.24%) Debian
13 20 (0.24%) Windows Server 2016
14 18 (0.21%) Windows Server 2008
15 17 (0.20%) Oracle Linux
15 17 (0.20%) Windows 7
16 16 (0.19%) AIX
17 15 (0.18%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,606 (42.88%) Agile Software Development
2 2,213 (26.31%) Microservices
3 1,886 (22.43%) DevOps
4 1,434 (17.05%) TDD
5 1,332 (15.84%) Software Engineering
6 1,261 (14.99%) Test Automation
7 1,147 (13.64%) Scrum
8 873 (10.38%) BDD
9 826 (9.82%) Continuous Integration
10 823 (9.79%) Full Stack Development
11 660 (7.85%) Problem-Solving
12 572 (6.80%) Multithreading
13 553 (6.58%) Analytics
14 550 (6.54%) OO
15 536 (6.37%) SDLC
16 423 (5.03%) Migration
17 422 (5.02%) Open Source
18 412 (4.90%) Unit Testing
19 404 (4.80%) Computer Science
20 376 (4.47%) Data Modelling
Programming Languages
1 2,022 (24.04%) Python
2 1,991 (23.67%) SQL
3 1,824 (21.69%) JavaScript
4 933 (11.09%) Java 8
5 700 (8.32%) C#
5 700 (8.32%) Scala
6 600 (7.13%) C++
7 537 (6.39%) Kotlin
8 513 (6.10%) TypeScript
9 354 (4.21%) Java 11
10 315 (3.75%) Go
11 308 (3.66%) PL/SQL
12 286 (3.40%) Bash Shell
13 279 (3.32%) Shell Script
14 266 (3.16%) PowerShell
15 254 (3.02%) C
16 210 (2.50%) Ruby
17 205 (2.44%) Perl
18 186 (2.21%) Groovy
19 161 (1.91%) PHP
Qualifications
1 852 (10.13%) Security Cleared
2 652 (7.75%) SC Cleared
3 515 (6.12%) Degree
4 146 (1.74%) Computer Science Degree
5 128 (1.52%) DV Cleared
6 72 (0.86%) BPSS Clearance
7 70 (0.83%) AWS Certification
8 60 (0.71%) ISTQB
9 42 (0.50%) Master's Degree
10 28 (0.33%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 28 (0.33%) Numerate Degree
11 25 (0.30%) Sun Certification
12 24 (0.29%) ISEB
13 22 (0.26%) CISSP
14 17 (0.20%) OCPJP
15 11 (0.13%) RHCE
16 10 (0.12%) ITIL Certification
16 10 (0.12%) Microsoft Certification
17 9 (0.11%) CCNA
17 9 (0.11%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 403 (4.79%) QA
2 169 (2.01%) Accessibility
3 105 (1.25%) Data Quality
4 58 (0.69%) GDPR
5 34 (0.40%) SLA
6 19 (0.23%) PMO
7 13 (0.15%) Disclosure Scotland
8 11 (0.13%) Cyber Essentials
9 9 (0.11%) ISO 20022
9 9 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 9 (0.11%) MiFID
10 8 (0.095%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 6 (0.071%) NCSC
11 6 (0.071%) WCAG
12 5 (0.059%) PCI DSS
13 4 (0.048%) ISO/IEC 27005
13 4 (0.048%) NIST
14 3 (0.036%) Dublin Core
14 3 (0.036%) HL7
14 3 (0.036%) PSD2
System Software
1 1,606 (19.10%) Docker
2 117 (1.39%) Active Directory
3 87 (1.03%) VMware Infrastructure
4 65 (0.77%) HDFS
5 36 (0.43%) Virtual Machines
6 31 (0.37%) GridGain
7 28 (0.33%) Hyper-V
8 25 (0.30%) OpenAM
9 22 (0.26%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 22 (0.26%) vSphere
10 21 (0.25%) NFS
10 21 (0.25%) VMware ESXi
11 19 (0.23%) OpenDJ
11 19 (0.23%) Platform Symphony
11 19 (0.23%) Xen
12 18 (0.21%) Apache Flume
13 15 (0.18%) Virtual Desktop
14 14 (0.17%) Oracle RAC
15 13 (0.15%) KVM
16 11 (0.13%) OpenIDM
Systems Management
1 1,544 (18.36%) Kubernetes
2 709 (8.43%) Terraform
3 609 (7.24%) Ansible
4 221 (2.63%) Grafana
5 195 (2.32%) Puppet
6 138 (1.64%) Opscode Chef
7 123 (1.46%) Prometheus
8 116 (1.38%) Kibana
9 51 (0.61%) Single Sign-On
10 49 (0.58%) Istio
11 47 (0.56%) Oozie
12 37 (0.44%) Nagios
13 35 (0.42%) Rancher
14 33 (0.39%) vRealize Orchestrator
15 27 (0.32%) Hadoop YARN
16 26 (0.31%) HP Quality Center
17 25 (0.30%) Control-M
17 25 (0.30%) logstash
17 25 (0.30%) SCCM
18 23 (0.27%) HP Fortify
Vendors
1 1,235 (14.68%) Oracle
2 434 (5.16%) Microsoft
3 416 (4.95%) Google
4 255 (3.03%) SAP
5 249 (2.96%) IBM
6 169 (2.01%) Splunk
7 159 (1.89%) MuleSoft
8 134 (1.59%) Salesforce.com
9 116 (1.38%) VMware
10 112 (1.33%) webMethods
11 111 (1.32%) Atlassian
12 105 (1.25%) Red Hat
13 102 (1.21%) Informatica
14 99 (1.18%) BEA
15 98 (1.17%) Adobe
16 91 (1.08%) Sybase
17 87 (1.03%) ION Trading
18 85 (1.01%) Databricks
19 84 (1.00%) hybris
20 79 (0.94%) Cloudera