Period
to 7 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 7 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK > England
6 months to
7 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 92 84 62
Rank change year-on-year -8 -22 -8
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,159 1,214 3,278
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 2.59% 2.59% 3.89%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.96% 3.03% 4.42%
Number of daily rates quoted 845 938 2,404
10th Percentile £394 £378 £370
25th Percentile £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £540 £525 £500
Median % change year-on-year +2.86% +5.00% +4.74%
75th Percentile £619 £588 £575
90th Percentile £655 £650 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £525 £500
% change year-on-year - +5.00% +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 12 7 1
10th Percentile £36.55 £30.16 "
25th Percentile £53.31 £38.75 £11.25
Median hourly rate £61.75 £53.13 £11.50
Median % change year-on-year +16.24% +361.96% -77.00%
75th Percentile £65.54 £57.00 £11.75
90th Percentile £72.66 £59.20 "
UK median hourly rate £40.50 £53.13 £24.50
% change year-on-year -23.76% +116.84% -51.00%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 39,117 40,102 74,107
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 87.52% 85.57% 87.87%
Number of daily rates quoted 26,934 26,977 50,344
10th Percentile £309 £300 £306
25th Percentile £400 £388 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £490 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +3.16% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,233 1,169 1,776
10th Percentile £11.75 £12.37 £11.53
25th Percentile £15.50 £15.85 £14.50
Median hourly rate £25.31 £21.50 £22.65
Median % change year-on-year +17.72% -5.08% +5.35%
75th Percentile £46.50 £45.00 £44.76
90th Percentile £58.71 £54.00 £51.25
UK median hourly rate £26.50 £22.00 £22.93
% change year-on-year +20.45% -4.06% +9.19%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Daily rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 7 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 7 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the England region over the 6 months to 7 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -11 792 £550 - 216
North of England +21 102 £469 -1.32% 89
South East +18 84 £487 +5.24% 75
South West +4 48 £538 +7.50% 37
North West +25 46 £450 - 62
Midlands -16 38 £384 -14.72% 40
Yorkshire +13 37 £525 - 17
East of England 0 28 £473 -4.55% 30
North East +20 19 £475 +11.76% 10
West Midlands -40 17 £375 -18.48% 26
East Midlands +18 16 £373 +6.43% 13
BDD
UK

For the 6 months to 7 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for BDD.

1 878 (75.75%) TDD
2 821 (70.84%) Agile Software Development
3 603 (52.03%) Java
4 378 (32.61%) Test Automation
5 360 (31.06%) Microservices
6 345 (29.77%) Scrum
7 336 (28.99%) DevOps
8 321 (27.70%) Azure
9 314 (27.09%) Git (software)
10 287 (24.76%) SQL
10 287 (24.76%) Docker
11 246 (21.23%) Spring
12 245 (21.14%) Jenkins
13 240 (20.71%) JavaScript
14 227 (19.59%) C#
14 227 (19.59%) Social Skills
15 225 (19.41%) AWS
16 215 (18.55%) .NET
17 214 (18.46%) Cucumber
18 213 (18.38%) Kubernetes
19 209 (18.03%) Finance
20 208 (17.95%) JIRA
21 203 (17.52%) Continuous Integration
22 175 (15.10%) Banking
23 174 (15.01%) Selenium
24 173 (14.93%) Python
25 161 (13.89%) REST
26 158 (13.63%) Software Engineering
27 155 (13.37%) QA
28 153 (13.20%) Node.js

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 112 (9.66%) Confluence
2 68 (5.87%) Apache Spark
3 32 (2.76%) Apache
3 32 (2.76%) JBoss
4 24 (2.07%) Mule
5 21 (1.81%) WebSphere
6 20 (1.73%) Tomcat
7 16 (1.38%) Red Hat Fuse
8 14 (1.21%) SharePoint
9 13 (1.12%) Elasticsearch
9 13 (1.12%) Jetty
9 13 (1.12%) NServiceBus
10 11 (0.95%) Cloud Foundry
10 11 (0.95%) nginx
11 10 (0.86%) Apache Airflow
12 9 (0.78%) Oracle Coherence
13 5 (0.43%) Camunda
13 5 (0.43%) IBM Domino
14 4 (0.35%) OpenStack
14 4 (0.35%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 11 (0.95%) MS Visio
2 5 (0.43%) Microsoft Excel
3 4 (0.35%) Microsoft Office
4 3 (0.26%) Microsoft Project
5 2 (0.17%) Sketch
6 1 (0.086%) Adobe Illustrator
6 1 (0.086%) Figma
6 1 (0.086%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 7 (0.60%) Magento
2 3 (0.26%) Dynamics CRM
3 2 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
3 2 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
3 2 (0.17%) Summit
4 1 (0.086%) Distributed Ledger
4 1 (0.086%) Dynamics AX
4 1 (0.086%) Oracle Cash Management
4 1 (0.086%) Oracle ERP
4 1 (0.086%) Oracle General Ledger
4 1 (0.086%) Oracle Payables
4 1 (0.086%) Oracle Receivables
4 1 (0.086%) Primavera
4 1 (0.086%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 1 (0.086%) SAP ERP
4 1 (0.086%) SAP S/4HANA
4 1 (0.086%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 321 (27.70%) Azure
2 225 (19.41%) AWS
3 96 (8.28%) Serverless
4 87 (7.51%) GCP
5 59 (5.09%) GitHub
6 38 (3.28%) OpenShift
7 32 (2.76%) AWS Lambda
7 32 (2.76%) PaaS
8 31 (2.67%) Azure Service Bus
9 29 (2.50%) IaaS
10 24 (2.07%) Cloud Computing
11 23 (1.98%) Azure Functions
12 22 (1.90%) SaaS
13 18 (1.55%) Amazon S3
13 18 (1.55%) Azure Cosmos DB
14 15 (1.29%) Power Platform
15 14 (1.21%) Azure Logic Apps
16 13 (1.12%) AWS CloudFormation
17 12 (1.04%) Azure Service Fabric
18 10 (0.86%) Azure Storage
Communications & Networking
1 29 (2.50%) HTTP
2 9 (0.78%) LAN
2 9 (0.78%) TCP/IP
3 7 (0.60%) Internet
3 7 (0.60%) Kerberos
3 7 (0.60%) SSL
3 7 (0.60%) Unified Communications
4 5 (0.43%) Broadband
5 4 (0.35%) DNS
6 3 (0.26%) FTP
6 3 (0.26%) Wireless
7 2 (0.17%) DMZ
8 1 (0.086%) 5G
8 1 (0.086%) 802.15
8 1 (0.086%) Bluetooth
8 1 (0.086%) Network Security
8 1 (0.086%) WAN
8 1 (0.086%) Wi-Fi
8 1 (0.086%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 104 (8.97%) NoSQL
2 76 (6.56%) MongoDB
3 73 (6.30%) SQL Server
4 66 (5.69%) Hadoop
5 52 (4.49%) Relational Database
6 51 (4.40%) MySQL
7 43 (3.71%) PostgreSQL
8 33 (2.85%) Big Data
9 32 (2.76%) Data Warehouse
10 28 (2.42%) Tableau
11 26 (2.24%) Azure SQL Database
11 26 (2.24%) HBase
12 24 (2.07%) Redis
13 21 (1.81%) Apache Hive
13 21 (1.81%) Tableau Desktop
13 21 (1.81%) Tableau Server
14 20 (1.73%) Apache Cassandra
15 18 (1.55%) BigQuery
15 18 (1.55%) Cloud Spanner
16 16 (1.38%) Hazelcast
Development Applications
1 314 (27.09%) Git (software)
2 245 (21.14%) Jenkins
3 214 (18.46%) Cucumber
4 208 (17.95%) JIRA
5 174 (15.01%) Selenium
6 146 (12.60%) Maven
7 96 (8.28%) JUnit
8 57 (4.92%) Postman
9 54 (4.66%) Subversion
10 47 (4.06%) Gradle
11 45 (3.88%) Mockito
12 42 (3.62%) SpecFlow
13 40 (3.45%) Octopus Deploy
14 37 (3.19%) REST Assured
14 37 (3.19%) SoapUI
15 36 (3.11%) WebDriver
16 35 (3.02%) GitLab
17 32 (2.76%) JMeter
17 32 (2.76%) Sonatype Nexus
18 31 (2.67%) webpack
General
1 227 (19.59%) Social Skills
2 209 (18.03%) Finance
3 175 (15.10%) Banking
4 88 (7.59%) Front Office
5 79 (6.82%) Analytical Skills
6 64 (5.52%) Public Sector
7 62 (5.35%) Investment Banking
8 27 (2.33%) Retail
9 20 (1.73%) Marketing
10 14 (1.21%) Games
11 11 (0.95%) Retail Banking
11 11 (0.95%) Telecoms
12 10 (0.86%) Presentation Skills
13 8 (0.69%) Legal
14 6 (0.52%) Financial Institution
14 6 (0.52%) Influencing Skills
15 5 (0.43%) Back Office
15 5 (0.43%) Publishing
16 4 (0.35%) Advertising
16 4 (0.35%) Manufacturing
Job Titles
1 695 (59.97%) Developer
2 279 (24.07%) Java Developer
3 116 (10.01%) Senior Developer
4 81 (6.99%) Analyst
5 73 (6.30%) Tester
6 72 (6.21%) C# Developer
7 70 (6.04%) .NET Developer
8 64 (5.52%) Full Stack Developer
9 61 (5.26%) Scala Developer
10 54 (4.66%) Java Engineer
11 53 (4.57%) Senior Java Developer
12 48 (4.14%) Automation Tester
13 47 (4.06%) React Developer
14 46 (3.97%) Test Engineer
15 41 (3.54%) Business Analyst
16 37 (3.19%) Software Engineer
17 31 (2.67%) Data Engineer
17 31 (2.67%) QA Engineer
18 27 (2.33%) C# .NET Developer
18 27 (2.33%) Test Automation Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 246 (21.23%) Spring
2 215 (18.55%) .NET
3 161 (13.89%) REST
4 153 (13.20%) Node.js
5 148 (12.77%) Spring Boot
6 147 (12.68%) React
7 141 (12.17%) RESTful
8 131 (11.30%) AngularJS
9 117 (10.09%) Web Services
10 106 (9.15%) CSS
10 106 (9.15%) HTML
11 90 (7.77%) Gherkin
12 89 (7.68%) Kafka
13 78 (6.73%) .NET Core
14 65 (5.61%) XML
15 61 (5.26%) Hibernate
16 56 (4.83%) HTML5
17 52 (4.49%) Redux
18 49 (4.23%) JSON
19 48 (4.14%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 70 (6.04%) Greenfield Project
2 55 (4.75%) User Experience
3 49 (4.23%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 41 (3.54%) Self-Motivation
5 39 (3.36%) Fixed Income
5 39 (3.36%) Mobile App
6 33 (2.85%) Data Structures
6 33 (2.85%) Enterprise Software
7 31 (2.67%) Cloud Native
8 25 (2.16%) Algorithms
8 25 (2.16%) Derivative
9 17 (1.47%) Public Cloud
10 14 (1.21%) Management Information System
10 14 (1.21%) Virtual Team
11 11 (0.95%) Equities
12 10 (0.86%) Client/Server
12 10 (0.86%) Linux Command Line
13 9 (0.78%) SWIFT
14 8 (0.69%) Hybrid Cloud
14 8 (0.69%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 112 (9.66%) Linux
2 98 (8.46%) Unix
3 39 (3.36%) Android
4 26 (2.24%) Windows
5 23 (1.98%) Apple iOS
6 16 (1.38%) Mac OS X
7 4 (0.35%) CentOS
7 4 (0.35%) Ubuntu
8 3 (0.26%) Mac OS
9 1 (0.086%) Debian
9 1 (0.086%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 1 (0.086%) Tizen
9 1 (0.086%) VMS
9 1 (0.086%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 878 (75.75%) TDD
2 821 (70.84%) Agile Software Development
3 378 (32.61%) Test Automation
4 360 (31.06%) Microservices
5 345 (29.77%) Scrum
6 336 (28.99%) DevOps
7 203 (17.52%) Continuous Integration
8 158 (13.63%) Software Engineering
9 146 (12.60%) Problem-Solving
10 122 (10.53%) User Stories
11 120 (10.35%) Kanban
12 109 (9.40%) Unit Testing
13 101 (8.71%) Continuous Delivery
13 101 (8.71%) Pair Programming
14 94 (8.11%) SDLC
15 85 (7.33%) Continuous Improvement
16 82 (7.08%) OO
17 65 (5.61%) Analytics
18 64 (5.52%) Front End Development
19 63 (5.44%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 603 (52.03%) Java
2 287 (24.76%) SQL
3 240 (20.71%) JavaScript
4 227 (19.59%) C#
5 173 (14.93%) Python
6 139 (11.99%) Java 8
7 125 (10.79%) Scala
8 70 (6.04%) TypeScript
9 45 (3.88%) Ruby
10 40 (3.45%) PowerShell
11 38 (3.28%) Go
12 31 (2.67%) Kotlin
13 27 (2.33%) Shell Script
14 24 (2.07%) C++
15 22 (1.90%) Bash Shell
16 20 (1.73%) ES6
17 19 (1.64%) T-SQL
18 18 (1.55%) C
19 16 (1.38%) PHP
20 11 (0.95%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 114 (9.84%) Security Cleared
2 97 (8.37%) SC Cleared
3 59 (5.09%) Degree
4 22 (1.90%) Numerate Degree
5 16 (1.38%) BPSS Clearance
6 15 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
7 11 (0.95%) DV Cleared
8 9 (0.78%) ISTQB
9 7 (0.60%) ISEB
9 7 (0.60%) OCPJP
9 7 (0.60%) Sun Certification
10 5 (0.43%) Master's Degree
11 3 (0.26%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 3 (0.26%) Microsoft Certification
12 2 (0.17%) AWS Certification
12 2 (0.17%) PMI Certification
12 2 (0.17%) PMP
12 2 (0.17%) Postgraduate
12 2 (0.17%) SAFe Agilist
12 2 (0.17%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 155 (13.37%) QA
2 8 (0.69%) MiFID
3 4 (0.35%) Data Quality
3 4 (0.35%) ISO 20022
3 4 (0.35%) WCAG
4 3 (0.26%) PMO
5 2 (0.17%) SEPA
6 1 (0.086%) Disclosure Scotland
6 1 (0.086%) GDPR
6 1 (0.086%) GRC
6 1 (0.086%) PCI DSS
6 1 (0.086%) PSD2
6 1 (0.086%) TARGET2
System Software
1 287 (24.76%) Docker
2 11 (0.95%) Active Directory
2 11 (0.95%) HDFS
3 5 (0.43%) NDS
3 5 (0.43%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 2 (0.17%) KVM
5 1 (0.086%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.086%) Postfix
5 1 (0.086%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.086%) VirtualBox
5 1 (0.086%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 213 (18.38%) Kubernetes
2 70 (6.04%) Terraform
3 27 (2.33%) Grafana
4 22 (1.90%) Prometheus
5 18 (1.55%) Ansible
6 14 (1.21%) HP Quality Center
6 14 (1.21%) Puppet
6 14 (1.21%) Rancher
7 12 (1.04%) Oozie
8 11 (0.95%) Opscode Chef
9 10 (0.86%) ZABBIX
10 7 (0.60%) HP ALM
11 4 (0.35%) Kibana
12 3 (0.26%) logstash
12 3 (0.26%) NetIQ Identity Manager
13 2 (0.17%) Docker Swarm
13 2 (0.17%) Istio
13 2 (0.17%) MIIS
14 1 (0.086%) Kiali
14 1 (0.086%) Kubeflow
Vendors
1 69 (5.95%) Oracle
2 51 (4.40%) Microsoft
3 44 (3.80%) Google
4 21 (1.81%) Databricks
5 20 (1.73%) Atlassian
5 20 (1.73%) IBM
5 20 (1.73%) New Relic
5 20 (1.73%) Sybase
6 19 (1.64%) Splunk
7 18 (1.55%) HP
8 16 (1.38%) Xamarin
9 15 (1.29%) Salesforce.com
10 14 (1.21%) MuleSoft
11 11 (0.95%) Murex
12 10 (0.86%) hybris
12 10 (0.86%) Spiceworks
13 9 (0.78%) SAP
14 7 (0.60%) Sun
15 6 (0.52%) TIBCO
16 5 (0.43%) NetIQ