Period
to 7 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 7 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
7 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 89 61 51
Rank change year-on-year -28 -10 +10
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,561 3,730 4,333
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.57% 3.85% 4.26%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.02% 4.41% 4.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,169 2,746 3,476
Median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £368 £363 £346
90th Percentile £650 £638 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £460 £463 £425
% change year-on-year -0.54% +8.82% +1.19%
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 11 6
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £47.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -26.32% +3.41%
10th Percentile £34.50 £35.00 £40.00
90th Percentile £58.60 £35.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £47.50
% change year-on-year - -26.32% +3.55%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 51,606 84,575 88,128
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 84.89% 87.25% 86.59%
Number of daily rates quoted 32,807 56,038 58,320
Median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +4.05%
10th Percentile £285 £300 £289
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £430 £415
% change year-on-year +2.33% +3.61% +3.75%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,854 2,143 2,213
Median hourly rate £25.53 £25.00 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.12% +11.11% -10.00%
10th Percentile £12.50 £11.85 £11.38
90th Percentile £53.75 £51.21 £50.20
Median hourly rate £22.50 £23.49 £22.00
% change year-on-year -4.21% +6.77% -12.00%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 7 April 2020.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 7 April 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 7 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -26 1,430 £525 +5.00% 555
London -18 882 £550 +4.76% 241
UK excluding London -47 658 £460 -0.54% 342
South East -65 150 £463 -2.63% 80
North of England -33 149 £475 +5.56% 96
Midlands -8 100 £450 - 50
South West -24 97 £475 -1.04% 57
West Midlands +5 78 £460 +2.22% 22
Scotland +2 77 £419 -4.29% 11
Yorkshire +13 68 £475 - 35
East of England -16 53 £413 -16.67% 31
North West -47 52 £475 +7.95% 50
Work from Home -8 34 £500 - 55
North East -5 30 £425 -5.56% 11
Wales +34 24 £465 +3.33% 14
East Midlands -2 22 £350 -10.26% 28
Northern Ireland +14 13 £425 +28.79% 3

For the 6 months to 7 April 2020, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,164 (74.57%) Agile Software Development
2 1,144 (73.29%) TDD
3 715 (45.80%) Java
4 519 (33.25%) Test Automation
5 465 (29.79%) JavaScript
6 436 (27.93%) Scrum
7 423 (27.10%) Microservices
8 384 (24.60%) AWS
9 369 (23.64%) C#
10 353 (22.61%) Jenkins
11 346 (22.17%) Continuous Integration
12 342 (21.91%) Git (software)
13 333 (21.33%) Azure
14 331 (21.20%) SQL
15 321 (20.56%) DevOps
16 286 (18.32%) .NET
17 277 (17.75%) Cucumber
18 272 (17.42%) Selenium
19 264 (16.91%) AngularJS
20 261 (16.72%) REST
21 258 (16.53%) JIRA
22 248 (15.89%) Kanban
23 247 (15.82%) Spring
24 245 (15.70%) Docker
25 242 (15.50%) Web Services
26 230 (14.73%) QA
27 220 (14.09%) HTML
27 220 (14.09%) React
28 210 (13.45%) Python
29 208 (13.32%) Pair Programming

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 119 (7.62%) Confluence
2 59 (3.78%) Elasticsearch
3 43 (2.75%) Apache Spark
4 27 (1.73%) Apache
5 16 (1.02%) IIS
6 15 (0.96%) CMS
6 15 (0.96%) Tomcat
7 13 (0.83%) WebSphere
8 12 (0.77%) SharePoint
9 8 (0.51%) Cloud Foundry
10 7 (0.45%) SAS
11 6 (0.38%) Umbraco
12 5 (0.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 5 (0.32%) nginx
13 4 (0.26%) Apache Airflow
13 4 (0.26%) Sitecore CMS
13 4 (0.26%) WordPress
14 2 (0.13%) Liferay
14 2 (0.13%) SharePoint 2013
15 1 (0.064%) Anypoint
Applications
1 12 (0.77%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (0.58%) MS Visio
3 7 (0.45%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 6 (0.38%) Microsoft Office
5 4 (0.26%) Microsoft Project
6 3 (0.19%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.13%) Zeplin
8 1 (0.064%) Adobe Illustrator
Business Applications
1 12 (0.77%) Dynamics CRM
2 5 (0.32%) Magento
3 3 (0.19%) BusinessWorks
3 3 (0.19%) Oracle BPM
4 2 (0.13%) SAP EWM
5 1 (0.064%) Endur
5 1 (0.064%) ION MarketView
5 1 (0.064%) Payment Gateway
5 1 (0.064%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 384 (24.60%) AWS
2 333 (21.33%) Azure
3 100 (6.41%) GitHub
4 90 (5.77%) Amazon EC2
5 74 (4.74%) Serverless
6 65 (4.16%) GCP
7 47 (3.01%) AWS Lambda
8 44 (2.82%) Amazon SQS
9 36 (2.31%) Amazon S3
10 23 (1.47%) AWS CloudFormation
10 23 (1.47%) SaaS
11 19 (1.22%) OpenShift
12 17 (1.09%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 13 (0.83%) Sauce Labs
14 11 (0.70%) Amazon Cognito
14 11 (0.70%) Amazon EMR
14 11 (0.70%) Azure Functions
14 11 (0.70%) BrowserStack
14 11 (0.70%) PaaS
14 11 (0.70%) Slack
Communications & Networking
1 40 (2.56%) HTTP
2 25 (1.60%) Internet
3 22 (1.41%) DNS
4 8 (0.51%) DSL
4 8 (0.51%) FTP
4 8 (0.51%) SSL
4 8 (0.51%) TCP/IP
5 6 (0.38%) IPv6
6 4 (0.26%) HTTPS
7 3 (0.19%) SSH
8 2 (0.13%) 802.15
8 2 (0.13%) Wi-Fi
8 2 (0.13%) ZigBee
9 1 (0.064%) Kerberos
9 1 (0.064%) LAN
9 1 (0.064%) NFC
9 1 (0.064%) PPP
9 1 (0.064%) PuTTY
9 1 (0.064%) Skype
9 1 (0.064%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 148 (9.48%) SQL Server
2 109 (6.98%) PostgreSQL
3 107 (6.85%) MongoDB
4 80 (5.12%) NoSQL
5 60 (3.84%) MySQL
6 49 (3.14%) Big Data
7 44 (2.82%) Amazon RDS
8 42 (2.69%) Relational Database
9 30 (1.92%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 29 (1.86%) Hadoop
11 27 (1.73%) HBase
12 22 (1.41%) Apache Cassandra
13 20 (1.28%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 19 (1.22%) Data Lake
14 19 (1.22%) Data Warehouse
14 19 (1.22%) RDBMS
15 18 (1.15%) Cosmos DB
16 17 (1.09%) Apache Hive
17 15 (0.96%) SQL Server Reporting Services
18 13 (0.83%) DB2
Development Applications
1 353 (22.61%) Jenkins
2 342 (21.91%) Git (software)
3 277 (17.75%) Cucumber
4 272 (17.42%) Selenium
5 258 (16.53%) JIRA
6 124 (7.94%) Maven
7 120 (7.69%) JUnit
8 109 (6.98%) SpecFlow
9 99 (6.34%) WebDriver
10 93 (5.96%) Mockito
11 68 (4.36%) SonarQube
12 67 (4.29%) Team Foundation Server
13 61 (3.91%) GitLab
14 59 (3.78%) JMeter
15 56 (3.59%) SoapUI
16 51 (3.27%) Postman
17 50 (3.20%) jMock
17 50 (3.20%) TeamCity
18 48 (3.07%) Bitbucket
18 48 (3.07%) DbUnit
General
1 201 (12.88%) Finance
2 160 (10.25%) Banking
3 145 (9.29%) Public Sector
4 62 (3.97%) Front Office
5 53 (3.40%) Retail
6 34 (2.18%) Marketing
7 25 (1.60%) Investment Banking
8 22 (1.41%) Telecoms
9 15 (0.96%) Military
10 13 (0.83%) Law
11 8 (0.51%) Publishing
12 7 (0.45%) Retail Banking
13 6 (0.38%) Legal
13 6 (0.38%) Pharmaceutical
14 5 (0.32%) Financial Institution
14 5 (0.32%) Games
15 4 (0.26%) Advertising
16 3 (0.19%) Corporate Banking
17 2 (0.13%) Local Government
17 2 (0.13%) Manufacturing
Job Titles
1 914 (58.55%) Developer
2 317 (20.31%) Java Developer
3 162 (10.38%) Senior Developer
4 119 (7.62%) Tester
5 114 (7.30%) .NET Developer
6 111 (7.11%) Analyst
7 104 (6.66%) React Developer
8 101 (6.47%) C# Developer
9 90 (5.77%) Automation Tester
10 77 (4.93%) Full Stack Developer
11 73 (4.68%) Test Engineer
12 65 (4.16%) Software Developer
13 60 (3.84%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 56 (3.59%) Angular Developer
15 55 (3.52%) QA Engineer
15 55 (3.52%) Test Analyst
16 52 (3.33%) Senior Java Developer
17 51 (3.27%) AWS Developer
17 51 (3.27%) JavaScript Developer
18 47 (3.01%) Business Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 286 (18.32%) .NET
2 264 (16.91%) AngularJS
3 261 (16.72%) REST
4 247 (15.82%) Spring
5 242 (15.50%) Web Services
6 220 (14.09%) HTML
6 220 (14.09%) React
7 207 (13.26%) CSS
8 201 (12.88%) Node.js
9 183 (11.72%) RESTful
10 179 (11.47%) SOAP
11 150 (9.61%) Spring Boot
12 126 (8.07%) Kafka
13 111 (7.11%) JSON
14 108 (6.92%) Gherkin
14 108 (6.92%) Redux
15 90 (5.77%) ASP.NET
15 90 (5.77%) XML
16 82 (5.25%) .NET Core
17 75 (4.80%) Spring Cloud
Miscellaneous
1 123 (7.88%) Analytical Skills
2 114 (7.30%) Greenfield Project
3 56 (3.59%) User Experience
4 53 (3.40%) Mobile App
5 48 (3.07%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 34 (2.18%) Enterprise Software
7 32 (2.05%) Data Structures
8 26 (1.67%) Public Cloud
9 21 (1.35%) Management Information System
10 20 (1.28%) Derivative
11 18 (1.15%) Algorithms
12 16 (1.02%) Equities
12 16 (1.02%) NHS
13 15 (0.96%) Virtual Team
14 13 (0.83%) Fixed Income
15 12 (0.77%) Self-Motivation
16 10 (0.64%) Linux Command Line
16 10 (0.64%) W3C
17 8 (0.51%) Data Centre
18 7 (0.45%) Cloud Native
Operating Systems
1 111 (7.11%) Linux
2 74 (4.74%) Android
3 56 (3.59%) Unix
4 49 (3.14%) Apple iOS
5 26 (1.67%) Mac OS X
6 19 (1.22%) Windows
7 2 (0.13%) CentOS
7 2 (0.13%) Windows Server
8 1 (0.064%) CoreOS
8 1 (0.064%) Mac OS
8 1 (0.064%) Ubuntu
8 1 (0.064%) Windows 10
8 1 (0.064%) Windows Server 2008
8 1 (0.064%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,164 (74.57%) Agile Software Development
2 1,144 (73.29%) TDD
3 519 (33.25%) Test Automation
4 436 (27.93%) Scrum
5 423 (27.10%) Microservices
6 346 (22.17%) Continuous Integration
7 321 (20.56%) DevOps
8 248 (15.89%) Kanban
9 208 (13.32%) Pair Programming
10 202 (12.94%) Software Engineering
11 171 (10.95%) MVC
12 140 (8.97%) User Stories
13 123 (7.88%) Problem-Solving
14 120 (7.69%) Open Source
15 117 (7.50%) Acceptance Criteria
16 113 (7.24%) OO
17 112 (7.17%) Mentoring
18 108 (6.92%) Unit Testing
19 103 (6.60%) Continuous Improvement
20 102 (6.53%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 715 (45.80%) Java
2 465 (29.79%) JavaScript
3 369 (23.64%) C#
4 331 (21.20%) SQL
5 210 (13.45%) Python
6 165 (10.57%) Java 8
7 109 (6.98%) TypeScript
8 82 (5.25%) Scala
9 53 (3.40%) Ruby
10 52 (3.33%) Groovy
11 48 (3.07%) C
12 41 (2.63%) PowerShell
13 39 (2.50%) Kotlin
14 37 (2.37%) ES6
15 36 (2.31%) T-SQL
16 33 (2.11%) C++
16 33 (2.11%) PHP
17 31 (1.99%) Go
18 17 (1.09%) Bash Shell
19 14 (0.90%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 190 (12.17%) Security Cleared
2 159 (10.19%) SC Cleared
3 54 (3.46%) ISTQB
4 47 (3.01%) Degree
5 32 (2.05%) DV Cleared
6 27 (1.73%) ISEB
7 24 (1.54%) Computer Science Degree
8 14 (0.90%) BPSS Clearance
9 8 (0.51%) AWS Certification
10 7 (0.45%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 4 (0.26%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
11 4 (0.26%) OCP
11 4 (0.26%) Oracle Certification
12 3 (0.19%) IIBA
13 2 (0.13%) DBS Check
13 2 (0.13%) ISEB Practitioner
13 2 (0.13%) Master's Degree
14 1 (0.064%) Numerate Degree
14 1 (0.064%) OCPJP
14 1 (0.064%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 230 (14.73%) QA
2 9 (0.58%) GDPR
3 8 (0.51%) WCAG
4 6 (0.38%) PMO
5 2 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
5 2 (0.13%) EMIR
5 2 (0.13%) MiFID
5 2 (0.13%) WAI
6 1 (0.064%) Data Quality
6 1 (0.064%) IFRS
6 1 (0.064%) ISO 20022
6 1 (0.064%) PSD2
6 1 (0.064%) SEPA
System Software
1 245 (15.70%) Docker
2 39 (2.50%) Postfix
3 27 (1.73%) HDFS
4 11 (0.70%) vSphere
5 9 (0.58%) VMware Infrastructure
6 8 (0.51%) Active Directory
7 5 (0.32%) Virtual Machines
8 4 (0.26%) NFS
9 3 (0.19%) NDS
9 3 (0.19%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 1 (0.064%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 1 (0.064%) Firmware
10 1 (0.064%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 152 (9.74%) Kubernetes
2 68 (4.36%) Terraform
3 49 (3.14%) Ansible
4 27 (1.73%) Puppet
5 25 (1.60%) Opscode Chef
6 15 (0.96%) Hadoop YARN
7 9 (0.58%) Packer
8 8 (0.51%) HP ALM
8 8 (0.51%) Kibana
9 7 (0.45%) Docker Swarm
9 7 (0.45%) Nagios
10 6 (0.38%) MIIS
11 5 (0.32%) HP Quality Center
11 5 (0.32%) NetIQ Identity Manager
12 3 (0.19%) Control-M
12 3 (0.19%) Grafana
12 3 (0.19%) Mesos
12 3 (0.19%) Tivoli
13 2 (0.13%) Istio
13 2 (0.13%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 95 (6.09%) Microsoft
2 70 (4.48%) Google
3 65 (4.16%) Oracle
4 29 (1.86%) IBM
5 17 (1.09%) Atlassian
6 13 (0.83%) Apple
6 13 (0.83%) Hortonworks
6 13 (0.83%) VMware
7 12 (0.77%) New Relic
8 11 (0.70%) Splunk
9 10 (0.64%) SAP
10 8 (0.51%) Databricks
10 8 (0.51%) HP
10 8 (0.51%) Xamarin
11 7 (0.45%) NetIQ
12 6 (0.38%) ForgeRock
12 6 (0.38%) Talend
13 5 (0.32%) MuleSoft
13 5 (0.32%) Sitecore
13 5 (0.32%) Zend