Period
to 12 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 12 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
12 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 85 88 60
Rank change year-on-year +3 -28 -9
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,388 1,524 3,698
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.66% 2.56% 3.83%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.06% 3.00% 4.38%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,026 1,169 2,715
10th Percentile £369 £365 £364
25th Percentile £430 £425 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £525 £500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £463 £463
% change year-on-year -2.70% - +8.82%
Number of hourly rates quoted 14 6 2
10th Percentile £28.85 £29.57 £13.63
25th Percentile £36.25 £35.63 £17.19
Median hourly rate £40.00 £49.50 £23.25
Median % change year-on-year -19.19% +112.90% -53.50%
75th Percentile £42.75 £57.50 £29.19
90th Percentile £58.00 £59.50 £32.68
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £35.00 £35.00
% change year-on-year +14.29% - -30.00%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 45,350 50,829 84,409
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.76% 85.23% 87.53%
Number of daily rates quoted 31,056 33,828 56,991
10th Percentile £305 £281 £300
25th Percentile £400 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £480 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +1.05% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £575 £575 £575
90th Percentile £669 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £433 £445 £430
% change year-on-year -2.81% +3.49% +3.49%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,431 1,617 1,986
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.30 £11.62
25th Percentile £15.77 £15.75 £14.50
Median hourly rate £26.00 £21.50 £22.70
Median % change year-on-year +20.93% -5.29% +6.45%
75th Percentile £47.17 £45.75 £43.75
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.00 £20.03 £22.40
% change year-on-year +14.86% -10.60% +12.00%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 12 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 1,094 £525 - 529
London -2 757 £550 - 257
Work from Home 0 434 £500 - 99
UK excluding London -11 348 £450 -2.70% 332
North of England +29 99 £485 +2.11% 99
Scotland +10 71 £421 +2.12% 42
South East +8 65 £489 +5.68% 67
North West +25 43 £464 -2.37% 60
South West +11 41 £513 +7.89% 39
Yorkshire +11 41 £500 +4.17% 24
Midlands -26 35 £395 -12.22% 41
East of England +12 26 £455 +5.51% 26
East Midlands +24 16 £378 +7.86% 12
North East +18 15 £475 +11.76% 15
West Midlands -44 15 £363 -22.46% 29
Wales +3 9 £450 -5.26% 10
Northern Ireland +2 2 £431 +1.41% 8
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 12 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,008 (72.62%) TDD
2 934 (67.29%) Agile Software Development
3 691 (49.78%) Java
4 497 (35.81%) Test Automation
5 430 (30.98%) Microservices
6 419 (30.19%) DevOps
7 395 (28.46%) Scrum
8 348 (25.07%) Azure
9 337 (24.28%) Git (software)
10 326 (23.49%) SQL
11 310 (22.33%) JavaScript
12 286 (20.61%) Docker
13 281 (20.24%) Cucumber
13 281 (20.24%) Jenkins
14 272 (19.60%) AWS
15 266 (19.16%) C#
16 263 (18.95%) Spring
17 259 (18.66%) Finance
18 236 (17.00%) Selenium
19 233 (16.79%) Continuous Integration
20 232 (16.71%) QA
21 229 (16.50%) Python
22 225 (16.21%) JIRA
23 223 (16.07%) RESTful
24 218 (15.71%) .NET
25 213 (15.35%) Kubernetes
26 203 (14.63%) Software Engineering
27 193 (13.90%) Banking
28 192 (13.83%) REST
29 167 (12.03%) Maven

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 118 (8.50%) Confluence
2 77 (5.55%) Apache Spark
3 44 (3.17%) Apache
4 30 (2.16%) WebSphere
5 25 (1.80%) JBoss
6 23 (1.66%) Mule
7 19 (1.37%) Tomcat
8 16 (1.15%) NServiceBus
9 15 (1.08%) SharePoint
10 14 (1.01%) Apache Airflow
11 13 (0.94%) Cloud Foundry
11 13 (0.94%) Jetty
11 13 (0.94%) Red Hat Fuse
12 7 (0.50%) Elasticsearch
12 7 (0.50%) Oracle Coherence
13 4 (0.29%) nginx
14 3 (0.22%) Anypoint
14 3 (0.22%) Camunda
14 3 (0.22%) CMS
14 3 (0.22%) OpenStack
Applications
1 10 (0.72%) MS Visio
2 4 (0.29%) Microsoft Excel
2 4 (0.29%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
3 3 (0.22%) Sketch
4 2 (0.14%) Chatbot
5 1 (0.072%) Adobe Illustrator
5 1 (0.072%) InVision
5 1 (0.072%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 1 (0.072%) Photoshop
5 1 (0.072%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 10 (0.72%) Dynamics CRM
2 4 (0.29%) Magento
2 4 (0.29%) SAP Hybris
3 3 (0.22%) Oracle Cash Management
3 3 (0.22%) Oracle ERP
3 3 (0.22%) Oracle General Ledger
3 3 (0.22%) Oracle Payables
3 3 (0.22%) Oracle Receivables
4 2 (0.14%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.14%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
4 2 (0.14%) RMDS
4 2 (0.14%) Summit
5 1 (0.072%) Distributed Ledger
5 1 (0.072%) Dynamics AX
5 1 (0.072%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.072%) SAP CO
5 1 (0.072%) SAP FI/CO
5 1 (0.072%) SAP S/4HANA
5 1 (0.072%) Teamcenter
5 1 (0.072%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 348 (25.07%) Azure
2 272 (19.60%) AWS
3 119 (8.57%) GCP
4 112 (8.07%) Serverless
5 62 (4.47%) GitHub
6 41 (2.95%) Azure Functions
7 38 (2.74%) AWS Lambda
8 35 (2.52%) OpenShift
9 30 (2.16%) IaaS
9 30 (2.16%) Power Platform
10 28 (2.02%) Cloud Computing
10 28 (2.02%) Logic Apps
10 28 (2.02%) PaaS
11 26 (1.87%) Amazon S3
12 20 (1.44%) SaaS
13 16 (1.15%) AWS CloudFormation
14 15 (1.08%) Azure Data Factory
14 15 (1.08%) Power Automate
14 15 (1.08%) PowerApps
15 12 (0.86%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 33 (2.38%) HTTP
2 10 (0.72%) Kerberos
3 9 (0.65%) SSL
4 8 (0.58%) TCP/IP
5 7 (0.50%) Internet
6 6 (0.43%) Unified Communications
7 4 (0.29%) Broadband
8 3 (0.22%) DNS
8 3 (0.22%) FTP
8 3 (0.22%) LAN
8 3 (0.22%) Wireless
9 2 (0.14%) DMZ
9 2 (0.14%) SSH
10 1 (0.072%) 802.15
10 1 (0.072%) Bluetooth
10 1 (0.072%) Network Security
10 1 (0.072%) WAN
10 1 (0.072%) WebEx
10 1 (0.072%) Wi-Fi
10 1 (0.072%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 109 (7.85%) NoSQL
2 91 (6.56%) SQL Server
3 76 (5.48%) MongoDB
4 73 (5.26%) Hadoop
5 66 (4.76%) Data Warehouse
6 62 (4.47%) Relational Database
7 59 (4.25%) Big Data
7 59 (4.25%) MySQL
8 53 (3.82%) PostgreSQL
9 41 (2.95%) BigQuery
10 40 (2.88%) Cloud Spanner
11 35 (2.52%) Bigtable
12 34 (2.45%) Azure SQL Database
13 28 (2.02%) HBase
14 27 (1.95%) Apache Hive
15 25 (1.80%) Data Mart
16 23 (1.66%) Redis
17 22 (1.59%) Apache Cassandra
18 21 (1.51%) RDBMS
19 20 (1.44%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 337 (24.28%) Git (software)
2 281 (20.24%) Cucumber
2 281 (20.24%) Jenkins
3 236 (17.00%) Selenium
4 225 (16.21%) JIRA
5 167 (12.03%) Maven
6 104 (7.49%) JUnit
7 69 (4.97%) Postman
8 58 (4.18%) SpecFlow
9 57 (4.11%) JMeter
10 48 (3.46%) Gradle
11 47 (3.39%) SoapUI
12 45 (3.24%) Mockito
13 44 (3.17%) REST Assured
14 42 (3.03%) GitLab
15 40 (2.88%) webpack
16 38 (2.74%) Cypress.io
17 37 (2.67%) WebDriver
18 36 (2.59%) Subversion
19 35 (2.52%) git-flow
General
1 259 (18.66%) Finance
2 193 (13.90%) Banking
3 98 (7.06%) Public Sector
4 91 (6.56%) Front Office
5 62 (4.47%) Investment Banking
6 39 (2.81%) Retail Banking
7 21 (1.51%) Retail
8 19 (1.37%) Marketing
9 18 (1.30%) Telecoms
10 14 (1.01%) Financial Institution
11 10 (0.72%) Games
12 7 (0.50%) Legal
13 6 (0.43%) Pharmaceutical
13 6 (0.43%) Publishing
14 5 (0.36%) Manufacturing
15 4 (0.29%) Advertising
16 3 (0.22%) Back Office
16 3 (0.22%) Billing
16 3 (0.22%) Electronics
16 3 (0.22%) Law
Job Titles
1 758 (54.61%) Developer
2 307 (22.12%) Java Developer
3 127 (9.15%) Senior Developer
4 100 (7.20%) Tester
5 87 (6.27%) Analyst
6 78 (5.62%) .NET Developer
7 72 (5.19%) Java Engineer
8 70 (5.04%) C# Developer
9 69 (4.97%) Scala Developer
10 67 (4.83%) Test Engineer
11 65 (4.68%) Full Stack Developer
12 62 (4.47%) React Developer
13 61 (4.39%) Data Engineer
14 58 (4.18%) Automation Tester
14 58 (4.18%) Senior Java Developer
15 48 (3.46%) QA Engineer
16 46 (3.31%) Software Engineer
17 43 (3.10%) Test Automation Engineer
18 42 (3.03%) Business Analyst
19 36 (2.59%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 263 (18.95%) Spring
2 223 (16.07%) RESTful
3 218 (15.71%) .NET
4 192 (13.83%) REST
5 164 (11.82%) Node.js
6 163 (11.74%) AngularJS
7 156 (11.24%) Spring Boot
7 156 (11.24%) Web Services
8 152 (10.95%) React
9 128 (9.22%) HTML
10 122 (8.79%) CSS
11 106 (7.64%) Gherkin
12 94 (6.77%) Kafka
13 85 (6.12%) .NET Core
14 77 (5.55%) HTML5
15 70 (5.04%) Hibernate
16 68 (4.90%) XML
17 66 (4.76%) Redux
18 65 (4.68%) SOAP
19 58 (4.18%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 85 (6.12%) Greenfield Project
2 79 (5.69%) Analytical Skills
3 60 (4.32%) User Experience
4 48 (3.46%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 42 (3.03%) Cloud Native
6 39 (2.81%) Self-Motivation
7 38 (2.74%) Mobile App
8 37 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
9 36 (2.59%) Data Structures
10 35 (2.52%) Virtual Team
11 29 (2.09%) Fixed Income
12 22 (1.59%) Derivative
13 21 (1.51%) Algorithms
14 18 (1.30%) Hybrid Cloud
15 17 (1.22%) Public Cloud
16 15 (1.08%) Equities
17 14 (1.01%) Linux Command Line
17 14 (1.01%) Management Information System
18 8 (0.58%) N-Tier
19 6 (0.43%) Reference Data
Operating Systems
1 114 (8.21%) Linux
2 90 (6.48%) Unix
3 43 (3.10%) Android
4 31 (2.23%) Apple iOS
5 19 (1.37%) Windows
6 17 (1.22%) Mac OS X
7 6 (0.43%) Mac OS
8 4 (0.29%) CentOS
8 4 (0.29%) Ubuntu
9 2 (0.14%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 1 (0.072%) Solaris
10 1 (0.072%) Tizen
10 1 (0.072%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,008 (72.62%) TDD
2 934 (67.29%) Agile Software Development
3 497 (35.81%) Test Automation
4 430 (30.98%) Microservices
5 419 (30.19%) DevOps
6 395 (28.46%) Scrum
7 233 (16.79%) Continuous Integration
8 203 (14.63%) Software Engineering
9 150 (10.81%) Problem-Solving
10 140 (10.09%) Kanban
11 126 (9.08%) User Stories
12 117 (8.43%) Continuous Delivery
13 116 (8.36%) SDLC
14 113 (8.14%) Pair Programming
15 105 (7.56%) Unit Testing
16 96 (6.92%) OO
17 85 (6.12%) Continuous Improvement
18 73 (5.26%) Computer Science
18 73 (5.26%) Open Source
19 71 (5.12%) Domain-Driven Design
Programming Languages
1 691 (49.78%) Java
2 326 (23.49%) SQL
3 310 (22.33%) JavaScript
4 266 (19.16%) C#
5 229 (16.50%) Python
6 151 (10.88%) Java 8
6 151 (10.88%) Scala
7 64 (4.61%) TypeScript
8 51 (3.67%) Ruby
9 42 (3.03%) Go
9 42 (3.03%) PowerShell
10 41 (2.95%) Kotlin
11 33 (2.38%) Shell Script
12 27 (1.95%) C++
13 22 (1.59%) T-SQL
14 20 (1.44%) Bash Shell
14 20 (1.44%) ES6
15 19 (1.37%) C
16 17 (1.22%) PHP
17 12 (0.86%) Haskell
Qualifications
1 131 (9.44%) Security Cleared
2 112 (8.07%) SC Cleared
3 66 (4.76%) Degree
4 27 (1.95%) BPSS Clearance
5 25 (1.80%) Numerate Degree
6 18 (1.30%) Computer Science Degree
7 11 (0.79%) ISTQB
8 10 (0.72%) ISEB
8 10 (0.72%) OCPJP
8 10 (0.72%) Sun Certification
9 9 (0.65%) DV Cleared
10 4 (0.29%) DBS Check
11 3 (0.22%) Master's Degree
12 2 (0.14%) AWS Certification
12 2 (0.14%) BC Cleared
12 2 (0.14%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 2 (0.14%) Microsoft Certification
12 2 (0.14%) PMI Certification
12 2 (0.14%) PMP
13 1 (0.072%) HNC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 232 (16.71%) QA
2 7 (0.50%) Data Quality
2 7 (0.50%) MiFID
2 7 (0.50%) WCAG
3 5 (0.36%) PMO
4 2 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
4 2 (0.14%) ISO 20022
4 2 (0.14%) PSD2
5 1 (0.072%) GRC
5 1 (0.072%) GxP
5 1 (0.072%) SEPA
5 1 (0.072%) TARGET2
System Software
1 286 (20.61%) Docker
2 14 (1.01%) HDFS
3 9 (0.65%) Active Directory
4 2 (0.14%) KVM
4 2 (0.14%) NDS
4 2 (0.14%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 2 (0.14%) Postfix
5 1 (0.072%) Firmware
5 1 (0.072%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.072%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.072%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 213 (15.35%) Kubernetes
2 85 (6.12%) Terraform
3 35 (2.52%) Ansible
4 20 (1.44%) Grafana
5 17 (1.22%) Prometheus
6 16 (1.15%) Oozie
7 15 (1.08%) HP Quality Center
7 15 (1.08%) Puppet
8 13 (0.94%) Rancher
9 11 (0.79%) Opscode Chef
10 8 (0.58%) HP ALM
11 6 (0.43%) Kibana
12 5 (0.36%) logstash
13 4 (0.29%) ZABBIX
14 2 (0.14%) Docker Swarm
14 2 (0.14%) Hadoop YARN
15 1 (0.072%) Consul
15 1 (0.072%) Giant Swarm
15 1 (0.072%) Istio
15 1 (0.072%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 78 (5.62%) Oracle
2 72 (5.19%) Microsoft
3 68 (4.90%) Google
4 34 (2.45%) Databricks
5 23 (1.66%) IBM
6 19 (1.37%) Atlassian
6 19 (1.37%) HP
6 19 (1.37%) Sybase
7 17 (1.22%) Salesforce.com
8 16 (1.15%) MuleSoft
9 15 (1.08%) Splunk
10 14 (1.01%) New Relic
10 14 (1.01%) SAP
11 11 (0.79%) Xamarin
12 10 (0.72%) Murex
12 10 (0.72%) Sun
13 9 (0.65%) hybris
14 6 (0.43%) Confluent
15 5 (0.36%) Adobe
15 5 (0.36%) Perfecto Mobile