Period
to 1 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 1 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK > England
6 months to
1 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 88 60 50
Rank change year-on-year -28 -10 +12
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,463 3,528 4,113
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 2.62% 4.01% 4.41%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.07% 4.58% 5.09%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,111 2,599 3,311
Median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +2.70%
10th Percentile £375 £363 £350
90th Percentile £650 £638 £605
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £475
% change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 4 6
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £47.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -26.32% +3.41%
10th Percentile £34.50 £18.38 £40.00
90th Percentile £58.60 £35.00 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £47.50
% change year-on-year - -26.32% +3.41%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 47,619 77,074 80,809
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 85.12% 87.50% 86.74%
Number of daily rates quoted 30,742 51,602 53,829
Median daily rate £475 £475 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.70% +5.11%
10th Percentile £294 £305 £300
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% +4.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,631 1,895 2,043
Median hourly rate £25.00 £24.50 £23.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.04% +4.26% -6.00%
10th Percentile £12.50 £11.85 £11.50
90th Percentile £53.00 £50.90 £50.00
Median hourly rate £25.14 £24.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year +2.61% +8.89% -10.00%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Daily rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 1 April 2020.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 1 April 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the England region over the 6 months to 1 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -19 898 £550 +4.76% 267
North of England -34 154 £475 +5.56% 114
South East -64 154 £463 -1.60% 80
Midlands -11 103 £450 - 58
South West -21 102 £475 -1.04% 64
West Midlands +3 80 £475 +5.56% 30
Yorkshire 0 68 £475 +2.70% 47
North West -47 56 £475 +5.56% 57
East of England -10 53 £413 -15.82% 36
North East -8 31 £425 -5.56% 10
East Midlands +6 23 £350 -10.26% 28
BDD
UK

For the 6 months to 1 April 2020, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,106 (75.60%) TDD
2 1,086 (74.23%) Agile Software Development
3 646 (44.16%) Java
4 474 (32.40%) Test Automation
5 444 (30.35%) JavaScript
6 428 (29.25%) Scrum
7 411 (28.09%) Microservices
8 363 (24.81%) C#
9 361 (24.68%) AWS
10 338 (23.10%) Continuous Integration
11 330 (22.56%) Azure
11 330 (22.56%) Git (software)
12 327 (22.35%) Jenkins
13 315 (21.53%) DevOps
14 288 (19.69%) SQL
15 278 (19.00%) .NET
16 253 (17.29%) AngularJS
17 242 (16.54%) Cucumber
18 239 (16.34%) Kanban
18 239 (16.34%) Spring
19 238 (16.27%) Docker
20 235 (16.06%) REST
21 229 (15.65%) JIRA
22 228 (15.58%) Web Services
23 222 (15.17%) Selenium
24 214 (14.63%) QA
25 210 (14.35%) HTML
26 203 (13.88%) React
27 197 (13.47%) Finance
28 195 (13.33%) CSS

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 112 (7.66%) Confluence
2 56 (3.83%) Elasticsearch
3 41 (2.80%) Apache Spark
4 26 (1.78%) Apache
5 16 (1.09%) IIS
6 15 (1.03%) CMS
6 15 (1.03%) SharePoint
7 13 (0.89%) Tomcat
8 8 (0.55%) Cloud Foundry
9 5 (0.34%) nginx
9 5 (0.34%) Umbraco
10 4 (0.27%) Apache Airflow
10 4 (0.27%) Sitecore CMS
10 4 (0.27%) WebSphere
10 4 (0.27%) WordPress
11 3 (0.21%) SAS
12 2 (0.14%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 2 (0.14%) NServiceBus
12 2 (0.14%) Oracle Spatial
12 2 (0.14%) SharePoint 2013
Applications
1 12 (0.82%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (0.62%) MS Visio
3 7 (0.48%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 6 (0.41%) Microsoft Office
5 4 (0.27%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.14%) Zeplin
7 1 (0.068%) Adobe Illustrator
7 1 (0.068%) Photoshop
Business Applications
1 14 (0.96%) Dynamics CRM
2 5 (0.34%) Magento
3 4 (0.27%) BusinessWorks
4 3 (0.21%) Oracle BPM
5 2 (0.14%) SAP EWM
6 1 (0.068%) Endur
6 1 (0.068%) ION MarketView
6 1 (0.068%) Payment Gateway
6 1 (0.068%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 361 (24.68%) AWS
2 330 (22.56%) Azure
3 103 (7.04%) GitHub
4 89 (6.08%) Amazon EC2
5 78 (5.33%) Serverless
6 66 (4.51%) GCP
7 48 (3.28%) AWS Lambda
8 45 (3.08%) Amazon SQS
9 35 (2.39%) Amazon S3
10 23 (1.57%) AWS CloudFormation
11 20 (1.37%) SaaS
12 17 (1.16%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 13 (0.89%) Azure Functions
13 13 (0.89%) Sauce Labs
14 12 (0.82%) OpenShift
14 12 (0.82%) PaaS
15 11 (0.75%) Amazon Cognito
15 11 (0.75%) Amazon EMR
15 11 (0.75%) BrowserStack
15 11 (0.75%) Slack
Communications & Networking
1 43 (2.94%) HTTP
2 25 (1.71%) Internet
3 23 (1.57%) DNS
4 9 (0.62%) FTP
4 9 (0.62%) SSL
4 9 (0.62%) TCP/IP
5 8 (0.55%) DSL
6 6 (0.41%) IPv6
7 4 (0.27%) HTTPS
8 3 (0.21%) Wi-Fi
9 2 (0.14%) 802.15
9 2 (0.14%) Wireless
9 2 (0.14%) ZigBee
10 1 (0.068%) Firewall
10 1 (0.068%) Kerberos
10 1 (0.068%) NFC
10 1 (0.068%) PuTTY
10 1 (0.068%) Skype
10 1 (0.068%) SSH
10 1 (0.068%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 141 (9.64%) SQL Server
2 101 (6.90%) PostgreSQL
3 89 (6.08%) MongoDB
4 77 (5.26%) NoSQL
5 60 (4.10%) MySQL
6 52 (3.55%) Big Data
7 45 (3.08%) Amazon RDS
8 42 (2.87%) Relational Database
9 31 (2.12%) Hadoop
10 27 (1.85%) HBase
11 22 (1.50%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 21 (1.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 20 (1.37%) Cosmos DB
13 20 (1.37%) RDBMS
14 19 (1.30%) Apache Cassandra
14 19 (1.30%) Data Warehouse
15 18 (1.23%) Data Lake
16 17 (1.16%) Apache Hive
16 17 (1.16%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 12 (0.82%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 330 (22.56%) Git (software)
2 327 (22.35%) Jenkins
3 242 (16.54%) Cucumber
4 229 (15.65%) JIRA
5 222 (15.17%) Selenium
6 125 (8.54%) Maven
7 113 (7.72%) JUnit
8 108 (7.38%) SpecFlow
9 91 (6.22%) Mockito
10 74 (5.06%) WebDriver
11 70 (4.78%) Team Foundation Server
12 67 (4.58%) SonarQube
13 58 (3.96%) GitLab
14 54 (3.69%) TeamCity
15 53 (3.62%) SoapUI
16 49 (3.35%) jMock
17 48 (3.28%) Visual Studio Team System
18 47 (3.21%) Bitbucket
18 47 (3.21%) DbUnit
19 43 (2.94%) JMeter
General
1 197 (13.47%) Finance
2 154 (10.53%) Banking
3 102 (6.97%) Public Sector
4 60 (4.10%) Front Office
5 54 (3.69%) Retail
6 32 (2.19%) Marketing
7 26 (1.78%) Investment Banking
8 20 (1.37%) Telecoms
9 15 (1.03%) Military
10 14 (0.96%) Law
11 8 (0.55%) Publishing
12 6 (0.41%) Financial Institution
12 6 (0.41%) Legal
12 6 (0.41%) Pharmaceutical
12 6 (0.41%) Retail Banking
13 4 (0.27%) Advertising
13 4 (0.27%) Games
14 2 (0.14%) Corporate Banking
14 2 (0.14%) Local Government
14 2 (0.14%) Manufacturing
Job Titles
1 896 (61.24%) Developer
2 302 (20.64%) Java Developer
3 163 (11.14%) Senior Developer
4 114 (7.79%) .NET Developer
5 113 (7.72%) Tester
6 105 (7.18%) C# Developer
7 100 (6.84%) React Developer
8 90 (6.15%) Analyst
9 86 (5.88%) Automation Tester
10 71 (4.85%) Full Stack Developer
11 64 (4.37%) Software Developer
11 64 (4.37%) Test Engineer
12 58 (3.96%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
13 51 (3.49%) AWS Developer
13 51 (3.49%) JavaScript Developer
14 50 (3.42%) Angular Developer
14 50 (3.42%) Senior Java Developer
15 46 (3.14%) Business Analyst
16 42 (2.87%) QA Engineer
17 39 (2.67%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 278 (19.00%) .NET
2 253 (17.29%) AngularJS
3 239 (16.34%) Spring
4 235 (16.06%) REST
5 228 (15.58%) Web Services
6 210 (14.35%) HTML
7 203 (13.88%) React
8 195 (13.33%) CSS
9 193 (13.19%) Node.js
10 177 (12.10%) RESTful
11 170 (11.62%) SOAP
12 145 (9.91%) Spring Boot
13 132 (9.02%) Kafka
14 107 (7.31%) Redux
15 92 (6.29%) JSON
16 88 (6.02%) ASP.NET
17 85 (5.81%) Gherkin
18 79 (5.40%) .NET Core
19 77 (5.26%) Spring Cloud
20 73 (4.99%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 113 (7.72%) Greenfield Project
2 106 (7.25%) Analytical Skills
3 56 (3.83%) User Experience
4 55 (3.76%) Mobile App
5 47 (3.21%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 34 (2.32%) Enterprise Software
7 31 (2.12%) Data Structures
8 26 (1.78%) Public Cloud
9 21 (1.44%) Management Information System
10 20 (1.37%) Derivative
11 19 (1.30%) Algorithms
12 18 (1.23%) NHS
13 15 (1.03%) Equities
14 13 (0.89%) Fixed Income
15 12 (0.82%) Self-Motivation
15 12 (0.82%) Virtual Team
16 9 (0.62%) Cloud Native
17 8 (0.55%) Data Centre
17 8 (0.55%) Linux Command Line
18 7 (0.48%) Private Cloud
Operating Systems
1 96 (6.56%) Linux
2 75 (5.13%) Android
3 51 (3.49%) Unix
4 49 (3.35%) Apple iOS
5 26 (1.78%) Mac OS X
6 20 (1.37%) Windows
7 2 (0.14%) CentOS
7 2 (0.14%) Windows Server
8 1 (0.068%) CoreOS
8 1 (0.068%) Mac OS
8 1 (0.068%) Ubuntu
8 1 (0.068%) Windows 10
8 1 (0.068%) Windows Server 2008
8 1 (0.068%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,106 (75.60%) TDD
2 1,086 (74.23%) Agile Software Development
3 474 (32.40%) Test Automation
4 428 (29.25%) Scrum
5 411 (28.09%) Microservices
6 338 (23.10%) Continuous Integration
7 315 (21.53%) DevOps
8 239 (16.34%) Kanban
9 194 (13.26%) Pair Programming
10 185 (12.65%) Software Engineering
11 170 (11.62%) MVC
12 131 (8.95%) User Stories
13 117 (8.00%) Open Source
14 113 (7.72%) Problem-Solving
15 107 (7.31%) Acceptance Criteria
15 107 (7.31%) Unit Testing
16 101 (6.90%) OO
17 100 (6.84%) Continuous Delivery
18 95 (6.49%) SDLC
19 91 (6.22%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 646 (44.16%) Java
2 444 (30.35%) JavaScript
3 363 (24.81%) C#
4 288 (19.69%) SQL
5 184 (12.58%) Python
6 163 (11.14%) Java 8
7 103 (7.04%) TypeScript
8 80 (5.47%) Scala
9 50 (3.42%) Groovy
10 49 (3.35%) Ruby
11 48 (3.28%) C
12 41 (2.80%) PowerShell
13 40 (2.73%) Kotlin
14 36 (2.46%) ES6
14 36 (2.46%) T-SQL
15 35 (2.39%) PHP
16 33 (2.26%) C++
17 24 (1.64%) Go
18 16 (1.09%) Bash Shell
19 13 (0.89%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 180 (12.30%) Security Cleared
2 152 (10.39%) SC Cleared
3 54 (3.69%) ISTQB
4 49 (3.35%) Degree
5 30 (2.05%) DV Cleared
6 25 (1.71%) Computer Science Degree
7 23 (1.57%) ISEB
8 13 (0.89%) BPSS Clearance
9 7 (0.48%) AWS Certification
9 7 (0.48%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 4 (0.27%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
11 3 (0.21%) IIBA
11 3 (0.21%) OCP
11 3 (0.21%) Oracle Certification
12 2 (0.14%) Master's Degree
13 1 (0.068%) DBS Check
13 1 (0.068%) Numerate Degree
13 1 (0.068%) OCPJP
13 1 (0.068%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 214 (14.63%) QA
2 9 (0.62%) GDPR
3 5 (0.34%) PMO
4 4 (0.27%) WCAG
5 2 (0.14%) EMIR
5 2 (0.14%) MiFID
6 1 (0.068%) Data Quality
6 1 (0.068%) Disclosure Scotland
6 1 (0.068%) IFRS
6 1 (0.068%) ISO 20022
6 1 (0.068%) PSD2
6 1 (0.068%) SEPA
System Software
1 238 (16.27%) Docker
2 40 (2.73%) Postfix
3 23 (1.57%) HDFS
4 9 (0.62%) Active Directory
4 9 (0.62%) VMware Infrastructure
4 9 (0.62%) vSphere
5 6 (0.41%) Virtual Machines
6 4 (0.27%) NDS
6 4 (0.27%) NetIQ eDirectory
6 4 (0.27%) NFS
7 2 (0.14%) Firmware
8 1 (0.068%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.068%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 143 (9.77%) Kubernetes
2 67 (4.58%) Terraform
3 41 (2.80%) Ansible
4 21 (1.44%) Puppet
5 19 (1.30%) Opscode Chef
6 15 (1.03%) Hadoop YARN
7 9 (0.62%) Packer
8 8 (0.55%) Docker Swarm
8 8 (0.55%) HP ALM
9 7 (0.48%) Nagios
10 6 (0.41%) MIIS
11 5 (0.34%) NetIQ Identity Manager
12 4 (0.27%) Control-M
12 4 (0.27%) Grafana
12 4 (0.27%) Kibana
13 3 (0.21%) HP Quality Center
13 3 (0.21%) Mesos
13 3 (0.21%) Prometheus
13 3 (0.21%) Tivoli
14 2 (0.14%) Nessus
Vendors
1 98 (6.70%) Microsoft
2 74 (5.06%) Google
3 63 (4.31%) Oracle
4 16 (1.09%) Atlassian
5 13 (0.89%) Apple
5 13 (0.89%) Hortonworks
5 13 (0.89%) IBM
6 12 (0.82%) New Relic
6 12 (0.82%) VMware
7 11 (0.75%) SAP
8 10 (0.68%) Splunk
9 8 (0.55%) Databricks
9 8 (0.55%) ForgeRock
9 8 (0.55%) HP
9 8 (0.55%) NetIQ
9 8 (0.55%) Xamarin
10 6 (0.41%) MuleSoft
11 5 (0.34%) Sitecore
11 5 (0.34%) Zend
12 4 (0.27%) Cadence