Period
to 14 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Java skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Java over the 6 months to 14 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java
UK
6 months to
14 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 10 10 6
Rank change year-on-year 0 -4 0
Contract jobs citing Java 6,496 5,941 11,705
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 11.37% 11.78% 12.83%
As % of the Programming Languages category 28.02% 28.92% 29.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,538 4,265 7,968
10th Percentile £375 £378 £375
25th Percentile £450 £438 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £525 £525
75th Percentile £644 £625 £613
90th Percentile £713 £700 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £470 £475 £475
% change year-on-year -1.05% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 71 63 72
10th Percentile £31.25 £18.30 £21.55
25th Percentile £40.00 £35.08 £39.69
Median hourly rate £50.00 £46.00 £47.09
Median % change year-on-year +8.70% -2.30% +17.71%
75th Percentile £64.00 £57.75 £54.06
90th Percentile £68.00 £65.91 £62.87
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.50 £43.50 £46.34
% change year-on-year +4.60% -6.12% +12.33%

Java is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 23,180 20,544 39,138
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.56% 40.74% 42.89%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,299 14,491 27,539
10th Percentile £325 £325 £325
25th Percentile £406 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £488 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.56% +2.63% +2.70%
75th Percentile £594 £575 £575
90th Percentile £688 £660 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £428 £450 £425
% change year-on-year -5.00% +5.88% +6.12%
Number of hourly rates quoted 459 366 627
10th Percentile £17.21 £17.25 £17.50
25th Percentile £25.00 £21.57 £26.25
Median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £43.00
Median % change year-on-year - -1.16% +7.50%
75th Percentile £51.63 £50.00 £50.00
90th Percentile £62.25 £57.50 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £42.50 £44.00
% change year-on-year -5.88% -3.41% +10.00%

Java
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Java as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Java.

Daily rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 14 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Java.

Hourly rate trend for Java in the UK

Java
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Java over the 6 months to 14 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Java in the UK

Java
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Java within the UK over the 6 months to 14 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 5,261 £540 -0.92% 1,969
London -1 3,524 £575 +2.22% 930
UK excluding London 0 1,955 £470 -1.05% 1,219
Work from Home +2 1,733 £511 +2.25% 508
Scotland +7 426 £425 -5.56% 113
North of England -2 395 £475 +0.53% 321
South East -6 382 £485 +2.11% 307
South West +1 297 £498 -5.12% 146
North West +5 222 £475 +5.56% 174
Midlands -10 204 £413 -8.33% 162
East of England -1 167 £505 +1.00% 103
West Midlands -11 142 £420 -1.87% 115
Yorkshire -9 93 £467 -6.65% 102
North East +5 80 £500 +11.73% 45
East Midlands -5 53 £395 -12.22% 46
Wales -4 51 £475 - 35
Northern Ireland -1 40 £431 -2.93% 32
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 14 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Java also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Java.

1 2,823 (43.46%) Agile Software Development
2 1,734 (26.69%) Spring
3 1,726 (26.57%) Microservices
4 1,621 (24.95%) AWS
5 1,601 (24.65%) Python
6 1,474 (22.69%) SQL
7 1,432 (22.04%) DevOps
8 1,408 (21.67%) Finance
9 1,319 (20.30%) JavaScript
10 1,285 (19.78%) Jenkins
11 1,260 (19.40%) Docker
12 1,239 (19.07%) Kubernetes
13 1,138 (17.52%) Azure
14 1,111 (17.10%) TDD
15 1,105 (17.01%) Banking
16 1,093 (16.83%) Social Skills
17 1,080 (16.63%) Git (software)
18 1,042 (16.04%) Software Engineering
19 1,039 (15.99%) Spring Boot
20 986 (15.18%) Test Automation
21 892 (13.73%) Oracle
22 874 (13.45%) REST
23 855 (13.16%) Linux
24 850 (13.08%) Scrum
25 845 (13.01%) Security Cleared
26 779 (11.99%) Web Services
27 750 (11.55%) BDD
28 729 (11.22%) Java 8
29 726 (11.18%) Kafka
30 685 (10.54%) Maven

Java
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 328 (5.05%) Apache
2 321 (4.94%) Apache Spark
3 315 (4.85%) Confluence
4 161 (2.48%) Tomcat
5 157 (2.42%) WebLogic
6 142 (2.19%) Elasticsearch
7 137 (2.11%) Mule
8 117 (1.80%) JBoss
9 115 (1.77%) WebSphere
10 90 (1.39%) Red Hat Fuse
10 90 (1.39%) SharePoint
11 79 (1.22%) Cloud Foundry
12 73 (1.12%) nginx
13 66 (1.02%) CMS
14 63 (0.97%) Apache Airflow
15 47 (0.72%) Oracle Coherence
16 41 (0.63%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 38 (0.58%) WebSphere Application Server
18 33 (0.51%) Anypoint
19 31 (0.48%) Camunda
Applications
1 55 (0.85%) Microsoft Office
2 29 (0.45%) Microsoft Excel
3 10 (0.15%) Photoshop
4 9 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
4 9 (0.14%) MS Visio
5 4 (0.062%) SPSS
6 3 (0.046%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 3 (0.046%) Sketch
7 1 (0.015%) Doxygen
7 1 (0.015%) Figma
7 1 (0.015%) InfoPath
Business Applications
1 58 (0.89%) Dynamics CRM
2 32 (0.49%) Magento
3 29 (0.45%) Dynamics AX
4 20 (0.31%) SAP Hybris
5 15 (0.23%) Shopify
6 11 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
7 10 (0.15%) Maximo
8 9 (0.14%) Oracle BPM
9 8 (0.12%) SAP ERP
10 7 (0.11%) ION MarketView
11 6 (0.092%) Adobe Campaign
11 6 (0.092%) Oracle EBS
11 6 (0.092%) thinkFolio
12 5 (0.077%) Distributed Ledger
12 5 (0.077%) Salesforce.com CRM
12 5 (0.077%) Teamcenter
13 4 (0.062%) BusinessWorks
13 4 (0.062%) Oracle EBS R12
13 4 (0.062%) SAP CRM
13 4 (0.062%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 1,621 (24.95%) AWS
2 1,138 (17.52%) Azure
3 660 (10.16%) GCP
4 386 (5.94%) Serverless
5 267 (4.11%) GitHub
6 255 (3.93%) AWS Lambda
7 236 (3.63%) OpenShift
8 198 (3.05%) Amazon S3
9 162 (2.49%) PaaS
10 133 (2.05%) AWS CloudFormation
11 124 (1.91%) SaaS
12 110 (1.69%) Power Platform
13 109 (1.68%) IaaS
14 108 (1.66%) Amazon EC2
15 68 (1.05%) Cloud Computing
16 67 (1.03%) npm
17 60 (0.92%) Amazon EKS
18 56 (0.86%) Amazon ECS
18 56 (0.86%) Amazon SQS
19 50 (0.77%) Apigee
Communications & Networking
1 144 (2.22%) HTTP
2 70 (1.08%) SSL
3 63 (0.97%) Firewall
4 62 (0.95%) TCP/IP
5 50 (0.77%) DNS
6 37 (0.57%) Kerberos
7 32 (0.49%) FTP
8 28 (0.43%) Internet
9 25 (0.38%) LAN
10 21 (0.32%) Network Security
11 20 (0.31%) HTTPS
12 17 (0.26%) SSH
13 16 (0.25%) VPN
13 16 (0.25%) WAN
14 15 (0.23%) DHCP
14 15 (0.23%) SAN
15 13 (0.20%) NAS
16 12 (0.18%) Broadband
16 12 (0.18%) Ethernet
16 12 (0.18%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 455 (7.00%) NoSQL
2 392 (6.03%) MongoDB
2 392 (6.03%) PostgreSQL
3 382 (5.88%) Relational Database
4 337 (5.19%) Big Data
5 297 (4.57%) Hadoop
6 284 (4.37%) SQL Server
7 246 (3.79%) MySQL
8 146 (2.25%) Data Warehouse
9 141 (2.17%) Oracle Database
10 140 (2.16%) BigQuery
11 124 (1.91%) Apache Hive
12 114 (1.75%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 110 (1.69%) Apache Cassandra
14 109 (1.68%) RDBMS
15 91 (1.40%) DB2
16 80 (1.23%) Redis
17 78 (1.20%) Power BI
18 75 (1.15%) HBase
19 71 (1.09%) Amazon Aurora
Development Applications
1 1,285 (19.78%) Jenkins
2 1,080 (16.63%) Git (software)
3 685 (10.54%) Maven
4 680 (10.47%) JIRA
5 411 (6.33%) Cucumber
6 395 (6.08%) JUnit
7 390 (6.00%) Selenium
8 238 (3.66%) Gradle
9 235 (3.62%) GitLab
10 204 (3.14%) Bitbucket
11 156 (2.40%) Mockito
12 151 (2.32%) Postman
13 144 (2.22%) Subversion
14 136 (2.09%) SonarQube
15 131 (2.02%) JMeter
16 124 (1.91%) TeamCity
17 111 (1.71%) Eclipse
18 107 (1.65%) Sonatype Nexus
19 103 (1.59%) SoapUI
20 92 (1.42%) IntelliJ
General
1 1,408 (21.67%) Finance
2 1,105 (17.01%) Banking
3 1,093 (16.83%) Social Skills
4 648 (9.98%) Front Office
5 475 (7.31%) Investment Banking
6 443 (6.82%) Public Sector
7 374 (5.76%) Analytical Skills
8 186 (2.86%) Retail
9 123 (1.89%) Marketing
10 109 (1.68%) Telecoms
11 75 (1.15%) Presentation Skills
12 73 (1.12%) Manufacturing
13 56 (0.86%) Influencing Skills
14 54 (0.83%) Documentation Skills
15 50 (0.77%) Retail Banking
16 48 (0.74%) Automotive
17 47 (0.72%) Electronics
18 39 (0.60%) Financial Institution
19 32 (0.49%) Games
20 29 (0.45%) Law
Job Titles
1 3,528 (54.31%) Developer
2 2,190 (33.71%) Java Developer
3 543 (8.36%) Senior Developer
4 486 (7.48%) Architect
5 410 (6.31%) Senior Java Developer
6 381 (5.87%) Software Engineer
7 348 (5.36%) Java Engineer
8 329 (5.06%) DevOps Engineer
9 276 (4.25%) Full Stack Developer
10 249 (3.83%) Data Engineer
11 202 (3.11%) Tester
12 200 (3.08%) Consultant
13 191 (2.94%) React Developer
14 182 (2.80%) Front Office Developer
15 155 (2.39%) Java Software Engineer
16 151 (2.32%) Solutions Architect
17 150 (2.31%) AWS Developer
18 149 (2.29%) Software Developer
19 145 (2.23%) Python Developer
20 136 (2.09%) AWS Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,734 (26.69%) Spring
2 1,039 (15.99%) Spring Boot
3 874 (13.45%) REST
4 779 (11.99%) Web Services
5 726 (11.18%) Kafka
6 651 (10.02%) Node.js
7 630 (9.70%) React
8 619 (9.53%) AngularJS
9 572 (8.81%) RESTful
10 543 (8.36%) HTML
11 457 (7.04%) .NET
12 418 (6.43%) XML
13 414 (6.37%) J2EE
14 383 (5.90%) JSON
15 380 (5.85%) CSS
16 348 (5.36%) Hibernate
17 298 (4.59%) SOAP
18 281 (4.33%) Middleware
19 192 (2.96%) HTML5
20 166 (2.56%) Apache Camel
Miscellaneous
1 350 (5.39%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
2 280 (4.31%) User Experience
3 249 (3.83%) Fixed Income
4 219 (3.37%) Greenfield Project
5 215 (3.31%) Derivative
6 192 (2.96%) Mobile App
7 189 (2.91%) Equities
8 187 (2.88%) Data Structures
9 164 (2.52%) Cloud Native
10 161 (2.48%) Enterprise Software
11 124 (1.91%) Self-Motivation
12 121 (1.86%) Algorithms
13 88 (1.35%) Public Cloud
14 77 (1.19%) Management Information System
15 67 (1.03%) Hedge funds
16 64 (0.99%) Clustering
16 64 (0.99%) Virtual Team
17 50 (0.77%) Market Risk
18 47 (0.72%) Credit Risk
19 46 (0.71%) Linux Command Line
Operating Systems
1 855 (13.16%) Linux
2 524 (8.07%) Unix
3 273 (4.20%) Windows
4 235 (3.62%) Android
5 79 (1.22%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 71 (1.09%) Apple iOS
7 37 (0.57%) CentOS
8 34 (0.52%) Windows Server
9 26 (0.40%) Mac OS X
10 21 (0.32%) Oracle Linux
11 20 (0.31%) Ubuntu
12 17 (0.26%) Solaris
12 17 (0.26%) Windows 10
13 14 (0.22%) AIX
13 14 (0.22%) SUSE
14 11 (0.17%) Windows Server 2016
15 10 (0.15%) Debian
16 9 (0.14%) VMS
16 9 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
17 7 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,823 (43.46%) Agile Software Development
2 1,726 (26.57%) Microservices
3 1,432 (22.04%) DevOps
4 1,111 (17.10%) TDD
5 1,042 (16.04%) Software Engineering
6 986 (15.18%) Test Automation
7 850 (13.08%) Scrum
8 750 (11.55%) BDD
9 662 (10.19%) Continuous Integration
10 484 (7.45%) Problem-Solving
11 458 (7.05%) OO
12 435 (6.70%) SDLC
13 426 (6.56%) Multithreading
14 394 (6.07%) Analytics
15 385 (5.93%) Open Source
16 334 (5.14%) Continuous Delivery
17 332 (5.11%) Low Latency
18 326 (5.02%) Migration
19 304 (4.68%) Unit Testing
20 297 (4.57%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 1,601 (24.65%) Python
2 1,474 (22.69%) SQL
3 1,319 (20.30%) JavaScript
4 729 (11.22%) Java 8
5 575 (8.85%) Scala
6 519 (7.99%) C#
7 459 (7.07%) Kotlin
8 437 (6.73%) C++
9 329 (5.06%) TypeScript
10 240 (3.69%) PL/SQL
11 216 (3.33%) Go
12 211 (3.25%) Shell Script
13 197 (3.03%) Bash Shell
14 189 (2.91%) C
15 176 (2.71%) PowerShell
16 170 (2.62%) Ruby
17 169 (2.60%) Groovy
18 146 (2.25%) Perl
19 99 (1.52%) PHP
20 82 (1.26%) R
Qualifications
1 845 (13.01%) Security Cleared
2 672 (10.34%) SC Cleared
3 409 (6.30%) Degree
4 144 (2.22%) DV Cleared
5 110 (1.69%) Computer Science Degree
6 47 (0.72%) Master's Degree
7 46 (0.71%) ISTQB
8 45 (0.69%) BPSS Clearance
9 44 (0.68%) AWS Certification
10 37 (0.57%) Numerate Degree
11 24 (0.37%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 22 (0.34%) ISEB
13 15 (0.23%) Sun Certification
14 12 (0.18%) CISSP
15 11 (0.17%) Cisco Certification
15 11 (0.17%) Microsoft Certification
15 11 (0.17%) OCPJP
16 10 (0.15%) CCNA
17 9 (0.14%) CTC Cleared
17 9 (0.14%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 330 (5.08%) QA
2 51 (0.79%) Data Quality
3 35 (0.54%) SLA
4 21 (0.32%) GDPR
5 18 (0.28%) PMO
6 12 (0.18%) Cyber Essentials
7 11 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
8 10 (0.15%) ISO 20022
8 10 (0.15%) MiFID
9 7 (0.11%) WCAG
10 5 (0.077%) PCI DSS
11 4 (0.062%) NIST
12 3 (0.046%) Dublin Core
12 3 (0.046%) ISO/IEC 27001
12 3 (0.046%) NCSC
13 2 (0.031%) COREP
13 2 (0.031%) CRD IV
13 2 (0.031%) HL7
13 2 (0.031%) ISO 15022
13 2 (0.031%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 1,260 (19.40%) Docker
2 75 (1.15%) Active Directory
3 68 (1.05%) Virtual Machines
4 56 (0.86%) HDFS
5 52 (0.80%) VMware Infrastructure
6 30 (0.46%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 26 (0.40%) GridGain
8 25 (0.38%) Apache Flume
9 18 (0.28%) Platform Symphony
10 15 (0.23%) OpenAM
10 15 (0.23%) VMware ESXi
11 12 (0.18%) Xen
12 11 (0.17%) NFS
12 11 (0.17%) vSphere
13 10 (0.15%) OpenDJ
14 9 (0.14%) Hyper-V
15 8 (0.12%) Postfix
16 7 (0.11%) KVM
16 7 (0.11%) qmail
17 6 (0.092%) OpenIDM
Systems Management
1 1,239 (19.07%) Kubernetes
2 587 (9.04%) Terraform
3 479 (7.37%) Ansible
4 157 (2.42%) Puppet
5 144 (2.22%) Grafana
6 126 (1.94%) Opscode Chef
7 108 (1.66%) Prometheus
8 59 (0.91%) Kibana
9 47 (0.72%) Istio
10 39 (0.60%) Oozie
11 35 (0.54%) Single Sign-On
12 31 (0.48%) Argo
13 29 (0.45%) Hadoop YARN
14 27 (0.42%) HP ALM
15 26 (0.40%) vRealize Orchestrator
16 22 (0.34%) HP Quality Center
16 22 (0.34%) Nagios
17 19 (0.29%) Rancher
18 16 (0.25%) Nessus
18 16 (0.25%) Packer
Vendors
1 892 (13.73%) Oracle
2 341 (5.25%) Google
3 298 (4.59%) Microsoft
4 210 (3.23%) IBM
5 172 (2.65%) SAP
6 150 (2.31%) MuleSoft
7 129 (1.99%) Splunk
8 107 (1.65%) Red Hat
9 99 (1.52%) Atlassian
10 96 (1.48%) webMethods
11 93 (1.43%) Salesforce.com
12 87 (1.34%) BEA
13 68 (1.05%) HP
13 68 (1.05%) VMware
14 67 (1.03%) Sybase
15 62 (0.95%) Cloudera
15 62 (0.95%) Databricks
16 59 (0.91%) Pega
17 57 (0.88%) Adobe
18 53 (0.82%) ServiceNow