Period
to 19 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 19 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
19 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 110 83 78
Rank change year-on-year -27 -5 -24
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,951 900 2,491
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.32% 2.89% 2.95%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.60% 3.31% 3.38%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,405 686 1,810
10th Percentile £400 £351 £365
25th Percentile £440 £420 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - -
75th Percentile £625 £575 £575
90th Percentile £688 £638 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £474 £450
% change year-on-year +0.26% +5.28% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 22 1 2
10th Percentile £40.00 " £12.95
25th Percentile £41.68 £51.56 £17.00
Median hourly rate £65.50 £53.13 £24.00
Median % change year-on-year +23.29% +121.35% -12.73%
75th Percentile £67.95 £54.69 £31.00
90th Percentile £73.36 " £35.05
UK excluding London median hourly rate £65.50 £53.13 £37.50
% change year-on-year +23.29% +41.67% +7.14%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 75,024 27,163 73,704
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.10% 87.12% 87.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 52,140 18,394 49,366
10th Percentile £320 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £378 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £510 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £613 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £668 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £460 £443 £438
% change year-on-year +3.95% +1.14% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,689 776 2,168
10th Percentile £12.05 £11.88 £11.57
25th Percentile £14.55 £15.50 £14.84
Median hourly rate £25.00 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year - +11.11% +15.38%
75th Percentile £50.00 £45.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £63.75 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.75 £22.50 £22.00
% change year-on-year -7.78% +2.27% +14.29%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 19 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -32 1,597 £525 +5.00% 576
London -26 971 £575 +4.55% 262
UK excluding London -25 619 £475 +0.26% 358
Work from Home -11 587 £500 +1.52% 120
North of England -48 169 £450 -10.00% 107
South East -13 148 £475 - 99
North West -18 100 £450 -12.20% 64
South West -3 87 £488 +8.33% 37
Scotland -13 78 £450 +5.88% 20
East of England -14 71 £513 +8.47% 27
Yorkshire -55 55 £475 -5.00% 29
Midlands -80 40 £450 +5.02% 43
Wales -8 24 £438 +16.67% 23
West Midlands -68 23 £448 +3.59% 22
North East -17 18 £525 +1.69% 14
East Midlands -29 16 £500 +18.34% 21
Northern Ireland -8 2 £475 +5.56% 2

For the 6 months to 19 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,432 (73.40%) TDD
2 1,394 (71.45%) Agile Software Development
3 1,008 (51.67%) Java
4 704 (36.08%) Test Automation
5 649 (33.26%) Microservices
6 572 (29.32%) Scrum
7 550 (28.19%) DevOps
8 519 (26.60%) Git (software)
9 474 (24.30%) Docker
10 468 (23.99%) Spring
11 464 (23.78%) JavaScript
12 437 (22.40%) AWS
13 430 (22.04%) Jenkins
14 415 (21.27%) Cucumber
15 405 (20.76%) Kubernetes
16 399 (20.45%) Azure
17 374 (19.17%) JIRA
18 348 (17.84%) Continuous Integration
19 341 (17.48%) SQL
20 339 (17.38%) Social Skills
21 338 (17.32%) Selenium
22 303 (15.53%) Spring Boot
23 296 (15.17%) Finance
24 293 (15.02%) Software Engineering
25 292 (14.97%) C#
26 281 (14.40%) React
27 270 (13.84%) Pair Programming
28 262 (13.43%) REST
29 260 (13.33%) RESTful
29 260 (13.33%) .NET

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 198 (10.15%) Confluence
2 60 (3.08%) Apache Spark
3 46 (2.36%) Elasticsearch
4 30 (1.54%) JBoss
5 25 (1.28%) WebSphere
6 24 (1.23%) Apache
7 21 (1.08%) Mule
7 21 (1.08%) Tomcat
8 20 (1.03%) Red Hat Fuse
9 17 (0.87%) CMS
10 14 (0.72%) SharePoint
11 12 (0.62%) Apache Airflow
12 11 (0.56%) OpenStack
13 9 (0.46%) Oracle Coherence
14 8 (0.41%) nginx
15 7 (0.36%) WebLogic
16 6 (0.31%) Cloud Foundry
16 6 (0.31%) Drupal
16 6 (0.31%) IBM Domino
16 6 (0.31%) Jetty
Applications
1 7 (0.36%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.26%) Microsoft Office
3 4 (0.21%) MS Visio
4 3 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
4 3 (0.15%) Mingle
5 2 (0.10%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.10%) Figma
5 2 (0.10%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 1 (0.051%) Photoshop
Business Applications
1 15 (0.77%) Salesforce.com CRM
2 11 (0.56%) Magento
3 7 (0.36%) Dynamics CRM
4 4 (0.21%) Shopify
5 3 (0.15%) Oracle BPM
5 3 (0.15%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.10%) Adobe Campaign
6 2 (0.10%) Endur
6 2 (0.10%) Oracle Cash Management
7 1 (0.051%) BusinessWorks
7 1 (0.051%) Distributed Ledger
7 1 (0.051%) Oracle ERP
7 1 (0.051%) Oracle General Ledger
7 1 (0.051%) Oracle Payables
7 1 (0.051%) Oracle Receivables
7 1 (0.051%) Primavera
7 1 (0.051%) RMDS
7 1 (0.051%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.051%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 437 (22.40%) AWS
2 399 (20.45%) Azure
3 110 (5.64%) Serverless
4 97 (4.97%) GCP
5 79 (4.05%) GitHub
6 59 (3.02%) AWS Lambda
7 41 (2.10%) SaaS
8 39 (2.00%) Amazon S3
8 39 (2.00%) PaaS
9 28 (1.44%) OpenShift
10 26 (1.33%) Apigee
11 25 (1.28%) AWS CloudFormation
11 25 (1.28%) BrowserStack
12 24 (1.23%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 22 (1.13%) Amazon EC2
14 20 (1.03%) Amazon EMR
14 20 (1.03%) Cloud Computing
15 19 (0.97%) IaaS
16 17 (0.87%) npm
17 15 (0.77%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 57 (2.92%) HTTP
2 15 (0.77%) Internet
2 15 (0.77%) LAN
3 8 (0.41%) MQTT
4 4 (0.21%) Kerberos
5 2 (0.10%) Broadband
5 2 (0.10%) DNS
5 2 (0.10%) Firewall
6 1 (0.051%) 2G
6 1 (0.051%) FTP
6 1 (0.051%) Network Security
6 1 (0.051%) RTP
6 1 (0.051%) SAN
6 1 (0.051%) SSL
6 1 (0.051%) TCP/IP
6 1 (0.051%) Unified Communications
6 1 (0.051%) VPN
6 1 (0.051%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 196 (10.05%) NoSQL
2 139 (7.12%) MongoDB
2 139 (7.12%) MySQL
3 135 (6.92%) Relational Database
4 123 (6.30%) SQL Server
5 84 (4.31%) PostgreSQL
6 67 (3.43%) Oracle Database
7 55 (2.82%) Big Data
8 39 (2.00%) Hadoop
9 30 (1.54%) BigQuery
9 30 (1.54%) HBase
10 29 (1.49%) Redis
11 26 (1.33%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 25 (1.28%) RDBMS
13 21 (1.08%) Data Warehouse
13 21 (1.08%) DB2
14 18 (0.92%) Apache Cassandra
14 18 (0.92%) Data Lake
15 17 (0.87%) Amazon Athena
15 17 (0.87%) Cloud Spanner
Development Applications
1 519 (26.60%) Git (software)
2 430 (22.04%) Jenkins
3 415 (21.27%) Cucumber
4 374 (19.17%) JIRA
5 338 (17.32%) Selenium
6 186 (9.53%) Maven
7 147 (7.53%) JUnit
8 124 (6.36%) SpecFlow
9 110 (5.64%) Postman
10 94 (4.82%) Mockito
11 83 (4.25%) TeamCity
12 82 (4.20%) GitLab
12 82 (4.20%) WebDriver
13 71 (3.64%) REST Assured
14 70 (3.59%) Subversion
15 67 (3.43%) JMeter
16 62 (3.18%) Appium
17 57 (2.92%) Gatling
18 55 (2.82%) Octopus Deploy
18 55 (2.82%) TestNG
General
1 339 (17.38%) Social Skills
2 296 (15.17%) Finance
3 221 (11.33%) Banking
4 131 (6.71%) Public Sector
5 113 (5.79%) Analytical Skills
6 55 (2.82%) Front Office
7 51 (2.61%) Investment Banking
8 41 (2.10%) Retail
9 40 (2.05%) Games
10 25 (1.28%) Documentation Skills
11 21 (1.08%) Marketing
12 18 (0.92%) Presentation Skills
13 15 (0.77%) Telecoms
14 14 (0.72%) Retail Banking
15 13 (0.67%) Law
15 13 (0.67%) Legal
16 12 (0.62%) Back Office
17 10 (0.51%) Publishing
18 8 (0.41%) Influencing Skills
18 8 (0.41%) Military
Job Titles
1 1,062 (54.43%) Developer
2 453 (23.22%) Java Developer
3 174 (8.92%) Senior Developer
4 137 (7.02%) Tester
5 136 (6.97%) Analyst
6 118 (6.05%) Full Stack Developer
7 106 (5.43%) Automation Tester
8 102 (5.23%) Test Engineer
9 98 (5.02%) .NET Developer
10 88 (4.51%) Scala Developer
11 82 (4.20%) Software Engineer
12 76 (3.90%) C# Developer
12 76 (3.90%) Senior Java Developer
13 74 (3.79%) Test Analyst
14 67 (3.43%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 67 (3.43%) React Developer
15 62 (3.18%) Java Engineer
16 55 (2.82%) Business Analyst
17 54 (2.77%) Software Developer
18 52 (2.67%) Test Automation Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 468 (23.99%) Spring
2 303 (15.53%) Spring Boot
3 281 (14.40%) React
4 262 (13.43%) REST
5 260 (13.33%) .NET
5 260 (13.33%) RESTful
6 244 (12.51%) CSS
7 241 (12.35%) AngularJS
8 231 (11.84%) HTML
9 216 (11.07%) Node.js
10 179 (9.17%) Web Services
11 176 (9.02%) Kafka
12 155 (7.94%) Gherkin
13 119 (6.10%) JSON
14 102 (5.23%) XML
15 94 (4.82%) GraphQL
16 90 (4.61%) HTML5
17 88 (4.51%) .NET Core
18 85 (4.36%) Akka
19 82 (4.20%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 92 (4.72%) Greenfield Project
2 71 (3.64%) Mobile App
3 68 (3.49%) User Experience
4 50 (2.56%) Client/Server
5 46 (2.36%) Hybrid Cloud
6 44 (2.26%) Cloud Native
7 41 (2.10%) Self-Motivation
8 38 (1.95%) Data Protection Act
9 37 (1.90%) Algorithms
9 37 (1.90%) Enterprise Software
10 33 (1.69%) iPad
11 30 (1.54%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 27 (1.38%) Public Cloud
13 25 (1.28%) Management Information System
14 23 (1.18%) Video\Live Streaming
15 21 (1.08%) Data Structures
15 21 (1.08%) Media Streaming
16 20 (1.03%) Legacy Systems
17 17 (0.87%) Derivative
17 17 (0.87%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 149 (7.64%) Linux
2 104 (5.33%) Unix
3 63 (3.23%) Android
4 44 (2.26%) Apple iOS
5 43 (2.20%) Windows
6 34 (1.74%) Mac OS X
7 7 (0.36%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 5 (0.26%) Debian
8 5 (0.26%) VMS
9 4 (0.21%) Windows Server
10 2 (0.10%) Ubuntu
11 1 (0.051%) CentOS
11 1 (0.051%) DC/OS
11 1 (0.051%) Mesosphere
11 1 (0.051%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,432 (73.40%) TDD
2 1,394 (71.45%) Agile Software Development
3 704 (36.08%) Test Automation
4 649 (33.26%) Microservices
5 572 (29.32%) Scrum
6 550 (28.19%) DevOps
7 348 (17.84%) Continuous Integration
8 293 (15.02%) Software Engineering
9 270 (13.84%) Pair Programming
10 220 (11.28%) Kanban
11 195 (9.99%) User Stories
12 187 (9.58%) Problem-Solving
13 182 (9.33%) Full Stack Development
14 179 (9.17%) Unit Testing
15 153 (7.84%) Software Testing
16 152 (7.79%) Mentoring
17 146 (7.48%) Acceptance Criteria
18 145 (7.43%) Continuous Improvement
19 138 (7.07%) OO
20 128 (6.56%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 1,008 (51.67%) Java
2 464 (23.78%) JavaScript
3 341 (17.48%) SQL
4 292 (14.97%) C#
5 245 (12.56%) Java 8
6 244 (12.51%) Python
7 181 (9.28%) Scala
8 163 (8.35%) TypeScript
9 148 (7.59%) Java 11
10 52 (2.67%) Kotlin
11 47 (2.41%) Go
12 34 (1.74%) PHP
13 33 (1.69%) C++
13 33 (1.69%) PowerShell
13 33 (1.69%) Shell Script
14 29 (1.49%) Bash Shell
15 27 (1.38%) Ruby
16 24 (1.23%) ES6
17 21 (1.08%) Groovy
18 17 (0.87%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 178 (9.12%) Security Cleared
2 154 (7.89%) SC Cleared
3 56 (2.87%) Degree
4 44 (2.26%) ISTQB
5 35 (1.79%) OCPJP
5 35 (1.79%) Sun Certification
6 26 (1.33%) ISEB
7 24 (1.23%) BPSS Clearance
8 22 (1.13%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 15 (0.77%) Computer Science Degree
9 15 (0.77%) DV Cleared
10 6 (0.31%) Numerate Degree
11 5 (0.26%) AWS Certification
11 5 (0.26%) Master's Degree
12 2 (0.10%) ISEB Practitioner
12 2 (0.10%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
12 2 (0.10%) PMI Certification
12 2 (0.10%) PMP
13 1 (0.051%) MBA
13 1 (0.051%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 221 (11.33%) QA
2 66 (3.38%) Accessibility
3 11 (0.56%) Data Quality
3 11 (0.56%) WCAG
4 6 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
5 4 (0.21%) ISO 20022
5 4 (0.21%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 3 (0.15%) PMO
6 3 (0.15%) SEPA
7 2 (0.10%) HL7
7 2 (0.10%) IFRS
7 2 (0.10%) MiFID
8 1 (0.051%) DICOM
8 1 (0.051%) GDPR
8 1 (0.051%) GRC
8 1 (0.051%) ISO 13485
8 1 (0.051%) PCI DSS
8 1 (0.051%) PSD2
8 1 (0.051%) Solvency II
8 1 (0.051%) TARGET2
System Software
1 474 (24.30%) Docker
2 19 (0.97%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.31%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 6 (0.31%) HDFS
4 3 (0.15%) NDS
4 3 (0.15%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 3 (0.15%) Platform Symphony
4 3 (0.15%) Postfix
4 3 (0.15%) VirtualBox
4 3 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
4 3 (0.15%) vSphere
5 1 (0.051%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 405 (20.76%) Kubernetes
2 112 (5.74%) Terraform
3 81 (4.15%) Grafana
4 68 (3.49%) Ansible
5 64 (3.28%) Prometheus
6 20 (1.03%) Kibana
7 14 (0.72%) Rancher
8 13 (0.67%) Puppet
9 12 (0.62%) HP ALM
9 12 (0.62%) HP Quality Center
9 12 (0.62%) ZABBIX
10 8 (0.41%) Opscode Chef
11 7 (0.36%) Hadoop YARN
11 7 (0.36%) logstash
12 3 (0.15%) CA Wily
12 3 (0.15%) Istio
12 3 (0.15%) ITRS Geneos
13 2 (0.10%) NetIQ Identity Manager
13 2 (0.10%) Tivoli
14 1 (0.051%) Tivoli Identity Manager
Vendors
1 151 (7.74%) Oracle
2 75 (3.84%) Microsoft
3 52 (2.67%) Google
4 41 (2.10%) Splunk
5 38 (1.95%) Xamarin
6 35 (1.79%) Sun
7 31 (1.59%) IBM
8 28 (1.44%) Salesforce.com
9 20 (1.03%) Sybase
10 18 (0.92%) CA Agile Central
11 17 (0.87%) Atlassian
11 17 (0.87%) New Relic
12 15 (0.77%) HP
13 13 (0.67%) MuleSoft
14 12 (0.62%) Cloudera
14 12 (0.62%) Spiceworks
15 11 (0.56%) Hortonworks
15 11 (0.56%) Zend
16 10 (0.51%) Dynatrace
17 9 (0.46%) hybris