Period
to 8 August 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 8 August 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
8 Aug 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 80 71 56
Rank change year-on-year -9 -15 +8
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,005 2,968 4,157
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.85% 3.26% 4.05%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.32% 3.75% 4.66%
Number of daily rates quoted 747 2,176 3,179
Median daily rate £520 £500 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.00% - +5.26%
10th Percentile £365 £369 £350
90th Percentile £650 £650 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +9.09%
Number of hourly rates quoted 15 12 11
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -6.67% -23.08%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -22.22% -7.69%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 30,291 79,125 89,149
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.00% 86.80% 86.86%
Number of daily rates quoted 18,915 52,006 58,789
Median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% -
10th Percentile £300 £300 £300
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £438 £425
% change year-on-year +2.86% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,099 2,290 2,390
Median hourly rate £35.00 £24.50 £21.37
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +42.86% +14.66% -10.97%
10th Percentile £12.75 £11.80 £11.17
90th Percentile £53.75 £53.00 £50.00
Median hourly rate £30.00 £24.00 £20.00
% change year-on-year +25.00% +20.00% -18.37%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 8 August 2020.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 8 August 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 8 August 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -10 929 £525 +5.00% 372
London -9 557 £550 - 166
UK excluding London -11 421 £475 +5.56% 225
North of England +20 151 £525 +20.69% 52
Yorkshire +36 83 £525 +10.53% 25
Work from Home -18 72 £481 -12.50% 59
South East -33 65 £475 +2.70% 60
East of England +17 64 £475 +5.56% 17
South West +44 58 £475 +2.70% 40
North West +4 51 £500 +15.74% 23
Midlands -37 29 £425 -5.56% 37
Wales +47 22 £445 +4.09% 6
West Midlands -27 21 £432 -9.05% 25
Scotland -3 19 £445 +1.71% 11
North East +13 17 £500 +17.65% 4
Northern Ireland +26 13 £450 +50.00% 2
East Midlands +6 8 £423 +16.55% 12

For the 6 months to 8 August 2020, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 771 (76.72%) Agile Software Development
2 722 (71.84%) TDD
3 552 (54.93%) Java
4 403 (40.10%) Test Automation
5 349 (34.73%) Microservices
6 328 (32.64%) AWS
7 273 (27.16%) Scrum
8 272 (27.06%) Azure
9 253 (25.17%) JavaScript
10 245 (24.38%) Docker
11 235 (23.38%) DevOps
12 232 (23.08%) Security Cleared
13 229 (22.79%) Cucumber
14 208 (20.70%) Jenkins
15 205 (20.40%) JIRA
15 205 (20.40%) SQL
16 185 (18.41%) Java 8
17 184 (18.31%) Selenium
18 182 (18.11%) Continuous Integration
19 181 (18.01%) SC Cleared
19 181 (18.01%) Pair Programming
20 179 (17.81%) Git (software)
21 177 (17.61%) Kubernetes
22 167 (16.62%) REST
23 161 (16.02%) C#
24 153 (15.22%) Spring
25 150 (14.93%) Public Sector
26 146 (14.53%) Python
27 143 (14.23%) Kanban
28 141 (14.03%) QA

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 116 (11.54%) Confluence
2 30 (2.99%) Elasticsearch
3 21 (2.09%) Apache Spark
4 17 (1.69%) WebLogic
5 16 (1.59%) Apache
5 16 (1.59%) JBoss
5 16 (1.59%) Mule
6 10 (1.00%) SharePoint
6 10 (1.00%) Tomcat
7 9 (0.90%) CMS
8 8 (0.80%) Red Hat Fuse
8 8 (0.80%) WebSphere
9 6 (0.60%) Cloud Foundry
10 5 (0.50%) Headless CMS
11 4 (0.40%) IIS
11 4 (0.40%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 4 (0.40%) Umbraco
12 3 (0.30%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 3 (0.30%) Oracle Workflow
12 3 (0.30%) WordPress
Applications
1 14 (1.39%) Microsoft Excel
2 6 (0.60%) MS Visio
3 5 (0.50%) Microsoft Office
4 2 (0.20%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 2 (0.20%) Photoshop
4 2 (0.20%) Spreadsheet
5 1 (0.100%) Figma
5 1 (0.100%) InVision
5 1 (0.100%) Microsoft Project
5 1 (0.100%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 12 (1.19%) Teamcenter
2 11 (1.09%) Dynamics CRM
3 3 (0.30%) Summit
4 2 (0.20%) Magento
4 2 (0.20%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 2 (0.20%) SAP FI-CA
5 1 (0.100%) ION MarketView
5 1 (0.100%) Oracle Cash Management
5 1 (0.100%) Oracle ERP
5 1 (0.100%) Oracle General Ledger
5 1 (0.100%) Oracle Payables
5 1 (0.100%) Oracle Receivables
5 1 (0.100%) Shopify
5 1 (0.100%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 328 (32.64%) AWS
2 272 (27.06%) Azure
3 54 (5.37%) Amazon EC2
4 50 (4.98%) GitHub
5 47 (4.68%) Serverless
6 44 (4.38%) GCP
7 32 (3.18%) Amazon S3
8 31 (3.08%) AWS Lambda
9 25 (2.49%) OpenShift
10 24 (2.39%) SaaS
11 18 (1.79%) AWS CloudFormation
12 16 (1.59%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 13 (1.29%) Amazon ECS
14 12 (1.19%) npm
15 11 (1.09%) Amazon Cognito
15 11 (1.09%) Amazon EKS
15 11 (1.09%) Amazon EMR
15 11 (1.09%) Azure Functions
15 11 (1.09%) BrowserStack
16 10 (1.00%) AWS CodePipeline
Communications & Networking
1 27 (2.69%) HTTP
2 9 (0.90%) Skype
3 6 (0.60%) Internet
3 6 (0.60%) SSL
3 6 (0.60%) TCP/IP
4 5 (0.50%) FTP
5 3 (0.30%) DNS
6 2 (0.20%) LAN
7 1 (0.100%) AMQP
7 1 (0.100%) SSH
7 1 (0.100%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 120 (11.94%) MongoDB
2 65 (6.47%) SQL Server
3 54 (5.37%) MySQL
4 53 (5.27%) NoSQL
5 49 (4.88%) PostgreSQL
6 40 (3.98%) Relational Database
7 18 (1.79%) Big Data
7 18 (1.79%) Oracle Database
8 17 (1.69%) Hadoop
9 16 (1.59%) Data Lake
10 15 (1.49%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 14 (1.39%) Apache Cassandra
11 14 (1.39%) RDBMS
12 13 (1.29%) Data Warehouse
12 13 (1.29%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 9 (0.90%) DB2
13 9 (0.90%) SQL Server 2019
14 8 (0.80%) HBase
15 7 (0.70%) Cosmos DB
15 7 (0.70%) Redis
Development Applications
1 229 (22.79%) Cucumber
2 208 (20.70%) Jenkins
3 205 (20.40%) JIRA
4 184 (18.31%) Selenium
5 179 (17.81%) Git (software)
6 76 (7.56%) Mockito
7 70 (6.97%) JMeter
8 68 (6.77%) JUnit
9 62 (6.17%) Maven
9 62 (6.17%) SpecFlow
10 60 (5.97%) SoapUI
11 57 (5.67%) GitLab
12 56 (5.57%) WebDriver
13 51 (5.07%) REST Assured
14 46 (4.58%) Postman
15 41 (4.08%) Bitbucket
16 36 (3.58%) Subversion
17 35 (3.48%) Cypress.io
17 35 (3.48%) Jasmine
18 32 (3.18%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 150 (14.93%) Public Sector
2 120 (11.94%) Finance
3 104 (10.35%) Banking
4 55 (5.47%) Front Office
5 30 (2.99%) Investment Banking
6 18 (1.79%) Retail
7 14 (1.39%) Marketing
8 8 (0.80%) Telecoms
9 7 (0.70%) Advertising
9 7 (0.70%) Legal
10 5 (0.50%) Law
10 5 (0.50%) Retail Banking
11 4 (0.40%) Electronics
11 4 (0.40%) Manufacturing
11 4 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
12 3 (0.30%) Games
12 3 (0.30%) Local Government
12 3 (0.30%) Publishing
13 2 (0.20%) Financial Institution
14 1 (0.100%) Corporate Banking
Job Titles
1 558 (55.52%) Developer
2 264 (26.27%) Java Developer
3 99 (9.85%) Tester
4 95 (9.45%) Senior Developer
5 73 (7.26%) Automation Tester
6 64 (6.37%) Analyst
7 57 (5.67%) Test Engineer
8 55 (5.47%) Senior Java Developer
9 53 (5.27%) C# Developer
10 48 (4.78%) React Developer
11 46 (4.58%) JavaScript Developer
12 45 (4.48%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
13 35 (3.48%) .NET Developer
13 35 (3.48%) QA Engineer
13 35 (3.48%) Software Engineer
14 32 (3.18%) Business Analyst
15 31 (3.08%) Test Automation Engineer
16 30 (2.99%) AWS Developer
16 30 (2.99%) Full Stack Developer
17 29 (2.89%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 167 (16.62%) REST
2 153 (15.22%) Spring
3 132 (13.13%) AngularJS
4 131 (13.03%) Node.js
5 129 (12.84%) HTML
6 124 (12.34%) Web Services
7 122 (12.14%) React
8 118 (11.74%) CSS
9 116 (11.54%) .NET
10 92 (9.15%) Spring Boot
11 87 (8.66%) Gherkin
12 86 (8.56%) SOAP
13 84 (8.36%) RESTful
14 63 (6.27%) ActiveMQ
15 61 (6.07%) XML
16 57 (5.67%) JAX-RS
17 55 (5.47%) Redux
18 46 (4.58%) JSON
19 44 (4.38%) GraphQL
20 42 (4.18%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 51 (5.07%) Greenfield Project
2 40 (3.98%) Analytical Skills
3 33 (3.28%) Mobile App
3 33 (3.28%) Public Cloud
4 32 (3.18%) User Experience
5 24 (2.39%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 20 (1.99%) Data Structures
6 20 (1.99%) Fixed Income
7 19 (1.89%) Hybrid Cloud
8 18 (1.79%) Derivative
9 15 (1.49%) Cloud Native
9 15 (1.49%) Equities
10 12 (1.19%) Enterprise Software
10 12 (1.19%) NHS
11 10 (1.00%) Algorithms
11 10 (1.00%) Client/Server
11 10 (1.00%) Self-Motivation
11 10 (1.00%) Virtual Team
12 9 (0.90%) Management Information System
13 5 (0.50%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 114 (11.34%) Linux
1 114 (11.34%) Unix
2 59 (5.87%) Mac OS X
3 24 (2.39%) Windows
4 22 (2.19%) Android
5 14 (1.39%) Apple iOS
6 2 (0.20%) Mac OS
7 1 (0.100%) CentOS
7 1 (0.100%) CoreOS
7 1 (0.100%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 1 (0.100%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 771 (76.72%) Agile Software Development
2 722 (71.84%) TDD
3 403 (40.10%) Test Automation
4 349 (34.73%) Microservices
5 273 (27.16%) Scrum
6 235 (23.38%) DevOps
7 182 (18.11%) Continuous Integration
8 181 (18.01%) Pair Programming
9 143 (14.23%) Kanban
10 107 (10.65%) Problem-Solving
11 106 (10.55%) Continuous Deployment
11 106 (10.55%) Software Engineering
12 83 (8.26%) Web Development
13 80 (7.96%) Integration Testing
14 79 (7.86%) MVC
15 76 (7.56%) User Stories
16 74 (7.36%) E-Commerce
16 74 (7.36%) Scenario Testing
17 70 (6.97%) Continuous Delivery
17 70 (6.97%) Responsive Web Design
Programming Languages
1 552 (54.93%) Java
2 253 (25.17%) JavaScript
3 205 (20.40%) SQL
4 185 (18.41%) Java 8
5 161 (16.02%) C#
6 146 (14.53%) Python
7 69 (6.87%) TypeScript
8 41 (4.08%) Scala
9 24 (2.39%) Go
10 18 (1.79%) Ruby
11 16 (1.59%) ES6
11 16 (1.59%) Groovy
12 13 (1.29%) PHP
13 11 (1.09%) C++
13 11 (1.09%) PowerShell
14 10 (1.00%) T-SQL
15 9 (0.90%) C
15 9 (0.90%) Kotlin
15 9 (0.90%) Shell Script
16 8 (0.80%) VB
Qualifications
1 232 (23.08%) Security Cleared
2 181 (18.01%) SC Cleared
3 54 (5.37%) ISTQB
4 48 (4.78%) ISEB
5 28 (2.79%) BPSS Clearance
6 26 (2.59%) DV Cleared
7 24 (2.39%) Degree
8 22 (2.19%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 12 (1.19%) DBS Check
10 8 (0.80%) OCPJP
10 8 (0.80%) Sun Certification
11 7 (0.70%) Numerate Degree
12 6 (0.60%) AWS Certification
12 6 (0.60%) Computer Science Degree
13 4 (0.40%) OCP
13 4 (0.40%) Oracle Certification
14 3 (0.30%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
15 2 (0.20%) IIBA
15 2 (0.20%) Master's Degree
16 1 (0.100%) ISEB Practitioner
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 141 (14.03%) QA
2 8 (0.80%) Data Quality
3 7 (0.70%) GDPR
4 6 (0.60%) PMO
4 6 (0.60%) WCAG
5 3 (0.30%) EMIR
5 3 (0.30%) MiFID
6 2 (0.20%) WAI
7 1 (0.100%) IFRS
7 1 (0.100%) ISO 20022
7 1 (0.100%) PSD2
7 1 (0.100%) SEPA
System Software
1 245 (24.38%) Docker
2 10 (1.00%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.90%) vSphere
4 8 (0.80%) NDS
4 8 (0.80%) NetIQ eDirectory
5 7 (0.70%) HDFS
5 7 (0.70%) VMware Infrastructure
6 5 (0.50%) Postfix
Systems Management
1 177 (17.61%) Kubernetes
2 52 (5.17%) Terraform
3 22 (2.19%) Ansible
4 14 (1.39%) NetIQ Identity Manager
5 8 (0.80%) Rancher
6 7 (0.70%) Opscode Chef
6 7 (0.70%) Tivoli
7 5 (0.50%) HP ALM
7 5 (0.50%) Puppet
8 4 (0.40%) Grafana
9 3 (0.30%) Docker Swarm
9 3 (0.30%) Hadoop YARN
9 3 (0.30%) HP Quality Center
10 2 (0.20%) Kibana
10 2 (0.20%) Mesos
10 2 (0.20%) Nessus
10 2 (0.20%) Oracle Identity Manager
10 2 (0.20%) Tivoli Identity Manager
11 1 (0.100%) Marathon
11 1 (0.100%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 76 (7.56%) Oracle
2 57 (5.67%) Microsoft
3 38 (3.78%) Google
4 22 (2.19%) IBM
5 20 (1.99%) Atlassian
6 17 (1.69%) SAP
7 15 (1.49%) NetIQ
8 12 (1.19%) ForgeRock
9 11 (1.09%) Sybase
10 9 (0.90%) Murex
10 9 (0.90%) VMware
10 9 (0.90%) webMethods
11 8 (0.80%) Splunk
11 8 (0.80%) Sun
12 7 (0.70%) Novell
13 6 (0.60%) Red Hat
13 6 (0.60%) Salesforce.com
14 5 (0.50%) HP
14 5 (0.50%) hybris
15 4 (0.40%) WSO2