Period
to 24 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 24 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK > England
6 months to
24 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 106 80 75
Rank change year-on-year -26 -5 -22
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,534 768 2,608
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 2.38% 2.97% 3.22%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.67% 3.39% 3.67%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,136 569 1,911
10th Percentile £394 £351 £375
25th Percentile £449 £425 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £510 £513
Median % change year-on-year +2.94% -0.49% +2.50%
75th Percentile £625 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £639 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £500
% change year-on-year +4.95% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 2 1
10th Percentile £40.44 £51.61 "
25th Percentile £61.50 £51.67 £10.25
Median hourly rate £65.50 £53.56 £10.50
Median % change year-on-year +22.29% +410.12% -61.82%
75th Percentile £70.25 £55.67 £10.75
90th Percentile £73.45 £55.87 "
UK median hourly rate £65.50 £53.56 £24.00
% change year-on-year +22.29% +123.18% -12.73%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 57,490 22,629 71,046
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.24% 87.55% 87.69%
Number of daily rates quoted 40,157 15,452 48,035
10th Percentile £315 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £390 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £480 £475
Median % change year-on-year +6.77% +1.05% +2.70%
75th Percentile £613 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,508 638 1,925
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.50
25th Percentile £14.50 £15.75 £14.33
Median hourly rate £24.29 £26.00 £22.93
Median % change year-on-year -6.60% +13.39% +16.10%
75th Percentile £48.75 £45.87 £46.50
90th Percentile £62.50 £55.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £24.50 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year -2.00% +11.11% +16.07%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Daily rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 24 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in England

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD in England over the 6 months to 24 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in England

BDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the England region over the 6 months to 24 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -20 945 £556 +1.14% 342
North of England -55 150 £450 -10.89% 100
South East -2 145 £475 - 92
North West -12 87 £434 -15.37% 58
South West -4 80 £475 - 36
East of England -24 68 £513 +8.47% 33
Yorkshire -68 44 £455 -9.00% 23
Midlands -63 39 £425 +0.59% 58
West Midlands -67 22 £425 - 30
North East -8 19 £513 -0.73% 19
East Midlands -33 16 £450 +6.51% 27
BDD
UK

For the 6 months to 24 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,167 (76.08%) TDD
2 1,149 (74.90%) Agile Software Development
3 777 (50.65%) Java
4 557 (36.31%) Test Automation
5 491 (32.01%) Microservices
6 475 (30.96%) Scrum
7 454 (29.60%) DevOps
8 423 (27.57%) Git (software)
9 384 (25.03%) Spring
10 381 (24.84%) JavaScript
11 363 (23.66%) Docker
12 360 (23.47%) AWS
13 343 (22.36%) Cucumber
14 340 (22.16%) Azure
15 319 (20.80%) Jenkins
16 308 (20.08%) JIRA
17 294 (19.17%) Kubernetes
18 286 (18.64%) Social Skills
19 285 (18.58%) Continuous Integration
20 278 (18.12%) SQL
21 247 (16.10%) Selenium
22 239 (15.58%) Finance
23 238 (15.51%) Spring Boot
24 237 (15.45%) React
25 234 (15.25%) C#
26 233 (15.19%) Pair Programming
27 226 (14.73%) Software Engineering
28 221 (14.41%) .NET
29 210 (13.69%) REST
30 208 (13.56%) Java 8

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 169 (11.02%) Confluence
2 50 (3.26%) Apache Spark
3 37 (2.41%) Elasticsearch
4 33 (2.15%) JBoss
5 24 (1.56%) Mule
6 21 (1.37%) Tomcat
7 20 (1.30%) Red Hat Fuse
8 19 (1.24%) Apache
8 19 (1.24%) WebSphere
9 13 (0.85%) CMS
9 13 (0.85%) SharePoint
10 10 (0.65%) nginx
10 10 (0.65%) Oracle Coherence
11 9 (0.59%) OpenStack
12 8 (0.52%) Apache Airflow
13 7 (0.46%) Drupal
13 7 (0.46%) Jetty
14 6 (0.39%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 6 (0.39%) Cloud Foundry
14 6 (0.39%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 7 (0.46%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.33%) MS Visio
3 3 (0.20%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.20%) Microsoft Project
4 2 (0.13%) Chatbot
4 2 (0.13%) Mingle
5 1 (0.065%) Figma
5 1 (0.065%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 1 (0.065%) Photoshop
5 1 (0.065%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 9 (0.59%) Magento
2 7 (0.46%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 6 (0.39%) Dynamics CRM
4 3 (0.20%) Oracle Cash Management
5 2 (0.13%) Adobe Campaign
5 2 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
5 2 (0.13%) Oracle General Ledger
5 2 (0.13%) Oracle Payables
5 2 (0.13%) Oracle Receivables
5 2 (0.13%) Shopify
6 1 (0.065%) BusinessWorks
6 1 (0.065%) Distributed Ledger
6 1 (0.065%) Endur
6 1 (0.065%) Oracle BPM
6 1 (0.065%) Payment Gateway
6 1 (0.065%) Primavera
6 1 (0.065%) RMDS
6 1 (0.065%) SAP ERP
6 1 (0.065%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 360 (23.47%) AWS
2 340 (22.16%) Azure
3 99 (6.45%) Serverless
4 75 (4.89%) GCP
5 66 (4.30%) GitHub
6 45 (2.93%) AWS Lambda
7 35 (2.28%) PaaS
8 31 (2.02%) Amazon S3
9 30 (1.96%) SaaS
10 23 (1.50%) BrowserStack
11 22 (1.43%) Amazon EC2
12 21 (1.37%) Apigee
13 20 (1.30%) OpenShift
14 19 (1.24%) AWS CloudFormation
15 17 (1.11%) Cloud Computing
15 17 (1.11%) IaaS
16 16 (1.04%) Datadog
17 15 (0.98%) npm
18 14 (0.91%) Amazon CloudWatch
18 14 (0.91%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 37 (2.41%) HTTP
2 15 (0.98%) Internet
2 15 (0.98%) LAN
3 7 (0.46%) Kerberos
4 4 (0.26%) Broadband
5 3 (0.20%) TCP/IP
6 2 (0.13%) DNS
6 2 (0.13%) MQTT
6 2 (0.13%) SSL
7 1 (0.065%) 2G
7 1 (0.065%) Firewall
7 1 (0.065%) RTP
7 1 (0.065%) SAN
7 1 (0.065%) Unified Communications
7 1 (0.065%) WAN
7 1 (0.065%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 144 (9.39%) NoSQL
2 115 (7.50%) MongoDB
3 112 (7.30%) MySQL
4 101 (6.58%) Relational Database
5 96 (6.26%) SQL Server
6 60 (3.91%) Oracle Database
7 59 (3.85%) PostgreSQL
8 46 (3.00%) Big Data
9 36 (2.35%) Hadoop
10 26 (1.69%) Redis
11 24 (1.56%) HBase
12 21 (1.37%) BigQuery
12 21 (1.37%) Data Lake
13 20 (1.30%) Apache Cassandra
14 19 (1.24%) Data Warehouse
15 17 (1.11%) Tableau
16 16 (1.04%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 16 (1.04%) Hazelcast
17 15 (0.98%) Amazon RDS
18 14 (0.91%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 423 (27.57%) Git (software)
2 343 (22.36%) Cucumber
3 319 (20.80%) Jenkins
4 308 (20.08%) JIRA
5 247 (16.10%) Selenium
6 155 (10.10%) Maven
7 125 (8.15%) JUnit
8 82 (5.35%) Postman
9 79 (5.15%) SpecFlow
10 74 (4.82%) Mockito
11 65 (4.24%) Subversion
12 64 (4.17%) WebDriver
13 60 (3.91%) TeamCity
14 52 (3.39%) GitLab
15 50 (3.26%) Octopus Deploy
16 48 (3.13%) Appium
16 48 (3.13%) REST Assured
17 47 (3.06%) Gatling
18 45 (2.93%) JMeter
19 40 (2.61%) Atlassian Bamboo
General
1 286 (18.64%) Social Skills
2 239 (15.58%) Finance
3 185 (12.06%) Banking
4 90 (5.87%) Analytical Skills
5 71 (4.63%) Public Sector
6 60 (3.91%) Front Office
7 43 (2.80%) Investment Banking
8 39 (2.54%) Retail
9 34 (2.22%) Games
10 28 (1.83%) Documentation Skills
11 21 (1.37%) Marketing
12 16 (1.04%) Presentation Skills
13 15 (0.98%) Legal
14 14 (0.91%) Telecoms
15 12 (0.78%) Back Office
16 11 (0.72%) Retail Banking
17 9 (0.59%) Publishing
18 8 (0.52%) Military
19 7 (0.46%) Influencing Skills
19 7 (0.46%) Police
Job Titles
1 884 (57.63%) Developer
2 361 (23.53%) Java Developer
3 147 (9.58%) Senior Developer
4 106 (6.91%) Tester
5 100 (6.52%) Full Stack Developer
6 98 (6.39%) Analyst
7 91 (5.93%) Test Engineer
8 84 (5.48%) Automation Tester
9 81 (5.28%) .NET Developer
10 72 (4.69%) C# Developer
11 67 (4.37%) Scala Developer
12 61 (3.98%) Software Engineer
13 57 (3.72%) React Developer
13 57 (3.72%) Senior Java Developer
14 54 (3.52%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
15 47 (3.06%) Test Analyst
16 46 (3.00%) Test Automation Engineer
17 44 (2.87%) Business Analyst
17 44 (2.87%) Software Developer
18 43 (2.80%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 384 (25.03%) Spring
2 238 (15.51%) Spring Boot
3 237 (15.45%) React
4 221 (14.41%) .NET
5 210 (13.69%) REST
6 205 (13.36%) RESTful
7 190 (12.39%) Node.js
8 188 (12.26%) CSS
9 187 (12.19%) HTML
10 180 (11.73%) AngularJS
11 151 (9.84%) Web Services
12 132 (8.60%) Kafka
13 131 (8.54%) Gherkin
14 86 (5.61%) GraphQL
14 86 (5.61%) JSON
15 77 (5.02%) XML
16 73 (4.76%) HTML5
17 67 (4.37%) .NET Core
17 67 (4.37%) Hibernate
18 66 (4.30%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 72 (4.69%) Greenfield Project
2 69 (4.50%) Mobile App
3 58 (3.78%) User Experience
4 46 (3.00%) Self-Motivation
5 38 (2.48%) Hybrid Cloud
6 35 (2.28%) Algorithms
7 34 (2.22%) Data Protection Act
8 31 (2.02%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 28 (1.83%) Client/Server
9 28 (1.83%) Enterprise Software
10 25 (1.63%) Cloud Native
10 25 (1.63%) iPad
11 23 (1.50%) Management Information System
12 22 (1.43%) Fixed Income
13 21 (1.37%) Derivative
13 21 (1.37%) Public Cloud
13 21 (1.37%) Video\Live Streaming
14 19 (1.24%) Media Streaming
15 18 (1.17%) Data Structures
16 13 (0.85%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 121 (7.89%) Linux
2 90 (5.87%) Unix
3 51 (3.32%) Android
4 39 (2.54%) Windows
5 36 (2.35%) Apple iOS
6 24 (1.56%) Mac OS X
7 5 (0.33%) Debian
7 5 (0.33%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 5 (0.33%) VMS
8 3 (0.20%) Windows Server
9 2 (0.13%) Ubuntu
10 1 (0.065%) CentOS
10 1 (0.065%) Tizen
10 1 (0.065%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,167 (76.08%) TDD
2 1,149 (74.90%) Agile Software Development
3 557 (36.31%) Test Automation
4 491 (32.01%) Microservices
5 475 (30.96%) Scrum
6 454 (29.60%) DevOps
7 285 (18.58%) Continuous Integration
8 233 (15.19%) Pair Programming
9 226 (14.73%) Software Engineering
10 182 (11.86%) Kanban
11 180 (11.73%) User Stories
12 170 (11.08%) Problem-Solving
13 163 (10.63%) Full Stack Development
14 161 (10.50%) Unit Testing
15 129 (8.41%) Continuous Improvement
16 126 (8.21%) Mentoring
17 125 (8.15%) Acceptance Criteria
17 125 (8.15%) Software Testing
18 115 (7.50%) SDLC
19 114 (7.43%) OO
Programming Languages
1 777 (50.65%) Java
2 381 (24.84%) JavaScript
3 278 (18.12%) SQL
4 234 (15.25%) C#
5 208 (13.56%) Java 8
6 192 (12.52%) Python
7 142 (9.26%) Scala
8 139 (9.06%) TypeScript
9 118 (7.69%) Java 11
10 41 (2.67%) Kotlin
11 33 (2.15%) PowerShell
12 32 (2.09%) Go
13 27 (1.76%) Bash Shell
13 27 (1.76%) Ruby
13 27 (1.76%) Shell Script
14 26 (1.69%) PHP
15 24 (1.56%) ES6
16 23 (1.50%) C++
17 16 (1.04%) C
18 15 (0.98%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 146 (9.52%) Security Cleared
2 121 (7.89%) SC Cleared
3 47 (3.06%) Degree
4 33 (2.15%) OCPJP
4 33 (2.15%) Sun Certification
5 27 (1.76%) ISTQB
6 17 (1.11%) ISEB
7 13 (0.85%) BPSS Clearance
7 13 (0.85%) Computer Science Degree
8 12 (0.78%) DV Cleared
9 10 (0.65%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 6 (0.39%) Master's Degree
11 3 (0.20%) Numerate Degree
12 2 (0.13%) Microsoft Certification
12 2 (0.13%) Postgraduate
13 1 (0.065%) BC Cleared
13 1 (0.065%) CITP
13 1 (0.065%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 1 (0.065%) PMI Certification
13 1 (0.065%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 180 (11.73%) QA
2 52 (3.39%) Accessibility
3 11 (0.72%) WCAG
4 9 (0.59%) Data Quality
5 4 (0.26%) ISO 20022
5 4 (0.26%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 3 (0.20%) SEPA
7 2 (0.13%) GRC
8 1 (0.065%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.065%) GDPR
8 1 (0.065%) HL7
8 1 (0.065%) IFRS
8 1 (0.065%) MiFID
8 1 (0.065%) PCI DSS
8 1 (0.065%) PMO
8 1 (0.065%) PSD2
8 1 (0.065%) Solvency II
8 1 (0.065%) TARGET2
System Software
1 363 (23.66%) Docker
2 20 (1.30%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.26%) NDS
3 4 (0.26%) NetIQ eDirectory
3 4 (0.26%) VirtualBox
4 3 (0.20%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 3 (0.20%) HDFS
4 3 (0.20%) Platform Symphony
4 3 (0.20%) Postfix
4 3 (0.20%) VMware Infrastructure
4 3 (0.20%) vSphere
5 1 (0.065%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 294 (19.17%) Kubernetes
2 83 (5.41%) Terraform
3 68 (4.43%) Grafana
4 64 (4.17%) Ansible
5 60 (3.91%) Prometheus
6 17 (1.11%) ZABBIX
7 14 (0.91%) Rancher
8 13 (0.85%) Puppet
9 10 (0.65%) Kibana
10 9 (0.59%) HP Quality Center
11 7 (0.46%) Opscode Chef
12 5 (0.33%) logstash
13 4 (0.26%) Hadoop YARN
13 4 (0.26%) HP ALM
14 3 (0.20%) CA Wily
14 3 (0.20%) ITRS Geneos
14 3 (0.20%) NetIQ Identity Manager
15 2 (0.13%) Istio
15 2 (0.13%) MIIS
15 2 (0.13%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 130 (8.47%) Oracle
2 52 (3.39%) Microsoft
3 39 (2.54%) Google
3 39 (2.54%) Splunk
4 33 (2.15%) Sun
4 33 (2.15%) Xamarin
5 24 (1.56%) IBM
5 24 (1.56%) New Relic
6 21 (1.37%) Salesforce.com
6 21 (1.37%) Sybase
7 17 (1.11%) CA Agile Central
7 17 (1.11%) Spiceworks
8 16 (1.04%) Databricks
9 15 (0.98%) Atlassian
10 14 (0.91%) HP
10 14 (0.91%) MuleSoft
11 10 (0.65%) Adobe
11 10 (0.65%) Cloudera
12 9 (0.59%) TIBCO
13 8 (0.52%) hybris