Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 21 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
21 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 12 10 10
Rank change year-on-year -2 0 -4
Contract jobs citing Java 8,989 6,619 5,813
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 10.18% 11.32% 12.00%
As % of the Programming Languages category 27.77% 27.92% 29.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,430 4,625 4,176
10th Percentile £425 £375 £376
25th Percentile £500 £450 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £590 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +12.38% - -
75th Percentile £700 £645 £625
90th Percentile £800 £713 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £525 £470 £475
% change year-on-year +11.70% -1.05% +0.53%
Number of hourly rates quoted 122 70 63
10th Percentile £32.75 £30.90 £18.30
25th Percentile £47.81 £40.00 £35.08
Median hourly rate £62.88 £52.50 £46.00
Median % change year-on-year +19.76% +14.13% -8.00%
75th Percentile £71.72 £64.88 £57.75
90th Percentile £77.00 £68.36 £65.91
UK excluding London median hourly rate £63.25 £50.00 £43.50
% change year-on-year +26.50% +14.94% -6.79%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 32,374 23,704 19,800
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 36.67% 40.54% 40.86%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,582 16,684 13,956
10th Percentile £384 £325 £325
25th Percentile £455 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £655 £600 £575
90th Percentile £750 £688 £663
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £430 £450
% change year-on-year +16.16% -4.44% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 535 460 354
10th Percentile £19.52 £17.00 £17.50
25th Percentile £35.00 £25.00 £21.68
Median hourly rate £50.00 £42.00 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year +19.05% -1.18% -1.16%
75th Percentile £61.63 £52.50 £50.00
90th Percentile £73.70 £63.00 £57.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.00 £40.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year +25.00% -5.88% -3.41%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 21 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 21 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 21 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -1 7,234 £600 +11.11% 2,134
London -5 4,880 £639 +11.09% 1,114
Work from Home -3 4,503 £561 +9.51% 970
UK excluding London -11 2,166 £525 +11.70% 1,168
North of England -5 507 £525 +10.53% 340
South East -9 411 £540 +10.77% 237
Scotland -5 375 £500 +17.65% 137
South West -6 326 £525 +5.42% 132
North West -3 325 £550 +15.79% 205
Midlands -3 294 £498 +20.61% 171
West Midlands 0 239 £500 +17.65% 111
Yorkshire -3 171 £515 +8.42% 98
East of England -20 155 £550 +7.84% 114
Wales -7 69 £525 +10.53% 22
East Midlands -18 53 £489 +22.96% 60
Northern Ireland +1 39 £500 +16.01% 16
North East -27 24 £488 -2.50% 38
Isle of Man - 4 £530 -

For the 6 months to 21 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 3,869 (43.04%) Agile
2 2,502 (27.83%) Microservices
3 2,366 (26.32%) Spring
4 2,241 (24.93%) Python
5 2,239 (24.91%) AWS
6 2,224 (24.74%) DevOps
7 2,175 (24.20%) CI/CD
8 1,913 (21.28%) SQL
9 1,877 (20.88%) JavaScript
10 1,868 (20.78%) Finance
11 1,753 (19.50%) Docker
12 1,739 (19.35%) Kubernetes
12 1,739 (19.35%) Spring Boot
13 1,709 (19.01%) Software Engineering
14 1,684 (18.73%) Azure
15 1,660 (18.47%) Jenkins
16 1,554 (17.29%) Git (software)
17 1,515 (16.85%) Social Skills
18 1,487 (16.54%) Test Automation
19 1,480 (16.46%) TDD
20 1,407 (15.65%) Linux
21 1,306 (14.53%) Kafka
22 1,276 (14.20%) Banking
23 1,184 (13.17%) Oracle
24 1,175 (13.07%) Scrum
25 1,174 (13.06%) Security Cleared
26 1,170 (13.02%) REST
27 1,068 (11.88%) React
28 1,001 (11.14%) JIRA
29 996 (11.08%) C#

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 606 (6.74%) Confluence
2 416 (4.63%) Apache Spark
3 316 (3.52%) Apache
4 236 (2.63%) Elasticsearch
5 182 (2.02%) Tomcat
6 165 (1.84%) WebLogic
7 162 (1.80%) WebSphere
8 154 (1.71%) JBoss
9 106 (1.18%) SharePoint
10 88 (0.98%) Mule
11 85 (0.95%) WebSphere Application Server
12 80 (0.89%) Red Hat Fuse
13 74 (0.82%) Cloud Foundry
14 68 (0.76%) nginx
15 64 (0.71%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 64 (0.71%) CMS
16 59 (0.66%) Apache Airflow
17 49 (0.55%) OpenStack
18 47 (0.52%) Oracle Workflow
19 44 (0.49%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 87 (0.97%) Microsoft Excel
2 39 (0.43%) Microsoft Office
3 24 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 17 (0.19%) MS Visio
5 12 (0.13%) Microsoft Project
6 10 (0.11%) Spreadsheet
7 4 (0.044%) AutoCAD
8 3 (0.033%) Mathcad
9 2 (0.022%) Chatbot
9 2 (0.022%) Notepad++
9 2 (0.022%) Photoshop
9 2 (0.022%) PTC Creo
9 2 (0.022%) Sketch
10 1 (0.011%) Doxygen
10 1 (0.011%) MadCap Flare
10 1 (0.011%) Pro/ENGINEER
10 1 (0.011%) Siemens NX
10 1 (0.011%) Snagit
10 1 (0.011%) SOLIDWORKS
10 1 (0.011%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 81 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
2 67 (0.75%) Dynamics AX
3 27 (0.30%) assyst
4 23 (0.26%) Oracle EBS
5 21 (0.23%) SAP Hybris
5 21 (0.23%) Shopify
6 19 (0.21%) BusinessWorks
7 16 (0.18%) Magento
7 16 (0.18%) Oracle BPM
8 15 (0.17%) SAP FI-CA
8 15 (0.17%) SAP PSCD
9 14 (0.16%) Oracle 11i
10 11 (0.12%) Misys Midas
11 10 (0.11%) RMDS
12 9 (0.10%) SAP S/4HANA
13 8 (0.089%) TIBCO iProcess
14 7 (0.078%) ION MarketView
14 7 (0.078%) Oracle EBS R12
14 7 (0.078%) Oracle Payables
14 7 (0.078%) Oracle Receivables
Cloud Services
1 2,239 (24.91%) AWS
2 1,684 (18.73%) Azure
3 860 (9.57%) GCP
4 543 (6.04%) Serverless
5 465 (5.17%) GitHub
6 360 (4.00%) AWS Lambda
7 358 (3.98%) OpenShift
8 249 (2.77%) Amazon S3
9 228 (2.54%) AWS CloudFormation
10 199 (2.21%) Amazon EC2
11 169 (1.88%) PaaS
12 167 (1.86%) Power Platform
13 160 (1.78%) SaaS
14 132 (1.47%) IaaS
15 123 (1.37%) Amazon SQS
16 121 (1.35%) Amazon EKS
17 120 (1.33%) Azure Data Factory
18 115 (1.28%) Amazon CloudWatch
19 109 (1.21%) Dynamics 365
20 81 (0.90%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 188 (2.09%) HTTP
2 136 (1.51%) TCP/IP
3 92 (1.02%) Internet
4 67 (0.75%) Firewall
5 61 (0.68%) DNS
6 58 (0.65%) HTTPS
7 53 (0.59%) SSL
8 50 (0.56%) Ethernet
9 38 (0.42%) MQTT
10 33 (0.37%) FTP
11 30 (0.33%) FIX Connectivity
12 28 (0.31%) VPN
13 27 (0.30%) Kerberos
13 27 (0.30%) SSH
14 25 (0.28%) Network Security
15 22 (0.24%) DSL
16 20 (0.22%) IPv4
17 19 (0.21%) SMTP
18 17 (0.19%) LAN
18 17 (0.19%) SAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 646 (7.19%) NoSQL
2 614 (6.83%) PostgreSQL
3 601 (6.69%) MongoDB
4 491 (5.46%) SQL Server
5 480 (5.34%) Relational Database
6 392 (4.36%) Big Data
7 364 (4.05%) MySQL
8 258 (2.87%) Hadoop
9 231 (2.57%) Oracle Database
10 222 (2.47%) Data Warehouse
11 176 (1.96%) Redis
12 146 (1.62%) BigQuery
13 144 (1.60%) Data Lake
14 130 (1.45%) Amazon RDS
15 128 (1.42%) Apache Cassandra
16 125 (1.39%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 115 (1.28%) RDBMS
18 105 (1.17%) Apache Hive
19 93 (1.03%) HBase
20 92 (1.02%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 1,660 (18.47%) Jenkins
2 1,554 (17.29%) Git (software)
3 1,001 (11.14%) JIRA
4 916 (10.19%) Maven
5 564 (6.27%) Selenium
6 558 (6.21%) Cucumber
7 515 (5.73%) GitLab
8 491 (5.46%) JUnit
9 382 (4.25%) Gradle
10 269 (2.99%) Bitbucket
11 268 (2.98%) TeamCity
12 218 (2.43%) Mockito
13 207 (2.30%) Sonatype Nexus
14 191 (2.12%) SonarQube
15 175 (1.95%) Postman
16 162 (1.80%) Subversion
17 155 (1.72%) JMeter
18 147 (1.64%) Eclipse
19 133 (1.48%) Artifactory
20 132 (1.47%) SoapUI
General
1 1,868 (20.78%) Finance
2 1,515 (16.85%) Social Skills
3 1,276 (14.20%) Banking
4 736 (8.19%) Public Sector
5 685 (7.62%) Front Office
6 519 (5.77%) Analytical Skills
7 508 (5.65%) Investment Banking
8 198 (2.20%) Retail
9 137 (1.52%) Presentation Skills
10 125 (1.39%) Marketing
11 109 (1.21%) Telecoms
12 107 (1.19%) Financial Institution
13 76 (0.85%) Influencing Skills
14 72 (0.80%) Legal
15 64 (0.71%) Manufacturing
16 56 (0.62%) Publishing
17 48 (0.53%) Organisational Skills
18 47 (0.52%) Documentation Skills
19 46 (0.51%) Electronics
19 46 (0.51%) Law
Job Titles
1 4,710 (52.40%) Developer
2 3,080 (34.26%) Java Developer
3 813 (9.04%) Senior Developer
4 686 (7.63%) Software Engineer
5 655 (7.29%) Architect
6 636 (7.08%) Java Engineer
7 596 (6.63%) Senior Java Developer
8 419 (4.66%) DevOps Engineer
9 393 (4.37%) Data Engineer
10 358 (3.98%) Full Stack Developer
11 299 (3.33%) Java Software Engineer
12 263 (2.93%) AWS Engineer
13 222 (2.47%) Analyst
14 218 (2.43%) Software Developer
15 214 (2.38%) Tester
16 213 (2.37%) Solutions Architect
17 198 (2.20%) Java Software Developer
17 198 (2.20%) Python Developer
18 189 (2.10%) Consultant
19 184 (2.05%) AWS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,366 (26.32%) Spring
2 1,739 (19.35%) Spring Boot
3 1,306 (14.53%) Kafka
4 1,170 (13.02%) REST
5 1,068 (11.88%) React
6 775 (8.62%) Node.js
7 757 (8.42%) RESTful
8 747 (8.31%) HTML
9 711 (7.91%) Web Services
10 701 (7.80%) .NET
11 625 (6.95%) AngularJS
12 596 (6.63%) CSS
13 533 (5.93%) JSON
14 512 (5.70%) XML
15 489 (5.44%) J2EE
16 479 (5.33%) Hibernate
17 422 (4.69%) SOAP
18 301 (3.35%) HTML5
19 278 (3.09%) Middleware
20 253 (2.81%) JPA
Miscellaneous
1 370 (4.12%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 320 (3.56%) User Experience
3 283 (3.15%) Cloud Native
4 275 (3.06%) Algorithms
5 268 (2.98%) Fixed Income
6 256 (2.85%) Data Structures
7 250 (2.78%) Derivative
7 250 (2.78%) Greenfield Project
8 233 (2.59%) Public Cloud
9 179 (1.99%) Equities
10 171 (1.90%) Mobile App
11 166 (1.85%) Data Protection Act
12 165 (1.84%) Hedge funds
13 147 (1.64%) Self-Motivation
14 143 (1.59%) Enterprise Software
15 133 (1.48%) Virtual Team
16 125 (1.39%) Legacy Systems
17 112 (1.25%) Linux Command Line
18 78 (0.87%) Management Information System
19 77 (0.86%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 1,407 (15.65%) Linux
2 654 (7.28%) Unix
3 521 (5.80%) Windows
4 258 (2.87%) Android
5 130 (1.45%) Apple iOS
6 76 (0.85%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 50 (0.56%) Solaris
8 42 (0.47%) CentOS
8 42 (0.47%) Mac OS X
9 39 (0.43%) Ubuntu
10 37 (0.41%) AIX
11 32 (0.36%) Windows Server
12 23 (0.26%) VMS
13 17 (0.19%) Oracle Linux
14 16 (0.18%) Mac OS
14 16 (0.18%) SUSE
15 14 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
16 12 (0.13%) Windows 10
17 11 (0.12%) Mesosphere
18 9 (0.10%) Fedora
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,869 (43.04%) Agile
2 2,502 (27.83%) Microservices
3 2,224 (24.74%) DevOps
4 2,175 (24.20%) CI/CD
5 1,709 (19.01%) Software Engineering
6 1,487 (16.54%) Test Automation
7 1,480 (16.46%) TDD
8 1,175 (13.07%) Scrum
9 818 (9.10%) Continuous Integration
10 816 (9.08%) Full Stack Development
11 815 (9.07%) BDD
12 747 (8.31%) Problem-Solving
13 654 (7.28%) Analytics
14 566 (6.30%) OO
15 503 (5.60%) Multithreading
16 472 (5.25%) SDLC
17 443 (4.93%) Kanban
18 427 (4.75%) Unit Testing
19 423 (4.71%) Event-Driven
20 422 (4.69%) Migration
Programming Languages
1 2,241 (24.93%) Python
2 1,913 (21.28%) SQL
3 1,877 (20.88%) JavaScript
4 996 (11.08%) C#
5 606 (6.74%) C++
6 595 (6.62%) Scala
7 555 (6.17%) TypeScript
8 396 (4.41%) Go
9 365 (4.06%) Kotlin
10 359 (3.99%) Bash
11 325 (3.62%) Shell Script
12 292 (3.25%) PL/SQL
13 259 (2.88%) C
14 251 (2.79%) PowerShell
15 212 (2.36%) Ruby
16 203 (2.26%) Perl
17 201 (2.24%) PHP
18 192 (2.14%) Groovy
19 95 (1.06%) R
20 65 (0.72%) VBA
Qualifications
1 1,174 (13.06%) Security Cleared
2 980 (10.90%) SC Cleared
3 432 (4.81%) Degree
4 219 (2.44%) Computer Science Degree
5 155 (1.72%) DV Cleared
6 148 (1.65%) BPSS Clearance
7 74 (0.82%) ISTQB
8 67 (0.75%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 45 (0.50%) Master's Degree
10 43 (0.48%) ISEB
10 43 (0.48%) Numerate Degree
11 30 (0.33%) AWS Certification
12 28 (0.31%) CISSP
13 23 (0.26%) PhD
14 18 (0.20%) FFIEC
15 16 (0.18%) PMP
16 14 (0.16%) TOGAF Certification
17 13 (0.14%) PMI Certification
18 11 (0.12%) RHCE
19 10 (0.11%) CEH
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 545 (6.06%) QA
2 185 (2.06%) Accessibility
3 69 (0.77%) Data Quality
4 45 (0.50%) GDPR
5 36 (0.40%) PMO
6 30 (0.33%) NIST
6 30 (0.33%) PCI DSS
7 27 (0.30%) SLA
8 18 (0.20%) GLBA
9 17 (0.19%) WCAG
10 15 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
11 13 (0.14%) SEPA
12 12 (0.13%) ISO 20022
13 10 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 9 (0.10%) ISO/IEC 27005
15 6 (0.067%) Actionable Recommendations
15 6 (0.067%) ISO/IEC 27001
15 6 (0.067%) NCSC
16 5 (0.056%) Dublin Core
16 5 (0.056%) MiFID
System Software
1 1,753 (19.50%) Docker
2 83 (0.92%) Active Directory
3 54 (0.60%) HDFS
4 46 (0.51%) Virtual Machines
5 38 (0.42%) VMware Infrastructure
6 17 (0.19%) Apache Flume
7 16 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 12 (0.13%) vSphere
9 11 (0.12%) Oracle RAC
10 9 (0.10%) Citrix Hypervisor
10 9 (0.10%) NFS
10 9 (0.10%) OpenSSH
11 7 (0.078%) Postfix
11 7 (0.078%) Samba
12 6 (0.067%) Varnish
12 6 (0.067%) VirtualBox
13 5 (0.056%) Ceph
13 5 (0.056%) OpenAM
14 4 (0.044%) Hyper-V
14 4 (0.044%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 1,739 (19.35%) Kubernetes
2 877 (9.76%) Terraform
3 564 (6.27%) Ansible
4 194 (2.16%) Grafana
5 174 (1.94%) Puppet
6 143 (1.59%) Prometheus
7 118 (1.31%) Opscode Chef
8 98 (1.09%) Kibana
9 73 (0.81%) Packer
10 70 (0.78%) ITRS Geneos
11 61 (0.68%) Istio
12 59 (0.66%) Single Sign-On
13 55 (0.61%) Consul
14 41 (0.46%) logstash
15 27 (0.30%) Argo
16 25 (0.28%) BladeLogic
16 25 (0.28%) Docker Swarm
17 20 (0.22%) Rancher
18 18 (0.20%) Nagios
19 16 (0.18%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 1,184 (13.17%) Oracle
2 581 (6.46%) Microsoft
3 402 (4.47%) Google
4 270 (3.00%) SAP
5 247 (2.75%) IBM
6 201 (2.24%) Splunk
7 200 (2.22%) Databricks
8 186 (2.07%) Red Hat
9 125 (1.39%) Atlassian
10 117 (1.30%) Salesforce.com
11 97 (1.08%) ION Trading
12 92 (1.02%) AppDynamics
13 84 (0.93%) Adobe
14 82 (0.91%) Dynatrace
15 76 (0.85%) ServiceNow
16 71 (0.79%) Informatica
17 69 (0.77%) VMware
18 64 (0.71%) MuleSoft
18 64 (0.71%) webMethods
19 60 (0.67%) TIBCO