Period
to 2 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 2 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
2 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 8 10 4
Rank change year-on-year +2 -6 +1
Contract jobs citing Java 5,774 7,272 13,336
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 12.01% 10.93% 13.60%
As % of the Programming Languages category 29.16% 26.74% 31.08%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,261 5,247 9,520
Median daily rate £525 £525 £525
10th Percentile £362 £381 £375
90th Percentile £700 £700 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £459 £475 £465
% change year-on-year -3.47% +2.15% +6.29%
Number of hourly rates quoted 76 60 74
Median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £45.00
10th Percentile £33.50 £17.58 £26.65
90th Percentile £61.25 £57.55 £62.49
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.50 £43.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +1.16% -4.44% +7.14%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 19,802 27,192 42,903
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.19% 40.88% 43.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,801 19,046 30,417
Median daily rate £483 £475 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.58% - +3.26%
10th Percentile £313 £325 £323
90th Percentile £675 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £433 £425
% change year-on-year -1.73% +1.76% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 462 505 661
Median hourly rate £42.50 £43.50 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -2.30% +2.35% +6.25%
10th Percentile £15.46 £17.08 £17.00
90th Percentile £60.90 £55.00 £52.50
Median hourly rate £40.00 £42.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -5.88% - +6.25%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 2 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 2 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 2 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 4,747 £525 -2.33% 2,005
London -1 3,158 £563 -1.32% 989
UK excluding London +3 1,737 £459 -3.47% 1,160
Work from Home +3 1,593 £520 -2.35% 470
North of England -1 440 £475 - 288
South East -4 312 £475 - 298
Scotland +3 279 £425 -10.53% 102
South West -1 249 £500 - 133
North West +1 214 £473 -0.53% 144
Midlands -8 214 £413 -8.33% 167
East of England +20 159 £473 +5.00% 121
West Midlands -7 145 £413 -8.33% 112
Yorkshire -1 144 £459 -5.71% 103
North East +2 82 £500 +16.28% 41
East Midlands +2 58 £413 -8.33% 53
Wales -5 51 £488 +2.63% 21
Northern Ireland -1 39 £431 +1.41% 30
Channel Islands +9 1 - -

For the 6 months to 2 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 2,591 (44.87%) Agile Software Development
2 1,489 (25.79%) Microservices
3 1,472 (25.49%) Spring
4 1,464 (25.36%) AWS
5 1,423 (24.64%) Python
6 1,294 (22.41%) Finance
7 1,276 (22.10%) JavaScript
8 1,274 (22.06%) SQL
9 1,259 (21.80%) DevOps
10 1,181 (20.45%) Jenkins
11 1,175 (20.35%) Kubernetes
12 1,120 (19.40%) Docker
13 1,002 (17.35%) Git (software)
14 984 (17.04%) TDD
15 983 (17.02%) Banking
16 969 (16.78%) Software Engineering
17 926 (16.04%) Azure
18 909 (15.74%) Spring Boot
19 887 (15.36%) Test Automation
20 823 (14.25%) Linux
21 809 (14.01%) Web Services
22 771 (13.35%) Security Cleared
23 740 (12.82%) REST
24 719 (12.45%) Oracle
25 710 (12.30%) Scrum
26 703 (12.18%) Front Office
27 696 (12.05%) Java 8
28 688 (11.92%) Node.js
29 679 (11.76%) BDD
29 679 (11.76%) React

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 307 (5.32%) Apache
2 302 (5.23%) Confluence
3 261 (4.52%) Apache Spark
4 196 (3.39%) WebLogic
5 178 (3.08%) Elasticsearch
6 153 (2.65%) Mule
7 139 (2.41%) Tomcat
8 123 (2.13%) Red Hat Fuse
9 122 (2.11%) JBoss
10 115 (1.99%) Cloud Foundry
11 114 (1.97%) WebSphere
12 71 (1.23%) nginx
13 58 (1.00%) SharePoint
14 54 (0.94%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 50 (0.87%) CMS
16 32 (0.55%) WebSphere Application Server
17 29 (0.50%) Camunda
18 28 (0.48%) Anypoint
19 27 (0.47%) Apache Airflow
19 27 (0.47%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 31 (0.54%) Microsoft Office
2 20 (0.35%) Microsoft Excel
3 13 (0.23%) MS Visio
4 10 (0.17%) Photoshop
5 8 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
5 8 (0.14%) Spreadsheet
6 7 (0.12%) Sketch
7 4 (0.069%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.052%) SPSS
8 3 (0.052%) Zeplin
9 2 (0.035%) Adobe Illustrator
9 2 (0.035%) Adobe Premiere
9 2 (0.035%) InVision
10 1 (0.017%) Chatbot
10 1 (0.017%) Doxygen
10 1 (0.017%) InfoPath
10 1 (0.017%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 27 (0.47%) Dynamics CRM
2 21 (0.36%) Magento
3 18 (0.31%) Dynamics AX
3 18 (0.31%) ION MarketView
4 12 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
5 9 (0.16%) Oracle BPM
5 9 (0.16%) Shopify
5 9 (0.16%) Teamcenter
6 8 (0.14%) Oracle EBS
6 8 (0.14%) SAP CRM
6 8 (0.14%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 6 (0.10%) Maximo
7 6 (0.10%) Payment Gateway
7 6 (0.10%) RMDS
7 6 (0.10%) thinkFolio
8 4 (0.069%) BusinessWorks
8 4 (0.069%) Loan IQ
8 4 (0.069%) SAP FI-CA
9 3 (0.052%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 3 (0.052%) SAP PSCD
Cloud Services
1 1,464 (25.36%) AWS
2 926 (16.04%) Azure
3 558 (9.66%) GCP
4 310 (5.37%) Serverless
5 273 (4.73%) GitHub
6 214 (3.71%) AWS Lambda
7 172 (2.98%) Amazon S3
7 172 (2.98%) OpenShift
8 163 (2.82%) PaaS
9 130 (2.25%) Amazon EC2
10 123 (2.13%) AWS CloudFormation
11 86 (1.49%) Apigee
11 86 (1.49%) SaaS
12 84 (1.45%) IaaS
13 83 (1.44%) Amazon ECS
14 82 (1.42%) npm
15 69 (1.20%) Power Platform
16 66 (1.14%) Amazon EKS
17 64 (1.11%) Slack
18 62 (1.07%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 124 (2.15%) HTTP
2 51 (0.88%) SSL
3 47 (0.81%) TCP/IP
4 44 (0.76%) Firewall
5 33 (0.57%) DNS
6 31 (0.54%) FTP
7 28 (0.48%) Internet
8 20 (0.35%) Network Security
9 19 (0.33%) Kerberos
10 17 (0.29%) SSH
11 16 (0.28%) VPN
12 15 (0.26%) HTTPS
13 13 (0.23%) Unified Communications
14 12 (0.21%) Wireless
15 10 (0.17%) CTI
15 10 (0.17%) Ethernet
15 10 (0.17%) LAN
15 10 (0.17%) Softphone
16 9 (0.16%) SAN
16 9 (0.16%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 333 (5.77%) NoSQL
2 322 (5.58%) MongoDB
3 311 (5.39%) PostgreSQL
3 311 (5.39%) Relational Database
4 301 (5.21%) Big Data
5 265 (4.59%) SQL Server
6 253 (4.38%) MySQL
7 235 (4.07%) Hadoop
8 141 (2.44%) BigQuery
9 131 (2.27%) Data Warehouse
10 92 (1.59%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 89 (1.54%) Apache Hive
12 87 (1.51%) Oracle Database
13 86 (1.49%) Apache Cassandra
14 84 (1.45%) RDBMS
15 74 (1.28%) Apache Ignite
16 65 (1.13%) Cloud Spanner
17 56 (0.97%) Amazon RDS
17 56 (0.97%) DB2
17 56 (0.97%) Redis
Development Applications
1 1,181 (20.45%) Jenkins
2 1,002 (17.35%) Git (software)
3 655 (11.34%) Maven
4 599 (10.37%) JIRA
5 383 (6.63%) Cucumber
6 371 (6.43%) Selenium
7 352 (6.10%) JUnit
8 275 (4.76%) GitLab
9 221 (3.83%) Gradle
10 145 (2.51%) Bitbucket
11 134 (2.32%) Sonatype Nexus
12 133 (2.30%) JMeter
13 131 (2.27%) Mockito
13 131 (2.27%) SonarQube
14 126 (2.18%) Subversion
15 105 (1.82%) Postman
16 101 (1.75%) TeamCity
17 100 (1.73%) Eclipse
18 96 (1.66%) gulp
19 94 (1.63%) Artifactory
General
1 1,294 (22.41%) Finance
2 983 (17.02%) Banking
3 703 (12.18%) Front Office
4 461 (7.98%) Public Sector
5 391 (6.77%) Investment Banking
6 124 (2.15%) Retail
7 117 (2.03%) Marketing
8 116 (2.01%) Telecoms
9 79 (1.37%) Manufacturing
10 64 (1.11%) Electronics
11 50 (0.87%) Games
12 45 (0.78%) Retail Banking
13 33 (0.57%) Financial Institution
14 31 (0.54%) Law
15 26 (0.45%) Automotive
15 26 (0.45%) Back Office
16 23 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
17 18 (0.31%) Advertising
17 18 (0.31%) Publishing
18 17 (0.29%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 3,241 (56.13%) Developer
2 1,908 (33.04%) Java Developer
3 474 (8.21%) Senior Developer
4 442 (7.66%) Software Engineer
5 434 (7.52%) Architect
6 350 (6.06%) Senior Java Developer
7 347 (6.01%) DevOps Engineer
8 327 (5.66%) Java Engineer
9 259 (4.49%) Full Stack Developer
10 174 (3.01%) Data Engineer
11 173 (3.00%) Python Developer
12 166 (2.87%) React Developer
13 161 (2.79%) Solutions Architect
14 159 (2.75%) Java Software Engineer
15 152 (2.63%) Developer/Software Engineer
16 150 (2.60%) Tester
17 149 (2.58%) AWS Engineer
18 148 (2.56%) AWS Developer
19 146 (2.53%) Front Office Developer
19 146 (2.53%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,472 (25.49%) Spring
2 909 (15.74%) Spring Boot
3 809 (14.01%) Web Services
4 740 (12.82%) REST
5 688 (11.92%) Node.js
6 679 (11.76%) React
7 580 (10.05%) AngularJS
8 550 (9.53%) Kafka
9 513 (8.88%) HTML
10 505 (8.75%) RESTful
11 417 (7.22%) JSON
12 393 (6.81%) XML
13 391 (6.77%) .NET
14 372 (6.44%) CSS
15 359 (6.22%) J2EE
16 306 (5.30%) SOAP
17 303 (5.25%) Middleware
18 291 (5.04%) Hibernate
19 241 (4.17%) HTML5
20 218 (3.78%) Apache Camel
Miscellaneous
1 376 (6.51%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 347 (6.01%) Fixed Income
3 287 (4.97%) Derivative
4 286 (4.95%) User Experience
5 275 (4.76%) Analytical Skills
6 253 (4.38%) Equities
7 210 (3.64%) Greenfield Project
8 209 (3.62%) Mobile App
9 150 (2.60%) Enterprise Software
10 149 (2.58%) Data Structures
11 131 (2.27%) Hedge funds
12 112 (1.94%) Cloud Native
13 100 (1.73%) Algorithms
14 92 (1.59%) Self-Motivation
15 70 (1.21%) Public Cloud
16 60 (1.04%) Clustering
17 49 (0.85%) Virtual Team
18 43 (0.74%) Mainframe
19 42 (0.73%) Linux Command Line
20 39 (0.68%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 823 (14.25%) Linux
2 435 (7.53%) Unix
3 268 (4.64%) Android
4 214 (3.71%) Windows
5 123 (2.13%) Apple iOS
6 68 (1.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 39 (0.68%) Mac OS X
8 27 (0.47%) CentOS
9 19 (0.33%) Windows Server
10 18 (0.31%) Oracle Linux
11 14 (0.24%) Ubuntu
12 12 (0.21%) Embedded Linux
12 12 (0.21%) Solaris
12 12 (0.21%) SUSE
13 10 (0.17%) AIX
14 7 (0.12%) Amazon Linux
14 7 (0.12%) Mac OS
15 6 (0.10%) VME
16 5 (0.087%) Debian
16 5 (0.087%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,591 (44.87%) Agile Software Development
2 1,489 (25.79%) Microservices
3 1,259 (21.80%) DevOps
4 984 (17.04%) TDD
5 969 (16.78%) Software Engineering
6 887 (15.36%) Test Automation
7 710 (12.30%) Scrum
8 679 (11.76%) BDD
9 608 (10.53%) Continuous Integration
10 424 (7.34%) OO
11 420 (7.27%) Multithreading
12 391 (6.77%) Open Source
13 378 (6.55%) Problem-Solving
14 364 (6.30%) SDLC
15 331 (5.73%) Continuous Delivery
16 316 (5.47%) Low Latency
17 297 (5.14%) Analytics
18 281 (4.87%) Migration
19 266 (4.61%) Configuration Management
19 266 (4.61%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 1,423 (24.64%) Python
2 1,276 (22.10%) JavaScript
3 1,274 (22.06%) SQL
4 696 (12.05%) Java 8
5 518 (8.97%) Scala
6 508 (8.80%) Kotlin
7 464 (8.04%) C#
8 366 (6.34%) C++
9 254 (4.40%) PL/SQL
10 240 (4.16%) TypeScript
11 208 (3.60%) Bash Shell
12 195 (3.38%) Shell Script
13 174 (3.01%) Go
14 156 (2.70%) C
15 155 (2.68%) Perl
16 133 (2.30%) Groovy
17 131 (2.27%) Ruby
18 127 (2.20%) PowerShell
19 92 (1.59%) PHP
20 71 (1.23%) R
Qualifications
1 771 (13.35%) Security Cleared
2 597 (10.34%) SC Cleared
3 324 (5.61%) Degree
4 127 (2.20%) DV Cleared
5 102 (1.77%) Computer Science Degree
6 49 (0.85%) ISTQB
7 45 (0.78%) Master's Degree
8 39 (0.68%) BPSS Clearance
9 37 (0.64%) ISEB
10 36 (0.62%) Numerate Degree
11 35 (0.61%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 32 (0.55%) AWS Certification
13 20 (0.35%) PhD
14 15 (0.26%) Sun Certification
15 14 (0.24%) DBS Check
16 11 (0.19%) Cisco Certification
17 10 (0.17%) CCNA
18 9 (0.16%) Microsoft Certification
18 9 (0.16%) OCPJP
18 9 (0.16%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 327 (5.66%) QA
2 33 (0.57%) Data Quality
3 26 (0.45%) GDPR
4 25 (0.43%) SLA
5 20 (0.35%) WCAG
6 15 (0.26%) MiFID
7 14 (0.24%) PMO
8 13 (0.23%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 13 (0.23%) NIST
9 9 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
10 7 (0.12%) PCI DSS
11 5 (0.087%) ISO 20022
11 5 (0.087%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 4 (0.069%) HL7
12 4 (0.069%) NCSC
13 3 (0.052%) HIPAA
13 3 (0.052%) PSD2
13 3 (0.052%) RMADS
14 2 (0.035%) SEPA
14 2 (0.035%) TARGET2
System Software
1 1,120 (19.40%) Docker
2 77 (1.33%) Virtual Machines
3 56 (0.97%) HDFS
4 41 (0.71%) Active Directory
5 31 (0.54%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 29 (0.50%) VMware Infrastructure
7 12 (0.21%) GridGain
7 12 (0.21%) Time Sharing Option
8 11 (0.19%) Apache Flume
9 10 (0.17%) VMware ESXi
9 10 (0.17%) vSphere
10 9 (0.16%) NFS
11 6 (0.10%) Hyper-V
11 6 (0.10%) KVM
11 6 (0.10%) OpenAM
11 6 (0.10%) Oracle RAC
11 6 (0.10%) Postfix
11 6 (0.10%) Xen
12 5 (0.087%) OpenDJ
13 4 (0.069%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
Systems Management
1 1,175 (20.35%) Kubernetes
2 605 (10.48%) Terraform
3 454 (7.86%) Ansible
4 161 (2.79%) Puppet
5 102 (1.77%) Opscode Chef
6 85 (1.47%) Prometheus
7 73 (1.26%) Grafana
8 47 (0.81%) Argo
9 46 (0.80%) Kibana
10 38 (0.66%) HP ALM
11 29 (0.50%) Salt
12 28 (0.48%) Hadoop YARN
13 26 (0.45%) Single Sign-On
14 20 (0.35%) Istio
15 18 (0.31%) Oozie
15 18 (0.31%) Packer
16 16 (0.28%) vRealize Orchestrator
17 15 (0.26%) Nagios
18 13 (0.23%) logstash
19 12 (0.21%) Rancher
Vendors
1 719 (12.45%) Oracle
2 317 (5.49%) Google
3 214 (3.71%) Microsoft
4 164 (2.84%) SAP
5 153 (2.65%) MuleSoft
6 151 (2.62%) Splunk
7 138 (2.39%) webMethods
8 136 (2.36%) IBM
9 104 (1.80%) Red Hat
10 102 (1.77%) BEA
11 86 (1.49%) Atlassian
12 80 (1.39%) AppDynamics
13 78 (1.35%) Sybase
14 68 (1.18%) Pega
15 64 (1.11%) Talend
16 63 (1.09%) TIBCO
17 61 (1.06%) HP
17 61 (1.06%) Informatica
18 59 (1.02%) Salesforce.com
19 52 (0.90%) Cloudera