Period
to 2 December 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 2 December 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 6 9 4
Rank change year-on-year +3 -5 +1
Contract jobs citing Java 4,974 8,836 14,696
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 13.22% 10.89% 14.35%
As % of the Programming Languages category 31.59% 26.36% 32.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,030 6,133 10,409
Median daily rate £525 £525 £513
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.44% +2.50%
10th Percentile £355 £381 £363
90th Percentile £725 £700 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £475 £450
% change year-on-year -5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 96 73 100
Median hourly rate £35.00 £40.00 £44.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -12.50% -10.11% +11.25%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £40.25 £43.50
% change year-on-year +4.35% -7.47% +6.10%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 15,747 33,526 45,772
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.84% 41.33% 44.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,261 23,082 32,308
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £309 £325 £319
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £425 £425
Number of hourly rates quoted 458 678 675
Median hourly rate £36.00 £42.50 £42.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -15.29% +1.19% +5.00%
10th Percentile £14.00 £17.50 £16.41
90th Percentile £58.21 £55.00 £52.50
Median hourly rate £39.75 £42.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -6.47% - +6.25%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 2 December 2020.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 2 December 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 4,317 £525 -2.33% 1,576
London 0 2,939 £563 -2.17% 800
UK excluding London +1 1,460 £450 -5.26% 929
Work from Home +4 1,065 £500 -4.76% 364
North of England +1 454 £450 -5.26% 260
South East -6 249 £474 -0.26% 199
North West -1 209 £450 -4.26% 142
South West +4 208 £484 -3.18% 114
Midlands +6 197 £428 -7.46% 114
Yorkshire +5 183 £450 -5.26% 79
Scotland -5 150 £425 -5.56% 103
East of England +8 132 £473 -0.53% 82
West Midlands +3 130 £428 -9.89% 82
North East +14 62 £495 +4.76% 39
East Midlands +7 56 £454 +0.83% 31
Northern Ireland -2 40 £431 -4.22% 37
Wales -8 32 £425 -5.56% 20

For the 6 months to 2 December 2020, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 2,299 (46.22%) Agile Software Development
2 1,468 (29.51%) AWS
3 1,406 (28.27%) Python
4 1,240 (24.93%) Microservices
5 1,237 (24.87%) Spring
6 1,235 (24.83%) Finance
7 1,168 (23.48%) SQL
8 1,153 (23.18%) DevOps
9 1,131 (22.74%) JavaScript
10 1,068 (21.47%) Jenkins
11 1,003 (20.16%) Kubernetes
12 964 (19.38%) Docker
13 923 (18.56%) Banking
14 898 (18.05%) Git (software)
15 885 (17.79%) Web Services
16 851 (17.11%) TDD
17 846 (17.01%) Software Engineering
18 836 (16.81%) Test Automation
19 808 (16.24%) Azure
20 778 (15.64%) Linux
21 770 (15.48%) Spring Boot
22 703 (14.13%) Front Office
23 678 (13.63%) Oracle
24 666 (13.39%) Scrum
25 664 (13.35%) REST
26 650 (13.07%) Security Cleared
27 644 (12.95%) Node.js
28 640 (12.87%) React
29 622 (12.51%) AngularJS
30 578 (11.62%) Maven

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 327 (6.57%) Confluence
2 276 (5.55%) Apache
3 213 (4.28%) WebLogic
4 193 (3.88%) Apache Spark
4 193 (3.88%) Mule
5 185 (3.72%) Elasticsearch
6 137 (2.75%) Cloud Foundry
7 124 (2.49%) Red Hat Fuse
7 124 (2.49%) Tomcat
8 114 (2.29%) JBoss
9 83 (1.67%) WebSphere
10 74 (1.49%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 67 (1.35%) nginx
12 38 (0.76%) CMS
13 36 (0.72%) Oracle Service Bus
14 34 (0.68%) SharePoint
15 31 (0.62%) MQSeries
16 26 (0.52%) IIS
17 25 (0.50%) Apache Solr
17 25 (0.50%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 40 (0.80%) Microsoft Excel
2 16 (0.32%) MS Visio
3 12 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
4 10 (0.20%) Spreadsheet
5 9 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
6 8 (0.16%) Chatbot
7 6 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 6 (0.12%) Sketch
8 5 (0.10%) Photoshop
9 3 (0.060%) Adobe Illustrator
9 3 (0.060%) Windchill
9 3 (0.060%) Zeplin
10 2 (0.040%) Adobe Premiere
10 2 (0.040%) InVision
10 2 (0.040%) LaTeX
10 2 (0.040%) SPSS
11 1 (0.020%) CATIA
11 1 (0.020%) Maya
11 1 (0.020%) Siemens NX
11 1 (0.020%) SOLIDWORKS
Business Applications
1 25 (0.50%) ION MarketView
2 20 (0.40%) Dynamics CRM
3 16 (0.32%) Magento
4 15 (0.30%) Oracle EBS
5 14 (0.28%) Dynamics AX
5 14 (0.28%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
6 13 (0.26%) Oracle BPM
6 13 (0.26%) SAP FI-CA
7 11 (0.22%) Teamcenter
8 6 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
8 6 (0.12%) SAP Hybris
9 5 (0.10%) ContrOCC
9 5 (0.10%) Maximo
9 5 (0.10%) Oracle Payables
9 5 (0.10%) SAP CRM
10 4 (0.080%) assyst
10 4 (0.080%) Oracle 11i
10 4 (0.080%) Oracle Applications
10 4 (0.080%) RMDS
10 4 (0.080%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 1,468 (29.51%) AWS
2 808 (16.24%) Azure
3 517 (10.39%) GCP
4 299 (6.01%) Serverless
5 260 (5.23%) GitHub
6 244 (4.91%) AWS Lambda
7 203 (4.08%) Amazon S3
8 189 (3.80%) Amazon EC2
9 165 (3.32%) OpenShift
10 154 (3.10%) Amazon ECS
11 149 (3.00%) AWS CloudFormation
12 145 (2.92%) PaaS
13 121 (2.43%) Apigee
14 105 (2.11%) Slack
15 86 (1.73%) npm
16 71 (1.43%) IaaS
17 68 (1.37%) Amazon SQS
18 66 (1.33%) SaaS
19 65 (1.31%) Amazon EKS
20 61 (1.23%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 116 (2.33%) HTTP
2 53 (1.07%) SSL
3 52 (1.05%) DNS
3 52 (1.05%) TCP/IP
4 47 (0.94%) Firewall
5 36 (0.72%) Internet
6 24 (0.48%) FTP
7 19 (0.38%) SSH
8 17 (0.34%) VPN
9 14 (0.28%) HTTPS
10 13 (0.26%) Reverse Proxy
10 13 (0.26%) Wireless
11 12 (0.24%) Network Security
12 11 (0.22%) Ethernet
13 10 (0.20%) CTI
13 10 (0.20%) FIX Connectivity
13 10 (0.20%) Softphone
14 9 (0.18%) Kerberos
15 8 (0.16%) DMZ
15 8 (0.16%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 351 (7.06%) MongoDB
2 343 (6.90%) MySQL
3 340 (6.84%) SQL Server
4 313 (6.29%) NoSQL
5 307 (6.17%) PostgreSQL
6 288 (5.79%) Relational Database
7 241 (4.85%) Big Data
8 186 (3.74%) Hadoop
9 118 (2.37%) Data Warehouse
10 108 (2.17%) Oracle Database
11 103 (2.07%) Amazon RDS
11 103 (2.07%) BigQuery
12 98 (1.97%) Amazon Redshift
13 94 (1.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 83 (1.67%) RDBMS
15 81 (1.63%) Apache Cassandra
16 69 (1.39%) Apache Hive
17 56 (1.13%) Apache Ignite
18 53 (1.07%) BusinessObjects
19 50 (1.01%) Redis
Development Applications
1 1,068 (21.47%) Jenkins
2 898 (18.05%) Git (software)
3 578 (11.62%) Maven
4 544 (10.94%) JIRA
5 344 (6.92%) Selenium
6 338 (6.80%) Cucumber
7 286 (5.75%) GitLab
8 283 (5.69%) JUnit
9 215 (4.32%) Gradle
10 161 (3.24%) Artifactory
11 151 (3.04%) Sonatype Nexus
12 150 (3.02%) Subversion
13 135 (2.71%) JMeter
14 133 (2.67%) Mockito
15 114 (2.29%) gulp
16 105 (2.11%) SonarQube
17 90 (1.81%) TeamCity
18 89 (1.79%) Atlassian Bamboo
19 84 (1.69%) Jasmine
20 83 (1.67%) Bitbucket
General
1 1,235 (24.83%) Finance
2 923 (18.56%) Banking
3 703 (14.13%) Front Office
4 406 (8.16%) Public Sector
5 404 (8.12%) Investment Banking
6 93 (1.87%) Marketing
7 90 (1.81%) Telecoms
8 70 (1.41%) Manufacturing
9 66 (1.33%) Retail
10 58 (1.17%) Electronics
11 45 (0.90%) Back Office
11 45 (0.90%) Games
12 38 (0.76%) Financial Institution
13 33 (0.66%) Law
14 32 (0.64%) Retail Banking
15 22 (0.44%) Advertising
16 19 (0.38%) Aerospace
17 13 (0.26%) Military
18 11 (0.22%) Automotive
18 11 (0.22%) French Language
Job Titles
1 2,809 (56.47%) Developer
2 1,613 (32.43%) Java Developer
3 404 (8.12%) Software Engineer
4 398 (8.00%) Senior Developer
5 356 (7.16%) Architect
6 324 (6.51%) Java Engineer
7 308 (6.19%) DevOps Engineer
8 290 (5.83%) Senior Java Developer
9 234 (4.70%) Full Stack Developer
10 223 (4.48%) Developer/Software Engineer
11 208 (4.18%) AWS Engineer
12 198 (3.98%) AWS Developer
13 189 (3.80%) Python Developer
14 165 (3.32%) JavaScript Developer
15 151 (3.04%) Solutions Architect
16 136 (2.73%) Java Software Engineer
17 123 (2.47%) Python Engineer
18 118 (2.37%) Tester
19 114 (2.29%) Lead Developer
20 113 (2.27%) Electronic Trading Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,237 (24.87%) Spring
2 885 (17.79%) Web Services
3 770 (15.48%) Spring Boot
4 664 (13.35%) REST
5 644 (12.95%) Node.js
6 640 (12.87%) React
7 622 (12.51%) AngularJS
8 473 (9.51%) HTML
9 393 (7.90%) JSON
10 391 (7.86%) Kafka
11 376 (7.56%) CSS
12 373 (7.50%) RESTful
13 367 (7.38%) XML
14 330 (6.63%) .NET
15 326 (6.55%) SOAP
16 311 (6.25%) Middleware
17 282 (5.67%) J2EE
18 236 (4.74%) HTML5
19 219 (4.40%) Hibernate
20 217 (4.36%) Apache Camel
Miscellaneous
1 523 (10.51%) Fixed Income
2 399 (8.02%) Derivative
3 352 (7.08%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 334 (6.71%) Equities
5 258 (5.19%) User Experience
6 251 (5.05%) Hedge funds
7 220 (4.42%) Analytical Skills
7 220 (4.42%) Mobile App
8 219 (4.40%) Greenfield Project
9 129 (2.59%) Enterprise Software
10 106 (2.13%) Data Structures
11 83 (1.67%) Algorithms
12 70 (1.41%) Self-Motivation
13 62 (1.25%) Public Cloud
14 61 (1.23%) Cloud Native
15 54 (1.09%) Linux Command Line
16 45 (0.90%) Credit Derivative
17 41 (0.82%) Blog
17 41 (0.82%) Virtual Team
18 40 (0.80%) Mainframe
Operating Systems
1 778 (15.64%) Linux
2 444 (8.93%) Unix
3 263 (5.29%) Windows
4 229 (4.60%) Android
5 142 (2.85%) Apple iOS
6 75 (1.51%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 62 (1.25%) Mac OS X
8 29 (0.58%) CentOS
9 27 (0.54%) Windows Server
10 20 (0.40%) Ubuntu
11 17 (0.34%) Debian
12 14 (0.28%) Windows Server 2012
13 11 (0.22%) Oracle Linux
14 10 (0.20%) Windows Server 2016
15 8 (0.16%) AIX
15 8 (0.16%) Solaris
16 7 (0.14%) Embedded Linux
17 6 (0.12%) SUSE
17 6 (0.12%) VME
17 6 (0.12%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,299 (46.22%) Agile Software Development
2 1,240 (24.93%) Microservices
3 1,153 (23.18%) DevOps
4 851 (17.11%) TDD
5 846 (17.01%) Software Engineering
6 836 (16.81%) Test Automation
7 666 (13.39%) Scrum
8 562 (11.30%) BDD
9 467 (9.39%) Continuous Integration
10 388 (7.80%) Asset Management
11 371 (7.46%) Open Source
12 349 (7.02%) OO
13 336 (6.76%) Problem-Solving
14 335 (6.74%) Multithreading
15 302 (6.07%) Investment Management
16 285 (5.73%) SDLC
17 279 (5.61%) Continuous Delivery
18 257 (5.17%) Migration
19 253 (5.09%) Kanban
20 247 (4.97%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,406 (28.27%) Python
2 1,168 (23.48%) SQL
3 1,131 (22.74%) JavaScript
4 576 (11.58%) Java 8
5 441 (8.87%) Kotlin
6 413 (8.30%) C#
7 409 (8.22%) Scala
8 332 (6.67%) C++
9 226 (4.54%) Bash Shell
10 207 (4.16%) TypeScript
11 206 (4.14%) PL/SQL
12 187 (3.76%) Shell Script
13 154 (3.10%) Perl
14 141 (2.83%) Go
15 130 (2.61%) Ruby
16 128 (2.57%) C
17 123 (2.47%) PowerShell
18 114 (2.29%) R
19 96 (1.93%) Groovy
19 96 (1.93%) PHP
Qualifications
1 650 (13.07%) Security Cleared
2 489 (9.83%) SC Cleared
3 236 (4.74%) Degree
4 110 (2.21%) DV Cleared
5 84 (1.69%) Computer Science Degree
6 65 (1.31%) ISTQB
7 60 (1.21%) ISEB
8 56 (1.13%) BPSS Clearance
9 50 (1.01%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 33 (0.66%) AWS Certification
11 29 (0.58%) Numerate Degree
11 29 (0.58%) Sun Certification
12 28 (0.56%) Master's Degree
13 24 (0.48%) DBS Check
14 23 (0.46%) PhD
15 16 (0.32%) TOGAF Certification
16 10 (0.20%) CISSP
17 9 (0.18%) CCA
17 9 (0.18%) Cisco Certification
17 9 (0.18%) OCPJP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 297 (5.97%) QA
2 44 (0.88%) WCAG
3 36 (0.72%) Data Quality
4 23 (0.46%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 22 (0.44%) GDPR
6 17 (0.34%) SLA
7 14 (0.28%) MiFID
8 13 (0.26%) NIST
9 10 (0.20%) PCI DSS
10 8 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
10 8 (0.16%) PMO
10 8 (0.16%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 7 (0.14%) NCSC
12 6 (0.12%) PSD2
13 4 (0.080%) Cyber Essentials
13 4 (0.080%) ISO 9001
14 3 (0.060%) GxP
14 3 (0.060%) HIPAA
14 3 (0.060%) ISO 20022
14 3 (0.060%) SEPA
System Software
1 964 (19.38%) Docker
2 65 (1.31%) Virtual Machines
3 61 (1.23%) Active Directory
4 56 (1.13%) HDFS
5 23 (0.46%) VMware Infrastructure
6 22 (0.44%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 10 (0.20%) NFS
7 10 (0.20%) VMware ESXi
8 9 (0.18%) Hyper-V
8 9 (0.18%) VMware Workstation
9 8 (0.16%) Time Sharing Option
10 6 (0.12%) NDS
10 6 (0.12%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 6 (0.12%) vSphere
11 5 (0.10%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
11 5 (0.10%) Postfix
12 4 (0.080%) GeoWebCache
13 3 (0.060%) Ceph
13 3 (0.060%) Oracle RAC
14 2 (0.040%) zsh
Systems Management
1 1,003 (20.16%) Kubernetes
2 524 (10.53%) Terraform
3 378 (7.60%) Ansible
4 169 (3.40%) Puppet
5 86 (1.73%) Opscode Chef
6 81 (1.63%) Prometheus
7 63 (1.27%) Grafana
8 60 (1.21%) Kibana
9 41 (0.82%) Argo
10 36 (0.72%) Packer
10 36 (0.72%) Salt
11 29 (0.58%) logstash
12 28 (0.56%) HP ALM
13 23 (0.46%) Hadoop YARN
13 23 (0.46%) Nagios
14 21 (0.42%) Single Sign-On
15 15 (0.30%) Oozie
16 14 (0.28%) HP Quality Center
17 13 (0.26%) Rancher
18 12 (0.24%) HP Fortify
Vendors
1 678 (13.63%) Oracle
2 324 (6.51%) Google
3 202 (4.06%) Splunk
4 170 (3.42%) SAP
5 161 (3.24%) Microsoft
6 159 (3.20%) MuleSoft
7 123 (2.47%) AppDynamics
8 121 (2.43%) webMethods
9 101 (2.03%) IBM
9 101 (2.03%) Red Hat
10 99 (1.99%) Sybase
11 78 (1.57%) BEA
12 69 (1.39%) Atlassian
13 59 (1.19%) Cloudera
14 55 (1.11%) Bloomberg
14 55 (1.11%) Informatica
15 52 (1.05%) TIBCO
16 50 (1.01%) ION Trading
16 50 (1.01%) Salesforce.com
16 50 (1.01%) Talend