Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 19 May 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK > England
6 months to
19 May 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 127 94 86
Rank change year-on-year -33 -8 -23
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,425 1,169 1,200
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 2.02% 2.55% 2.73%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.26% 2.88% 3.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,067 852 932
10th Percentile £413 £381 £375
25th Percentile £475 £450 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £560 £538 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.19% +2.38% +5.00%
75th Percentile £675 £619 £588
90th Percentile £731 £656 £650
UK median daily rate £550 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 13 7
10th Percentile £45.25 £36.85 £30.16
25th Percentile £50.00 £58.00 £38.75
Median hourly rate £65.54 £65.50 £53.13
Median % change year-on-year +0.06% +23.29% +361.96%
75th Percentile £76.64 £65.54 £57.00
90th Percentile £79.35 £73.45 £59.20
UK median hourly rate £65.54 £41.25 £53.13
% change year-on-year +58.88% -22.35% +116.84%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 63,142 40,637 38,026
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.58% 88.77% 86.56%
Number of daily rates quoted 44,948 27,997 25,668
10th Percentile £350 £311 £300
25th Percentile £433 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £540 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +8.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £650 £588 £575
90th Percentile £750 £681 £675
UK median daily rate £538 £495 £475
% change year-on-year +8.59% +4.21% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,585 1,249 1,095
10th Percentile £13.00 £11.75 £12.39
25th Percentile £16.25 £15.25 £15.73
Median hourly rate £27.00 £24.50 £21.50
Median % change year-on-year +10.20% +13.95% -4.44%
75th Percentile £51.00 £46.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £65.28 £58.72 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £28.00 £25.41 £22.29
% change year-on-year +10.21% +14.00% -0.96%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Daily rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 19 May 2022.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 19 May 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the England region over the 6 months to 19 May 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London -34 951 £600 +9.09% 154
North of England +7 186 £550 +19.24% 87
North West +20 121 £550 +25.00% 55
South East -40 83 £484 +2.38% 48
Yorkshire -8 59 £550 +4.76% 22
South West -34 53 £500 -2.44% 24
Midlands -30 47 £513 +33.55% 44
West Midlands -27 39 £500 +30.29% 31
East of England -39 19 £585 +22.19% 20
East Midlands -31 7 £513 +37.58% 13
North East -25 6 £475 - 10
BDD
UK

For the 6 months to 19 May 2022, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,062 (74.53%) TDD
2 998 (70.04%) Agile
3 645 (45.26%) Java
4 507 (35.58%) Test Automation
5 505 (35.44%) Microservices
6 445 (31.23%) CI/CD
7 418 (29.33%) Scrum
8 394 (27.65%) DevOps
9 388 (27.23%) JavaScript
10 356 (24.98%) Azure
11 332 (23.30%) Git (software)
12 321 (22.53%) Docker
13 311 (21.82%) SQL
14 307 (21.54%) Jenkins
15 303 (21.26%) AWS
16 278 (19.51%) C#
17 273 (19.16%) Kubernetes
18 254 (17.82%) .NET
19 227 (15.93%) JIRA
20 225 (15.79%) Spring
21 222 (15.58%) Software Engineering
21 222 (15.58%) Python
22 220 (15.44%) Pair Programming
23 219 (15.37%) REST
24 217 (15.23%) Finance
25 210 (14.74%) Cucumber
25 210 (14.74%) Social Skills
26 207 (14.53%) Continuous Integration
27 203 (14.25%) React
28 192 (13.47%) Selenium

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 118 (8.28%) Confluence
2 77 (5.40%) Apache Spark
3 31 (2.18%) Mule
4 30 (2.11%) JBoss
5 26 (1.82%) Apache
6 25 (1.75%) Elasticsearch
6 25 (1.75%) Red Hat Fuse
7 20 (1.40%) Apache Airflow
8 17 (1.19%) CMS
9 16 (1.12%) Cloud Foundry
9 16 (1.12%) WebSphere
10 11 (0.77%) Tomcat
10 11 (0.77%) WebSphere Application Server
11 10 (0.70%) Oracle Coherence
12 9 (0.63%) Headless CMS
13 8 (0.56%) Apache Solr
14 6 (0.42%) SharePoint
15 4 (0.28%) OpenStack
16 3 (0.21%) Alfresco
16 3 (0.21%) WebLogic
Applications
1 20 (1.40%) Microsoft Excel
2 4 (0.28%) MS Visio
3 2 (0.14%) Microsoft Office
4 1 (0.070%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 1 (0.070%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 9 (0.63%) Dynamics CRM
1 9 (0.63%) Misys Midas
2 7 (0.49%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 6 (0.42%) Carpe Diem
3 6 (0.42%) Elite 3E
4 3 (0.21%) Endur
4 3 (0.21%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
4 3 (0.21%) SAP FI
4 3 (0.21%) SAP IS-U
4 3 (0.21%) SAP S/4HANA
5 1 (0.070%) Primavera
5 1 (0.070%) RMDS
5 1 (0.070%) SAP ERP
5 1 (0.070%) Sentinel
5 1 (0.070%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 356 (24.98%) Azure
2 303 (21.26%) AWS
3 142 (9.96%) GitHub
4 79 (5.54%) Serverless
5 76 (5.33%) GCP
6 45 (3.16%) AWS Lambda
7 30 (2.11%) Azure Service Bus
8 28 (1.96%) IaaS
9 27 (1.89%) PaaS
10 26 (1.82%) Amazon EC2
10 26 (1.82%) Amazon SQS
11 22 (1.54%) Azure Functions
12 21 (1.47%) Power Platform
13 20 (1.40%) Amazon EKS
14 17 (1.19%) AWS CloudFormation
15 16 (1.12%) Amazon EMR
15 16 (1.12%) Amazon S3
15 16 (1.12%) OpenShift
16 15 (1.05%) Apigee
16 15 (1.05%) SaaS
Communications & Networking
1 29 (2.04%) HTTP
2 25 (1.75%) MQTT
3 8 (0.56%) Firewall
3 8 (0.56%) Internet
4 6 (0.42%) Kerberos
5 5 (0.35%) Intrusion Detection
5 5 (0.35%) LAN
6 4 (0.28%) Broadband
6 4 (0.28%) WinSCP
7 3 (0.21%) SSL
8 2 (0.14%) SAN
8 2 (0.14%) WAN
9 1 (0.070%) 802.15
9 1 (0.070%) AMQP
9 1 (0.070%) Bluetooth
9 1 (0.070%) DSL
9 1 (0.070%) TCP/IP
9 1 (0.070%) VPN
9 1 (0.070%) Wi-Fi
9 1 (0.070%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 133 (9.33%) MongoDB
2 130 (9.12%) NoSQL
3 109 (7.65%) PostgreSQL
4 103 (7.23%) SQL Server
5 78 (5.47%) Relational Database
6 75 (5.26%) MySQL
7 52 (3.65%) Big Data
8 33 (2.32%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 21 (1.47%) Amazon Redshift
9 21 (1.47%) Delta Lake
10 18 (1.26%) Amazon RDS
10 18 (1.26%) Oracle Database
11 17 (1.19%) RDBMS
12 16 (1.12%) Azure SQL Database
13 15 (1.05%) Data Warehouse
14 14 (0.98%) Power BI
15 13 (0.91%) Apache Cassandra
15 13 (0.91%) Hadoop
15 13 (0.91%) Redis
16 11 (0.77%) MS Access
Development Applications
1 332 (23.30%) Git (software)
2 307 (21.54%) Jenkins
3 227 (15.93%) JIRA
4 210 (14.74%) Cucumber
5 192 (13.47%) Selenium
6 170 (11.93%) Maven
7 109 (7.65%) JUnit
8 90 (6.32%) SpecFlow
9 76 (5.33%) Postman
10 75 (5.26%) Gradle
11 65 (4.56%) Mockito
12 62 (4.35%) Cypress.io
13 61 (4.28%) JMeter
13 61 (4.28%) TeamCity
14 56 (3.93%) WebDriver
15 47 (3.30%) Bitbucket
16 37 (2.60%) REST Assured
16 37 (2.60%) SoapUI
17 36 (2.53%) GitLab
18 35 (2.46%) jMock
General
1 217 (15.23%) Finance
2 210 (14.74%) Social Skills
3 131 (9.19%) Banking
4 111 (7.79%) Public Sector
5 56 (3.93%) Analytical Skills
6 48 (3.37%) Investment Banking
7 35 (2.46%) Front Office
8 33 (2.32%) Retail
9 21 (1.47%) Presentation Skills
10 18 (1.26%) Games
11 17 (1.19%) Law
12 16 (1.12%) Marketing
13 15 (1.05%) Military
13 15 (1.05%) Publishing
14 13 (0.91%) Retail Banking
15 9 (0.63%) Back Office
15 9 (0.63%) Documentation Skills
15 9 (0.63%) Legal
15 9 (0.63%) Police
16 7 (0.49%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 694 (48.70%) Developer
2 281 (19.72%) Java Developer
3 137 (9.61%) Senior Developer
4 122 (8.56%) Analyst
5 100 (7.02%) .NET Developer
6 91 (6.39%) Test Engineer
7 86 (6.04%) Full Stack Developer
8 82 (5.75%) Tester
9 75 (5.26%) Business Analyst
10 72 (5.05%) Software Engineer
11 69 (4.84%) C# Developer
12 66 (4.63%) Java Engineer
13 61 (4.28%) Automation Tester
13 61 (4.28%) Senior Java Developer
14 54 (3.79%) C# .NET Developer
15 47 (3.30%) Data Engineer
16 40 (2.81%) Scala Developer
17 37 (2.60%) Software Developer
18 36 (2.53%) React Developer
19 35 (2.46%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 254 (17.82%) .NET
2 225 (15.79%) Spring
3 219 (15.37%) REST
4 203 (14.25%) React
5 191 (13.40%) HTML
6 178 (12.49%) Kafka
7 171 (12.00%) Node.js
8 142 (9.96%) Spring Boot
9 139 (9.75%) RESTful
10 123 (8.63%) AngularJS
11 118 (8.28%) CSS
12 111 (7.79%) Web Services
13 102 (7.16%) HTML5
14 86 (6.04%) JSON
15 84 (5.89%) .NET Framework
16 73 (5.12%) .NET Core
17 72 (5.05%) SOAP
18 70 (4.91%) XML
19 63 (4.42%) Hibernate
20 58 (4.07%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 72 (5.05%) Greenfield Project
2 50 (3.51%) User Experience
3 47 (3.30%) Self-Motivation
4 46 (3.23%) Video\Live Streaming
5 43 (3.02%) Media Streaming
6 33 (2.32%) Mobile App
7 29 (2.04%) Public Cloud
8 27 (1.89%) iPad
9 26 (1.82%) IoT
10 25 (1.75%) Cloud Native
11 22 (1.54%) NHS
12 19 (1.33%) Data Structures
13 18 (1.26%) Enterprise Software
14 13 (0.91%) Algorithms
14 13 (0.91%) Management Information System
15 12 (0.84%) Legacy Systems
16 10 (0.70%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 9 (0.63%) Hedge funds
17 9 (0.63%) Virtual Team
18 8 (0.56%) Enterprise Cloud
Operating Systems
1 123 (8.63%) Linux
2 89 (6.25%) Unix
3 52 (3.65%) Windows
4 31 (2.18%) Mac OS X
5 28 (1.96%) Android
6 16 (1.12%) Apple iOS
7 4 (0.28%) Mac OS
8 2 (0.14%) Ubuntu
9 1 (0.070%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,062 (74.53%) TDD
2 998 (70.04%) Agile
3 507 (35.58%) Test Automation
4 505 (35.44%) Microservices
5 445 (31.23%) CI/CD
6 418 (29.33%) Scrum
7 394 (27.65%) DevOps
8 222 (15.58%) Software Engineering
9 220 (15.44%) Pair Programming
10 207 (14.53%) Continuous Integration
11 177 (12.42%) Full Stack Development
12 145 (10.18%) Kanban
13 144 (10.11%) User Stories
14 127 (8.91%) OO
15 118 (8.28%) Mentoring
16 110 (7.72%) Software Testing
17 99 (6.95%) Acceptance Criteria
17 99 (6.95%) SOLID
18 97 (6.81%) Analytics
18 97 (6.81%) SDET
Programming Languages
1 645 (45.26%) Java
2 388 (27.23%) JavaScript
3 311 (21.82%) SQL
4 278 (19.51%) C#
5 222 (15.58%) Python
6 178 (12.49%) TypeScript
7 80 (5.61%) Scala
8 57 (4.00%) Go
9 31 (2.18%) Kotlin
10 25 (1.75%) Shell Script
11 24 (1.68%) PowerShell
12 23 (1.61%) Bash
13 21 (1.47%) ES6
14 20 (1.40%) Ruby
15 17 (1.19%) R
16 16 (1.12%) PL/SQL
17 15 (1.05%) PHP
18 14 (0.98%) Perl
19 13 (0.91%) T-SQL
20 12 (0.84%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 175 (12.28%) Security Cleared
2 152 (10.67%) SC Cleared
3 32 (2.25%) Degree
3 32 (2.25%) ISTQB
4 25 (1.75%) BPSS Clearance
5 19 (1.33%) DV Cleared
5 19 (1.33%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
6 15 (1.05%) Computer Science Degree
6 15 (1.05%) ISEB
7 8 (0.56%) AWS Certification
8 5 (0.35%) CEH
8 5 (0.35%) CISM
8 5 (0.35%) CISSP
8 5 (0.35%) Master's Degree
9 4 (0.28%) APMP
10 2 (0.14%) DBS Check
10 2 (0.14%) IIBA
10 2 (0.14%) ITIL Certification
11 1 (0.070%) CFA
11 1 (0.070%) HNC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 153 (10.74%) QA
2 35 (2.46%) Accessibility
3 10 (0.70%) WCAG
4 8 (0.56%) GDPR
5 4 (0.28%) Disclosure Scotland
5 4 (0.28%) SLA
6 3 (0.21%) PMO
7 2 (0.14%) Data Quality
7 2 (0.14%) HL7
8 1 (0.070%) ISO 20022
8 1 (0.070%) ISO 9001
8 1 (0.070%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 1 (0.070%) MiFID
8 1 (0.070%) WAI
System Software
1 321 (22.53%) Docker
2 11 (0.77%) Active Directory
3 7 (0.49%) Postfix
3 7 (0.49%) Virtual Machines
4 6 (0.42%) VirtualBox
5 4 (0.28%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.28%) vSphere
6 2 (0.14%) NDS
6 2 (0.14%) NetIQ eDirectory
6 2 (0.14%) OpenAM
6 2 (0.14%) Platform Symphony
7 1 (0.070%) OpenDJ
7 1 (0.070%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 273 (19.16%) Kubernetes
2 104 (7.30%) Terraform
3 64 (4.49%) Ansible
4 40 (2.81%) Grafana
5 38 (2.67%) Prometheus
5 38 (2.67%) Puppet
6 12 (0.84%) Rancher
7 11 (0.77%) Opscode Chef
8 10 (0.70%) Istio
8 10 (0.70%) Kibana
9 8 (0.56%) Control-M
9 8 (0.56%) HP ALM
10 7 (0.49%) Docker Swarm
10 7 (0.49%) ITRS Geneos
10 7 (0.49%) Mesos
11 6 (0.42%) HP Quality Center
11 6 (0.42%) IBM Guardium
11 6 (0.42%) logstash
12 3 (0.21%) MIIS
13 2 (0.14%) NetIQ Identity Manager
Vendors
1 93 (6.53%) Oracle
2 92 (6.46%) Microsoft
3 43 (3.02%) Databricks
4 39 (2.74%) Salesforce.com
5 26 (1.82%) Splunk
6 25 (1.75%) Google
7 23 (1.61%) Sybase
8 19 (1.33%) AppDynamics
8 19 (1.33%) IBM
9 17 (1.19%) Atlassian
10 15 (1.05%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
11 13 (0.91%) Dynatrace
12 12 (0.84%) New Relic
13 11 (0.77%) ForgeRock
13 11 (0.77%) SAP
14 8 (0.56%) Cadence
15 7 (0.49%) Hortonworks
16 6 (0.42%) Intapp
16 6 (0.42%) Reuters
17 5 (0.35%) Checkmarx