Period
to 26 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 26 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
26 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 102 78 71
Rank change year-on-year -24 -7 -14
Contract jobs citing BDD 1,699 1,102 3,096
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.39% 2.94% 3.35%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.71% 3.40% 3.84%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,247 856 2,262
10th Percentile £378 £375 £370
25th Percentile £425 £438 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £525 £500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.00% +1.11%
75th Percentile £613 £588 £575
90th Percentile £674 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £475 £450
% change year-on-year -5.26% +5.56% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 6 2
10th Percentile £36.25 £35.82 £13.85
25th Percentile £40.00 £46.64 £17.75
Median hourly rate £62.90 £53.56 £24.50
Median % change year-on-year +17.42% +118.62% -45.56%
75th Percentile £65.54 £57.50 £31.25
90th Percentile £73.02 £59.50 £35.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £63.00 £53.13 £37.50
% change year-on-year +18.59% +41.67% -16.67%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 62,665 32,398 80,658
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 88.23% 86.35% 87.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 43,046 21,624 53,915
10th Percentile £313 £300 £300
25th Percentile £406 £400 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £600 £576 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,697 930 2,192
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.36 £11.61
25th Percentile £14.61 £16.00 £14.50
Median hourly rate £23.21 £23.05 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year +0.68% +2.46% +12.50%
75th Percentile £47.25 £46.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £60.50 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.50 £21.50 £22.92
% change year-on-year -4.65% -6.21% +20.64%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing BDD.

Hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 26 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 26 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -23 1,376 £525 - 667
London -24 888 £550 - 293
UK excluding London -31 514 £450 -5.26% 417
Work from Home -25 484 £500 -4.76% 132
North of England -40 133 £450 -14.29% 135
South East +1 112 £473 -0.53% 95
Scotland +3 96 £425 - 20
South West +6 76 £482 +1.40% 52
North West -10 72 £425 -15.00% 73
Midlands -26 40 £398 -6.47% 54
East of England -43 38 £513 +7.89% 33
Yorkshire -51 38 £475 -9.52% 46
North East +3 23 £525 +2.44% 16
East Midlands 0 20 £398 -5.92% 24
West Midlands -40 19 £394 -9.48% 29
Wales -9 18 £423 -7.65% 17
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 26 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 1,253 (73.75%) TDD
2 1,206 (70.98%) Agile Software Development
3 869 (51.15%) Java
4 604 (35.55%) Test Automation
5 523 (30.78%) DevOps
6 520 (30.61%) Microservices
7 515 (30.31%) Scrum
8 473 (27.84%) Git (software)
9 431 (25.37%) Azure
10 422 (24.84%) JavaScript
11 406 (23.90%) Spring
12 401 (23.60%) Cucumber
13 395 (23.25%) Docker
14 359 (21.13%) Jenkins
15 333 (19.60%) AWS
16 326 (19.19%) SQL
17 325 (19.13%) Continuous Integration
18 315 (18.54%) JIRA
18 315 (18.54%) C#
19 312 (18.36%) Social Skills
20 311 (18.30%) Kubernetes
21 293 (17.25%) Finance
22 276 (16.24%) Selenium
23 265 (15.60%) .NET
23 265 (15.60%) React
24 250 (14.71%) RESTful
25 249 (14.66%) Software Engineering
26 245 (14.42%) Python
27 243 (14.30%) Spring Boot
28 233 (13.71%) QA

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 151 (8.89%) Confluence
2 69 (4.06%) Apache Spark
3 35 (2.06%) JBoss
4 34 (2.00%) Elasticsearch
5 33 (1.94%) WebSphere
6 32 (1.88%) Apache
7 28 (1.65%) Tomcat
8 25 (1.47%) Mule
9 24 (1.41%) SharePoint
10 20 (1.18%) Red Hat Fuse
11 13 (0.77%) Jetty
11 13 (0.77%) nginx
12 12 (0.71%) Oracle Coherence
13 10 (0.59%) Apache Airflow
13 10 (0.59%) CMS
14 9 (0.53%) Cloud Foundry
15 8 (0.47%) IBM Domino
15 8 (0.47%) OpenStack
16 7 (0.41%) Drupal
17 6 (0.35%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 9 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
2 6 (0.35%) MS Visio
3 4 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
4 3 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
5 2 (0.12%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.12%) Figma
5 2 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 2 (0.12%) Mingle
6 1 (0.059%) Photoshop
6 1 (0.059%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 11 (0.65%) Dynamics CRM
2 10 (0.59%) Magento
3 6 (0.35%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 2 (0.12%) Adobe Campaign
4 2 (0.12%) Distributed Ledger
4 2 (0.12%) Oracle Cash Management
5 1 (0.059%) BusinessWorks
5 1 (0.059%) Dynamics AX
5 1 (0.059%) Endur
5 1 (0.059%) Oracle BPM
5 1 (0.059%) Oracle ERP
5 1 (0.059%) Oracle General Ledger
5 1 (0.059%) Oracle Payables
5 1 (0.059%) Oracle Receivables
5 1 (0.059%) Payment Gateway
5 1 (0.059%) Primavera
5 1 (0.059%) SAP ERP
5 1 (0.059%) SAP S/4HANA
5 1 (0.059%) Shopify
5 1 (0.059%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 431 (25.37%) Azure
2 333 (19.60%) AWS
3 116 (6.83%) Serverless
4 104 (6.12%) GCP
5 74 (4.36%) GitHub
6 44 (2.59%) AWS Lambda
7 33 (1.94%) SaaS
8 32 (1.88%) PaaS
9 31 (1.82%) Amazon S3
9 31 (1.82%) OpenShift
10 26 (1.53%) Azure Functions
11 22 (1.29%) BrowserStack
11 22 (1.29%) IaaS
12 20 (1.18%) Azure Cosmos DB
12 20 (1.18%) Power Platform
13 16 (0.94%) Azure Logic Apps
14 15 (0.88%) Cloud Computing
15 14 (0.82%) Amazon EC2
15 14 (0.82%) AWS CloudFormation
15 14 (0.82%) Datadog
Communications & Networking
1 41 (2.41%) HTTP
2 14 (0.82%) Internet
3 13 (0.77%) LAN
4 10 (0.59%) Kerberos
5 6 (0.35%) SSL
5 6 (0.35%) Unified Communications
6 4 (0.24%) Broadband
6 4 (0.24%) TCP/IP
7 3 (0.18%) DNS
8 2 (0.12%) Firewall
8 2 (0.12%) Network Security
8 2 (0.12%) SSH
9 1 (0.059%) DMZ
9 1 (0.059%) RTP
9 1 (0.059%) VPN
9 1 (0.059%) WebEx
9 1 (0.059%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 152 (8.95%) NoSQL
2 111 (6.53%) MongoDB
3 99 (5.83%) Relational Database
4 98 (5.77%) SQL Server
5 75 (4.41%) MySQL
6 64 (3.77%) PostgreSQL
7 54 (3.18%) Hadoop
8 50 (2.94%) Big Data
9 30 (1.77%) Data Warehouse
9 30 (1.77%) HBase
9 30 (1.77%) Tableau
10 29 (1.71%) Apache Hive
11 28 (1.65%) Apache Cassandra
11 28 (1.65%) Redis
12 24 (1.41%) Oracle Database
13 21 (1.24%) DB2
13 21 (1.24%) Tableau Desktop
13 21 (1.24%) Tableau Server
14 20 (1.18%) Azure SQL Database
14 20 (1.18%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 473 (27.84%) Git (software)
2 401 (23.60%) Cucumber
3 359 (21.13%) Jenkins
4 315 (18.54%) JIRA
5 276 (16.24%) Selenium
6 200 (11.77%) Maven
7 169 (9.95%) JUnit
8 91 (5.36%) SpecFlow
9 84 (4.94%) Postman
10 81 (4.77%) Mockito
11 66 (3.88%) GitLab
12 65 (3.83%) Subversion
13 61 (3.59%) JMeter
14 60 (3.53%) Octopus Deploy
15 54 (3.18%) TeamCity
16 52 (3.06%) Appium
17 50 (2.94%) REST Assured
18 49 (2.88%) WebDriver
19 45 (2.65%) Cypress.io
20 43 (2.53%) IntelliJ
General
1 312 (18.36%) Social Skills
2 293 (17.25%) Finance
3 215 (12.65%) Banking
4 107 (6.30%) Analytical Skills
5 101 (5.94%) Public Sector
6 86 (5.06%) Front Office
7 54 (3.18%) Investment Banking
8 37 (2.18%) Documentation Skills
8 37 (2.18%) Retail
9 32 (1.88%) Retail Banking
10 31 (1.82%) Games
11 26 (1.53%) Marketing
12 20 (1.18%) Telecoms
13 16 (0.94%) Presentation Skills
14 15 (0.88%) Legal
15 13 (0.77%) Back Office
15 13 (0.77%) Publishing
16 8 (0.47%) Manufacturing
17 6 (0.35%) Electronics
17 6 (0.35%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 946 (55.68%) Developer
2 389 (22.90%) Java Developer
3 131 (7.71%) Analyst
4 127 (7.47%) Senior Developer
5 109 (6.42%) Tester
6 102 (6.00%) Full Stack Developer
7 92 (5.41%) Test Engineer
8 89 (5.24%) .NET Developer
9 85 (5.00%) Automation Tester
10 84 (4.94%) Scala Developer
11 76 (4.47%) C# Developer
12 73 (4.30%) Software Engineer
13 64 (3.77%) Java Engineer
14 60 (3.53%) React Developer
15 56 (3.30%) Business Analyst
16 54 (3.18%) Senior Java Developer
17 50 (2.94%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
17 50 (2.94%) Test Analyst
18 47 (2.77%) Data Engineer
18 47 (2.77%) Test Automation Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 406 (23.90%) Spring
2 265 (15.60%) .NET
2 265 (15.60%) React
3 250 (14.71%) RESTful
4 243 (14.30%) Spring Boot
5 219 (12.89%) REST
6 215 (12.65%) Node.js
7 206 (12.12%) AngularJS
8 183 (10.77%) HTML
9 175 (10.30%) CSS
10 167 (9.83%) Web Services
11 164 (9.65%) Gherkin
12 136 (8.00%) Kafka
13 101 (5.94%) Hibernate
14 93 (5.47%) HTML5
15 87 (5.12%) JSON
16 85 (5.00%) GraphQL
17 84 (4.94%) Akka
18 83 (4.89%) .NET Core
18 83 (4.89%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 78 (4.59%) Greenfield Project
2 66 (3.88%) Mobile App
3 64 (3.77%) User Experience
4 63 (3.71%) Self-Motivation
5 49 (2.88%) Cloud Native
5 49 (2.88%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 40 (2.35%) Enterprise Software
7 38 (2.24%) Algorithms
8 35 (2.06%) Data Structures
9 33 (1.94%) Fixed Income
10 27 (1.59%) Client/Server
10 27 (1.59%) Virtual Team
11 24 (1.41%) Hybrid Cloud
12 23 (1.35%) Derivative
13 22 (1.29%) Management Information System
14 18 (1.06%) Data Protection Act
15 17 (1.00%) Public Cloud
16 13 (0.77%) Equities
17 11 (0.65%) NHS
17 11 (0.65%) Replication
Operating Systems
1 131 (7.71%) Linux
2 94 (5.53%) Unix
3 62 (3.65%) Android
4 39 (2.30%) Apple iOS
4 39 (2.30%) Windows
5 12 (0.71%) Mac OS X
6 4 (0.24%) CentOS
6 4 (0.24%) Debian
6 4 (0.24%) Ubuntu
6 4 (0.24%) VMS
7 3 (0.18%) Mac OS
8 2 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 1 (0.059%) Tizen
9 1 (0.059%) webOS
9 1 (0.059%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,253 (73.75%) TDD
2 1,206 (70.98%) Agile Software Development
3 604 (35.55%) Test Automation
4 523 (30.78%) DevOps
5 520 (30.61%) Microservices
6 515 (30.31%) Scrum
7 325 (19.13%) Continuous Integration
8 249 (14.66%) Software Engineering
9 213 (12.54%) Kanban
10 191 (11.24%) Problem-Solving
11 180 (10.59%) User Stories
12 175 (10.30%) Pair Programming
13 152 (8.95%) Unit Testing
14 146 (8.59%) SDLC
15 139 (8.18%) Continuous Improvement
16 126 (7.42%) Acceptance Criteria
17 120 (7.06%) OO
18 112 (6.59%) Continuous Delivery
18 112 (6.59%) Mentoring
19 111 (6.53%) Software Testing
Programming Languages
1 869 (51.15%) Java
2 422 (24.84%) JavaScript
3 326 (19.19%) SQL
4 315 (18.54%) C#
5 245 (14.42%) Python
6 193 (11.36%) Java 8
7 172 (10.12%) Scala
8 127 (7.47%) TypeScript
9 83 (4.89%) Java 11
10 56 (3.30%) Go
11 51 (3.00%) Kotlin
12 45 (2.65%) PowerShell
13 39 (2.30%) Bash Shell
14 36 (2.12%) C++
15 35 (2.06%) Shell Script
16 29 (1.71%) PHP
16 29 (1.71%) Ruby
17 20 (1.18%) ES6
18 19 (1.12%) C
19 13 (0.77%) R
Qualifications
1 156 (9.18%) Security Cleared
2 130 (7.65%) SC Cleared
3 66 (3.88%) Degree
4 26 (1.53%) BPSS Clearance
4 26 (1.53%) ISTQB
5 17 (1.00%) Computer Science Degree
5 17 (1.00%) ISEB
6 15 (0.88%) OCPJP
6 15 (0.88%) Sun Certification
7 13 (0.77%) DV Cleared
8 10 (0.59%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 8 (0.47%) Master's Degree
9 8 (0.47%) Numerate Degree
10 4 (0.24%) PMI Certification
10 4 (0.24%) PMP
11 3 (0.18%) AWS Certification
11 3 (0.18%) Microsoft Certification
12 2 (0.12%) CFA
12 2 (0.12%) ISEB Practitioner
12 2 (0.12%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 233 (13.71%) QA
2 64 (3.77%) Accessibility
3 11 (0.65%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.47%) WCAG
5 7 (0.41%) MiFID
6 6 (0.35%) ISO 20022
7 5 (0.29%) Disclosure Scotland
8 4 (0.24%) SEPA
9 2 (0.12%) GRC
9 2 (0.12%) PSD2
9 2 (0.12%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 2 (0.12%) TARGET2
10 1 (0.059%) GDPR
10 1 (0.059%) IFRS
10 1 (0.059%) PCI DSS
10 1 (0.059%) PMO
System Software
1 395 (23.25%) Docker
2 12 (0.71%) Active Directory
3 8 (0.47%) HDFS
4 5 (0.29%) NDS
4 5 (0.29%) NetIQ eDirectory
5 4 (0.24%) VirtualBox
5 4 (0.24%) VMware Infrastructure
6 3 (0.18%) Platform Symphony
6 3 (0.18%) Postfix
6 3 (0.18%) vSphere
7 2 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.059%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 311 (18.30%) Kubernetes
2 92 (5.41%) Terraform
3 61 (3.59%) Ansible
4 60 (3.53%) Grafana
5 48 (2.83%) Prometheus
6 20 (1.18%) Rancher
7 19 (1.12%) HP Quality Center
8 17 (1.00%) Puppet
8 17 (1.00%) ZABBIX
9 15 (0.88%) Kibana
10 13 (0.77%) Opscode Chef
11 11 (0.65%) Oozie
12 9 (0.53%) HP ALM
13 5 (0.29%) logstash
14 4 (0.24%) NetIQ Identity Manager
15 3 (0.18%) Hadoop YARN
16 2 (0.12%) ITRS Geneos
16 2 (0.12%) Mesos
16 2 (0.12%) MIIS
16 2 (0.12%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 103 (6.06%) Oracle
2 74 (4.36%) Microsoft
3 49 (2.88%) Google
4 40 (2.35%) Splunk
5 38 (2.24%) IBM
6 30 (1.77%) New Relic
7 28 (1.65%) Databricks
7 28 (1.65%) Xamarin
8 24 (1.41%) Salesforce.com
8 24 (1.41%) Sybase
9 22 (1.29%) HP
10 20 (1.18%) MuleSoft
11 17 (1.00%) Spiceworks
12 15 (0.88%) CA Agile Central
12 15 (0.88%) Sun
13 13 (0.77%) Atlassian
14 10 (0.59%) Cloudera
15 9 (0.53%) TIBCO
16 8 (0.47%) Adobe
16 8 (0.47%) Xerox