Period
to 14 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for REST skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited REST over the 6 months to 14 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Representational State Transfer (REST)
UK
6 months to
14 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 66 72 52
Rank change year-on-year +6 -20 +8
Contract jobs citing REST 1,746 1,833 4,000
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.31% 3.08% 4.15%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 10.93% 10.26% 12.60%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,218 1,264 2,718
10th Percentile £356 £375 £363
25th Percentile £413 £425 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £525 £500
Median % change year-on-year -4.76% +5.00% +3.63%
75th Percentile £600 £600 £575
90th Percentile £673 £657 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £475 £450
% change year-on-year -5.26% +5.56% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 23 28
10th Percentile £22.10 " £37.66
25th Percentile £31.78 £46.00 £46.25
Median hourly rate £40.00 £50.50 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year -20.79% +1.00% +17.65%
75th Percentile £46.25 £65.00 £55.00
90th Percentile £55.03 £77.00 £58.60
UK excluding London median hourly rate £36.74 £50.00 £50.00
% change year-on-year -26.53% - +11.11%

REST is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 15,976 17,873 31,752
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.30% 30.04% 32.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,414 12,595 22,718
10th Percentile £325 £331 £325
25th Percentile £405 £410 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year - +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £588 £576 £575
90th Percentile £675 £663 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -5.56% +2.86% +6.06%
Number of hourly rates quoted 186 168 279
10th Percentile £23.75 £18.79 £17.90
25th Percentile £33.81 £28.61 £27.50
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £43.50
Median % change year-on-year -2.17% +5.75% +7.41%
75th Percentile £57.25 £53.28 £52.50
90th Percentile £65.00 £69.65 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £43.25 £42.50
% change year-on-year +4.05% +1.76% +3.66%

REST
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing REST as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing REST.

Daily rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 14 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing REST.

Hourly rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 14 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing REST within the UK over the 6 months to 14 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 1,354 £500 -4.76% 744
London -2 896 £525 -4.55% 348
UK excluding London +21 534 £450 -5.26% 433
Work from Home -4 504 £475 -2.56% 163
Scotland +37 140 £425 -10.53% 21
South East +14 139 £495 +7.03% 102
North of England +13 118 £466 +9.71% 115
North West +11 65 £465 +10.06% 57
South West +5 52 £438 -12.50% 58
Yorkshire +24 41 £450 +4.65% 47
Midlands -54 32 £425 -10.53% 69
East of England +17 27 £500 -9.09% 50
West Midlands -37 22 £450 - 39
Wales +31 18 £475 -5.00% 11
North East +18 12 £500 +11.11% 11
East Midlands +4 11 £383 -23.50% 30
Northern Ireland +15 8 £406 -1.52% 8

For the 6 months to 14 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing REST also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for REST.

1 793 (45.42%) Agile Software Development
2 775 (44.39%) Java
3 544 (31.16%) JavaScript
4 526 (30.13%) Microservices
5 440 (25.20%) Spring
6 419 (24.00%) AWS
7 401 (22.97%) SOAP
8 391 (22.39%) Git (software)
9 382 (21.88%) Azure
9 382 (21.88%) Web Services
10 371 (21.25%) Docker
11 370 (21.19%) SQL
12 363 (20.79%) DevOps
13 357 (20.45%) HTML
14 353 (20.22%) Jenkins
15 320 (18.33%) TDD
16 307 (17.58%) CSS
17 306 (17.53%) Finance
18 300 (17.18%) Kubernetes
19 294 (16.84%) Scrum
20 291 (16.67%) Node.js
21 285 (16.32%) JSON
22 281 (16.09%) Test Automation
23 268 (15.35%) React
24 264 (15.12%) AngularJS
25 260 (14.89%) Python
26 247 (14.15%) Spring Boot
27 243 (13.92%) Linux
28 238 (13.63%) Software Engineering
29 225 (12.89%) .NET

REST
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 109 (6.24%) Confluence
2 65 (3.72%) Apache
3 64 (3.67%) Red Hat Fuse
4 61 (3.49%) Mule
5 52 (2.98%) Elasticsearch
6 41 (2.35%) JBoss
7 39 (2.23%) Tomcat
8 36 (2.06%) SharePoint
9 31 (1.78%) Anypoint
10 27 (1.55%) Cloud Foundry
11 25 (1.43%) CMS
12 21 (1.20%) IIS
13 19 (1.09%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 18 (1.03%) Camunda
14 18 (1.03%) WebSphere
15 15 (0.86%) Mule ESB
15 15 (0.86%) WebLogic
16 14 (0.80%) nginx
17 12 (0.69%) Apache Spark
18 11 (0.63%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 11 (0.63%) Figma
2 8 (0.46%) Chatbot
3 3 (0.17%) Microsoft Excel
3 3 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.17%) Photoshop
4 2 (0.11%) Adobe XD
4 2 (0.11%) Sketch
5 1 (0.057%) GIMP
5 1 (0.057%) InVision
5 1 (0.057%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.057%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 11 (0.63%) Dynamics CRM
2 8 (0.46%) Distributed Ledger
3 7 (0.40%) Oracle ERP
4 6 (0.34%) Magento
4 6 (0.34%) Maximo
4 6 (0.34%) SAP Hybris
5 5 (0.29%) Adobe Campaign
6 4 (0.23%) BusinessWorks
7 3 (0.17%) Dynamics NAV
7 3 (0.17%) Elite 3E
7 3 (0.17%) Oracle BRM
7 3 (0.17%) Summit
8 2 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
8 2 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
8 2 (0.11%) Shopify
8 2 (0.11%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 1 (0.057%) ION MarketView
9 1 (0.057%) Oracle BPM
9 1 (0.057%) Oracle EBS R12
9 1 (0.057%) TIBCO iProcess
Cloud Services
1 419 (24.00%) AWS
2 382 (21.88%) Azure
3 146 (8.36%) GitHub
4 120 (6.87%) Serverless
5 108 (6.19%) PaaS
6 83 (4.75%) GCP
7 65 (3.72%) SaaS
8 62 (3.55%) AWS Lambda
9 60 (3.44%) OpenShift
10 52 (2.98%) AWS CloudFormation
11 51 (2.92%) Amazon S3
12 44 (2.52%) Cloud Computing
13 40 (2.29%) IaaS
14 35 (2.00%) Amazon ECS
15 32 (1.83%) Logic Apps
16 31 (1.78%) Amazon EKS
17 30 (1.72%) Salesforce Service Cloud
18 28 (1.60%) Amazon SQS
19 26 (1.49%) Power Platform
20 22 (1.26%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 104 (5.96%) HTTP
2 36 (2.06%) SSL
3 31 (1.78%) Firewall
4 29 (1.66%) TCP/IP
5 25 (1.43%) DNS
5 25 (1.43%) Internet
6 15 (0.86%) HTTPS
7 13 (0.74%) FTP
8 11 (0.63%) SSH
9 10 (0.57%) SMS
9 10 (0.57%) SMTP
10 9 (0.52%) Network Security
11 8 (0.46%) IPFS
11 8 (0.46%) Unified Communications
12 7 (0.40%) 5G
12 7 (0.40%) LAN
12 7 (0.40%) VPN
13 6 (0.34%) 3G
13 6 (0.34%) Intranet
13 6 (0.34%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 173 (9.91%) NoSQL
2 150 (8.59%) PostgreSQL
3 148 (8.48%) SQL Server
4 142 (8.13%) MongoDB
5 138 (7.90%) Relational Database
6 89 (5.10%) MySQL
7 50 (2.86%) Data Warehouse
8 42 (2.41%) Redis
9 41 (2.35%) Cosmos DB
10 33 (1.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 28 (1.60%) RDBMS
12 27 (1.55%) Apache Cassandra
13 26 (1.49%) DB2
14 24 (1.37%) Big Data
15 21 (1.20%) Oracle Database
16 19 (1.09%) Azure SQL Database
17 17 (0.97%) Blockchain
18 16 (0.92%) Amazon RDS
18 16 (0.92%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 13 (0.74%) Hazelcast
Development Applications
1 391 (22.39%) Git (software)
2 353 (20.22%) Jenkins
3 200 (11.45%) Maven
4 185 (10.60%) JIRA
5 140 (8.02%) Cucumber
6 128 (7.33%) JUnit
7 90 (5.15%) Selenium
8 87 (4.98%) GitLab
9 60 (3.44%) Gradle
10 54 (3.09%) Visual Studio
11 51 (2.92%) Subversion
12 46 (2.63%) Mockito
13 44 (2.52%) TeamCity
14 41 (2.35%) Sonatype Nexus
14 41 (2.35%) webpack
15 40 (2.29%) Postman
16 36 (2.06%) Bitbucket
17 34 (1.95%) IntelliJ
18 32 (1.83%) SonarQube
19 30 (1.72%) Artifactory
General
1 306 (17.53%) Finance
2 218 (12.49%) Banking
3 94 (5.38%) Public Sector
4 68 (3.89%) Investment Banking
5 57 (3.26%) Front Office
6 47 (2.69%) Retail
7 43 (2.46%) Telecoms
8 41 (2.35%) Marketing
9 17 (0.97%) Games
10 13 (0.74%) Pharmaceutical
11 9 (0.52%) Law
12 8 (0.46%) Advertising
12 8 (0.46%) Retail Banking
13 6 (0.34%) Local Government
14 5 (0.29%) Automotive
14 5 (0.29%) Back Office
14 5 (0.29%) Legal
14 5 (0.29%) Manufacturing
15 4 (0.23%) Financial Institution
16 3 (0.17%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 1,076 (61.63%) Developer
2 352 (20.16%) Java Developer
3 181 (10.37%) Senior Developer
4 171 (9.79%) Architect
5 159 (9.11%) Full Stack Developer
6 102 (5.84%) Senior Java Developer
7 92 (5.27%) .NET Developer
8 87 (4.98%) React Developer
9 84 (4.81%) Solutions Architect
10 72 (4.12%) DevOps Engineer
11 67 (3.84%) Consultant
12 62 (3.55%) Software Engineer
13 58 (3.32%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 54 (3.09%) Angular Developer
15 52 (2.98%) AWS Developer
15 52 (2.98%) Python Developer
16 49 (2.81%) Integration Developer
17 47 (2.69%) ServiceNow Developer
18 43 (2.46%) Azure Developer
19 42 (2.41%) JavaScript Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 440 (25.20%) Spring
2 401 (22.97%) SOAP
3 382 (21.88%) Web Services
4 357 (20.45%) HTML
5 307 (17.58%) CSS
6 291 (16.67%) Node.js
7 285 (16.32%) JSON
8 268 (15.35%) React
9 264 (15.12%) AngularJS
10 247 (14.15%) Spring Boot
11 225 (12.89%) .NET
12 221 (12.66%) XML
13 141 (8.08%) HTML5
14 123 (7.04%) GraphQL
15 119 (6.82%) Kafka
16 116 (6.64%) Hibernate
16 116 (6.64%) Middleware
17 104 (5.96%) Redux
18 96 (5.50%) jQuery
19 87 (4.98%) RESTful
Miscellaneous
1 119 (6.82%) Analytical Skills
2 113 (6.47%) Mobile App
3 79 (4.52%) User Experience
4 75 (4.30%) Greenfield Project
5 64 (3.67%) Enterprise Software
6 56 (3.21%) Clustering
7 48 (2.75%) Data Structures
8 46 (2.63%) Cloud Native
9 36 (2.06%) Self-Motivation
10 30 (1.72%) Management Information System
11 28 (1.60%) Public Cloud
12 25 (1.43%) Algorithms
13 24 (1.37%) Fixed Income
13 24 (1.37%) Virtual Team
14 17 (0.97%) Hybrid Cloud
15 15 (0.86%) iPad
16 14 (0.80%) Linux Command Line
17 13 (0.74%) Enterprise Cloud
17 13 (0.74%) iPhone
18 12 (0.69%) CMDB
Operating Systems
1 243 (13.92%) Linux
2 109 (6.24%) Windows
3 107 (6.13%) Unix
4 102 (5.84%) Android
5 98 (5.61%) Apple iOS
6 19 (1.09%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 18 (1.03%) Mac OS X
7 18 (1.03%) Windows Server
7 18 (1.03%) Windows Server 2016
8 13 (0.74%) Ubuntu
9 12 (0.69%) CentOS
9 12 (0.69%) Windows Server 2012
10 9 (0.52%) Windows 10
11 5 (0.29%) Solaris
12 4 (0.23%) Mac OS
13 2 (0.11%) AIX
14 1 (0.057%) Data ONTAP
14 1 (0.057%) Embedded Linux
14 1 (0.057%) VMS
14 1 (0.057%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 793 (45.42%) Agile Software Development
2 526 (30.13%) Microservices
3 363 (20.79%) DevOps
4 320 (18.33%) TDD
5 294 (16.84%) Scrum
6 281 (16.09%) Test Automation
7 238 (13.63%) Software Engineering
8 220 (12.60%) Continuous Integration
9 192 (11.00%) BDD
10 146 (8.36%) OO
10 146 (8.36%) Problem-Solving
11 133 (7.62%) SDLC
12 121 (6.93%) Open Source
13 119 (6.82%) Front End Development
14 117 (6.70%) API Development
15 109 (6.24%) Web Development
16 108 (6.19%) Kanban
16 108 (6.19%) SOA
16 108 (6.19%) Unit Testing
17 92 (5.27%) Data Modelling
Programming Languages
1 775 (44.39%) Java
2 544 (31.16%) JavaScript
3 370 (21.19%) SQL
4 260 (14.89%) Python
5 198 (11.34%) Java 8
6 176 (10.08%) C#
7 143 (8.19%) TypeScript
8 86 (4.93%) Kotlin
9 79 (4.52%) Go
9 79 (4.52%) PowerShell
10 77 (4.41%) ES6
11 69 (3.95%) Bash Shell
12 59 (3.38%) Apple Swift
13 47 (2.69%) C++
14 46 (2.63%) Ruby
15 41 (2.35%) Shell Script
16 39 (2.23%) PHP
17 38 (2.18%) PL/SQL
18 35 (2.00%) Scala
19 34 (1.95%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 145 (8.30%) Security Cleared
2 126 (7.22%) SC Cleared
3 85 (4.87%) Degree
4 27 (1.55%) Computer Science Degree
5 17 (0.97%) ISTQB
6 12 (0.69%) Master's Degree
7 11 (0.63%) AWS Certification
8 10 (0.57%) DV Cleared
9 9 (0.52%) Cisco Certification
9 9 (0.52%) ISEB
10 8 (0.46%) BPSS Clearance
10 8 (0.46%) CCNA
11 7 (0.40%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 4 (0.23%) CCNP
12 4 (0.23%) DBS Check
12 4 (0.23%) PMI Certification
12 4 (0.23%) PMP
13 3 (0.17%) CCIE
13 3 (0.17%) TOGAF Certification
14 2 (0.11%) CISSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 109 (6.24%) QA
2 14 (0.80%) NIST
3 7 (0.40%) Data Quality
3 7 (0.40%) MiFID
3 7 (0.40%) WCAG
4 5 (0.29%) GDPR
5 4 (0.23%) Actionable Recommendations
5 4 (0.23%) SLA
6 2 (0.11%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.057%) Cyber Essentials
7 1 (0.057%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
7 1 (0.057%) GRC
7 1 (0.057%) HL7
7 1 (0.057%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 371 (21.25%) Docker
2 44 (2.52%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.92%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (0.74%) Hyper-V
5 10 (0.57%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 8 (0.46%) vSphere
7 6 (0.34%) Virtual Machines
8 4 (0.23%) VMware NSX
9 2 (0.11%) KVM
9 2 (0.11%) NFS
9 2 (0.11%) Postfix
10 1 (0.057%) IAG
10 1 (0.057%) LXC
10 1 (0.057%) OpenAM
10 1 (0.057%) OpenIDM
10 1 (0.057%) Platform Symphony
10 1 (0.057%) Samba
10 1 (0.057%) Virtual Desktop
10 1 (0.057%) VMware ESXi
10 1 (0.057%) VMware Server
Systems Management
1 300 (17.18%) Kubernetes
2 157 (8.99%) Terraform
3 93 (5.33%) Ansible
4 44 (2.52%) Grafana
5 36 (2.06%) Puppet
6 29 (1.66%) Opscode Chef
7 28 (1.60%) Kibana
7 28 (1.60%) Single Sign-On
8 19 (1.09%) Prometheus
9 14 (0.80%) CloudHub
10 12 (0.69%) Consul
11 11 (0.63%) Istio
12 9 (0.52%) Microsoft Intune
13 8 (0.46%) logstash
14 7 (0.40%) Docker Swarm
14 7 (0.40%) Red Hat Satellite
15 5 (0.29%) Nagios
15 5 (0.29%) Rancher
15 5 (0.29%) Salt
15 5 (0.29%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 167 (9.56%) Oracle
2 131 (7.50%) Microsoft
3 73 (4.18%) Google
4 65 (3.72%) ServiceNow
5 59 (3.38%) Salesforce.com
6 57 (3.26%) IBM
7 52 (2.98%) MuleSoft
8 44 (2.52%) SAP
9 39 (2.23%) Atlassian
9 39 (2.23%) Splunk
10 36 (2.06%) VMware
11 28 (1.60%) Red Hat
12 26 (1.49%) TIBCO
13 25 (1.43%) AppDynamics
14 18 (1.03%) Adobe
15 16 (0.92%) Sybase
16 13 (0.74%) Apple
16 13 (0.74%) hybris
16 13 (0.74%) webMethods
17 12 (0.69%) Xamarin