Period
to 28 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 28 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
28 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 10 7 10
Rank change year-on-year -3 +3 -5
Contract jobs citing Java 9,785 4,428 9,594
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 11.45% 13.58% 11.35%
As % of the Programming Languages category 28.98% 32.26% 27.01%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,041 3,242 6,551
10th Percentile £406 £360 £378
25th Percentile £463 £431 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
75th Percentile £663 £644 £625
90th Percentile £750 £750 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £495 £463 £475
% change year-on-year +7.03% -2.63% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 80 25 64
10th Percentile £34.80 £24.83 £23.30
25th Percentile £45.54 £40.00 £34.00
Median hourly rate £59.50 £42.50 £45.50
Median % change year-on-year +40.00% -6.59% +5.81%
75th Percentile £68.75 £55.00 £51.25
90th Percentile £71.78 £64.10 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £57.00 £43.00 £43.00
% change year-on-year +32.56% - -

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 33,759 13,727 35,516
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.51% 42.09% 42.01%
Number of daily rates quoted 24,383 9,612 24,925
10th Percentile £363 £310 £320
25th Percentile £425 £394 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £480 £475
Median % change year-on-year +9.38% +1.05% -
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £704 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +8.82% - +1.19%
Number of hourly rates quoted 444 288 646
10th Percentile £17.42 £12.35 £19.18
25th Percentile £25.25 £20.94 £33.44
Median hourly rate £45.50 £38.50 £44.26
Median % change year-on-year +18.18% -13.01% +5.77%
75th Percentile £60.00 £47.63 £50.19
90th Percentile £68.75 £57.50 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £38.50 £44.00
% change year-on-year +16.88% -12.50% +4.11%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 28 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 28 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 28 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 7,876 £568 +8.10% 2,676
London -5 5,258 £600 +4.35% 1,399
UK excluding London -2 2,696 £495 +7.03% 1,476
Work from Home 0 2,636 £540 +8.00% 603
North of England -2 648 £500 +5.26% 469
South East 0 508 £497 +4.53% 291
Scotland +9 493 £468 +10.00% 131
North West 0 366 £475 +5.56% 273
Midlands -8 355 £495 +16.47% 219
South West -2 350 £500 +4.00% 171
West Midlands -5 298 £495 +15.65% 151
East of England -4 228 £535 +7.00% 111
Yorkshire -11 216 £500 +5.26% 138
North East -1 73 £500 - 58
Northern Ireland +3 66 £475 +10.21% 23
Wales 0 58 £503 +8.65% 64
East Midlands -40 52 £475 +21.02% 65

For the 6 months to 28 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 4,267 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
2 2,741 (28.01%) Spring
3 2,671 (27.30%) Microservices
4 2,559 (26.15%) AWS
5 2,315 (23.66%) SQL
6 2,294 (23.44%) Python
7 2,252 (23.01%) DevOps
8 2,128 (21.75%) JavaScript
9 2,091 (21.37%) Finance
10 2,018 (20.62%) Jenkins
11 1,906 (19.48%) Spring Boot
12 1,837 (18.77%) Docker
13 1,822 (18.62%) Kubernetes
14 1,711 (17.49%) Git (software)
15 1,704 (17.41%) Azure
16 1,695 (17.32%) Social Skills
17 1,683 (17.20%) TDD
18 1,644 (16.80%) Software Engineering
19 1,561 (15.95%) Test Automation
20 1,487 (15.20%) Banking
21 1,394 (14.25%) Oracle
22 1,353 (13.83%) Linux
23 1,324 (13.53%) Scrum
24 1,269 (12.97%) REST
25 1,134 (11.59%) React
26 1,120 (11.45%) Kafka
27 1,106 (11.30%) JIRA
28 1,082 (11.06%) Java 8
29 1,042 (10.65%) Maven
30 1,012 (10.34%) BDD

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 573 (5.86%) Confluence
2 436 (4.46%) Apache Spark
3 335 (3.42%) Apache
4 262 (2.68%) Elasticsearch
5 250 (2.55%) Tomcat
6 198 (2.02%) WebLogic
7 159 (1.62%) SharePoint
8 134 (1.37%) WebSphere
9 120 (1.23%) JBoss
10 114 (1.17%) Mule
11 108 (1.10%) CMS
12 103 (1.05%) Apache Airflow
13 93 (0.95%) Cloud Foundry
14 69 (0.71%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 61 (0.62%) SAS
16 49 (0.50%) OpenStack
17 48 (0.49%) Red Hat Fuse
18 46 (0.47%) nginx
19 40 (0.41%) Oracle Workflow
20 39 (0.40%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 90 (0.92%) Microsoft Excel
2 52 (0.53%) Microsoft Office
3 18 (0.18%) Spreadsheet
4 8 (0.082%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 8 (0.082%) MS Visio
5 7 (0.072%) Microsoft Project
6 6 (0.061%) Photoshop
7 4 (0.041%) Chatbot
8 2 (0.020%) CPLEX
8 2 (0.020%) SPSS
9 1 (0.010%) 3ds Max
9 1 (0.010%) Figma
9 1 (0.010%) Maya
9 1 (0.010%) Sketch
9 1 (0.010%) ZBrush
9 1 (0.010%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 143 (1.46%) Dynamics CRM
2 121 (1.24%) Dynamics AX
3 53 (0.54%) ION MarketView
4 35 (0.36%) SAP Hybris
5 28 (0.29%) Magento
6 12 (0.12%) Shopify
7 11 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
8 9 (0.092%) BusinessWorks
9 7 (0.072%) Payment Gateway
9 7 (0.072%) SAP CRM
9 7 (0.072%) Temenos T24
10 6 (0.061%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 6 (0.061%) SAP FI-CA
10 6 (0.061%) SAP PSCD
11 5 (0.051%) Endur
11 5 (0.051%) Oracle Applications
11 5 (0.051%) Oracle EBS
11 5 (0.051%) Oracle Financials
11 5 (0.051%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
11 5 (0.051%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 2,559 (26.15%) AWS
2 1,704 (17.41%) Azure
3 922 (9.42%) GCP
4 574 (5.87%) GitHub
4 574 (5.87%) Serverless
5 385 (3.93%) AWS Lambda
6 383 (3.91%) Amazon S3
7 259 (2.65%) AWS CloudFormation
8 252 (2.58%) SaaS
9 245 (2.50%) Amazon EC2
10 244 (2.49%) OpenShift
11 193 (1.97%) PaaS
12 164 (1.68%) Power Platform
13 161 (1.65%) Amazon SQS
14 157 (1.60%) IaaS
15 136 (1.39%) Dynamics 365
16 120 (1.23%) Apigee
17 119 (1.22%) Amazon ECS
18 108 (1.10%) Amazon EKS
19 103 (1.05%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 247 (2.52%) HTTP
2 108 (1.10%) TCP/IP
3 88 (0.90%) Firewall
4 75 (0.77%) DNS
5 68 (0.69%) Internet
6 67 (0.68%) SSL
7 40 (0.41%) Network Security
8 32 (0.33%) FTP
9 30 (0.31%) LAN
10 29 (0.30%) HTTPS
11 26 (0.27%) VPN
11 26 (0.27%) WAN
12 25 (0.26%) RTMP
13 24 (0.25%) SAN
14 23 (0.24%) Kerberos
15 22 (0.22%) DHCP
15 22 (0.22%) Ethernet
16 21 (0.21%) NAS
17 19 (0.19%) FIX Connectivity
18 17 (0.17%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 771 (7.88%) NoSQL
2 634 (6.48%) Relational Database
3 616 (6.30%) MongoDB
4 570 (5.83%) PostgreSQL
5 513 (5.24%) MySQL
6 427 (4.36%) SQL Server
7 422 (4.31%) Big Data
8 360 (3.68%) Hadoop
9 247 (2.52%) Data Warehouse
10 239 (2.44%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 215 (2.20%) Oracle Database
12 196 (2.00%) Apache Cassandra
13 188 (1.92%) RDBMS
14 180 (1.84%) Redis
15 167 (1.71%) Apache Hive
16 155 (1.58%) HBase
17 151 (1.54%) Amazon RDS
18 131 (1.34%) Data Lake
19 126 (1.29%) BigQuery
20 111 (1.13%) BusinessObjects
Development Applications
1 2,018 (20.62%) Jenkins
2 1,711 (17.49%) Git (software)
3 1,106 (11.30%) JIRA
4 1,042 (10.65%) Maven
5 617 (6.31%) Cucumber
6 611 (6.24%) JUnit
7 582 (5.95%) Selenium
8 407 (4.16%) GitLab
9 329 (3.36%) Bitbucket
10 327 (3.34%) Gradle
11 301 (3.08%) Mockito
12 250 (2.55%) TeamCity
13 208 (2.13%) Postman
14 194 (1.98%) JMeter
15 186 (1.90%) Subversion
16 183 (1.87%) SonarQube
17 165 (1.69%) Artifactory
17 165 (1.69%) Sonatype Nexus
18 150 (1.53%) IntelliJ
19 143 (1.46%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 2,091 (21.37%) Finance
2 1,695 (17.32%) Social Skills
3 1,487 (15.20%) Banking
4 729 (7.45%) Front Office
5 649 (6.63%) Investment Banking
6 594 (6.07%) Analytical Skills
7 559 (5.71%) Public Sector
8 260 (2.66%) Retail
9 165 (1.69%) Presentation Skills
10 157 (1.60%) Marketing
11 107 (1.09%) Financial Institution
12 99 (1.01%) Manufacturing
13 93 (0.95%) Telecoms
14 67 (0.68%) Games
15 63 (0.64%) Documentation Skills
15 63 (0.64%) Legal
16 61 (0.62%) Law
17 57 (0.58%) Electronics
18 55 (0.56%) Retail Banking
19 54 (0.55%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 5,210 (53.24%) Developer
2 3,219 (32.90%) Java Developer
3 846 (8.65%) Architect
4 835 (8.53%) Senior Developer
5 649 (6.63%) Senior Java Developer
6 610 (6.23%) Java Engineer
7 600 (6.13%) Software Engineer
8 426 (4.35%) Full Stack Developer
9 417 (4.26%) Data Engineer
10 413 (4.22%) DevOps Engineer
11 272 (2.78%) Solutions Architect
12 268 (2.74%) Analyst
13 265 (2.71%) Consultant
14 246 (2.51%) React Developer
15 235 (2.40%) Java Software Engineer
16 225 (2.30%) Tester
17 220 (2.25%) AWS Engineer
18 200 (2.04%) Front Office Developer
19 198 (2.02%) Python Developer
19 198 (2.02%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,741 (28.01%) Spring
2 1,906 (19.48%) Spring Boot
3 1,269 (12.97%) REST
4 1,134 (11.59%) React
5 1,120 (11.45%) Kafka
6 965 (9.86%) Node.js
7 926 (9.46%) Web Services
8 900 (9.20%) RESTful
9 839 (8.57%) HTML
10 834 (8.52%) AngularJS
11 709 (7.25%) .NET
12 698 (7.13%) CSS
13 583 (5.96%) XML
14 562 (5.74%) JSON
15 544 (5.56%) J2EE
16 429 (4.38%) Hibernate
17 395 (4.04%) SOAP
18 308 (3.15%) Middleware
19 292 (2.98%) HTML5
20 238 (2.43%) OAuth
Miscellaneous
1 470 (4.80%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 425 (4.34%) Fixed Income
3 363 (3.71%) Greenfield Project
4 349 (3.57%) User Experience
5 316 (3.23%) Derivative
6 295 (3.01%) Data Protection Act
7 294 (3.00%) Data Structures
8 254 (2.60%) Algorithms
9 241 (2.46%) Equities
10 232 (2.37%) Mobile App
11 207 (2.12%) Cloud Native
12 191 (1.95%) Enterprise Software
13 172 (1.76%) Public Cloud
14 146 (1.49%) Legacy Systems
15 121 (1.24%) Self-Motivation
16 117 (1.20%) Hedge funds
17 103 (1.05%) Virtual Team
18 90 (0.92%) Management Information System
19 89 (0.91%) Data Centre
20 88 (0.90%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 1,353 (13.83%) Linux
2 847 (8.66%) Unix
3 520 (5.31%) Windows
4 326 (3.33%) Android
5 127 (1.30%) Apple iOS
6 114 (1.17%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 59 (0.60%) Ubuntu
8 53 (0.54%) Windows Server
9 40 (0.41%) Mac OS X
10 37 (0.38%) Windows 10
11 32 (0.33%) Windows Server 2012
12 29 (0.30%) CentOS
13 26 (0.27%) VMS
14 25 (0.26%) Windows Server 2016
15 23 (0.24%) Windows Server 2008
16 22 (0.22%) Solaris
17 21 (0.21%) AIX
17 21 (0.21%) Windows 7
18 20 (0.20%) Debian
19 19 (0.19%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,267 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
2 2,671 (27.30%) Microservices
3 2,252 (23.01%) DevOps
4 1,683 (17.20%) TDD
5 1,644 (16.80%) Software Engineering
6 1,561 (15.95%) Test Automation
7 1,324 (13.53%) Scrum
8 1,012 (10.34%) BDD
9 920 (9.40%) Continuous Integration
10 890 (9.10%) Full Stack Development
11 773 (7.90%) Problem-Solving
12 705 (7.20%) Analytics
13 609 (6.22%) OO
14 601 (6.14%) Multithreading
15 571 (5.84%) SDLC
16 498 (5.09%) Migration
17 468 (4.78%) Unit Testing
18 436 (4.46%) Computer Science
19 430 (4.39%) Open Source
20 429 (4.38%) Business Intelligence
Programming Languages
1 2,315 (23.66%) SQL
2 2,294 (23.44%) Python
3 2,128 (21.75%) JavaScript
4 1,082 (11.06%) Java 8
5 877 (8.96%) C#
6 732 (7.48%) Scala
7 721 (7.37%) C++
8 582 (5.95%) TypeScript
9 562 (5.74%) Kotlin
10 511 (5.22%) Java 11
11 374 (3.82%) Go
12 360 (3.68%) Bash Shell
13 358 (3.66%) PL/SQL
14 349 (3.57%) Shell Script
15 276 (2.82%) PowerShell
16 274 (2.80%) Perl
17 270 (2.76%) Ruby
18 269 (2.75%) C
19 184 (1.88%) PHP
20 166 (1.70%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 897 (9.17%) Security Cleared
2 688 (7.03%) SC Cleared
3 547 (5.59%) Degree
4 192 (1.96%) Computer Science Degree
5 116 (1.19%) BPSS Clearance
6 104 (1.06%) DV Cleared
7 79 (0.81%) AWS Certification
8 69 (0.71%) ISTQB
9 45 (0.46%) Sun Certification
10 44 (0.45%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 35 (0.36%) ISEB
11 35 (0.36%) Master's Degree
11 35 (0.36%) OCPJP
12 26 (0.27%) CISSP
13 22 (0.22%) RHCE
14 15 (0.15%) DBS Check
15 14 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
16 13 (0.13%) CREST Certified
16 13 (0.13%) PhD
17 12 (0.12%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 453 (4.63%) QA
2 225 (2.30%) Accessibility
3 98 (1.00%) Data Quality
4 69 (0.71%) GDPR
5 30 (0.31%) NCSC
5 30 (0.31%) PMO
6 29 (0.30%) SLA
7 21 (0.21%) WCAG
8 14 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 13 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
10 10 (0.10%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 9 (0.092%) ISO/IEC 27005
12 8 (0.082%) ISO 20022
13 7 (0.072%) NIST
14 4 (0.041%) Basel II
14 4 (0.041%) MiFID
14 4 (0.041%) PSD2
15 3 (0.031%) Dublin Core
15 3 (0.031%) EMIR
15 3 (0.031%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 1,837 (18.77%) Docker
2 143 (1.46%) Active Directory
3 90 (0.92%) HDFS
4 86 (0.88%) VMware Infrastructure
5 37 (0.38%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 29 (0.30%) Hyper-V
7 27 (0.28%) OpenAM
8 24 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
9 21 (0.21%) NFS
10 20 (0.20%) GridGain
10 20 (0.20%) Virtual Desktop
11 19 (0.19%) OpenDJ
11 19 (0.19%) vSphere
12 17 (0.17%) VMware ESXi
13 16 (0.16%) XenDesktop
14 15 (0.15%) Citrix Hypervisor
15 11 (0.11%) KVM
15 11 (0.11%) OpenIDM
15 11 (0.11%) XenApp
16 10 (0.10%) Apache Flume
Systems Management
1 1,822 (18.62%) Kubernetes
2 873 (8.92%) Terraform
3 670 (6.85%) Ansible
4 285 (2.91%) Grafana
5 194 (1.98%) Puppet
6 171 (1.75%) Kibana
7 156 (1.59%) Prometheus
8 119 (1.22%) Opscode Chef
9 53 (0.54%) Rancher
9 53 (0.54%) Single Sign-On
10 45 (0.46%) Bosun
11 43 (0.44%) Nagios
12 42 (0.43%) logstash
13 41 (0.42%) Oozie
14 36 (0.37%) Istio
15 34 (0.35%) VictorOps
16 32 (0.33%) Packer
17 31 (0.32%) ITRS Geneos
18 30 (0.31%) Microsoft Intune
19 29 (0.30%) SCCM
Vendors
1 1,394 (14.25%) Oracle
2 508 (5.19%) Microsoft
3 419 (4.28%) Google
4 306 (3.13%) SAP
5 198 (2.02%) IBM
6 180 (1.84%) Splunk
7 153 (1.56%) MuleSoft
7 153 (1.56%) Salesforce.com
8 136 (1.39%) ION Trading
9 134 (1.37%) Informatica
10 133 (1.36%) webMethods
11 127 (1.30%) Red Hat
12 124 (1.27%) Atlassian
13 120 (1.23%) VMware
14 104 (1.06%) Sybase
15 103 (1.05%) BEA
16 89 (0.91%) Databricks
17 88 (0.90%) TIBCO
18 83 (0.85%) Adobe
19 82 (0.84%) Talend