Period
to 30 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 30 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
30 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 79 76 51
Rank change year-on-year -3 -25 +3
Contract jobs citing BDD 955 2,455 4,414
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.91% 2.89% 4.26%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.37% 3.34% 4.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 787 1,814 3,297
Median daily rate £500 £500 £500
10th Percentile £350 £369 £363
90th Percentile £634 £650 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £470 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +4.44% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 3 10
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £33.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +3.70% -3.57%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £35.00

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 28,363 73,425 90,156
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.41% 86.51% 87.07%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,871 48,212 59,573
Median daily rate £475 £475 £455
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +4.40% +1.11%
10th Percentile £298 £300 £300
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £435 £438 £425
% change year-on-year -0.57% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,015 2,318 2,414
Median hourly rate £35.00 £23.75 £21.11
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +47.37% +12.51% -11.12%
10th Percentile £12.43 £11.85 £11.18
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £50.00
Median hourly rate £26.96 £22.50 £20.50
% change year-on-year +19.82% +9.76% -14.58%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 30 October 2020.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 30 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 868 £500 -2.44% 448
London -6 530 £530 -3.64% 189
UK excluding London +12 341 £470 +4.44% 299
Work from Home -10 169 £475 -13.64% 64
North of England +60 159 £500 +13.64% 76
Yorkshire +47 77 £500 +11.11% 24
North West +55 55 £500 +11.11% 38
South East +7 54 £475 +2.70% 80
Midlands -14 41 £432 -4.00% 43
East of England +25 37 £461 +2.50% 29
South West +23 35 £450 +1.69% 29
West Midlands -7 28 £432 -9.05% 25
North East +34 27 £506 +19.12% 14
East Midlands +19 13 £468 +10.00% 18
Scotland -10 9 £425 +6.25% 28
Wales +29 5 £375 -11.76% 12
Northern Ireland +13 2 £431 +0.23% 3

For the 6 months to 30 October 2020, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 710 (74.35%) Agile Software Development
2 697 (72.98%) TDD
3 525 (54.97%) Java
4 433 (45.34%) Test Automation
5 330 (34.55%) Microservices
6 310 (32.46%) AWS
7 266 (27.85%) Azure
8 261 (27.33%) Scrum
9 260 (27.23%) DevOps
10 234 (24.50%) Cucumber
11 220 (23.04%) Docker
12 210 (21.99%) JavaScript
13 208 (21.78%) Jenkins
14 204 (21.36%) Java 8
15 201 (21.05%) Security Cleared
16 199 (20.84%) Kubernetes
17 198 (20.73%) JIRA
18 196 (20.52%) SQL
19 184 (19.27%) Selenium
20 178 (18.64%) Git (software)
21 174 (18.22%) REST
22 169 (17.70%) Spring
23 159 (16.65%) SC Cleared
24 156 (16.34%) Pair Programming
25 152 (15.92%) Continuous Integration
26 141 (14.76%) Public Sector
27 136 (14.24%) C#
27 136 (14.24%) Finance
28 123 (12.88%) Linux
29 121 (12.67%) Unix

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 102 (10.68%) Confluence
2 31 (3.25%) Mule
3 28 (2.93%) WebLogic
4 19 (1.99%) Cloud Foundry
5 18 (1.88%) Elasticsearch
5 18 (1.88%) JBoss
6 16 (1.68%) Apache Spark
7 11 (1.15%) SharePoint
7 11 (1.15%) WebSphere
8 10 (1.05%) CMS
8 10 (1.05%) Red Hat Fuse
9 7 (0.73%) Apache
10 6 (0.63%) Oracle Workflow
11 5 (0.52%) Headless CMS
11 5 (0.52%) Umbraco
12 4 (0.42%) BizTalk Server
13 3 (0.31%) OpenStack
13 3 (0.31%) Sitecore CMS
13 3 (0.31%) Tomcat
14 2 (0.21%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 10 (1.05%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.52%) Spreadsheet
3 3 (0.31%) Chatbot
3 3 (0.31%) MS Visio
3 3 (0.31%) Photoshop
4 1 (0.10%) InVision
4 1 (0.10%) Microsoft Office
4 1 (0.10%) Microsoft Project
4 1 (0.10%) Sketch
4 1 (0.10%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 14 (1.47%) Teamcenter
2 7 (0.73%) Dynamics CRM
3 4 (0.42%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 3 (0.31%) Distributed Ledger
4 3 (0.31%) Magento
4 3 (0.31%) SAP FI-CA
5 2 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
6 1 (0.10%) Oracle Cash Management
6 1 (0.10%) Oracle ERP
6 1 (0.10%) Oracle General Ledger
6 1 (0.10%) Oracle Payables
6 1 (0.10%) Oracle Receivables
6 1 (0.10%) SAP CO
6 1 (0.10%) SAP FI
6 1 (0.10%) SAP FI/CO
6 1 (0.10%) Summit
6 1 (0.10%) thinkFolio
6 1 (0.10%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 310 (32.46%) AWS
2 266 (27.85%) Azure
3 46 (4.82%) GCP
4 41 (4.29%) Serverless
5 33 (3.46%) GitHub
6 31 (3.25%) Logic Apps
7 30 (3.14%) Power Platform
8 26 (2.72%) Azure Functions
8 26 (2.72%) Slack
9 23 (2.41%) PaaS
10 22 (2.30%) IaaS
11 21 (2.20%) SaaS
12 19 (1.99%) OpenShift
12 19 (1.99%) PowerApps
13 18 (1.88%) Amazon EC2
13 18 (1.88%) Power Automate
14 15 (1.57%) BrowserStack
15 13 (1.36%) AWS Lambda
16 11 (1.15%) Tricentis Tosca
17 10 (1.05%) BlazeMeter
Communications & Networking
1 22 (2.30%) HTTP
2 7 (0.73%) Internet
2 7 (0.73%) Skype
3 2 (0.21%) AMQP
3 2 (0.21%) DNS
3 2 (0.21%) FTP
3 2 (0.21%) Kerberos
3 2 (0.21%) LAN
3 2 (0.21%) SSL
3 2 (0.21%) TCP/IP
3 2 (0.21%) WAN
4 1 (0.10%) Bluetooth
4 1 (0.10%) DHCP
4 1 (0.10%) Ethernet
4 1 (0.10%) IPv6
4 1 (0.10%) SAN
4 1 (0.10%) SSH
4 1 (0.10%) VLAN
4 1 (0.10%) Wireshark
4 1 (0.10%) ZigBee
Database & Business Intelligence
1 121 (12.67%) MongoDB
2 74 (7.75%) SQL Server
3 64 (6.70%) MySQL
4 52 (5.45%) NoSQL
5 47 (4.92%) PostgreSQL
6 40 (4.19%) Relational Database
7 22 (2.30%) Azure SQL Database
7 22 (2.30%) Data Warehouse
8 19 (1.99%) Hadoop
8 19 (1.99%) OLTP
9 18 (1.88%) Oracle Database
10 13 (1.36%) Apache Cassandra
11 11 (1.15%) Power BI
11 11 (1.15%) Redis
12 9 (0.94%) Big Data
13 8 (0.84%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 7 (0.73%) Hazelcast
14 7 (0.73%) Oracle Reports
14 7 (0.73%) RDBMS
15 6 (0.63%) SAP HANA
Development Applications
1 234 (24.50%) Cucumber
2 208 (21.78%) Jenkins
3 198 (20.73%) JIRA
4 184 (19.27%) Selenium
5 178 (18.64%) Git (software)
6 85 (8.90%) Mockito
7 78 (8.17%) JMeter
8 62 (6.49%) JUnit
9 58 (6.07%) Maven
10 52 (5.45%) WebDriver
11 49 (5.13%) Cypress.io
12 47 (4.92%) GitLab
12 47 (4.92%) Postman
13 46 (4.82%) REST Assured
14 45 (4.71%) SoapUI
15 39 (4.08%) Jasmine
16 35 (3.66%) SpecFlow
17 26 (2.72%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 26 (2.72%) eggPlant
18 25 (2.62%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 141 (14.76%) Public Sector
2 136 (14.24%) Finance
3 102 (10.68%) Banking
4 47 (4.92%) Front Office
5 33 (3.46%) Investment Banking
6 11 (1.15%) Advertising
6 11 (1.15%) Retail Banking
7 9 (0.94%) Games
8 8 (0.84%) Financial Institution
9 7 (0.73%) Marketing
9 7 (0.73%) Retail
10 6 (0.63%) Legal
10 6 (0.63%) Manufacturing
11 5 (0.52%) Electronics
11 5 (0.52%) Law
11 5 (0.52%) Telecoms
12 4 (0.42%) Pharmaceutical
13 1 (0.10%) Automotive
13 1 (0.10%) Billing
13 1 (0.10%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 487 (50.99%) Developer
2 241 (25.24%) Java Developer
3 87 (9.11%) Senior Developer
4 86 (9.01%) Tester
5 66 (6.91%) Test Engineer
6 57 (5.97%) Analyst
7 56 (5.86%) Automation Tester
7 56 (5.86%) Senior Java Developer
8 46 (4.82%) Java Engineer
9 41 (4.29%) QA Engineer
9 41 (4.29%) Test Automation Engineer
10 38 (3.98%) Full Stack Developer
10 38 (3.98%) Software Engineer
11 37 (3.87%) JavaScript Developer
11 37 (3.87%) React Developer
12 35 (3.66%) C# Developer
13 34 (3.56%) .NET Developer
14 31 (3.25%) Business Analyst
14 31 (3.25%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
15 25 (2.62%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 174 (18.22%) REST
2 169 (17.70%) Spring
3 120 (12.57%) Node.js
4 119 (12.46%) AngularJS
4 119 (12.46%) Web Services
5 117 (12.25%) React
6 105 (10.99%) RESTful
7 103 (10.79%) .NET
8 98 (10.26%) HTML
9 95 (9.95%) CSS
10 90 (9.42%) Spring Boot
11 68 (7.12%) Gherkin
12 66 (6.91%) SOAP
13 64 (6.70%) ActiveMQ
14 59 (6.18%) JAX-RS
14 59 (6.18%) XML
15 47 (4.92%) JSON
16 44 (4.61%) .NET Core
17 41 (4.29%) Redux
18 40 (4.19%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 46 (4.82%) Mobile App
2 40 (4.19%) User Experience
3 37 (3.87%) Analytical Skills
4 25 (2.62%) Greenfield Project
5 21 (2.20%) Public Cloud
6 20 (2.09%) Cloud Native
7 19 (1.99%) Enterprise Software
8 18 (1.88%) Fixed Income
9 15 (1.57%) Derivative
10 14 (1.47%) Hybrid Cloud
11 13 (1.36%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 10 (1.05%) Algorithms
12 10 (1.05%) Equities
12 10 (1.05%) Management Information System
12 10 (1.05%) NHS
13 8 (0.84%) Client/Server
14 7 (0.73%) Mobile Banking
14 7 (0.73%) Self-Motivation
15 5 (0.52%) Data Structures
15 5 (0.52%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 123 (12.88%) Linux
2 121 (12.67%) Unix
3 60 (6.28%) Mac OS X
4 32 (3.35%) Windows
5 31 (3.25%) Apple iOS
6 30 (3.14%) Android
7 2 (0.21%) Mac OS
8 1 (0.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 1 (0.10%) Solaris
8 1 (0.10%) Tizen
8 1 (0.10%) Ubuntu
8 1 (0.10%) webOS
8 1 (0.10%) Windows 10
8 1 (0.10%) Windows Server
8 1 (0.10%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 710 (74.35%) Agile Software Development
2 697 (72.98%) TDD
3 433 (45.34%) Test Automation
4 330 (34.55%) Microservices
5 261 (27.33%) Scrum
6 260 (27.23%) DevOps
7 156 (16.34%) Pair Programming
8 152 (15.92%) Continuous Integration
9 117 (12.25%) Kanban
10 105 (10.99%) Problem-Solving
10 105 (10.99%) Software Engineering
11 95 (9.95%) Continuous Deployment
12 85 (8.90%) User Stories
13 83 (8.69%) Continuous Delivery
14 80 (8.38%) Scenario Testing
15 74 (7.75%) Responsive Web Design
16 72 (7.54%) Web Design
17 71 (7.43%) Test Scripting
18 70 (7.33%) Web Development
19 69 (7.23%) Scaled Agile Framework
Programming Languages
1 525 (54.97%) Java
2 210 (21.99%) JavaScript
3 204 (21.36%) Java 8
4 196 (20.52%) SQL
5 136 (14.24%) C#
6 118 (12.36%) Python
7 50 (5.24%) Scala
8 44 (4.61%) TypeScript
9 32 (3.35%) Kotlin
10 25 (2.62%) PowerShell
11 18 (1.88%) Apple Swift
12 17 (1.78%) Ruby
13 15 (1.57%) PL/SQL
14 14 (1.47%) Go
15 13 (1.36%) PHP
16 12 (1.26%) Shell Script
17 9 (0.94%) Perl
17 9 (0.94%) T-SQL
18 8 (0.84%) ES6
19 6 (0.63%) VB
Qualifications
1 201 (21.05%) Security Cleared
2 159 (16.65%) SC Cleared
3 51 (5.34%) ISEB
4 48 (5.03%) ISTQB
5 32 (3.35%) BPSS Clearance
6 28 (2.93%) Degree
7 27 (2.83%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 14 (1.47%) DBS Check
9 13 (1.36%) Numerate Degree
10 8 (0.84%) DV Cleared
10 8 (0.84%) OCPJP
10 8 (0.84%) Sun Certification
11 6 (0.63%) Computer Science Degree
12 3 (0.31%) Master's Degree
13 2 (0.21%) BC Cleared
14 1 (0.10%) ISEB Practitioner
14 1 (0.10%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
14 1 (0.10%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 114 (11.94%) QA
2 13 (1.36%) Data Quality
3 4 (0.42%) TARGET2
3 4 (0.42%) WCAG
4 3 (0.31%) GDPR
4 3 (0.31%) ISO 20022
4 3 (0.31%) MiFID
4 3 (0.31%) PMO
4 3 (0.31%) PSD2
5 2 (0.21%) Sarbanes-Oxley
6 1 (0.10%) EMIR
6 1 (0.10%) GxP
6 1 (0.10%) HL7
6 1 (0.10%) NCSC
System Software
1 220 (23.04%) Docker
2 14 (1.47%) Active Directory
3 11 (1.15%) NDS
3 11 (1.15%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 5 (0.52%) HDFS
4 5 (0.52%) Postfix
5 2 (0.21%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 2 (0.21%) Firmware
5 2 (0.21%) Virtual Machines
5 2 (0.21%) VMware Infrastructure
5 2 (0.21%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 199 (20.84%) Kubernetes
2 59 (6.18%) Terraform
3 29 (3.04%) Ansible
4 14 (1.47%) NetIQ Identity Manager
5 10 (1.05%) HP Quality Center
5 10 (1.05%) Rancher
6 8 (0.84%) Grafana
6 8 (0.84%) Tivoli
7 5 (0.52%) HP ALM
7 5 (0.52%) Prometheus
8 3 (0.31%) Oracle Identity Manager
8 3 (0.31%) Tivoli Identity Manager
9 2 (0.21%) Hadoop YARN
9 2 (0.21%) Nessus
9 2 (0.21%) Single Sign-On
10 1 (0.10%) AirWatch
10 1 (0.10%) Argo
10 1 (0.10%) Control-M
10 1 (0.10%) Docker Swarm
10 1 (0.10%) Giant Swarm
Vendors
1 87 (9.11%) Oracle
2 39 (4.08%) Microsoft
3 27 (2.83%) Google
4 26 (2.72%) SAP
5 21 (2.20%) Splunk
6 16 (1.68%) MuleSoft
6 16 (1.68%) Sybase
6 16 (1.68%) webMethods
7 15 (1.57%) Atlassian
7 15 (1.57%) ForgeRock
7 15 (1.57%) IBM
7 15 (1.57%) NetIQ
8 13 (1.36%) AppDynamics
9 11 (1.15%) HP
9 11 (1.15%) Salesforce.com
10 10 (1.05%) Murex
10 10 (1.05%) Novell
11 8 (0.84%) Sun
12 6 (0.63%) Red Hat
12 6 (0.63%) Talend