Period
to 28 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 28 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
28 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 113 83 90
Rank change year-on-year -30 +7 -33
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,949 1,139 1,864
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.22% 2.67% 2.59%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.49% 3.06% 3.00%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,433 851 1,361
10th Percentile £405 £363 £363
25th Percentile £463 £425 £415
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £513 £500
Median % change year-on-year +7.21% +2.60% -
75th Percentile £638 £600 £575
90th Percentile £700 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £495 £465 £450
% change year-on-year +6.45% +3.33% -2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 18 6 2
10th Percentile £43.82 £25.63 £12.48
25th Percentile £65.51 £31.13 £15.81
Median hourly rate £69.02 £50.00 £22.75
Median % change year-on-year +38.04% +119.78% -32.59%
75th Percentile £79.88 £58.00 £30.81
90th Percentile £82.73 - £34.83
UK excluding London median hourly rate £56.00 £58.00 £35.00
% change year-on-year -3.45% +65.71% +3.70%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 78,336 37,192 62,226
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.23% 87.26% 86.35%
Number of daily rates quoted 55,029 25,463 41,665
10th Percentile £329 £300 £281
25th Percentile £425 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.53% - -
75th Percentile £625 £575 £575
90th Percentile £713 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £425 £432
% change year-on-year +11.76% -1.62% +1.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,626 1,206 1,900
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.00 £12.00
25th Percentile £15.50 £16.00 £15.00
Median hourly rate £26.00 £27.50 £21.00
Median % change year-on-year -5.45% +30.95% -4.55%
75th Percentile £49.25 £47.50 £44.75
90th Percentile £63.75 £60.00 £53.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £24.00 £19.71
% change year-on-year -12.50% +21.77% -7.68%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 28 January 2022.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 28 January 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 28 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -34 1,532 £550 +4.76% 589
London -35 990 £593 +7.82% 268
Work from Home -12 711 £525 +5.00% 127
UK excluding London -25 506 £495 +6.45% 371
North of England -22 157 £525 +8.25% 95
South East +2 126 £478 -4.50% 84
North West -3 87 £525 +5.00% 55
South West -3 79 £500 +8.11% 41
Yorkshire -25 66 £525 +13.51% 27
East of England -22 47 £498 +10.56% 38
Scotland -43 46 £450 +5.88% 33
Midlands -75 38 £495 +14.58% 61
West Midlands -61 21 £425 -1.62% 39
East Midlands -30 15 £643 +51.74% 22
Wales -16 13 £440 +76.00% 13
North East -15 8 £550 +10.00% 13
Northern Ireland -4 3 £475 +10.21% 7
Isle of Man - 1 £350 -

For the 6 months to 28 January 2022, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,418 (72.76%) TDD
2 1,365 (70.04%) Agile Software Development
3 926 (47.51%) Java
4 721 (36.99%) Test Automation
5 638 (32.73%) Microservices
6 602 (30.89%) CI/CD
7 514 (26.37%) DevOps
8 495 (25.40%) Docker
9 494 (25.35%) Scrum
10 472 (24.22%) Git (software)
11 458 (23.50%) Jenkins
12 455 (23.35%) JavaScript
13 442 (22.68%) Kubernetes
14 434 (22.27%) AWS
15 412 (21.14%) Azure
16 366 (18.78%) SQL
17 337 (17.29%) Spring
18 333 (17.09%) Continuous Integration
19 331 (16.98%) JIRA
20 323 (16.57%) Selenium
21 317 (16.26%) Cucumber
22 310 (15.91%) Pair Programming
23 296 (15.19%) Social Skills
24 295 (15.14%) Software Engineering
25 284 (14.57%) Python
26 283 (14.52%) C#
27 280 (14.37%) .NET
28 277 (14.21%) Finance
29 254 (13.03%) React
30 250 (12.83%) Spring Boot

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 169 (8.67%) Confluence
2 82 (4.21%) Apache Spark
3 46 (2.36%) Apache
4 41 (2.10%) Elasticsearch
5 28 (1.44%) Apache Airflow
6 23 (1.18%) CMS
6 23 (1.18%) JBoss
7 21 (1.08%) Red Hat Fuse
8 18 (0.92%) Mule
9 16 (0.82%) Tomcat
10 11 (0.56%) SharePoint
11 8 (0.41%) Headless CMS
12 7 (0.36%) OpenStack
13 6 (0.31%) Oracle Coherence
13 6 (0.31%) WebSphere
14 5 (0.26%) WebLogic
15 4 (0.21%) Jetty
15 4 (0.21%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 3 (0.15%) Sitecore CMS
16 3 (0.15%) WordPress
Applications
1 4 (0.21%) Microsoft Excel
2 3 (0.15%) Microsoft Office
2 3 (0.15%) Mingle
3 2 (0.10%) Microsoft Project
3 2 (0.10%) MS Visio
4 1 (0.051%) Microsoft PowerPoint
Business Applications
1 10 (0.51%) Dynamics CRM
2 9 (0.46%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 7 (0.36%) Oracle Cash Management
4 6 (0.31%) Oracle ERP
4 6 (0.31%) Oracle General Ledger
4 6 (0.31%) Oracle Payables
4 6 (0.31%) Oracle Receivables
5 5 (0.26%) Payment Gateway
6 4 (0.21%) Carpe Diem
6 4 (0.21%) Elite 3E
6 4 (0.21%) Magento
6 4 (0.21%) Primavera
6 4 (0.21%) SAP ERP
7 3 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
7 3 (0.15%) Shopify
8 2 (0.10%) Endur
8 2 (0.10%) Oracle BPM
9 1 (0.051%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
9 1 (0.051%) SAP S/4HANA
9 1 (0.051%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 434 (22.27%) AWS
2 412 (21.14%) Azure
3 102 (5.23%) GitHub
4 99 (5.08%) GCP
5 82 (4.21%) Serverless
6 52 (2.67%) Amazon S3
7 45 (2.31%) AWS Lambda
8 38 (1.95%) PaaS
9 36 (1.85%) Amazon EMR
9 36 (1.85%) AWS CloudFormation
10 33 (1.69%) Apigee
10 33 (1.69%) SaaS
11 32 (1.64%) Amazon CloudWatch
12 24 (1.23%) IaaS
13 21 (1.08%) Cloud Computing
14 20 (1.03%) Amazon SQS
15 18 (0.92%) Amazon Kinesis
15 18 (0.92%) Azure Functions
15 18 (0.92%) Dynamics 365
15 18 (0.92%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 57 (2.92%) HTTP
2 24 (1.23%) MQTT
3 12 (0.62%) LAN
4 10 (0.51%) Internet
5 6 (0.31%) SAN
5 6 (0.31%) WAN
6 5 (0.26%) 2G
6 5 (0.26%) Firewall
7 4 (0.21%) 5G
7 4 (0.21%) VPN
8 2 (0.10%) FTP
8 2 (0.10%) SSL
9 1 (0.051%) Broadband
9 1 (0.051%) DNS
9 1 (0.051%) Kerberos
9 1 (0.051%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 200 (10.26%) NoSQL
2 157 (8.06%) MongoDB
3 125 (6.41%) MySQL
4 116 (5.95%) SQL Server
5 104 (5.34%) Relational Database
6 98 (5.03%) PostgreSQL
7 74 (3.80%) Big Data
8 56 (2.87%) Oracle Database
9 39 (2.00%) Hadoop
10 33 (1.69%) HBase
11 31 (1.59%) Amazon RDS
12 28 (1.44%) BigQuery
13 25 (1.28%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 21 (1.08%) RDBMS
14 21 (1.08%) Redis
15 19 (0.97%) Data Warehouse
16 18 (0.92%) Amazon Redshift
16 18 (0.92%) Azure SQL Database
17 16 (0.82%) Amazon Athena
17 16 (0.82%) Cloud Spanner
Development Applications
1 472 (24.22%) Git (software)
2 458 (23.50%) Jenkins
3 331 (16.98%) JIRA
4 323 (16.57%) Selenium
5 317 (16.26%) Cucumber
6 169 (8.67%) Maven
7 141 (7.23%) SpecFlow
8 114 (5.85%) Postman
9 100 (5.13%) JUnit
10 95 (4.87%) WebDriver
11 89 (4.57%) TeamCity
12 82 (4.21%) JMeter
13 77 (3.95%) Mockito
14 64 (3.28%) Gatling
14 64 (3.28%) REST Assured
15 58 (2.98%) Bitbucket
15 58 (2.98%) Gradle
16 57 (2.92%) SoapUI
17 56 (2.87%) GitLab
18 53 (2.72%) Cypress.io
General
1 296 (15.19%) Social Skills
2 277 (14.21%) Finance
3 196 (10.06%) Banking
4 127 (6.52%) Public Sector
5 76 (3.90%) Analytical Skills
6 49 (2.51%) Investment Banking
7 42 (2.15%) Front Office
8 35 (1.80%) Retail
9 29 (1.49%) Games
10 23 (1.18%) Presentation Skills
11 20 (1.03%) Marketing
12 19 (0.97%) Retail Banking
13 17 (0.87%) Law
14 15 (0.77%) Telecoms
15 12 (0.62%) Publishing
16 11 (0.56%) Military
16 11 (0.56%) Police
17 9 (0.46%) Back Office
17 9 (0.46%) Documentation Skills
17 9 (0.46%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 1,026 (52.64%) Developer
2 414 (21.24%) Java Developer
3 184 (9.44%) Senior Developer
4 142 (7.29%) Tester
5 127 (6.52%) Analyst
6 112 (5.75%) Full Stack Developer
7 111 (5.70%) Test Engineer
8 106 (5.44%) Automation Tester
9 94 (4.82%) .NET Developer
10 89 (4.57%) C# Developer
11 88 (4.52%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
12 79 (4.05%) Scala Developer
13 77 (3.95%) Software Engineer
14 76 (3.90%) Java Engineer
15 75 (3.85%) Senior Java Developer
16 66 (3.39%) Test Analyst
17 64 (3.28%) React Developer
18 58 (2.98%) Data Engineer
19 56 (2.87%) Business Analyst
20 54 (2.77%) Test Automation Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 337 (17.29%) Spring
2 280 (14.37%) .NET
3 254 (13.03%) React
4 250 (12.83%) Spring Boot
5 246 (12.62%) HTML
5 246 (12.62%) Kafka
6 236 (12.11%) CSS
7 232 (11.90%) RESTful
8 223 (11.44%) Node.js
9 220 (11.29%) REST
10 207 (10.62%) AngularJS
11 140 (7.18%) Web Services
12 128 (6.57%) JSON
13 111 (5.70%) .NET Framework
14 103 (5.28%) XML
15 98 (5.03%) Gherkin
16 88 (4.52%) HTML5
17 79 (4.05%) .NET Core
18 75 (3.85%) SOAP
19 59 (3.03%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 116 (5.95%) Greenfield Project
2 52 (2.67%) Mobile App
2 52 (2.67%) User Experience
3 51 (2.62%) iPad
4 49 (2.51%) Self-Motivation
5 41 (2.10%) Cloud Native
6 39 (2.00%) Client/Server
7 36 (1.85%) Data Protection Act
8 33 (1.69%) Enterprise Software
9 32 (1.64%) Hybrid Cloud
10 31 (1.59%) Data Structures
10 31 (1.59%) Media Streaming
11 29 (1.49%) Video\Live Streaming
12 28 (1.44%) NHS
13 27 (1.39%) Public Cloud
14 26 (1.33%) Algorithms
15 25 (1.28%) Management Information System
16 23 (1.18%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 22 (1.13%) Legacy Systems
18 10 (0.51%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 178 (9.13%) Linux
2 127 (6.52%) Unix
3 55 (2.82%) Mac OS X
4 49 (2.51%) Windows
5 43 (2.21%) Android
6 29 (1.49%) Apple iOS
7 10 (0.51%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 6 (0.31%) Ubuntu
9 4 (0.21%) Mesosphere
10 3 (0.15%) Windows Server
11 1 (0.051%) CentOS
11 1 (0.051%) DC/OS
11 1 (0.051%) Debian
11 1 (0.051%) VMS
11 1 (0.051%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,418 (72.76%) TDD
2 1,365 (70.04%) Agile Software Development
3 721 (36.99%) Test Automation
4 638 (32.73%) Microservices
5 602 (30.89%) CI/CD
6 514 (26.37%) DevOps
7 494 (25.35%) Scrum
8 333 (17.09%) Continuous Integration
9 310 (15.91%) Pair Programming
10 295 (15.14%) Software Engineering
11 171 (8.77%) Kanban
12 164 (8.41%) Full Stack Development
13 163 (8.36%) Software Testing
14 162 (8.31%) User Stories
15 161 (8.26%) Problem-Solving
16 159 (8.16%) Mentoring
17 151 (7.75%) Unit Testing
18 143 (7.34%) OO
19 134 (6.88%) Continuous Deployment
20 129 (6.62%) Acceptance Criteria
Programming Languages
1 926 (47.51%) Java
2 455 (23.35%) JavaScript
3 366 (18.78%) SQL
4 284 (14.57%) Python
5 283 (14.52%) C#
6 174 (8.93%) TypeScript
7 172 (8.83%) Java 8
8 170 (8.72%) Java 11
9 165 (8.47%) Scala
10 50 (2.57%) Kotlin
11 40 (2.05%) Shell Script
12 37 (1.90%) Go
13 32 (1.64%) Groovy
13 32 (1.64%) PowerShell
14 31 (1.59%) Bash
15 29 (1.49%) ES6
16 27 (1.39%) PHP
17 24 (1.23%) Ruby
18 20 (1.03%) C++
19 17 (0.87%) XAML
Qualifications
1 244 (12.52%) Security Cleared
2 194 (9.95%) SC Cleared
3 50 (2.57%) Degree
4 48 (2.46%) ISTQB
5 46 (2.36%) BPSS Clearance
6 30 (1.54%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 23 (1.18%) ISEB
8 21 (1.08%) OCPJP
8 21 (1.08%) Sun Certification
9 20 (1.03%) DV Cleared
10 19 (0.97%) Computer Science Degree
11 8 (0.41%) AWS Certification
12 4 (0.21%) AAT
12 4 (0.21%) Master's Degree
13 3 (0.15%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 3 (0.15%) ITIL Certification
13 3 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
14 2 (0.10%) MBA
15 1 (0.051%) HNC
15 1 (0.051%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 210 (10.77%) QA
2 61 (3.13%) Accessibility
3 13 (0.67%) WCAG
4 9 (0.46%) Data Quality
4 9 (0.46%) HL7
5 5 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
6 4 (0.21%) SLA
7 3 (0.15%) DICOM
7 3 (0.15%) ISO 13485
7 3 (0.15%) PMO
8 2 (0.10%) PSD2
8 2 (0.10%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.051%) IFRS
9 1 (0.051%) ISO 9001
9 1 (0.051%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 1 (0.051%) MiFID
9 1 (0.051%) Solvency II
System Software
1 495 (25.40%) Docker
2 22 (1.13%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.21%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 4 (0.21%) HDFS
3 4 (0.21%) Virtual Desktop
4 2 (0.10%) Postfix
4 2 (0.10%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.051%) Firmware
5 1 (0.051%) NDS
5 1 (0.051%) NetIQ eDirectory
Systems Management
1 442 (22.68%) Kubernetes
2 124 (6.36%) Terraform
3 87 (4.46%) Grafana
4 66 (3.39%) Prometheus
5 48 (2.46%) Ansible
6 21 (1.08%) Kibana
7 16 (0.82%) HP ALM
8 14 (0.72%) logstash
8 14 (0.72%) Opscode Chef
8 14 (0.72%) Puppet
9 7 (0.36%) HP Quality Center
9 7 (0.36%) Istio
10 4 (0.21%) CA Wily
10 4 (0.21%) Hadoop YARN
11 3 (0.15%) Argo
11 3 (0.15%) Automic
11 3 (0.15%) Consul
12 2 (0.10%) MIIS
12 2 (0.10%) ZABBIX
13 1 (0.051%) Nagios
Vendors
1 133 (6.82%) Oracle
2 95 (4.87%) Microsoft
3 48 (2.46%) Google
4 38 (1.95%) Splunk
5 28 (1.44%) Salesforce.com
5 28 (1.44%) Xamarin
6 24 (1.23%) Hortonworks
7 23 (1.18%) Databricks
8 21 (1.08%) Atlassian
8 21 (1.08%) Sun
9 16 (0.82%) Sybase
10 13 (0.67%) SAP
11 12 (0.62%) HP
12 11 (0.56%) Zend
13 9 (0.46%) CA Agile Central
14 7 (0.36%) Dynatrace
14 7 (0.36%) hybris
14 7 (0.36%) Red Hat
14 7 (0.36%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
15 6 (0.31%) AppDynamics