Period
to 20 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 20 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
20 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 83 88 54
Rank change year-on-year +5 -34 -4
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,103 1,882 4,143
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.64% 2.60% 4.23%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.07% 3.04% 4.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,063 1,393 3,134
Median daily rate £500 £500 £500
10th Percentile £360 £363 £363
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £465 £450 £463
% change year-on-year +3.33% -2.70% +8.82%
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 2 3
Median hourly rate £58.00 £22.75 £32.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +154.95% -30.00% -1.52%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £58.00 £35.00 £33.75
% change year-on-year +65.71% +3.70% +2.27%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 35,940 61,841 85,794
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.17% 85.55% 87.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 24,263 41,352 57,650
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £300 £281 £300
90th Percentile £650 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £433 £425
% change year-on-year -1.73% +1.76% +5.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,164 1,898 2,064
Median hourly rate £27.50 £21.00 £21.83
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +30.95% -3.80% +1.53%
10th Percentile £11.80 £11.89 £11.25
90th Percentile £60.00 £53.00 £50.00
Median hourly rate £24.40 £19.71 £21.00
% change year-on-year +23.80% -6.14% -1.23%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 20 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 20 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 20 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +2 918 £513 +2.50% 454
London +2 616 £538 -2.27% 194
UK excluding London -8 304 £465 +3.33% 311
Work from Home +5 302 £500 +5.26% 76
North of England +47 125 £500 +13.64% 84
Yorkshire +37 58 £475 +5.56% 24
South East 0 49 £500 +8.11% 81
North West +39 46 £520 +15.56% 52
Midlands -11 45 £450 - 39
Scotland -18 28 £425 +9.68% 37
East of England +54 27 £435 +12.26% 23
South West 0 26 £450 - 32
West Midlands -23 24 £432 -9.05% 25
North East +28 21 £500 +23.08% 8
East Midlands +17 17 £468 +18.73% 14
Northern Ireland +7 4 £431 +1.41% 8
Wales +18 1 £250 -45.95% 8

For the 6 months to 20 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 817 (74.07%) TDD
2 740 (67.09%) Agile Software Development
3 598 (54.22%) Java
4 435 (39.44%) Test Automation
5 348 (31.55%) Microservices
6 311 (28.20%) Scrum
7 305 (27.65%) DevOps
8 280 (25.39%) SQL
9 262 (23.75%) AWS
10 258 (23.39%) Git (software)
11 253 (22.94%) Azure
12 246 (22.30%) Cucumber
13 244 (22.12%) Jenkins
14 230 (20.85%) Selenium
15 229 (20.76%) JavaScript
16 223 (20.22%) Spring
17 213 (19.31%) Docker
18 196 (17.77%) JIRA
19 192 (17.41%) REST
20 189 (17.14%) Finance
21 187 (16.95%) C#
22 174 (15.78%) Kubernetes
23 167 (15.14%) Continuous Integration
24 166 (15.05%) QA
25 163 (14.78%) Python
26 162 (14.69%) Banking
27 159 (14.42%) Java 8
28 156 (14.14%) .NET
29 152 (13.78%) RESTful
30 138 (12.51%) Software Engineering

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 104 (9.43%) Confluence
2 45 (4.08%) Apache Spark
3 41 (3.72%) Mule
4 29 (2.63%) JBoss
5 22 (1.99%) WebLogic
5 22 (1.99%) WebSphere
6 21 (1.90%) Apache
7 20 (1.81%) Cloud Foundry
8 19 (1.72%) Red Hat Fuse
9 14 (1.27%) NServiceBus
10 9 (0.82%) CMS
10 9 (0.82%) Elasticsearch
11 6 (0.54%) Apache Airflow
12 5 (0.45%) OpenStack
12 5 (0.45%) Oracle Workflow
12 5 (0.45%) SharePoint
13 4 (0.36%) BizTalk Server
14 3 (0.27%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 3 (0.27%) Sitecore CMS
14 3 (0.27%) Tomcat
Applications
1 6 (0.54%) Microsoft Excel
1 6 (0.54%) MS Visio
2 3 (0.27%) Chatbot
2 3 (0.27%) Microsoft Office
2 3 (0.27%) Photoshop
2 3 (0.27%) Sketch
2 3 (0.27%) Spreadsheet
3 2 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
4 1 (0.091%) Adobe Illustrator
4 1 (0.091%) InVision
4 1 (0.091%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 1 (0.091%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 5 (0.45%) Magento
1 5 (0.45%) SAP Hybris
2 3 (0.27%) Distributed Ledger
2 3 (0.27%) Dynamics CRM
2 3 (0.27%) Salesforce.com CRM
2 3 (0.27%) SAP FI-CA
3 2 (0.18%) Oracle Cash Management
3 2 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
3 2 (0.18%) Oracle General Ledger
3 2 (0.18%) Oracle Payables
3 2 (0.18%) Oracle Receivables
3 2 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
3 2 (0.18%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
3 2 (0.18%) RMDS
3 2 (0.18%) Summit
3 2 (0.18%) Teamcenter
4 1 (0.091%) SAP CO
4 1 (0.091%) SAP FI
4 1 (0.091%) SAP FI/CO
4 1 (0.091%) thinkFolio
Cloud Services
1 262 (23.75%) AWS
2 253 (22.94%) Azure
3 76 (6.89%) GCP
4 73 (6.62%) Serverless
5 45 (4.08%) GitHub
6 37 (3.35%) Power Platform
7 33 (2.99%) Azure Functions
8 31 (2.81%) Logic Apps
8 31 (2.81%) OpenShift
8 31 (2.81%) PaaS
9 29 (2.63%) IaaS
10 25 (2.27%) PowerApps
10 25 (2.27%) Slack
11 24 (2.18%) Power Automate
12 22 (1.99%) SaaS
13 21 (1.90%) Cloud Computing
14 19 (1.72%) AWS Lambda
15 11 (1.00%) Azure Data Factory
16 10 (0.91%) Amazon S3
17 9 (0.82%) BrowserStack
Communications & Networking
1 32 (2.90%) HTTP
2 8 (0.73%) Internet
2 8 (0.73%) TCP/IP
3 6 (0.54%) Kerberos
3 6 (0.54%) SSL
4 5 (0.45%) FTP
5 4 (0.36%) DNS
5 4 (0.36%) Wireless
6 3 (0.27%) LAN
7 2 (0.18%) AMQP
7 2 (0.18%) Bluetooth
7 2 (0.18%) Broadband
7 2 (0.18%) Wi-Fi
8 1 (0.091%) 802.15
8 1 (0.091%) DHCP
8 1 (0.091%) DMZ
8 1 (0.091%) Ethernet
8 1 (0.091%) IPv6
8 1 (0.091%) WAN
8 1 (0.091%) WinSCP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 98 (8.88%) SQL Server
2 81 (7.34%) NoSQL
3 70 (6.35%) MongoDB
4 69 (6.26%) MySQL
5 62 (5.62%) Relational Database
6 52 (4.71%) Data Warehouse
7 49 (4.44%) Hadoop
8 46 (4.17%) PostgreSQL
9 35 (3.17%) Big Data
10 30 (2.72%) Cloud Spanner
11 29 (2.63%) Azure SQL Database
11 29 (2.63%) BigQuery
12 25 (2.27%) OLTP
13 24 (2.18%) Bigtable
14 19 (1.72%) Data Mart
15 16 (1.45%) Oracle Database
16 15 (1.36%) RDBMS
16 15 (1.36%) Redis
17 14 (1.27%) Apache Hive
17 14 (1.27%) DB2
Development Applications
1 258 (23.39%) Git (software)
2 246 (22.30%) Cucumber
3 244 (22.12%) Jenkins
4 230 (20.85%) Selenium
5 196 (17.77%) JIRA
6 112 (10.15%) Maven
7 77 (6.98%) JUnit
8 74 (6.71%) JMeter
9 67 (6.07%) Postman
10 54 (4.90%) REST Assured
11 48 (4.35%) SpecFlow
12 43 (3.90%) GitLab
12 43 (3.90%) SoapUI
13 41 (3.72%) Cypress.io
13 41 (3.72%) WebDriver
14 40 (3.63%) Subversion
15 35 (3.17%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 34 (3.08%) Mockito
17 33 (2.99%) Sonatype Nexus
18 29 (2.63%) Gradle
General
1 189 (17.14%) Finance
2 162 (14.69%) Banking
3 101 (9.16%) Public Sector
4 69 (6.26%) Front Office
5 57 (5.17%) Investment Banking
6 24 (2.18%) Retail Banking
7 18 (1.63%) Financial Institution
8 15 (1.36%) Games
9 14 (1.27%) Retail
10 10 (0.91%) Advertising
10 10 (0.91%) Telecoms
11 8 (0.73%) Marketing
12 5 (0.45%) Legal
13 4 (0.36%) Pharmaceutical
14 3 (0.27%) Automotive
14 3 (0.27%) Manufacturing
15 2 (0.18%) Electronics
15 2 (0.18%) General Ledger
15 2 (0.18%) Local Government
15 2 (0.18%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 548 (49.68%) Developer
2 237 (21.49%) Java Developer
3 117 (10.61%) Senior Developer
4 98 (8.88%) Tester
5 66 (5.98%) Java Engineer
6 65 (5.89%) Test Engineer
7 61 (5.53%) Senior Java Developer
8 57 (5.17%) Automation Tester
9 54 (4.90%) Analyst
10 53 (4.81%) QA Engineer
11 47 (4.26%) .NET Developer
11 47 (4.26%) Test Automation Engineer
12 46 (4.17%) Full Stack Developer
13 45 (4.08%) React Developer
14 43 (3.90%) C# Developer
15 37 (3.35%) Scala Developer
16 35 (3.17%) Data Engineer
17 33 (2.99%) Automation Engineer
17 33 (2.99%) QA Automation Engineer
17 33 (2.99%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 223 (20.22%) Spring
2 192 (17.41%) REST
3 156 (14.14%) .NET
4 152 (13.78%) RESTful
5 136 (12.33%) Web Services
6 135 (12.24%) Node.js
7 130 (11.79%) AngularJS
8 124 (11.24%) React
8 124 (11.24%) Spring Boot
9 104 (9.43%) CSS
10 100 (9.07%) HTML
11 84 (7.62%) XML
12 76 (6.89%) SOAP
13 70 (6.35%) Gherkin
14 66 (5.98%) .NET Core
15 63 (5.71%) Redux
16 61 (5.53%) JSON
17 56 (5.08%) Kafka
18 48 (4.35%) HTML5
19 37 (3.35%) Java EE
Miscellaneous
1 57 (5.17%) Greenfield Project
2 55 (4.99%) Analytical Skills
3 54 (4.90%) User Experience
4 34 (3.08%) Mobile App
5 27 (2.45%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 24 (2.18%) Fixed Income
7 23 (2.09%) Cloud Native
8 22 (1.99%) Derivative
9 21 (1.90%) Enterprise Software
10 16 (1.45%) Virtual Team
11 15 (1.36%) Equities
12 14 (1.27%) Public Cloud
13 12 (1.09%) Data Structures
14 8 (0.73%) Management Information System
15 7 (0.63%) Hybrid Cloud
15 7 (0.63%) Market Risk
15 7 (0.63%) Self-Motivation
16 6 (0.54%) Algorithms
16 6 (0.54%) Analytical Mindset
16 6 (0.54%) Mobile Banking
Operating Systems
1 96 (8.70%) Linux
2 84 (7.62%) Unix
3 36 (3.26%) Android
4 34 (3.08%) Windows
5 33 (2.99%) Apple iOS
6 15 (1.36%) Mac OS X
7 3 (0.27%) Mac OS
8 2 (0.18%) Ubuntu
9 1 (0.091%) CentOS
9 1 (0.091%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 1 (0.091%) Solaris
9 1 (0.091%) Tizen
9 1 (0.091%) webOS
9 1 (0.091%) Windows 10
9 1 (0.091%) Windows Server
9 1 (0.091%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 817 (74.07%) TDD
2 740 (67.09%) Agile Software Development
3 435 (39.44%) Test Automation
4 348 (31.55%) Microservices
5 311 (28.20%) Scrum
6 305 (27.65%) DevOps
7 167 (15.14%) Continuous Integration
8 138 (12.51%) Software Engineering
9 114 (10.34%) Kanban
10 106 (9.61%) Continuous Delivery
11 99 (8.98%) Pair Programming
12 97 (8.79%) User Stories
13 93 (8.43%) Problem-Solving
14 77 (6.98%) Test Scripting
15 76 (6.89%) Unit Testing
16 71 (6.44%) OO
17 69 (6.26%) Scenario Testing
18 66 (5.98%) ETL
18 66 (5.98%) SDLC
19 65 (5.89%) API Testing
Programming Languages
1 598 (54.22%) Java
2 280 (25.39%) SQL
3 229 (20.76%) JavaScript
4 187 (16.95%) C#
5 163 (14.78%) Python
6 159 (14.42%) Java 8
7 93 (8.43%) Scala
8 46 (4.17%) TypeScript
9 44 (3.99%) Kotlin
10 41 (3.72%) Ruby
11 27 (2.45%) PowerShell
12 24 (2.18%) Go
13 23 (2.09%) PL/SQL
14 21 (1.90%) T-SQL
15 20 (1.81%) Apple Swift
16 18 (1.63%) Shell Script
17 17 (1.54%) ES6
18 16 (1.45%) C++
19 14 (1.27%) PHP
20 12 (1.09%) Perl
Qualifications
1 124 (11.24%) Security Cleared
2 106 (9.61%) SC Cleared
3 47 (4.26%) Degree
4 30 (2.72%) ISEB
5 27 (2.45%) Numerate Degree
6 26 (2.36%) ISTQB
7 18 (1.63%) BPSS Clearance
7 18 (1.63%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 7 (0.63%) Computer Science Degree
8 7 (0.63%) OCPJP
8 7 (0.63%) Sun Certification
9 6 (0.54%) DBS Check
10 3 (0.27%) Master's Degree
11 2 (0.18%) BC Cleared
11 2 (0.18%) DV Cleared
11 2 (0.18%) ISEB Practitioner
12 1 (0.091%) AWS Certification
12 1 (0.091%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 166 (15.05%) QA
2 8 (0.73%) Data Quality
3 5 (0.45%) PMO
3 5 (0.45%) WCAG
4 4 (0.36%) PSD2
4 4 (0.36%) TARGET2
5 3 (0.27%) GDPR
5 3 (0.27%) ISO 20022
5 3 (0.27%) MiFID
6 2 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.18%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 1 (0.091%) GxP
7 1 (0.091%) HL7
7 1 (0.091%) NCSC
System Software
1 213 (19.31%) Docker
2 12 (1.09%) Active Directory
2 12 (1.09%) HDFS
3 7 (0.63%) NDS
3 7 (0.63%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 5 (0.45%) Postfix
5 2 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 2 (0.18%) Firmware
5 2 (0.18%) KVM
5 2 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.091%) Hyper-V
Systems Management
1 174 (15.78%) Kubernetes
2 77 (6.98%) Terraform
3 36 (3.26%) Ansible
4 12 (1.09%) HP Quality Center
5 11 (1.00%) Puppet
5 11 (1.00%) Rancher
6 9 (0.82%) Grafana
7 6 (0.54%) NetIQ Identity Manager
7 6 (0.54%) Opscode Chef
7 6 (0.54%) Prometheus
8 5 (0.45%) HP ALM
8 5 (0.45%) Oozie
9 4 (0.36%) Hadoop YARN
10 3 (0.27%) Docker Swarm
10 3 (0.27%) Tivoli
11 2 (0.18%) Giant Swarm
11 2 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
12 1 (0.091%) Argo
12 1 (0.091%) Consul
12 1 (0.091%) Tivoli Identity Manager
Vendors
1 82 (7.43%) Oracle
2 54 (4.90%) Microsoft
3 52 (4.71%) Google
4 25 (2.27%) Sybase
5 23 (2.09%) Atlassian
6 21 (1.90%) IBM
6 21 (1.90%) MuleSoft
6 21 (1.90%) SAP
6 21 (1.90%) Splunk
7 16 (1.45%) Murex
8 14 (1.27%) AppDynamics
8 14 (1.27%) Databricks
9 13 (1.18%) HP
9 13 (1.18%) Salesforce.com
9 13 (1.18%) webMethods
10 9 (0.82%) ForgeRock
10 9 (0.82%) hybris
11 8 (0.73%) Talend
12 7 (0.63%) NetIQ
12 7 (0.63%) Sun