Period
to 19 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for REST skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited REST over the 6 months to 19 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Representational State Transfer (REST)
UK
6 months to
19 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 64 61 75
Rank change year-on-year -3 +14 -16
Contract jobs citing REST 2,881 1,139 2,590
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.42% 3.65% 3.07%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 11.50% 11.71% 9.87%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,039 779 1,741
10th Percentile £398 £356 £363
25th Percentile £444 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - -
75th Percentile £638 £575 £588
90th Percentile £698 £655 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £471 £450
% change year-on-year +0.85% +4.67% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 22 3 17
10th Percentile £41.75 " £42.75
25th Percentile £49.56 " £47.50
Median hourly rate £58.25 £40.00 £55.00
Median % change year-on-year +45.63% -27.27% +22.22%
75th Percentile £62.15 £47.34 £73.75
90th Percentile £70.09 £51.75 "
UK excluding London median hourly rate £55.00 £53.13 £60.00
% change year-on-year +3.53% -11.46% +30.43%

REST is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 25,063 9,727 26,247
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.77% 31.20% 31.07%
Number of daily rates quoted 18,009 6,889 18,458
10th Percentile £363 £313 £338
25th Percentile £425 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £495 £500
Median % change year-on-year +6.06% -1.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £440
% change year-on-year +5.56% +2.27% +3.53%
Number of hourly rates quoted 238 73 249
10th Percentile £18.01 £21.90 £20.26
25th Percentile £29.78 £30.00 £32.95
Median hourly rate £49.00 £42.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +16.67% -6.67% +8.25%
75th Percentile £63.25 £54.00 £53.00
90th Percentile £72.85 £61.87 £73.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.00 £46.40 £45.00
% change year-on-year +5.60% +3.11% +8.43%

REST
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing REST as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing REST.

Daily rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing REST.

Hourly rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing REST within the UK over the 6 months to 19 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 2,256 £540 +8.00% 841
London -3 1,453 £575 +9.52% 397
Work from Home -5 886 £513 +7.89% 220
UK excluding London -16 828 £475 +0.85% 496
North of England -36 198 £485 -3.00% 161
South East -12 193 £500 +2.04% 104
Scotland +13 160 £450 +5.88% 36
North West -20 120 £475 -5.00% 85
South West 0 112 £475 +15.15% 52
Midlands -52 82 £475 +11.76% 89
Yorkshire -44 62 £500 +5.26% 57
West Midlands -38 55 £479 +6.39% 48
East of England -22 44 £495 +7.32% 36
Wales -8 27 £475 -13.64% 12
East Midlands -28 27 £450 +6.51% 41
North East -19 16 £488 -7.14% 19
Northern Ireland +4 15 £475 +12.03% 6

For the 6 months to 19 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing REST also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for REST.

1 1,359 (47.17%) Agile Software Development
2 1,251 (43.42%) Java
3 935 (32.45%) JavaScript
4 817 (28.36%) Microservices
5 771 (26.76%) SQL
6 757 (26.28%) DevOps
7 697 (24.19%) AWS
8 685 (23.78%) Azure
9 671 (23.29%) Git (software)
10 658 (22.84%) Spring
11 655 (22.74%) SOAP
12 597 (20.72%) Web Services
13 571 (19.82%) Test Automation
14 554 (19.23%) Docker
15 547 (18.99%) Jenkins
16 540 (18.74%) HTML
17 515 (17.88%) JSON
18 505 (17.53%) TDD
19 499 (17.32%) CSS
20 491 (17.04%) Finance
21 489 (16.97%) React
22 473 (16.42%) Python
23 466 (16.17%) Social Skills
24 453 (15.72%) Scrum
25 434 (15.06%) Spring Boot
26 431 (14.96%) Kubernetes
27 414 (14.37%) Software Engineering
28 411 (14.27%) AngularJS
29 409 (14.20%) C#
30 397 (13.78%) XML

REST
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 152 (5.28%) Confluence
2 86 (2.99%) Elasticsearch
3 84 (2.92%) Apache
4 66 (2.29%) Tomcat
5 62 (2.15%) SharePoint
6 60 (2.08%) CMS
7 56 (1.94%) JBoss
8 50 (1.74%) Apache Spark
9 43 (1.49%) Mule
10 28 (0.97%) WebSphere
11 23 (0.80%) Red Hat Fuse
12 22 (0.76%) IIS
13 21 (0.73%) WebLogic
14 18 (0.62%) Cloud Foundry
15 17 (0.59%) Anypoint
15 17 (0.59%) BizTalk Server
16 16 (0.56%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 15 (0.52%) Mule ESB
17 15 (0.52%) nginx
18 13 (0.45%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 24 (0.83%) Microsoft Excel
2 19 (0.66%) Microsoft Office
3 15 (0.52%) Chatbot
4 6 (0.21%) Microsoft Project
4 6 (0.21%) MS Visio
5 4 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 3 (0.10%) Figma
7 2 (0.069%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.069%) Spreadsheet
7 2 (0.069%) SPSS
8 1 (0.035%) Adobe XD
8 1 (0.035%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 26 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
1 26 (0.90%) SunGard Martini
2 15 (0.52%) Oracle ERP
3 8 (0.28%) Oracle BPM
3 8 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
3 8 (0.28%) SAP Hybris
4 7 (0.24%) Magento
4 7 (0.24%) Social Studio
5 6 (0.21%) Dynamics AX
5 6 (0.21%) IBM Operational Decision Manager
6 5 (0.17%) NetSuite
6 5 (0.17%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 5 (0.17%) Shopify
7 3 (0.10%) Distributed Ledger
7 3 (0.10%) Oracle CRM
7 3 (0.10%) Remedy ITSM
7 3 (0.10%) SAP CRM
7 3 (0.10%) SAP ERP
8 2 (0.069%) Adobe Campaign
8 2 (0.069%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 697 (24.19%) AWS
2 685 (23.78%) Azure
3 259 (8.99%) Serverless
4 217 (7.53%) GitHub
5 206 (7.15%) GCP
6 171 (5.94%) AWS Lambda
7 135 (4.69%) SaaS
8 113 (3.92%) PaaS
9 90 (3.12%) Power Platform
10 88 (3.05%) OpenShift
11 87 (3.02%) AWS CloudFormation
12 74 (2.57%) IaaS
13 66 (2.29%) Amazon S3
14 63 (2.19%) Azure Service Bus
15 57 (1.98%) Microsoft 365
16 50 (1.74%) Amazon EC2
17 47 (1.63%) Azure Functions
18 45 (1.56%) Dynamics 365
19 44 (1.53%) Apigee
19 44 (1.53%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 257 (8.92%) HTTP
2 65 (2.26%) TCP/IP
3 50 (1.74%) Firewall
4 47 (1.63%) DNS
5 37 (1.28%) Internet
6 35 (1.21%) SSL
7 32 (1.11%) FTP
8 30 (1.04%) HTTPS
9 16 (0.56%) SSH
10 15 (0.52%) Intranet
10 15 (0.52%) VPN
11 12 (0.42%) Network Security
11 12 (0.42%) Wireshark
12 11 (0.38%) SMTP
13 10 (0.35%) DHCP
13 10 (0.35%) Kerberos
13 10 (0.35%) MQTT
13 10 (0.35%) SNMP
14 7 (0.24%) WAN
15 6 (0.21%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 337 (11.70%) NoSQL
2 298 (10.34%) SQL Server
3 285 (9.89%) MongoDB
4 230 (7.98%) PostgreSQL
5 210 (7.29%) Relational Database
6 194 (6.73%) MySQL
7 81 (2.81%) Apache Cassandra
8 68 (2.36%) Power BI
9 67 (2.33%) Oracle Database
10 62 (2.15%) Azure SQL Database
11 60 (2.08%) Redis
12 49 (1.70%) Big Data
13 48 (1.67%) RDBMS
13 48 (1.67%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 44 (1.53%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 42 (1.46%) Data Warehouse
16 39 (1.35%) Data Lake
16 39 (1.35%) Hadoop
17 34 (1.18%) Amazon RDS
18 29 (1.01%) Oracle Database 12c
Development Applications
1 671 (23.29%) Git (software)
2 547 (18.99%) Jenkins
3 342 (11.87%) Maven
4 291 (10.10%) JIRA
5 230 (7.98%) JUnit
6 206 (7.15%) Cucumber
7 141 (4.89%) Bitbucket
8 127 (4.41%) Selenium
9 118 (4.10%) Mockito
10 115 (3.99%) TeamCity
11 92 (3.19%) GitLab
12 91 (3.16%) Subversion
13 84 (2.92%) Visual Studio
14 78 (2.71%) Postman
15 67 (2.33%) Gradle
16 63 (2.19%) JMeter
17 62 (2.15%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 60 (2.08%) SpecFlow
19 59 (2.05%) Sonatype Nexus
20 57 (1.98%) Jasmine
General
1 491 (17.04%) Finance
2 466 (16.17%) Social Skills
3 309 (10.73%) Banking
4 147 (5.10%) Analytical Skills
5 145 (5.03%) Public Sector
6 111 (3.85%) Investment Banking
7 84 (2.92%) Retail
8 64 (2.22%) Front Office
9 45 (1.56%) Marketing
10 43 (1.49%) Presentation Skills
11 36 (1.25%) Telecoms
12 28 (0.97%) Retail Banking
13 24 (0.83%) Financial Institution
14 19 (0.66%) Legal
15 18 (0.62%) Documentation Skills
15 18 (0.62%) Influencing Skills
15 18 (0.62%) Law
16 16 (0.56%) Back Office
17 15 (0.52%) Manufacturing
18 13 (0.45%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,731 (60.08%) Developer
2 493 (17.11%) Java Developer
3 283 (9.82%) Senior Developer
4 261 (9.06%) Architect
5 142 (4.93%) Software Engineer
6 139 (4.82%) Full Stack Developer
7 134 (4.65%) .NET Developer
8 117 (4.06%) Senior Java Developer
9 114 (3.96%) React Developer
10 111 (3.85%) Solutions Architect
11 109 (3.78%) Consultant
12 105 (3.64%) Python Developer
13 90 (3.12%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 82 (2.85%) C# Developer
15 80 (2.78%) Java Engineer
16 76 (2.64%) Salesforce Developer
17 71 (2.46%) Software Developer
18 55 (1.91%) Node.js Developer
19 54 (1.87%) DevOps Engineer
20 53 (1.84%) Azure Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 658 (22.84%) Spring
2 655 (22.74%) SOAP
3 597 (20.72%) Web Services
4 540 (18.74%) HTML
5 515 (17.88%) JSON
6 499 (17.32%) CSS
7 489 (16.97%) React
8 434 (15.06%) Spring Boot
9 411 (14.27%) AngularJS
10 397 (13.78%) XML
11 375 (13.02%) .NET
12 369 (12.81%) Node.js
13 216 (7.50%) Kafka
14 197 (6.84%) GraphQL
15 171 (5.94%) HTML5
16 157 (5.45%) .NET Framework
17 156 (5.41%) OAuth
18 148 (5.14%) .NET Core
19 131 (4.55%) Middleware
20 116 (4.03%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 167 (5.80%) User Experience
2 150 (5.21%) Mobile App
3 92 (3.19%) Greenfield Project
4 79 (2.74%) Data Structures
5 68 (2.36%) Cloud Native
6 64 (2.22%) Data Protection Act
7 52 (1.80%) Enterprise Software
7 52 (1.80%) Self-Motivation
8 47 (1.63%) Algorithms
9 46 (1.60%) Virtual Team
10 44 (1.53%) Public Cloud
11 42 (1.46%) Legacy Systems
12 32 (1.11%) Private Cloud
13 23 (0.80%) Management Information System
14 22 (0.76%) Data Centre
15 20 (0.69%) Fixed Income
15 20 (0.69%) Reference Data
16 17 (0.59%) Clustering
16 17 (0.59%) iPad
17 16 (0.56%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 330 (11.45%) Linux
2 162 (5.62%) Unix
3 154 (5.35%) Windows
4 90 (3.12%) Apple iOS
5 85 (2.95%) Android
6 46 (1.60%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 26 (0.90%) Windows Server
8 21 (0.73%) Solaris
9 10 (0.35%) Mac OS X
10 9 (0.31%) Ubuntu
11 6 (0.21%) Windows Server 2019
12 4 (0.14%) CentOS
12 4 (0.14%) Data ONTAP
12 4 (0.14%) Windows Server 2008
12 4 (0.14%) Windows Server 2016
13 3 (0.10%) VMS
13 3 (0.10%) Windows Server 2012
14 2 (0.069%) Debian
15 1 (0.035%) Windows 10
15 1 (0.035%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,359 (47.17%) Agile Software Development
2 817 (28.36%) Microservices
3 757 (26.28%) DevOps
4 571 (19.82%) Test Automation
5 505 (17.53%) TDD
6 453 (15.72%) Scrum
7 414 (14.37%) Software Engineering
8 289 (10.03%) Full Stack Development
9 269 (9.34%) Continuous Integration
10 262 (9.09%) BDD
11 236 (8.19%) Unit Testing
12 222 (7.71%) Problem-Solving
13 197 (6.84%) OO
14 191 (6.63%) SDLC
15 166 (5.76%) API Development
16 165 (5.73%) Analytics
17 159 (5.52%) Mentoring
18 157 (5.45%) Front End Development
19 148 (5.14%) API Design
20 146 (5.07%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 1,251 (43.42%) Java
2 935 (32.45%) JavaScript
3 771 (26.76%) SQL
4 473 (16.42%) Python
5 409 (14.20%) C#
6 311 (10.79%) TypeScript
7 249 (8.64%) Java 8
8 132 (4.58%) Java 11
9 113 (3.92%) PowerShell
10 112 (3.89%) Scala
11 103 (3.58%) Bash Shell
12 97 (3.37%) Kotlin
13 74 (2.57%) Go
14 73 (2.53%) Apex Code
14 73 (2.53%) PHP
15 67 (2.33%) C++
16 61 (2.12%) T-SQL
17 58 (2.01%) Shell Script
18 57 (1.98%) Apple Swift
19 52 (1.80%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 170 (5.90%) Security Cleared
2 143 (4.96%) SC Cleared
3 128 (4.44%) Degree
4 49 (1.70%) Computer Science Degree
5 39 (1.35%) BPSS Clearance
6 27 (0.94%) ISTQB
7 25 (0.87%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 20 (0.69%) DV Cleared
9 19 (0.66%) Master's Degree
10 16 (0.56%) Microsoft Certification
11 13 (0.45%) AWS Certification
12 9 (0.31%) DBS Check
12 9 (0.31%) ITIL Certification
13 5 (0.17%) PhD
13 5 (0.17%) TOGAF Certification
14 4 (0.14%) CISSP
14 4 (0.14%) MCSE
15 3 (0.10%) CEH
15 3 (0.10%) CISA
15 3 (0.10%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 155 (5.38%) QA
2 79 (2.74%) Accessibility
3 21 (0.73%) GDPR
4 14 (0.49%) Sarbanes-Oxley
5 13 (0.45%) WCAG
6 11 (0.38%) Data Quality
7 8 (0.28%) SLA
8 7 (0.24%) GRC
8 7 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 4 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
10 3 (0.10%) Cyber Essentials
10 3 (0.10%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
10 3 (0.10%) MiFID
10 3 (0.10%) NIST
11 2 (0.069%) HIPAA
11 2 (0.069%) HL7
11 2 (0.069%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 2 (0.069%) PCI DSS
12 1 (0.035%) SOC 1
12 1 (0.035%) SOC 2
System Software
1 554 (19.23%) Docker
2 84 (2.92%) Active Directory
3 23 (0.80%) VMware Infrastructure
4 16 (0.56%) OpenAM
5 14 (0.49%) Virtual Machines
6 13 (0.45%) NFS
7 9 (0.31%) OpenDJ
7 9 (0.31%) OpenIDM
8 7 (0.24%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 6 (0.21%) VMware ESXi
9 6 (0.21%) vSphere
10 5 (0.17%) Virtual Servers
11 3 (0.10%) Apache Flume
11 3 (0.10%) Postfix
11 3 (0.10%) Samba
11 3 (0.10%) Veritas File System
11 3 (0.10%) Veritas Volume Manager
11 3 (0.10%) VMware NSX
12 2 (0.069%) Platform Symphony
12 2 (0.069%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 431 (14.96%) Kubernetes
2 181 (6.28%) Terraform
3 94 (3.26%) Ansible
4 67 (2.33%) Grafana
5 50 (1.74%) Kibana
6 42 (1.46%) Single Sign-On
7 34 (1.18%) Puppet
8 30 (1.04%) Opscode Chef
9 26 (0.90%) BladeLogic
10 23 (0.80%) Prometheus
11 14 (0.49%) Istio
11 14 (0.49%) Microsoft Intune
11 14 (0.49%) Nagios
12 11 (0.38%) Rancher
12 11 (0.38%) Red Hat Satellite
13 10 (0.35%) CloudHub
13 10 (0.35%) logstash
13 10 (0.35%) Netcool
14 8 (0.28%) Packer
14 8 (0.28%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 339 (11.77%) Oracle
2 217 (7.53%) Microsoft
3 139 (4.82%) Salesforce.com
4 92 (3.19%) ServiceNow
5 82 (2.85%) MuleSoft
6 78 (2.71%) IBM
7 72 (2.50%) Splunk
8 71 (2.46%) Google
9 68 (2.36%) SAP
10 47 (1.63%) Atlassian
10 47 (1.63%) Red Hat
11 32 (1.11%) webMethods
12 28 (0.97%) Databricks
12 28 (0.97%) VMware
13 27 (0.94%) FIS
14 26 (0.90%) SunGard
15 24 (0.83%) AppDynamics
16 23 (0.80%) Adobe
17 21 (0.73%) Dynatrace
17 21 (0.73%) Sybase