Period
to 24 April 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 24 April 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
24 Apr 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 60 50 62
Rank change year-on-year -10 +12 +3
Contract jobs citing BDD 3,583 4,291 3,154
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.77% 4.25% 3.46%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 4.34% 4.92% 4.06%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,591 3,411 2,398
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -
10th Percentile £368 £344 £322
90th Percentile £638 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £425 £416
% change year-on-year +8.82% +2.16% +4.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 6 12
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £47.50 £45.94
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -26.32% +3.41% -2.78%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £47.50 £45.87
% change year-on-year -26.32% +3.55% -2.92%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 82,633 87,215 77,598
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.90% 86.30% 85.08%
Number of daily rates quoted 54,572 57,570 51,051
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £435
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +3.45% +2.35%
10th Percentile £300 £295 £270
90th Percentile £650 £638 £620
UK excluding London median daily rate £435 £420 £400
% change year-on-year +3.57% +5.00% +2.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,130 2,241 2,114
UK median hourly rate £25.34 £22.50 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +12.60% -10.00% -
10th Percentile £11.85 £11.25 £11.41
90th Percentile £51.71 £50.25 £51.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.50 £21.25 £25.00
% change year-on-year +10.61% -15.02% -1.96%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing BDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 24 April 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 24 April 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 24 April 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -12 3,406 £500 +5.26% 386
London -7 2,041 £525 +4.84% 160
UK excluding London -12 1,503 £463 +8.82% 249
South East +2 505 £475 - 74
North of England -20 359 £450 +9.76% 65
Midlands -12 210 £450 - 30
North West -6 184 £450 +15.38% 40
South West -4 172 £500 +24.22% 26
West Midlands -27 145 £456 +1.39% 16
East of England -11 118 £475 +5.56% 31
Yorkshire -55 112 £475 +11.76% 23
Scotland -3 106 £450 +12.50% 11
North East -7 63 £450 +2.86% 2
East Midlands -4 55 £363 -13.95% 14
Wales -32 24 £450 -5.26% 11
Northern Ireland +27 12 £330 - 1

For the 6 months to 24 April 2019, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 2,764 (77.14%) Agile Software Development
2 2,646 (73.85%) TDD
3 1,609 (44.91%) Java
4 1,313 (36.65%) Test Automation
5 1,293 (36.09%) JavaScript
6 1,189 (33.18%) Scrum
7 1,044 (29.14%) Git (software)
8 924 (25.79%) Jenkins
9 898 (25.06%) Microservices
10 821 (22.91%) Continuous Integration
11 814 (22.72%) C#
12 792 (22.10%) Amazon AWS
13 752 (20.99%) HTML
14 730 (20.37%) Selenium
15 714 (19.93%) REST
16 702 (19.59%) DevOps
17 690 (19.26%) JIRA
17 690 (19.26%) CSS
18 683 (19.06%) Spring
19 677 (18.89%) SQL
19 677 (18.89%) .NET
20 660 (18.42%) Cucumber
21 640 (17.86%) AngularJS
22 615 (17.16%) Kanban
23 612 (17.08%) Microsoft Azure
24 596 (16.63%) Docker
25 594 (16.58%) Web Services
26 527 (14.71%) RESTful
27 513 (14.32%) Finance
28 503 (14.04%) QA

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 435 (12.14%) Confluence
2 173 (4.83%) Elasticsearch
3 91 (2.54%) Apache Spark
4 88 (2.46%) Apache
5 77 (2.15%) Tomcat
6 66 (1.84%) CMS
7 49 (1.37%) JBoss
8 45 (1.26%) WebSphere
9 40 (1.12%) Documentum
10 27 (0.75%) Apache Solr
11 26 (0.73%) SharePoint
12 24 (0.67%) Cloud Foundry
12 24 (0.67%) Jetty
13 23 (0.64%) Umbraco
14 18 (0.50%) MQSeries
14 18 (0.50%) Oracle Workflow
15 17 (0.47%) Sitecore CMS
16 15 (0.42%) Mule
17 12 (0.33%) Drupal
17 12 (0.33%) nginx
Applications
1 21 (0.59%) Microsoft Excel
2 18 (0.50%) MS Visio
3 10 (0.28%) Microsoft Office
4 7 (0.20%) InVision
5 6 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 5 (0.14%) Chatbot
7 2 (0.056%) Microsoft Project
8 1 (0.028%) Adobe Illustrator
8 1 (0.028%) GIMP
8 1 (0.028%) Photoshop
8 1 (0.028%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.028%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 12 (0.33%) Magento
2 9 (0.25%) Dynamics CRM
3 6 (0.17%) Endur
4 5 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.11%) Dynamics AX
5 4 (0.11%) NetSuite
5 4 (0.11%) Remedy ITSM
5 4 (0.11%) SAP FI
5 4 (0.11%) Summit
6 3 (0.084%) BusinessWorks
7 2 (0.056%) Payment Gateway
7 2 (0.056%) SAP HR
8 1 (0.028%) Distributed Ledger
8 1 (0.028%) Dynamics NAV
8 1 (0.028%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 792 (22.10%) Amazon AWS
2 612 (17.08%) Microsoft Azure
3 208 (5.81%) GitHub
4 117 (3.27%) Serverless
5 108 (3.01%) Google Cloud Platform
6 87 (2.43%) Amazon EC2
6 87 (2.43%) PaaS
7 75 (2.09%) AWS Lambda
8 69 (1.93%) SaaS
9 48 (1.34%) npm
10 42 (1.17%) Amazon SQS
11 39 (1.09%) BrowserStack
11 39 (1.09%) Sauce Labs
12 35 (0.98%) AWS CloudFormation
13 26 (0.73%) Amazon S3
13 26 (0.73%) Slack
14 23 (0.64%) OpenShift
15 21 (0.59%) Amazon Kinesis
16 20 (0.56%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 19 (0.53%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 133 (3.71%) HTTP
2 44 (1.23%) Internet
3 29 (0.81%) AMQP
4 22 (0.61%) SSL
5 19 (0.53%) DNS
6 17 (0.47%) FTP
7 15 (0.42%) TCP/IP
8 10 (0.28%) Kerberos
9 8 (0.22%) LAN
10 7 (0.20%) SSH
10 7 (0.20%) WAN
11 6 (0.17%) Firewall
11 6 (0.17%) VPN
12 5 (0.14%) Network Security
13 4 (0.11%) ATM
13 4 (0.11%) ICMP
14 3 (0.084%) Reverse Proxy
15 2 (0.056%) tcpdump
15 2 (0.056%) Wireshark
16 1 (0.028%) Unified Communications
Database & Business Intelligence
1 382 (10.66%) SQL Server
2 325 (9.07%) NoSQL
3 294 (8.21%) MongoDB
4 224 (6.25%) Relational Database
5 217 (6.06%) PostgreSQL
6 166 (4.63%) MySQL
7 146 (4.07%) Big Data
8 136 (3.80%) Hadoop
9 118 (3.29%) Apache Cassandra
10 90 (2.51%) HBase
11 84 (2.34%) Redis
12 56 (1.56%) Data Warehouse
13 51 (1.42%) Oracle Database
14 50 (1.40%) RDBMS
15 43 (1.20%) Azure SQL Database
16 40 (1.12%) Data Lake
17 36 (1.00%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 35 (0.98%) Cosmos DB
18 35 (0.98%) Impala
19 34 (0.95%) Parquet
Development Applications
1 1,044 (29.14%) Git (software)
2 924 (25.79%) Jenkins
3 730 (20.37%) Selenium
4 690 (19.26%) JIRA
5 660 (18.42%) Cucumber
6 372 (10.38%) Maven
7 294 (8.21%) JUnit
8 264 (7.37%) WebDriver
9 245 (6.84%) SpecFlow
10 209 (5.83%) Mockito
11 193 (5.39%) JMeter
12 190 (5.30%) TeamCity
13 185 (5.16%) Subversion
14 174 (4.86%) Visual Studio Team System
15 148 (4.13%) Jasmine
15 148 (4.13%) SoapUI
16 145 (4.05%) Gradle
17 125 (3.49%) Team Foundation Server
18 116 (3.24%) webpack
19 113 (3.15%) Protractor
General
1 513 (14.32%) Finance
2 312 (8.71%) Banking
3 142 (3.96%) Retail
4 95 (2.65%) Front Office
5 73 (2.04%) Marketing
6 42 (1.17%) Investment Banking
7 39 (1.09%) Financial Institution
8 38 (1.06%) Telecoms
9 36 (1.00%) Games
10 26 (0.73%) Advertising
11 25 (0.70%) Back Office
12 23 (0.64%) Manufacturing
13 16 (0.45%) Legal
14 15 (0.42%) Retail Banking
15 14 (0.39%) Electronics
16 10 (0.28%) Pharmaceutical
17 9 (0.25%) Law
18 8 (0.22%) Automotive
19 7 (0.20%) Publishing
20 4 (0.11%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 2,204 (61.51%) Developer
2 738 (20.60%) Java Developer
3 356 (9.94%) Senior Developer
4 309 (8.62%) Analyst
5 297 (8.29%) .NET Developer
6 254 (7.09%) Full Stack Developer
7 251 (7.01%) Tester
8 229 (6.39%) C# Developer
8 229 (6.39%) React Developer
9 181 (5.05%) Automation Tester
10 176 (4.91%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 174 (4.86%) Test Engineer
12 162 (4.52%) Test Analyst
13 155 (4.33%) JavaScript Developer
14 140 (3.91%) Agile Developer
15 126 (3.52%) C# .NET Developer
15 126 (3.52%) Python Developer
16 123 (3.43%) Angular Developer
16 123 (3.43%) Software Developer
17 122 (3.40%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 752 (20.99%) HTML
2 714 (19.93%) REST
3 690 (19.26%) CSS
4 683 (19.06%) Spring
5 677 (18.89%) .NET
6 640 (17.86%) AngularJS
7 594 (16.58%) Web Services
8 527 (14.71%) RESTful
9 468 (13.06%) React
10 424 (11.83%) Node.js
11 349 (9.74%) Spring Boot
12 335 (9.35%) HTML5
13 296 (8.26%) SOAP
14 287 (8.01%) JSON
15 278 (7.76%) ASP.NET
16 223 (6.22%) Redux
17 218 (6.08%) Gherkin
18 216 (6.03%) Kafka
19 202 (5.64%) Hibernate
20 191 (5.33%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 334 (9.32%) Greenfield Project
2 208 (5.81%) User Experience
3 198 (5.53%) Analytical Skills
4 129 (3.60%) Fintech
5 110 (3.07%) Mobile App
6 107 (2.99%) Virtual Team
7 82 (2.29%) Enterprise Software
8 60 (1.67%) Self-Motivation
9 55 (1.54%) Linux Command Line
10 53 (1.48%) Algorithms
11 31 (0.87%) Public Cloud
12 29 (0.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 24 (0.67%) Cloud Native
14 23 (0.64%) Data Structures
14 23 (0.64%) NHS
15 21 (0.59%) Management Information System
16 20 (0.56%) Hedge funds
17 19 (0.53%) Client/Server
18 15 (0.42%) Fixed Income
19 14 (0.39%) Derivative
Operating Systems
1 447 (12.48%) Linux
2 277 (7.73%) Unix
3 93 (2.60%) Android
4 92 (2.57%) Mac OS X
5 80 (2.23%) Apple iOS
6 71 (1.98%) Windows
7 36 (1.00%) CentOS
8 22 (0.61%) VMS
9 17 (0.47%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 13 (0.36%) Ubuntu
11 5 (0.14%) Embedded Linux
11 5 (0.14%) Mac OS
11 5 (0.14%) Solaris
12 3 (0.084%) Windows 10
13 2 (0.056%) Windows Server 2003
13 2 (0.056%) Windows XP
14 1 (0.028%) MVS
14 1 (0.028%) tvOS
14 1 (0.028%) Windows Server
14 1 (0.028%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,764 (77.14%) Agile Software Development
2 2,646 (73.85%) TDD
3 1,313 (36.65%) Test Automation
4 1,189 (33.18%) Scrum
5 898 (25.06%) Microservices
6 821 (22.91%) Continuous Integration
7 702 (19.59%) DevOps
8 615 (17.16%) Kanban
9 443 (12.36%) MVC
10 393 (10.97%) Software Engineering
11 371 (10.35%) Pair Programming
12 308 (8.60%) User Stories
13 293 (8.18%) Open Source
14 292 (8.15%) OO
15 283 (7.90%) Unit Testing
16 281 (7.84%) Problem-Solving
17 275 (7.68%) E-Commerce
18 271 (7.56%) Continuous Delivery
19 251 (7.01%) Web Development
20 247 (6.89%) Front End Development
Programming Languages
1 1,609 (44.91%) Java
2 1,293 (36.09%) JavaScript
3 814 (22.72%) C#
4 677 (18.89%) SQL
5 427 (11.92%) Java 8
6 407 (11.36%) Python
7 215 (6.00%) TypeScript
8 206 (5.75%) Scala
9 199 (5.55%) ES6
10 118 (3.29%) Ruby
11 76 (2.12%) Shell Script
12 61 (1.70%) PHP
13 58 (1.62%) Groovy
14 56 (1.56%) PL/SQL
15 55 (1.54%) T-SQL
16 45 (1.26%) PowerShell
17 36 (1.00%) C++
18 35 (0.98%) C
18 35 (0.98%) Kotlin
19 34 (0.95%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 232 (6.48%) Security Cleared
2 187 (5.22%) Degree
3 165 (4.61%) SC Cleared
4 87 (2.43%) ISTQB
5 67 (1.87%) ISEB
6 63 (1.76%) BPSS Clearance
7 42 (1.17%) DV Cleared
8 35 (0.98%) Computer Science Degree
9 23 (0.64%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 19 (0.53%) Sun Certification
11 11 (0.31%) DBS Check
12 10 (0.28%) Numerate Degree
13 9 (0.25%) OCPJP
14 6 (0.17%) AWS Certification
14 6 (0.17%) BC Cleared
15 4 (0.11%) CTC Cleared
16 3 (0.084%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
17 2 (0.056%) ISEB Practitioner
17 2 (0.056%) OCAJ
17 2 (0.056%) SAS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 503 (14.04%) QA
2 41 (1.14%) Data Quality
3 16 (0.45%) WCAG
4 11 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
5 10 (0.28%) GDPR
6 7 (0.20%) PSD2
7 5 (0.14%) PMO
7 5 (0.14%) SEPA
8 4 (0.11%) HL7
9 3 (0.084%) MiFID
10 2 (0.056%) COBIT
10 2 (0.056%) WAI
11 1 (0.028%) OASIS TOSCA
11 1 (0.028%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 596 (16.63%) Docker
2 68 (1.90%) HDFS
3 53 (1.48%) vSphere
4 51 (1.42%) VMware Infrastructure
5 41 (1.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 23 (0.64%) Active Directory
7 13 (0.36%) Apache Flume
8 7 (0.20%) Postfix
9 6 (0.17%) NDS
9 6 (0.17%) NetIQ eDirectory
9 6 (0.17%) Virtual Machines
10 3 (0.084%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
10 3 (0.084%) VirtualBox
11 2 (0.056%) Microsoft App-V
11 2 (0.056%) VMware ESXi
11 2 (0.056%) VMware Workstation
12 1 (0.028%) Hyper-V
12 1 (0.028%) Time Sharing Option
12 1 (0.028%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 282 (7.87%) Kubernetes
2 177 (4.94%) Ansible
3 89 (2.48%) Terraform
4 88 (2.46%) Puppet
5 60 (1.67%) Opscode Chef
6 55 (1.54%) Hadoop YARN
7 38 (1.06%) Kibana
8 25 (0.70%) logstash
9 20 (0.56%) Cobbler
9 20 (0.56%) Docker Swarm
10 17 (0.47%) Control-M
11 16 (0.45%) HP Quality Center
12 15 (0.42%) Nessus
13 12 (0.33%) Rancher
14 11 (0.31%) Grafana
15 8 (0.22%) Mesos
15 8 (0.22%) NetIQ Identity Manager
15 8 (0.22%) Tivoli
16 7 (0.20%) HP ALM
16 7 (0.20%) Packer
Vendors
1 208 (5.81%) Oracle
2 163 (4.55%) Microsoft
3 126 (3.52%) Google
4 72 (2.01%) Atlassian
5 71 (1.98%) Splunk
6 56 (1.56%) VMware
7 47 (1.31%) IBM
7 47 (1.31%) Pega
8 42 (1.17%) Red Hat
9 35 (0.98%) SAP
10 30 (0.84%) Cypress Semiconductor
11 29 (0.81%) Cadence
12 25 (0.70%) Xamarin
13 23 (0.64%) HP
14 22 (0.61%) New Relic
15 20 (0.56%) Sitecore
15 20 (0.56%) Sybase
16 19 (0.53%) Cloudera
16 19 (0.53%) hybris
17 18 (0.50%) Adobe