Period
to 26 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for REST skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited REST over the 6 months to 26 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Representational State Transfer (REST)
UK
6 months to
26 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 68 73 66
Rank change year-on-year +5 -7 -7
Contract jobs citing REST 2,413 1,163 3,293
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.40% 3.10% 3.56%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 11.27% 10.17% 11.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,712 810 2,257
10th Percentile £388 £375 £365
25th Percentile £425 £425 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £517 £500
Median % change year-on-year -3.24% +3.40% -
75th Percentile £625 £600 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 8 30
10th Percentile £35.00 £43.52 £41.21
25th Percentile £37.25 £50.17 £47.50
Median hourly rate £52.50 £58.75 £52.50
Median % change year-on-year -10.64% +11.90% +23.53%
75th Percentile £62.00 £68.75 £59.38
90th Percentile £69.35 £69.13 £61.38
UK excluding London median hourly rate £52.50 £60.31 £55.00
% change year-on-year -12.95% +9.66% +26.44%

REST is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 21,417 11,430 29,514
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.15% 30.46% 31.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 15,335 8,088 20,809
10th Percentile £356 £335 £333
25th Percentile £415 £413 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £490
Median % change year-on-year - +2.04% +3.16%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £694 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £440
% change year-on-year - +2.27% +4.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 192 101 276
10th Percentile £15.10 £20.50 £17.82
25th Percentile £27.00 £30.00 £26.25
Median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £44.96
Median % change year-on-year - +0.09% +8.25%
75th Percentile £57.50 £58.00 £52.50
90th Percentile £68.71 £66.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £42.75 £44.00
% change year-on-year -0.58% -2.84% +10.00%

REST
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing REST as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing REST.

Daily rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing REST.

Hourly rate trend for REST in the UK

REST
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing REST over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for REST in the UK

REST
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing REST within the UK over the 6 months to 26 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 1,893 £525 - 901
London -4 1,219 £550 - 432
UK excluding London +17 721 £475 - 513
Work from Home -16 701 £495 -1.00% 199
South East +25 187 £500 +8.11% 121
North of England 0 177 £475 +2.70% 146
Scotland +36 160 £438 -7.89% 32
North West +5 108 £463 +5.71% 90
South West -8 83 £450 -5.26% 59
Midlands -45 58 £450 -5.26% 89
Yorkshire -7 49 £500 +11.11% 34
West Midlands -36 37 £463 +8.06% 60
East of England -20 28 £523 +10.00% 47
East Midlands -23 21 £450 -10.00% 29
North East +2 20 £513 -6.82% 22
Northern Ireland +15 19 £473 - 2
Wales -6 10 £550 +14.29% 18

For the 6 months to 26 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing REST also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for REST.

1 1,116 (46.25%) Java
2 1,090 (45.17%) Agile Software Development
3 757 (31.37%) JavaScript
4 683 (28.31%) Microservices
5 613 (25.40%) Spring
6 603 (24.99%) SQL
7 599 (24.82%) AWS
8 579 (24.00%) DevOps
9 561 (23.25%) Git (software)
10 559 (23.17%) SOAP
11 532 (22.05%) Azure
12 516 (21.38%) Web Services
13 492 (20.39%) Jenkins
14 491 (20.35%) Docker
15 466 (19.31%) HTML
16 436 (18.07%) TDD
16 436 (18.07%) Test Automation
17 435 (18.03%) React
18 431 (17.86%) JSON
18 431 (17.86%) Finance
19 417 (17.28%) CSS
20 401 (16.62%) Python
21 398 (16.49%) Social Skills
22 388 (16.08%) Scrum
23 375 (15.54%) Kubernetes
24 369 (15.29%) AngularJS
25 361 (14.96%) Spring Boot
26 329 (13.63%) Maven
27 328 (13.59%) Software Engineering
28 327 (13.55%) Node.js

REST
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 115 (4.77%) Confluence
2 85 (3.52%) Apache
3 78 (3.23%) Elasticsearch
4 64 (2.65%) Tomcat
5 56 (2.32%) JBoss
6 55 (2.28%) CMS
7 52 (2.15%) SharePoint
8 48 (1.99%) Mule
9 42 (1.74%) Red Hat Fuse
10 30 (1.24%) Anypoint
11 25 (1.04%) Cloud Foundry
12 24 (0.99%) Apache Spark
12 24 (0.99%) WebLogic
13 22 (0.91%) IIS
14 19 (0.79%) WebSphere
15 16 (0.66%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 16 (0.66%) Apache Solr
15 16 (0.66%) Mule ESB
15 16 (0.66%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 14 (0.58%) nginx
Applications
1 20 (0.83%) Microsoft Excel
2 16 (0.66%) Microsoft Office
3 10 (0.41%) Figma
4 7 (0.29%) Chatbot
5 5 (0.21%) Microsoft Project
5 5 (0.21%) MS Visio
6 3 (0.12%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.083%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 2 (0.083%) Spreadsheet
7 2 (0.083%) SPSS
8 1 (0.041%) Adobe XD
8 1 (0.041%) GIMP
8 1 (0.041%) InVision
8 1 (0.041%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 24 (0.99%) Dynamics CRM
2 15 (0.62%) SunGard Martini
3 10 (0.41%) Oracle ERP
4 8 (0.33%) Payment Gateway
4 8 (0.33%) SAP Hybris
5 6 (0.25%) Adobe Campaign
5 6 (0.25%) Magento
6 5 (0.21%) Shopify
7 4 (0.17%) Distributed Ledger
7 4 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
7 4 (0.17%) Oracle BPM
7 4 (0.17%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 3 (0.12%) Oracle CRM
8 3 (0.12%) SAP ERP
8 3 (0.12%) SAP S/4HANA
8 3 (0.12%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 2 (0.083%) BusinessWorks
9 2 (0.083%) Remedy ITSM
9 2 (0.083%) SAP CRM
9 2 (0.083%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 599 (24.82%) AWS
2 532 (22.05%) Azure
3 200 (8.29%) Serverless
4 179 (7.42%) GitHub
5 154 (6.38%) GCP
6 135 (5.59%) AWS Lambda
7 110 (4.56%) PaaS
8 93 (3.85%) OpenShift
9 84 (3.48%) SaaS
10 73 (3.03%) Power Platform
11 72 (2.98%) Amazon S3
12 59 (2.45%) IaaS
13 51 (2.11%) AWS CloudFormation
14 45 (1.86%) Microsoft 365
15 44 (1.82%) Azure Cosmos DB
16 42 (1.74%) Cloud Computing
17 41 (1.70%) Azure Service Bus
18 39 (1.62%) Dynamics 365
19 36 (1.49%) Azure Logic Apps
19 36 (1.49%) npm
Communications & Networking
1 200 (8.29%) HTTP
2 50 (2.07%) Firewall
3 49 (2.03%) DNS
4 48 (1.99%) TCP/IP
5 40 (1.66%) SSL
6 28 (1.16%) Internet
7 25 (1.04%) FTP
8 23 (0.95%) HTTPS
9 16 (0.66%) SMTP
9 16 (0.66%) SSH
10 14 (0.58%) SMS
11 10 (0.41%) VPN
12 9 (0.37%) DHCP
12 9 (0.37%) Kerberos
13 8 (0.33%) 2G
13 8 (0.33%) MQTT
14 6 (0.25%) PuTTY
14 6 (0.25%) Wireshark
15 5 (0.21%) Intranet
15 5 (0.21%) SIGTRAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 253 (10.48%) SQL Server
2 248 (10.28%) NoSQL
3 231 (9.57%) MongoDB
4 199 (8.25%) PostgreSQL
5 182 (7.54%) Relational Database
6 126 (5.22%) MySQL
7 57 (2.36%) Apache Cassandra
8 56 (2.32%) Power BI
9 53 (2.20%) Redis
10 52 (2.15%) Data Warehouse
11 50 (2.07%) Oracle Database
12 49 (2.03%) Azure SQL Database
13 43 (1.78%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 38 (1.57%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 36 (1.49%) Big Data
16 32 (1.33%) RDBMS
17 26 (1.08%) DB2
18 23 (0.95%) Amazon Aurora
19 21 (0.87%) Data Lake
20 20 (0.83%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 561 (23.25%) Git (software)
2 492 (20.39%) Jenkins
3 329 (13.63%) Maven
4 230 (9.53%) JIRA
5 200 (8.29%) Cucumber
6 197 (8.16%) JUnit
7 111 (4.60%) Selenium
8 94 (3.90%) Mockito
9 93 (3.85%) Bitbucket
9 93 (3.85%) TeamCity
10 82 (3.40%) GitLab
11 77 (3.19%) Subversion
12 72 (2.98%) Postman
12 72 (2.98%) Visual Studio
13 63 (2.61%) Gradle
14 55 (2.28%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 48 (1.99%) Artifactory
15 48 (1.99%) Sonatype Nexus
15 48 (1.99%) webpack
16 44 (1.82%) JMeter
General
1 431 (17.86%) Finance
2 398 (16.49%) Social Skills
3 290 (12.02%) Banking
4 154 (6.38%) Analytical Skills
5 124 (5.14%) Public Sector
6 100 (4.14%) Investment Banking
7 65 (2.69%) Retail
8 64 (2.65%) Front Office
9 48 (1.99%) Marketing
10 46 (1.91%) Telecoms
11 41 (1.70%) Presentation Skills
12 28 (1.16%) Influencing Skills
13 22 (0.91%) Retail Banking
14 15 (0.62%) Documentation Skills
14 15 (0.62%) Manufacturing
15 14 (0.58%) Law
15 14 (0.58%) Pharmaceutical
16 13 (0.54%) Financial Institution
16 13 (0.54%) German Language
17 11 (0.46%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,461 (60.55%) Developer
2 467 (19.35%) Java Developer
3 250 (10.36%) Senior Developer
4 222 (9.20%) Architect
5 131 (5.43%) Full Stack Developer
6 113 (4.68%) Consultant
6 113 (4.68%) Senior Java Developer
7 112 (4.64%) .NET Developer
8 102 (4.23%) Software Engineer
9 96 (3.98%) Solutions Architect
10 84 (3.48%) Python Developer
11 79 (3.27%) React Developer
12 75 (3.11%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
13 68 (2.82%) Java Engineer
14 65 (2.69%) Software Developer
15 58 (2.40%) AWS Developer
15 58 (2.40%) C# Developer
16 56 (2.32%) Angular Developer
17 55 (2.28%) DevOps Engineer
18 54 (2.24%) Azure Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 613 (25.40%) Spring
2 559 (23.17%) SOAP
3 516 (21.38%) Web Services
4 466 (19.31%) HTML
5 435 (18.03%) React
6 431 (17.86%) JSON
7 417 (17.28%) CSS
8 369 (15.29%) AngularJS
9 361 (14.96%) Spring Boot
10 327 (13.55%) Node.js
11 319 (13.22%) XML
12 291 (12.06%) .NET
13 190 (7.87%) GraphQL
14 172 (7.13%) Kafka
15 163 (6.76%) HTML5
16 148 (6.13%) OAuth
17 121 (5.01%) jQuery
18 116 (4.81%) Hibernate
19 113 (4.68%) RESTful
20 105 (4.35%) JMS
Miscellaneous
1 136 (5.64%) User Experience
2 134 (5.55%) Mobile App
3 80 (3.32%) Greenfield Project
4 77 (3.19%) Enterprise Software
5 71 (2.94%) Data Structures
6 58 (2.40%) Legacy Systems
7 50 (2.07%) Self-Motivation
8 49 (2.03%) Cloud Native
9 43 (1.78%) Virtual Team
10 39 (1.62%) Algorithms
11 34 (1.41%) Clustering
11 34 (1.41%) Data Protection Act
12 28 (1.16%) Fixed Income
13 24 (0.99%) Management Information System
14 23 (0.95%) Public Cloud
15 21 (0.87%) Data Centre
16 17 (0.70%) CMDB
17 16 (0.66%) Wiki
18 14 (0.58%) Private Cloud
18 14 (0.58%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 314 (13.01%) Linux
2 162 (6.71%) Unix
3 159 (6.59%) Windows
4 88 (3.65%) Android
5 83 (3.44%) Apple iOS
6 28 (1.16%) Windows Server
7 27 (1.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 20 (0.83%) Ubuntu
9 18 (0.75%) Solaris
10 14 (0.58%) Windows Server 2016
11 11 (0.46%) CentOS
11 11 (0.46%) Windows Server 2012
12 10 (0.41%) Mac OS X
13 5 (0.21%) Windows 10
13 5 (0.21%) Windows Server 2019
14 3 (0.12%) Data ONTAP
14 3 (0.12%) VMS
14 3 (0.12%) Windows Server 2008
15 2 (0.083%) AIX
15 2 (0.083%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,090 (45.17%) Agile Software Development
2 683 (28.31%) Microservices
3 579 (24.00%) DevOps
4 436 (18.07%) TDD
4 436 (18.07%) Test Automation
5 388 (16.08%) Scrum
6 328 (13.59%) Software Engineering
7 271 (11.23%) Continuous Integration
8 219 (9.08%) BDD
9 211 (8.74%) Problem-Solving
10 195 (8.08%) Unit Testing
11 183 (7.58%) OO
12 157 (6.51%) Web Development
13 152 (6.30%) SDLC
14 137 (5.68%) API Development
15 134 (5.55%) Kanban
15 134 (5.55%) Mentoring
16 131 (5.43%) Front End Development
16 131 (5.43%) Open Source
17 120 (4.97%) API Design
Programming Languages
1 1,116 (46.25%) Java
2 757 (31.37%) JavaScript
3 603 (24.99%) SQL
4 401 (16.62%) Python
5 301 (12.47%) C#
6 237 (9.82%) Java 8
7 230 (9.53%) TypeScript
8 105 (4.35%) PowerShell
9 104 (4.31%) Kotlin
10 93 (3.85%) Bash Shell
11 91 (3.77%) Scala
12 83 (3.44%) Go
13 76 (3.15%) Java 11
14 62 (2.57%) Ruby
15 61 (2.53%) C++
16 60 (2.49%) ES6
17 57 (2.36%) PHP
18 56 (2.32%) PL/SQL
18 56 (2.32%) Shell Script
19 51 (2.11%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 161 (6.67%) Security Cleared
2 138 (5.72%) SC Cleared
3 130 (5.39%) Degree
4 46 (1.91%) Computer Science Degree
5 28 (1.16%) ISTQB
6 24 (0.99%) BPSS Clearance
7 21 (0.87%) Master's Degree
8 19 (0.79%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 17 (0.70%) AWS Certification
10 14 (0.58%) DV Cleared
11 9 (0.37%) Microsoft Certification
12 8 (0.33%) ITIL Certification
13 7 (0.29%) ISEB
14 3 (0.12%) CCNA
14 3 (0.12%) Cisco Certification
15 2 (0.083%) DBS Check
15 2 (0.083%) PhD
15 2 (0.083%) TOGAF Certification
16 1 (0.041%) Postgraduate
16 1 (0.041%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 154 (6.38%) QA
2 77 (3.19%) Accessibility
3 16 (0.66%) GDPR
4 13 (0.54%) Data Quality
5 11 (0.46%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 9 (0.37%) WCAG
7 8 (0.33%) MiFID
8 4 (0.17%) Actionable Recommendations
8 4 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 4 (0.17%) NIST
9 3 (0.12%) SLA
10 2 (0.083%) Cyber Essentials
10 2 (0.083%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
10 2 (0.083%) HIPAA
10 2 (0.083%) HL7
11 1 (0.041%) Disclosure Scotland
11 1 (0.041%) GRC
11 1 (0.041%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 1 (0.041%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 491 (20.35%) Docker
2 63 (2.61%) Active Directory
3 22 (0.91%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (0.54%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 13 (0.54%) Virtual Machines
5 10 (0.41%) NFS
6 8 (0.33%) OpenAM
6 8 (0.33%) OpenDJ
6 8 (0.33%) OpenIDM
6 8 (0.33%) vSphere
7 5 (0.21%) Virtual Servers
8 4 (0.17%) VMware ESXi
9 3 (0.12%) Hyper-V
9 3 (0.12%) VMware NSX
10 2 (0.083%) Platform Symphony
10 2 (0.083%) Postfix
10 2 (0.083%) Samba
10 2 (0.083%) Veritas File System
10 2 (0.083%) Veritas Volume Manager
11 1 (0.041%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 375 (15.54%) Kubernetes
2 144 (5.97%) Terraform
3 81 (3.36%) Ansible
4 80 (3.32%) Grafana
5 44 (1.82%) Kibana
6 34 (1.41%) Single Sign-On
7 30 (1.24%) Puppet
8 29 (1.20%) Prometheus
9 16 (0.66%) Microsoft Intune
10 15 (0.62%) BladeLogic
10 15 (0.62%) Istio
11 14 (0.58%) CloudHub
11 14 (0.58%) Opscode Chef
11 14 (0.58%) Rancher
12 12 (0.50%) Nagios
13 9 (0.37%) Docker Swarm
14 8 (0.33%) Failover Clustering
14 8 (0.33%) HP Fortify
14 8 (0.33%) MIIS
14 8 (0.33%) Red Hat Satellite
Vendors
1 294 (12.18%) Oracle
2 182 (7.54%) Microsoft
3 105 (4.35%) Salesforce.com
4 75 (3.11%) Google
5 74 (3.07%) MuleSoft
6 69 (2.86%) SAP
7 68 (2.82%) ServiceNow
8 61 (2.53%) IBM
8 61 (2.53%) Splunk
9 49 (2.03%) Atlassian
10 36 (1.49%) Adobe
11 33 (1.37%) Red Hat
11 33 (1.37%) TIBCO
12 31 (1.28%) VMware
12 31 (1.28%) webMethods
13 27 (1.12%) AppDynamics
14 23 (0.95%) Sybase
15 22 (0.91%) Xamarin
16 17 (0.70%) Dynatrace
17 16 (0.66%) WSO2