Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 17 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
17 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 12 10 10
Rank change year-on-year -2 0 -4
Contract jobs citing Java 8,862 6,461 5,879
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 10.13% 11.33% 11.78%
As % of the Programming Languages category 27.57% 27.94% 28.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,335 4,512 4,229
10th Percentile £425 £375 £378
25th Percentile £500 £450 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £593 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +12.86% - -
75th Percentile £700 £642 £625
90th Percentile £800 £713 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £525 £470 £475
% change year-on-year +11.70% -1.05% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 122 70 63
10th Percentile £32.75 £30.90 £18.30
25th Percentile £47.81 £40.00 £35.08
Median hourly rate £62.88 £48.75 £46.00
Median % change year-on-year +28.97% +5.98% -4.96%
75th Percentile £72.21 £64.00 £57.75
90th Percentile £77.00 £68.00 £65.91
UK excluding London median hourly rate £63.25 £44.75 £43.50
% change year-on-year +41.34% +2.87% -6.12%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 32,142 23,122 20,334
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 36.75% 40.55% 40.75%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,403 16,269 14,354
10th Percentile £381 £325 £325
25th Percentile £455 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £653 £594 £575
90th Percentile £750 £688 £660
UK excluding London median daily rate £495 £425 £450
% change year-on-year +16.47% -5.56% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 534 450 363
10th Percentile £19.52 £17.00 £17.25
25th Percentile £35.00 £25.00 £21.54
Median hourly rate £50.00 £41.15 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year +21.51% -3.18% -1.16%
75th Percentile £61.75 £51.94 £50.00
90th Percentile £74.85 £62.25 £57.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.00 £40.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year +25.00% -5.88% -3.41%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 17 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 17 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 17 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -1 7,142 £600 +11.63% 1,918
London -5 4,809 £640 +11.30% 1,045
Work from Home -2 4,432 £560 +9.27% 906
UK excluding London -10 2,140 £525 +11.70% 982
North of England -6 509 £525 +10.53% 291
South East -10 409 £530 +9.84% 169
Scotland -6 358 £500 +17.65% 110
South West -7 325 £525 +5.19% 108
North West -5 322 £550 +15.79% 174
Midlands -3 289 £495 +20.00% 165
West Midlands +3 237 £500 +17.65% 99
Yorkshire -3 173 £525 +12.48% 86
East of England -21 156 £550 +7.84% 109
Wales -7 69 £525 +10.53% 15
East Midlands -14 50 £489 +23.73% 65
Northern Ireland +1 36 £500 +16.01% 15
North East -28 25 £500 - 32
Isle of Man - 3 £530 -

For the 6 months to 17 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 3,813 (43.03%) Agile
2 2,452 (27.67%) Microservices
3 2,317 (26.15%) Spring
4 2,211 (24.95%) AWS
5 2,199 (24.81%) Python
6 2,179 (24.59%) DevOps
7 2,148 (24.24%) CI/CD
8 1,887 (21.29%) SQL
9 1,837 (20.73%) Finance
10 1,834 (20.70%) JavaScript
11 1,746 (19.70%) Docker
12 1,714 (19.34%) Kubernetes
13 1,696 (19.14%) Spring Boot
14 1,677 (18.92%) Software Engineering
15 1,668 (18.82%) Azure
16 1,660 (18.73%) Jenkins
17 1,555 (17.55%) Git (software)
18 1,495 (16.87%) Social Skills
19 1,464 (16.52%) Test Automation
20 1,462 (16.50%) TDD
21 1,407 (15.88%) Linux
22 1,285 (14.50%) Kafka
23 1,266 (14.29%) Banking
24 1,166 (13.16%) Oracle
24 1,166 (13.16%) Scrum
25 1,165 (13.15%) REST
26 1,160 (13.09%) Security Cleared
27 1,029 (11.61%) React
28 997 (11.25%) C#
29 996 (11.24%) JIRA

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 602 (6.79%) Confluence
2 406 (4.58%) Apache Spark
3 307 (3.46%) Apache
4 222 (2.51%) Elasticsearch
5 180 (2.03%) Tomcat
6 166 (1.87%) WebLogic
7 160 (1.81%) WebSphere
8 157 (1.77%) JBoss
9 104 (1.17%) SharePoint
10 88 (0.99%) Mule
11 86 (0.97%) Red Hat Fuse
12 82 (0.93%) WebSphere Application Server
13 71 (0.80%) Cloud Foundry
14 66 (0.74%) nginx
15 65 (0.73%) CMS
16 61 (0.69%) Adobe Experience Manager
17 59 (0.67%) Apache Airflow
18 47 (0.53%) OpenStack
18 47 (0.53%) Oracle Workflow
19 42 (0.47%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 86 (0.97%) Microsoft Excel
2 39 (0.44%) Microsoft Office
3 24 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 17 (0.19%) MS Visio
5 11 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
5 11 (0.12%) Spreadsheet
6 4 (0.045%) AutoCAD
7 3 (0.034%) Mathcad
8 2 (0.023%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.023%) Notepad++
8 2 (0.023%) Photoshop
8 2 (0.023%) PTC Creo
8 2 (0.023%) Sketch
9 1 (0.011%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.011%) MadCap Flare
9 1 (0.011%) Pro/ENGINEER
9 1 (0.011%) Siemens NX
9 1 (0.011%) Snagit
9 1 (0.011%) SOLIDWORKS
9 1 (0.011%) Windchill
Business Applications
1 80 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
2 66 (0.74%) Dynamics AX
3 27 (0.30%) assyst
4 22 (0.25%) Oracle EBS
5 21 (0.24%) Shopify
6 20 (0.23%) SAP Hybris
7 19 (0.21%) BusinessWorks
8 17 (0.19%) Magento
9 16 (0.18%) Oracle BPM
10 15 (0.17%) SAP FI-CA
10 15 (0.17%) SAP PSCD
11 14 (0.16%) Oracle 11i
12 11 (0.12%) Misys Midas
13 10 (0.11%) RMDS
13 10 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
14 9 (0.10%) SAP ERP
15 8 (0.090%) TIBCO iProcess
16 7 (0.079%) ION MarketView
16 7 (0.079%) Primavera
16 7 (0.079%) thinkFolio
Cloud Services
1 2,211 (24.95%) AWS
2 1,668 (18.82%) Azure
3 853 (9.63%) GCP
4 521 (5.88%) Serverless
5 467 (5.27%) GitHub
6 343 (3.87%) OpenShift
7 339 (3.83%) AWS Lambda
8 231 (2.61%) Amazon S3
9 219 (2.47%) AWS CloudFormation
10 194 (2.19%) Amazon EC2
11 170 (1.92%) PaaS
12 165 (1.86%) Power Platform
13 158 (1.78%) SaaS
14 133 (1.50%) IaaS
15 123 (1.39%) Amazon EKS
16 117 (1.32%) Amazon SQS
17 113 (1.28%) Azure Data Factory
18 112 (1.26%) Amazon CloudWatch
19 108 (1.22%) Dynamics 365
20 80 (0.90%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 189 (2.13%) HTTP
2 135 (1.52%) TCP/IP
3 89 (1.00%) Internet
4 63 (0.71%) Firewall
5 60 (0.68%) DNS
6 57 (0.64%) HTTPS
7 54 (0.61%) SSL
8 50 (0.56%) Ethernet
9 38 (0.43%) MQTT
10 33 (0.37%) FTP
11 30 (0.34%) FIX Connectivity
12 27 (0.30%) SSH
13 26 (0.29%) Kerberos
13 26 (0.29%) Network Security
13 26 (0.29%) VPN
14 21 (0.24%) DSL
15 20 (0.23%) IPv4
16 19 (0.21%) SMTP
17 17 (0.19%) LAN
17 17 (0.19%) SAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 643 (7.26%) NoSQL
2 597 (6.74%) MongoDB
3 595 (6.71%) PostgreSQL
4 499 (5.63%) SQL Server
5 486 (5.48%) Relational Database
6 387 (4.37%) Big Data
7 367 (4.14%) MySQL
8 260 (2.93%) Hadoop
9 220 (2.48%) Oracle Database
10 219 (2.47%) Data Warehouse
11 175 (1.97%) Redis
12 147 (1.66%) BigQuery
13 137 (1.55%) Data Lake
14 128 (1.44%) Apache Cassandra
15 126 (1.42%) Amazon RDS
16 125 (1.41%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 114 (1.29%) RDBMS
18 105 (1.18%) Apache Hive
19 93 (1.05%) HBase
20 89 (1.00%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 1,660 (18.73%) Jenkins
2 1,555 (17.55%) Git (software)
3 996 (11.24%) JIRA
4 916 (10.34%) Maven
5 571 (6.44%) Selenium
6 558 (6.30%) Cucumber
7 507 (5.72%) GitLab
8 494 (5.57%) JUnit
9 376 (4.24%) Gradle
10 270 (3.05%) Bitbucket
10 270 (3.05%) TeamCity
11 215 (2.43%) Mockito
12 204 (2.30%) Sonatype Nexus
13 192 (2.17%) SonarQube
14 179 (2.02%) Postman
15 165 (1.86%) Subversion
16 158 (1.78%) JMeter
17 145 (1.64%) Eclipse
18 137 (1.55%) SoapUI
19 132 (1.49%) Artifactory
General
1 1,837 (20.73%) Finance
2 1,495 (16.87%) Social Skills
3 1,266 (14.29%) Banking
4 720 (8.12%) Public Sector
5 674 (7.61%) Front Office
6 522 (5.89%) Analytical Skills
7 502 (5.66%) Investment Banking
8 199 (2.25%) Retail
9 137 (1.55%) Presentation Skills
10 125 (1.41%) Marketing
11 108 (1.22%) Telecoms
12 107 (1.21%) Financial Institution
13 70 (0.79%) Legal
14 69 (0.78%) Influencing Skills
15 65 (0.73%) Manufacturing
16 55 (0.62%) Publishing
17 50 (0.56%) Organisational Skills
18 47 (0.53%) Documentation Skills
19 46 (0.52%) Electronics
20 44 (0.50%) Law
Job Titles
1 4,650 (52.47%) Developer
2 3,049 (34.41%) Java Developer
3 808 (9.12%) Senior Developer
4 671 (7.57%) Software Engineer
5 652 (7.36%) Architect
6 630 (7.11%) Java Engineer
7 596 (6.73%) Senior Java Developer
8 407 (4.59%) DevOps Engineer
9 381 (4.30%) Data Engineer
10 355 (4.01%) Full Stack Developer
11 298 (3.36%) Java Software Engineer
12 253 (2.85%) AWS Engineer
13 226 (2.55%) Analyst
14 217 (2.45%) Software Developer
15 216 (2.44%) Tester
16 215 (2.43%) Solutions Architect
17 197 (2.22%) Java Software Developer
18 195 (2.20%) Python Developer
19 190 (2.14%) Consultant
20 180 (2.03%) Electronic Trading Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,317 (26.15%) Spring
2 1,696 (19.14%) Spring Boot
3 1,285 (14.50%) Kafka
4 1,165 (13.15%) REST
5 1,029 (11.61%) React
6 766 (8.64%) Node.js
7 746 (8.42%) RESTful
8 727 (8.20%) HTML
9 709 (8.00%) Web Services
10 689 (7.77%) .NET
11 611 (6.89%) AngularJS
12 580 (6.54%) CSS
13 539 (6.08%) JSON
14 518 (5.85%) XML
15 486 (5.48%) J2EE
16 472 (5.33%) Hibernate
17 428 (4.83%) SOAP
18 294 (3.32%) HTML5
19 284 (3.20%) Middleware
20 241 (2.72%) JPA
Miscellaneous
1 362 (4.08%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 310 (3.50%) User Experience
3 283 (3.19%) Cloud Native
4 278 (3.14%) Algorithms
5 265 (2.99%) Fixed Income
6 254 (2.87%) Data Structures
7 246 (2.78%) Derivative
8 244 (2.75%) Greenfield Project
9 230 (2.60%) Public Cloud
10 178 (2.01%) Equities
11 167 (1.88%) Mobile App
12 164 (1.85%) Data Protection Act
13 160 (1.81%) Hedge funds
14 146 (1.65%) Self-Motivation
15 144 (1.62%) Enterprise Software
16 131 (1.48%) Virtual Team
17 112 (1.26%) Legacy Systems
18 110 (1.24%) Linux Command Line
19 79 (0.89%) iPad
20 75 (0.85%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 1,407 (15.88%) Linux
2 658 (7.42%) Unix
3 525 (5.92%) Windows
4 255 (2.88%) Android
5 127 (1.43%) Apple iOS
6 79 (0.89%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 52 (0.59%) Solaris
8 47 (0.53%) CentOS
9 43 (0.49%) Mac OS X
10 40 (0.45%) Ubuntu
11 37 (0.42%) AIX
12 33 (0.37%) Windows Server
13 23 (0.26%) VMS
14 20 (0.23%) Oracle Linux
15 18 (0.20%) SUSE
16 17 (0.19%) Mac OS
17 14 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
18 12 (0.14%) Windows 10
19 11 (0.12%) Fedora
19 11 (0.12%) Mesosphere
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,813 (43.03%) Agile
2 2,452 (27.67%) Microservices
3 2,179 (24.59%) DevOps
4 2,148 (24.24%) CI/CD
5 1,677 (18.92%) Software Engineering
6 1,464 (16.52%) Test Automation
7 1,462 (16.50%) TDD
8 1,166 (13.16%) Scrum
9 818 (9.23%) BDD
10 815 (9.20%) Continuous Integration
11 809 (9.13%) Full Stack Development
12 739 (8.34%) Problem-Solving
13 634 (7.15%) Analytics
14 557 (6.29%) OO
15 492 (5.55%) Multithreading
16 476 (5.37%) SDLC
17 437 (4.93%) Kanban
18 419 (4.73%) Migration
19 418 (4.72%) Event-Driven
20 412 (4.65%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 2,199 (24.81%) Python
2 1,887 (21.29%) SQL
3 1,834 (20.70%) JavaScript
4 997 (11.25%) C#
5 606 (6.84%) C++
6 587 (6.62%) Scala
7 524 (5.91%) TypeScript
8 393 (4.43%) Go
9 361 (4.07%) Kotlin
10 350 (3.95%) Bash
11 322 (3.63%) Shell Script
12 279 (3.15%) PL/SQL
13 252 (2.84%) C
14 249 (2.81%) PowerShell
15 211 (2.38%) Ruby
16 200 (2.26%) PHP
17 198 (2.23%) Perl
18 187 (2.11%) Groovy
19 92 (1.04%) R
20 64 (0.72%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 1,160 (13.09%) Security Cleared
2 967 (10.91%) SC Cleared
3 428 (4.83%) Degree
4 216 (2.44%) Computer Science Degree
5 155 (1.75%) DV Cleared
6 146 (1.65%) BPSS Clearance
7 76 (0.86%) ISTQB
8 68 (0.77%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 45 (0.51%) Master's Degree
10 43 (0.49%) ISEB
10 43 (0.49%) Numerate Degree
11 27 (0.30%) AWS Certification
12 26 (0.29%) CISSP
13 22 (0.25%) PhD
14 17 (0.19%) FFIEC
15 15 (0.17%) PMP
16 14 (0.16%) TOGAF Certification
17 13 (0.15%) PMI Certification
17 13 (0.15%) RHCE
18 12 (0.14%) RHCSA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 540 (6.09%) QA
2 167 (1.88%) Accessibility
3 67 (0.76%) Data Quality
4 46 (0.52%) GDPR
5 32 (0.36%) PMO
6 29 (0.33%) NIST
6 29 (0.33%) PCI DSS
7 26 (0.29%) SLA
8 17 (0.19%) GLBA
9 16 (0.18%) WCAG
10 13 (0.15%) SEPA
11 12 (0.14%) ISO 20022
12 11 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
13 10 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 9 (0.10%) ISO/IEC 27005
15 7 (0.079%) ISO/IEC 27001
16 6 (0.068%) Actionable Recommendations
16 6 (0.068%) NCSC
17 5 (0.056%) Dublin Core
17 5 (0.056%) MiFID
System Software
1 1,746 (19.70%) Docker
2 86 (0.97%) Active Directory
3 53 (0.60%) HDFS
4 47 (0.53%) Virtual Machines
5 33 (0.37%) VMware Infrastructure
6 18 (0.20%) Apache Flume
7 16 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 11 (0.12%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 11 (0.12%) Oracle RAC
9 9 (0.10%) NFS
9 9 (0.10%) OpenSSH
10 8 (0.090%) vSphere
11 7 (0.079%) Postfix
11 7 (0.079%) Samba
12 6 (0.068%) Varnish
12 6 (0.068%) VirtualBox
13 5 (0.056%) Ceph
14 4 (0.045%) etcd
14 4 (0.045%) OpenAM
14 4 (0.045%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 1,714 (19.34%) Kubernetes
2 867 (9.78%) Terraform
3 560 (6.32%) Ansible
4 182 (2.05%) Grafana
5 172 (1.94%) Puppet
6 140 (1.58%) Prometheus
7 119 (1.34%) Opscode Chef
8 95 (1.07%) Kibana
9 72 (0.81%) ITRS Geneos
10 64 (0.72%) Packer
11 63 (0.71%) Istio
12 59 (0.67%) Single Sign-On
13 55 (0.62%) Consul
14 40 (0.45%) logstash
15 27 (0.30%) Argo
16 26 (0.29%) Docker Swarm
17 25 (0.28%) BladeLogic
18 19 (0.21%) Rancher
19 17 (0.19%) Nagios
20 15 (0.17%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 1,166 (13.16%) Oracle
2 577 (6.51%) Microsoft
3 399 (4.50%) Google
4 268 (3.02%) SAP
5 245 (2.76%) IBM
6 201 (2.27%) Splunk
7 192 (2.17%) Databricks
8 187 (2.11%) Red Hat
9 121 (1.37%) Atlassian
10 113 (1.28%) Salesforce.com
11 96 (1.08%) AppDynamics
11 96 (1.08%) ION Trading
12 82 (0.93%) Dynatrace
13 81 (0.91%) Adobe
14 75 (0.85%) ServiceNow
15 68 (0.77%) Informatica
16 67 (0.76%) MuleSoft
17 65 (0.73%) webMethods
18 62 (0.70%) VMware
19 60 (0.68%) Sybase