Period
to 12 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 12 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK > England
6 months to
12 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 27 18 14
Rank change year-on-year -9 -4 +14
Contract jobs citing TDD 4,619 7,638 7,372
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 6.03% 8.12% 7.91%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 6.98% 9.35% 9.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,621 5,973 5,768
England median daily rate £525 £505 £494
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.96% +2.18% +9.83%
10th Percentile £400 £381 £350
90th Percentile £700 £644 £625
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £488
% change year-on-year +5.00% +2.56% +8.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 6 26 55
England median hourly rate £56.09 £43.75 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +28.21% -2.78% +12.50%
10th Percentile £39.05 £21.38 £36.55
90th Percentile £96.88 £65.63 £63.75
UK median hourly rate £45.43 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +6.88% -5.56% +9.09%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 66,204 81,720 80,450
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 86.41% 86.92% 86.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 43,907 54,723 53,972
England median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £281
90th Percentile £650 £644 £638
UK median daily rate £475 £460 £450
% change year-on-year +3.26% +2.22% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,020 2,105 1,911
England median hourly rate £24.00 £21.90 £23.14
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +9.59% -5.36% +2.84%
10th Percentile £11.85 £11.41 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.75 £51.00 £49.50
UK median hourly rate £23.75 £22.00 £23.08
% change year-on-year +7.95% -4.66% +2.56%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 12 November 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 12 November 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the England region over the 6 months to 12 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -4 3,025 £550 +4.76% 790
South East -18 528 £450 -7.02% 243
North of England -25 440 £450 +5.88% 353
Midlands -9 237 £450 - 152
North West -12 225 £450 +2.62% 197
East of England -18 195 £450 -14.29% 103
South West -29 188 £460 +8.24% 99
Yorkshire -26 169 £476 +12.06% 111
West Midlands -16 148 £475 +5.56% 92
East Midlands -10 81 £425 +0.71% 60
North East -20 45 £426 +7.17% 45
TDD
UK

For the 6 months to 12 November 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for TDD.

1 3,380 (73.18%) Agile Software Development
2 1,752 (37.93%) BDD
3 1,728 (37.41%) Java
4 1,693 (36.65%) JavaScript
5 1,246 (26.98%) C#
6 1,182 (25.59%) Scrum
7 1,108 (23.99%) .NET
8 1,092 (23.64%) Continuous Integration
9 1,089 (23.58%) Microservices
10 970 (21.00%) HTML
11 960 (20.78%) Git (software)
12 959 (20.76%) AngularJS
13 937 (20.29%) React
14 925 (20.03%) CSS
15 901 (19.51%) DevOps
16 892 (19.31%) AWS
17 886 (19.18%) Test Automation
18 847 (18.34%) Azure
19 837 (18.12%) SQL
20 798 (17.28%) Finance
21 722 (15.63%) Spring
22 709 (15.35%) Node.js
23 700 (15.15%) Jenkins
24 677 (14.66%) Docker
25 671 (14.53%) RESTful
26 667 (14.44%) Python
27 585 (12.67%) REST
28 564 (12.21%) SQL Server
29 550 (11.91%) Web Services
30 520 (11.26%) Software Engineering

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 193 (4.18%) Elasticsearch
2 189 (4.09%) Confluence
3 107 (2.32%) Apache Spark
4 106 (2.29%) Apache
5 74 (1.60%) CMS
6 60 (1.30%) Tomcat
7 51 (1.10%) JBoss
8 42 (0.91%) SharePoint
9 34 (0.74%) WebSphere
10 30 (0.65%) Cloud Foundry
11 29 (0.63%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 27 (0.58%) Sitecore CMS
13 25 (0.54%) Apache Solr
14 24 (0.52%) Jetty
15 22 (0.48%) IIS
16 18 (0.39%) Mule
16 18 (0.39%) Umbraco
17 16 (0.35%) OpenStack
18 15 (0.32%) WebLogic
19 11 (0.24%) Oracle Service Bus
Applications
1 22 (0.48%) Microsoft Excel
2 11 (0.24%) Photoshop
3 8 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
4 7 (0.15%) Chatbot
5 6 (0.13%) Adobe Illustrator
6 5 (0.11%) Zeplin
7 4 (0.087%) InVision
8 3 (0.065%) Adobe XD
8 3 (0.065%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.065%) Microsoft Project
8 3 (0.065%) Sketch
9 2 (0.043%) MS Visio
10 1 (0.022%) Adobe Premiere
10 1 (0.022%) OmniGraffle
10 1 (0.022%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 29 (0.63%) Dynamics CRM
2 27 (0.58%) Magento
3 13 (0.28%) Remedy ITSM
4 8 (0.17%) BusinessWorks
5 6 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
6 5 (0.11%) R3 Corda
6 5 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
7 4 (0.087%) Dynamics AX
7 4 (0.087%) FINCAD Analytics
8 3 (0.065%) Shopify
9 2 (0.043%) Distributed Ledger
9 2 (0.043%) Oracle Cash Management
9 2 (0.043%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 2 (0.043%) SAP ERP
9 2 (0.043%) SAP FI
10 1 (0.022%) Actimize
10 1 (0.022%) NetSuite
10 1 (0.022%) Oracle Financials
10 1 (0.022%) PeopleSoft Financials
10 1 (0.022%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 892 (19.31%) AWS
2 847 (18.34%) Azure
3 225 (4.87%) Serverless
4 179 (3.88%) GitHub
5 165 (3.57%) GCP
6 134 (2.90%) Amazon EC2
7 115 (2.49%) AWS Lambda
8 88 (1.91%) Amazon SQS
8 88 (1.91%) Power Platform
9 62 (1.34%) PaaS
10 55 (1.19%) Amazon S3
10 55 (1.19%) npm
11 51 (1.10%) OpenShift
12 50 (1.08%) Azure Functions
13 43 (0.93%) Cloud Computing
14 36 (0.78%) Amazon ECS
15 35 (0.76%) AWS CloudFormation
16 34 (0.74%) SaaS
17 30 (0.65%) Azure Active Directory
18 29 (0.63%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 114 (2.47%) HTTP
2 59 (1.28%) Internet
3 38 (0.82%) DNS
3 38 (0.82%) TCP/IP
4 29 (0.63%) AMQP
5 20 (0.43%) SSL
6 16 (0.35%) FTP
7 14 (0.30%) Firewall
8 12 (0.26%) SSH
9 11 (0.24%) HTTPS
10 9 (0.19%) Multicast
11 8 (0.17%) DSL
12 7 (0.15%) Wi-Fi
13 4 (0.087%) Kerberos
13 4 (0.087%) MPLS
13 4 (0.087%) OpenLDAP
13 4 (0.087%) Wireless
14 3 (0.065%) Network Security
14 3 (0.065%) SMTP
14 3 (0.065%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 564 (12.21%) SQL Server
2 360 (7.79%) NoSQL
3 291 (6.30%) MongoDB
4 266 (5.76%) PostgreSQL
5 253 (5.48%) MySQL
6 222 (4.81%) Relational Database
7 143 (3.10%) Big Data
8 114 (2.47%) Hadoop
9 94 (2.04%) Redis
10 88 (1.91%) Data Warehouse
10 88 (1.91%) Power BI
11 85 (1.84%) Cosmos DB
12 83 (1.80%) Azure SQL Database
13 79 (1.71%) Apache Cassandra
14 77 (1.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 73 (1.58%) Amazon RDS
16 56 (1.21%) SQL Server Analysis Services
17 54 (1.17%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 49 (1.06%) Oracle Database
19 45 (0.97%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 960 (20.78%) Git (software)
2 700 (15.15%) Jenkins
3 367 (7.95%) JIRA
4 349 (7.56%) Selenium
5 282 (6.11%) JUnit
6 264 (5.72%) Maven
7 258 (5.59%) Cucumber
8 208 (4.50%) TeamCity
9 179 (3.88%) Mockito
10 128 (2.77%) Team Foundation Server
10 128 (2.77%) webpack
11 111 (2.40%) Visual Studio
12 105 (2.27%) Gradle
12 105 (2.27%) SonarQube
13 101 (2.19%) Octopus Deploy
14 100 (2.16%) Jasmine
15 94 (2.04%) WebDriver
16 93 (2.01%) NUnit
17 91 (1.97%) gulp
18 83 (1.80%) Bitbucket
General
1 798 (17.28%) Finance
2 457 (9.89%) Banking
3 216 (4.68%) Front Office
4 157 (3.40%) Public Sector
5 148 (3.20%) Investment Banking
6 141 (3.05%) Retail
7 110 (2.38%) Marketing
8 84 (1.82%) Games
9 65 (1.41%) Telecoms
10 48 (1.04%) Law
11 42 (0.91%) Publishing
12 37 (0.80%) Military
13 32 (0.69%) Manufacturing
14 29 (0.63%) Advertising
15 28 (0.61%) Electronics
16 27 (0.58%) Financial Institution
17 26 (0.56%) Retail Banking
18 19 (0.41%) Legal
19 11 (0.24%) Automotive
20 10 (0.22%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 3,458 (74.86%) Developer
2 947 (20.50%) Java Developer
3 553 (11.97%) .NET Developer
4 545 (11.80%) Senior Developer
5 480 (10.39%) React Developer
6 429 (9.29%) C# Developer
7 399 (8.64%) Full Stack Developer
8 279 (6.04%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 273 (5.91%) JavaScript Developer
10 236 (5.11%) Python Developer
11 201 (4.35%) Senior Java Developer
12 200 (4.33%) C# .NET Developer
13 190 (4.11%) Angular Developer
14 160 (3.46%) Software Engineer
15 154 (3.33%) Architect
16 150 (3.25%) AWS Developer
17 148 (3.20%) Scala Developer
18 140 (3.03%) Agile Developer
19 132 (2.86%) Lead Developer
20 131 (2.84%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,108 (23.99%) .NET
2 970 (21.00%) HTML
3 959 (20.76%) AngularJS
4 937 (20.29%) React
5 925 (20.03%) CSS
6 722 (15.63%) Spring
7 709 (15.35%) Node.js
8 671 (14.53%) RESTful
9 585 (12.67%) REST
10 550 (11.91%) Web Services
11 433 (9.37%) ASP.NET
12 382 (8.27%) HTML5
13 380 (8.23%) Spring Boot
14 375 (8.12%) .NET Core
15 345 (7.47%) Redux
16 342 (7.40%) Kafka
17 308 (6.67%) ASP.NET Web API
18 284 (6.15%) .NET Framework
18 284 (6.15%) SOAP
19 265 (5.74%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 460 (9.96%) Greenfield Project
2 279 (6.04%) User Experience
3 199 (4.31%) Analytical Skills
4 145 (3.14%) Enterprise Software
5 137 (2.97%) Mobile App
6 118 (2.55%) Algorithms
7 103 (2.23%) Derivative
8 102 (2.21%) Equities
9 99 (2.14%) Hedge funds
10 88 (1.91%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 66 (1.43%) Data Structures
12 50 (1.08%) Linux Command Line
12 50 (1.08%) Self-Motivation
13 46 (1.00%) Fixed Income
14 40 (0.87%) Cloud Native
15 39 (0.84%) Equity Derivative
16 33 (0.71%) Video\Live Streaming
17 31 (0.67%) Management Information System
18 30 (0.65%) Public Cloud
18 30 (0.65%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 415 (8.98%) Linux
2 243 (5.26%) Unix
3 162 (3.51%) Apple iOS
4 159 (3.44%) Android
5 118 (2.55%) Windows
6 52 (1.13%) Mac OS X
7 32 (0.69%) Mac OS
8 27 (0.58%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 27 (0.58%) tvOS
9 22 (0.48%) CentOS
10 15 (0.32%) AIX
10 15 (0.32%) Ubuntu
11 7 (0.15%) Embedded Linux
12 4 (0.087%) Debian
13 3 (0.065%) Solaris
13 3 (0.065%) Windows Server
14 2 (0.043%) VMS
14 2 (0.043%) Windows 10
15 1 (0.022%) HPUX
15 1 (0.022%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,380 (73.18%) Agile Software Development
2 1,752 (37.93%) BDD
3 1,182 (25.59%) Scrum
4 1,092 (23.64%) Continuous Integration
5 1,089 (23.58%) Microservices
6 901 (19.51%) DevOps
7 886 (19.18%) Test Automation
8 520 (11.26%) Software Engineering
9 514 (11.13%) Kanban
10 510 (11.04%) OO
11 494 (10.69%) Pair Programming
12 485 (10.50%) MVC
13 468 (10.13%) Front End Development
14 436 (9.44%) Unit Testing
15 386 (8.36%) Continuous Delivery
16 380 (8.23%) SOLID
17 335 (7.25%) E-Commerce
18 288 (6.24%) Open Source
19 281 (6.08%) Problem-Solving
20 277 (6.00%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 1,728 (37.41%) Java
2 1,693 (36.65%) JavaScript
3 1,246 (26.98%) C#
4 837 (18.12%) SQL
5 667 (14.44%) Python
6 485 (10.50%) Java 8
7 312 (6.75%) TypeScript
8 291 (6.30%) Scala
9 264 (5.72%) Ruby
10 238 (5.15%) ES6
11 148 (3.20%) C++
12 144 (3.12%) Kotlin
13 135 (2.92%) PHP
14 125 (2.71%) C
15 96 (2.08%) PowerShell
16 93 (2.01%) Bash Shell
17 92 (1.99%) Go
18 89 (1.93%) T-SQL
19 85 (1.84%) Apple Swift
20 77 (1.67%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 303 (6.56%) Security Cleared
2 242 (5.24%) SC Cleared
3 191 (4.14%) Degree
4 60 (1.30%) Computer Science Degree
5 56 (1.21%) DV Cleared
6 52 (1.13%) BPSS Clearance
7 43 (0.93%) ISTQB
8 30 (0.65%) ISEB
9 22 (0.48%) DBS Check
9 22 (0.48%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 16 (0.35%) Master's Degree
11 14 (0.30%) CTC Cleared
12 12 (0.26%) AWS Certification
13 8 (0.17%) Sun Certification
14 7 (0.15%) OCPJP
15 6 (0.13%) IIBA
15 6 (0.13%) Microsoft Certification
16 4 (0.087%) CISA
16 4 (0.087%) CISM
16 4 (0.087%) CISSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 255 (5.52%) QA
2 23 (0.50%) WCAG
3 12 (0.26%) Data Quality
3 12 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
3 12 (0.26%) MiFID
4 11 (0.24%) PCI DSS
5 7 (0.15%) EMIR
6 6 (0.13%) GDPR
7 5 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 3 (0.065%) PMO
9 2 (0.043%) PSD2
10 1 (0.022%) Dodd-Frank
10 1 (0.022%) GAMP
10 1 (0.022%) GxP
10 1 (0.022%) HL7
System Software
1 677 (14.66%) Docker
2 54 (1.17%) Active Directory
3 38 (0.82%) VMware Infrastructure
4 34 (0.74%) Postfix
5 31 (0.67%) vSphere
6 20 (0.43%) Virtual Machines
7 18 (0.39%) HDFS
8 15 (0.32%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
9 9 (0.19%) NDS
10 7 (0.15%) NetIQ eDirectory
11 6 (0.13%) Varnish
12 5 (0.11%) Virtual Servers
13 4 (0.087%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 4 (0.087%) vCloud
14 3 (0.065%) Microsoft App-V
15 2 (0.043%) Apache Flume
15 2 (0.043%) Firmware
16 1 (0.022%) BusyBox
16 1 (0.022%) LXC
Systems Management
1 371 (8.03%) Kubernetes
2 156 (3.38%) Ansible
3 149 (3.23%) Terraform
4 59 (1.28%) Puppet
5 29 (0.63%) Opscode Chef
6 22 (0.48%) NetIQ Identity Manager
7 20 (0.43%) Grafana
7 20 (0.43%) Prometheus
8 19 (0.41%) Kibana
8 19 (0.41%) MIIS
9 17 (0.37%) Tivoli
10 16 (0.35%) Mesos
11 14 (0.30%) Docker Swarm
12 13 (0.28%) Control-M
12 13 (0.28%) ITRS Geneos
13 12 (0.26%) Hadoop YARN
13 12 (0.26%) logstash
14 11 (0.24%) HP Quality Center
14 11 (0.24%) ZABBIX
15 10 (0.22%) Nagios
Vendors
1 397 (8.59%) Microsoft
2 259 (5.61%) Oracle
3 178 (3.85%) Google
4 81 (1.75%) Atlassian
5 59 (1.28%) Apple
6 48 (1.04%) IBM
7 47 (1.02%) SAP
8 46 (1.00%) VMware
9 44 (0.95%) Tableau
10 41 (0.89%) Salesforce.com
11 40 (0.87%) Remedy
12 38 (0.82%) Splunk
13 31 (0.67%) MuleSoft
14 30 (0.65%) Sitecore
15 28 (0.61%) Red Hat
16 27 (0.58%) MicroStrategy
17 26 (0.56%) Cognos
17 26 (0.56%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 26 (0.56%) NetIQ
18 24 (0.52%) Adobe