Period
to 19 August 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for BDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited BDD over the 6 months to 19 August 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD)
UK
6 months to
19 Aug 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 71 55 62
Rank change year-on-year -16 +7 +7
Contract jobs citing BDD 2,923 4,162 3,368
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.24% 4.07% 3.49%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.73% 4.69% 4.06%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,102 3,160 2,524
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £369 £350 £338
90th Percentile £650 £613 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £415
% change year-on-year - +8.43% -2.35%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 10 13
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £36.25 £47.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -3.45% -23.68% +5.56%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £41.25 £47.50
% change year-on-year -15.15% -13.16% +7.34%

BDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 78,416 88,759 83,040
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.98% 86.83% 86.08%
Number of daily rates quoted 51,530 58,525 54,369
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,293 2,395 2,099
UK median hourly rate £24.50 £21.00 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +16.67% -16.00% +6.38%
10th Percentile £11.80 £11.18 £11.37
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.00 £20.00 £25.00
% change year-on-year +20.00% -20.00% +4.17%

BDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing BDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing BDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 19 August 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for BDD in the UK

BDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing BDD over the 6 months to 19 August 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for BDD in the UK

BDD
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing BDD within the UK over the 6 months to 19 August 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -10 2,776 £500 - 713
London -16 1,660 £550 +7.32% 307
UK excluding London -15 1,236 £450 - 438
South East -14 374 £463 -2.63% 110
North of England -26 295 £435 +5.45% 148
Midlands -3 191 £450 - 55
East of England +38 149 £450 -10.00% 45
North West -14 145 £433 +1.88% 86
West Midlands -10 120 £475 +5.56% 24
Yorkshire -30 113 £463 +12.12% 53
South West -37 109 £450 +7.78% 49
Scotland +5 99 £438 +2.94% 17
East Midlands +11 52 £378 -5.74% 31
North East -28 36 £425 +9.32% 9
Wales -8 15 £428 -10.00% 14
Northern Ireland +4 7 £365 +26.96% 2

For the 6 months to 19 August 2019, IT contractor jobs citing BDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for BDD.

1 2,282 (78.07%) Agile Software Development
2 2,233 (76.39%) TDD
3 1,212 (41.46%) Java
4 1,032 (35.31%) JavaScript
5 978 (33.46%) Scrum
6 952 (32.57%) Test Automation
7 764 (26.14%) Microservices
8 739 (25.28%) Git (software)
9 689 (23.57%) Jenkins
10 684 (23.40%) Amazon AWS
11 678 (23.20%) C#
12 630 (21.55%) DevOps
13 579 (19.81%) Selenium
14 575 (19.67%) Continuous Integration
15 561 (19.19%) Microsoft Azure
16 548 (18.75%) .NET
17 545 (18.65%) HTML
18 535 (18.30%) SQL
19 519 (17.76%) CSS
20 511 (17.48%) Cucumber
21 500 (17.11%) Spring
22 490 (16.76%) JIRA
23 479 (16.39%) AngularJS
24 476 (16.28%) Kanban
25 471 (16.11%) Docker
26 454 (15.53%) Web Services
27 429 (14.68%) RESTful
28 427 (14.61%) Finance
29 417 (14.27%) REST
30 410 (14.03%) QA

BDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 270 (9.24%) Confluence
2 141 (4.82%) Elasticsearch
3 71 (2.43%) Apache Spark
4 63 (2.16%) Apache
5 52 (1.78%) CMS
5 52 (1.78%) WebSphere
6 51 (1.74%) Tomcat
7 28 (0.96%) Apache Solr
8 27 (0.92%) SharePoint
8 27 (0.92%) Sitecore CMS
9 24 (0.82%) JBoss
10 20 (0.68%) Umbraco
11 16 (0.55%) Jetty
11 16 (0.55%) Magnolia
12 15 (0.51%) Oracle Workflow
13 14 (0.48%) Mule
14 11 (0.38%) IIS
15 10 (0.34%) Documentum
15 10 (0.34%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 8 (0.27%) Drupal
Applications
1 18 (0.62%) MS Visio
2 15 (0.51%) Microsoft Excel
3 8 (0.27%) Chatbot
3 8 (0.27%) Microsoft Office
4 6 (0.21%) InVision
4 6 (0.21%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 4 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
6 3 (0.10%) Adobe XD
7 2 (0.068%) Photoshop
7 2 (0.068%) Sketch
8 1 (0.034%) Adobe Illustrator
8 1 (0.034%) GIMP
8 1 (0.034%) OmniGraffle
8 1 (0.034%) SPSS
8 1 (0.034%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 32 (1.09%) Magento
2 9 (0.31%) Remedy ITSM
3 8 (0.27%) BusinessWorks
3 8 (0.27%) Dynamics CRM
4 5 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.14%) Dynamics AX
5 4 (0.14%) NetSuite
5 4 (0.14%) SAP FI
5 4 (0.14%) Summit
6 2 (0.068%) Distributed Ledger
6 2 (0.068%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.034%) Cognos Business Intelligence
7 1 (0.034%) Fredhopper
7 1 (0.034%) Oracle BPM
7 1 (0.034%) Payment Gateway
7 1 (0.034%) Shopify
7 1 (0.034%) Sonata
Cloud Services
1 684 (23.40%) Amazon AWS
2 561 (19.19%) Microsoft Azure
3 148 (5.06%) GitHub
4 107 (3.66%) Amazon EC2
5 99 (3.39%) Serverless
6 72 (2.46%) Amazon SQS
7 65 (2.22%) AWS Lambda
7 65 (2.22%) Google Cloud Platform
8 56 (1.92%) PaaS
9 41 (1.40%) Amazon S3
10 36 (1.23%) Amazon ECS
10 36 (1.23%) BrowserStack
11 35 (1.20%) SaaS
12 34 (1.16%) npm
13 32 (1.09%) OpenShift
14 30 (1.03%) Sauce Labs
15 29 (0.99%) Azure Active Directory
16 28 (0.96%) AWS CloudFormation
17 22 (0.75%) IaaS
18 21 (0.72%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 83 (2.84%) HTTP
2 34 (1.16%) Internet
3 25 (0.86%) DNS
4 17 (0.58%) FTP
5 12 (0.41%) Kerberos
6 10 (0.34%) SSL
6 10 (0.34%) TCP/IP
7 7 (0.24%) AMQP
7 7 (0.24%) LAN
7 7 (0.24%) WAN
8 6 (0.21%) Firewall
8 6 (0.21%) SSH
9 5 (0.17%) Reverse Proxy
9 5 (0.17%) Wireshark
10 2 (0.068%) HTTPS
10 2 (0.068%) Intranet
10 2 (0.068%) MQTT
10 2 (0.068%) tcpdump
11 1 (0.034%) ATM
11 1 (0.034%) PBX
Database & Business Intelligence
1 288 (9.85%) SQL Server
2 238 (8.14%) MongoDB
3 204 (6.98%) NoSQL
4 191 (6.53%) PostgreSQL
5 177 (6.06%) MySQL
6 106 (3.63%) Big Data
7 102 (3.49%) Relational Database
8 86 (2.94%) Hadoop
9 52 (1.78%) Redis
10 51 (1.74%) Oracle Database
11 50 (1.71%) Amazon RDS
12 48 (1.64%) HBase
13 46 (1.57%) Cosmos DB
14 41 (1.40%) Apache Cassandra
15 39 (1.33%) Azure SQL Database
16 35 (1.20%) Data Warehouse
17 33 (1.13%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 33 (1.13%) RDBMS
18 24 (0.82%) DB2
19 21 (0.72%) SQL Server 2012
Development Applications
1 739 (25.28%) Git (software)
2 689 (23.57%) Jenkins
3 579 (19.81%) Selenium
4 511 (17.48%) Cucumber
5 490 (16.76%) JIRA
6 254 (8.69%) Maven
7 214 (7.32%) JUnit
8 190 (6.50%) Mockito
9 187 (6.40%) WebDriver
10 182 (6.23%) SpecFlow
11 166 (5.68%) JMeter
12 143 (4.89%) TeamCity
13 129 (4.41%) Jasmine
14 109 (3.73%) Visual Studio Team System
15 108 (3.69%) SoapUI
15 108 (3.69%) SonarQube
16 97 (3.32%) Karma Test Runner
17 92 (3.15%) Gradle
18 79 (2.70%) Visual Studio
18 79 (2.70%) webpack
General
1 427 (14.61%) Finance
2 240 (8.21%) Banking
3 197 (6.74%) Public Sector
4 119 (4.07%) Retail
5 69 (2.36%) Front Office
6 65 (2.22%) Marketing
7 63 (2.16%) Games
8 44 (1.51%) Financial Institution
9 39 (1.33%) Investment Banking
10 38 (1.30%) Legal
11 35 (1.20%) Telecoms
12 29 (0.99%) Law
13 17 (0.58%) Advertising
13 17 (0.58%) Manufacturing
13 17 (0.58%) Military
14 15 (0.51%) Pharmaceutical
15 14 (0.48%) Retail Banking
16 13 (0.44%) Publishing
17 12 (0.41%) Back Office
18 8 (0.27%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 1,797 (61.48%) Developer
2 588 (20.12%) Java Developer
3 285 (9.75%) Senior Developer
4 257 (8.79%) .NET Developer
5 256 (8.76%) Analyst
6 226 (7.73%) React Developer
7 221 (7.56%) Full Stack Developer
8 183 (6.26%) C# Developer
9 182 (6.23%) Tester
10 153 (5.23%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 136 (4.65%) Automation Tester
12 128 (4.38%) Test Engineer
13 127 (4.34%) Python Developer
14 123 (4.21%) JavaScript Developer
15 116 (3.97%) Senior Java Developer
16 112 (3.83%) Angular Developer
16 112 (3.83%) Test Analyst
17 109 (3.73%) Business Analyst
18 103 (3.52%) C# .NET Developer
19 98 (3.35%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 548 (18.75%) .NET
2 545 (18.65%) HTML
3 519 (17.76%) CSS
4 500 (17.11%) Spring
5 479 (16.39%) AngularJS
6 454 (15.53%) Web Services
7 429 (14.68%) RESTful
8 417 (14.27%) REST
9 384 (13.14%) React
10 331 (11.32%) Node.js
11 294 (10.06%) SOAP
12 277 (9.48%) Spring Boot
13 262 (8.96%) ASP.NET
14 226 (7.73%) HTML5
15 220 (7.53%) Gherkin
16 207 (7.08%) JSON
17 204 (6.98%) Redux
18 187 (6.40%) Kafka
19 181 (6.19%) .NET Core
20 177 (6.06%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 233 (7.97%) Greenfield Project
2 181 (6.19%) User Experience
3 170 (5.82%) Analytical Skills
4 87 (2.98%) Enterprise Software
5 81 (2.77%) Mobile App
6 57 (1.95%) Algorithms
7 44 (1.51%) Virtual Team
8 37 (1.27%) Public Cloud
9 35 (1.20%) Linux Command Line
10 31 (1.06%) Self-Motivation
11 27 (0.92%) Data Structures
12 26 (0.89%) Cloud Native
12 26 (0.89%) Hedge funds
13 25 (0.86%) NHS
14 24 (0.82%) Derivative
15 23 (0.79%) Vector Graphics
15 23 (0.79%) W3C
16 20 (0.68%) Management Information System
17 18 (0.62%) Blog
18 15 (0.51%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 355 (12.15%) Linux
2 233 (7.97%) Unix
3 92 (3.15%) Mac OS X
4 70 (2.39%) Android
5 68 (2.33%) Windows
6 67 (2.29%) Apple iOS
7 47 (1.61%) CentOS
8 22 (0.75%) VMS
9 19 (0.65%) Ubuntu
10 18 (0.62%) Mac OS
11 16 (0.55%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 2 (0.068%) Windows Server
13 1 (0.034%) Embedded Linux
13 1 (0.034%) MVS
13 1 (0.034%) Solaris
13 1 (0.034%) Windows 10
13 1 (0.034%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,282 (78.07%) Agile Software Development
2 2,233 (76.39%) TDD
3 978 (33.46%) Scrum
4 952 (32.57%) Test Automation
5 764 (26.14%) Microservices
6 630 (21.55%) DevOps
7 575 (19.67%) Continuous Integration
8 476 (16.28%) Kanban
9 340 (11.63%) MVC
10 330 (11.29%) Software Engineering
11 314 (10.74%) Pair Programming
12 291 (9.96%) E-Commerce
13 256 (8.76%) User Stories
14 251 (8.59%) Front End Development
15 215 (7.36%) Problem-Solving
16 208 (7.12%) Continuous Deployment
16 208 (7.12%) OO
17 204 (6.98%) SDLC
18 199 (6.81%) Unit Testing
19 198 (6.77%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 1,212 (41.46%) Java
2 1,032 (35.31%) JavaScript
3 678 (23.20%) C#
4 535 (18.30%) SQL
5 374 (12.80%) Python
6 361 (12.35%) Java 8
7 203 (6.94%) TypeScript
8 170 (5.82%) Scala
9 118 (4.04%) ES6
10 90 (3.08%) Ruby
11 74 (2.53%) PHP
12 51 (1.74%) PowerShell
13 47 (1.61%) Shell Script
13 47 (1.61%) T-SQL
14 40 (1.37%) Bash Shell
14 40 (1.37%) C++
15 38 (1.30%) Groovy
16 35 (1.20%) Kotlin
17 32 (1.09%) PL/SQL
18 30 (1.03%) C
Qualifications
1 261 (8.93%) Security Cleared
2 212 (7.25%) SC Cleared
3 144 (4.93%) Degree
4 71 (2.43%) ISTQB
5 63 (2.16%) ISEB
6 39 (1.33%) Computer Science Degree
7 37 (1.27%) DV Cleared
8 35 (1.20%) BPSS Clearance
9 25 (0.86%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 18 (0.62%) Sun Certification
11 17 (0.58%) OCPJP
12 8 (0.27%) DBS Check
13 6 (0.21%) CTC Cleared
14 5 (0.17%) IIBA
15 4 (0.14%) BC Cleared
15 4 (0.14%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
16 3 (0.10%) AWS Certification
16 3 (0.10%) ISEB Practitioner
17 2 (0.068%) CISA
17 2 (0.068%) CRISC
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 410 (14.03%) QA
2 11 (0.38%) Data Quality
2 11 (0.38%) GDPR
3 8 (0.27%) Disclosure Scotland
4 6 (0.21%) WCAG
5 3 (0.10%) PCI DSS
5 3 (0.10%) PMO
5 3 (0.10%) SEPA
6 2 (0.068%) COBIT
6 2 (0.068%) HL7
6 2 (0.068%) PSD2
7 1 (0.034%) GAMP
7 1 (0.034%) GxP
7 1 (0.034%) WAI
System Software
1 471 (16.11%) Docker
2 37 (1.27%) Active Directory
3 34 (1.16%) vSphere
4 33 (1.13%) VMware Infrastructure
5 24 (0.82%) Postfix
6 16 (0.55%) HDFS
7 10 (0.34%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 7 (0.24%) Apache Flume
9 6 (0.21%) NDS
9 6 (0.21%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 5 (0.17%) Virtual Servers
11 4 (0.14%) Varnish
12 3 (0.10%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
12 3 (0.10%) Microsoft App-V
13 2 (0.068%) Virtual Machines
13 2 (0.068%) VirtualBox
13 2 (0.068%) VMware ESXi
14 1 (0.034%) Time Sharing Option
14 1 (0.034%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 278 (9.51%) Kubernetes
2 138 (4.72%) Ansible
3 97 (3.32%) Terraform
4 43 (1.47%) Puppet
5 29 (0.99%) Opscode Chef
6 24 (0.82%) Control-M
6 24 (0.82%) Kibana
7 23 (0.79%) HP Quality Center
8 20 (0.68%) Hadoop YARN
9 18 (0.62%) logstash
10 16 (0.55%) Marathon
10 16 (0.55%) Mesos
11 15 (0.51%) NetIQ Identity Manager
12 13 (0.44%) Docker Swarm
13 11 (0.38%) Cobbler
14 6 (0.21%) Tivoli
14 6 (0.21%) Tivoli Identity Manager
15 5 (0.17%) ITRS Geneos
16 4 (0.14%) Graphite
16 4 (0.14%) StatsD
Vendors
1 189 (6.47%) Oracle
2 124 (4.24%) Microsoft
3 84 (2.87%) Google
4 60 (2.05%) Red Hat
5 50 (1.71%) IBM
6 38 (1.30%) Atlassian
7 37 (1.27%) Xamarin
8 36 (1.23%) VMware
9 32 (1.09%) Salesforce.com
10 31 (1.06%) SAP
11 30 (1.03%) Cadence
12 28 (0.96%) Cypress Semiconductor
13 27 (0.92%) hybris
13 27 (0.92%) Sitecore
14 25 (0.86%) Splunk
15 23 (0.79%) MuleSoft
16 22 (0.75%) New Relic
17 21 (0.72%) Pega
18 19 (0.65%) BMC
19 18 (0.62%) HP