Period
to 7 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 7 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK > England
6 months to
7 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 38 38 20
Rank change year-on-year 0 -18 -4
Contract jobs citing TDD 1,993 3,150 6,615
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 5.16% 5.28% 7.45%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.95% 6.18% 8.48%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,901 2,556 5,299
Median daily rate £525 £525 £525
10th Percentile £381 £400 £390
90th Percentile £650 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £525 £511
% change year-on-year - +2.74% +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 20 17 16
Median hourly rate £58.00 £61.50 £46.70
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -5.69% +31.69% +3.78%
10th Percentile £40.18 £44.77 £40.19
90th Percentile £68.04 £69.50 £62.85
UK median hourly rate £42.00 £59.75 £45.00
% change year-on-year -29.71% +32.78% -

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 33,518 50,949 77,973
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 86.86% 85.45% 87.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,909 34,523 53,178
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £300 £288 £300
90th Percentile £675 £656 £650
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £475
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,123 1,512 1,842
Median hourly rate £25.50 £21.05 £22.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +21.14% -4.32% -2.22%
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.25 £11.50
90th Percentile £58.71 £53.00 £50.00
Median hourly rate £26.58 £21.50 £22.37
% change year-on-year +23.63% -3.87% +1.66%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Daily rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 7 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 7 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the England region over the 6 months to 7 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 1,407 £550 - 516
North of England +14 213 £475 +2.70% 244
North West +9 102 £450 -2.70% 148
South East -34 90 £450 -1.10% 152
South West +18 87 £500 - 98
Yorkshire +5 68 £500 +2.56% 76
Midlands -12 65 £400 -14.67% 108
East of England +2 47 £500 +5.26% 55
North East +22 43 £475 +10.47% 20
West Midlands -26 32 £450 -5.26% 72
East Midlands +6 22 £351 -14.91% 35
TDD
UK

For the 6 months to 7 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,319 (66.18%) Agile Software Development
2 845 (42.40%) Java
3 777 (38.99%) BDD
4 591 (29.65%) JavaScript
5 528 (26.49%) Microservices
6 527 (26.44%) DevOps
7 471 (23.63%) AWS
8 464 (23.28%) Scrum
9 454 (22.78%) Azure
10 430 (21.58%) Test Automation
11 419 (21.02%) Git (software)
12 378 (18.97%) Software Engineering
13 362 (18.16%) Docker
14 358 (17.96%) .NET
15 357 (17.91%) React
16 349 (17.51%) Continuous Integration
17 348 (17.46%) Spring
18 344 (17.26%) C#
19 343 (17.21%) SQL
20 340 (17.06%) Finance
21 323 (16.21%) Python
22 320 (16.06%) Jenkins
23 298 (14.95%) Kubernetes
24 290 (14.55%) CSS
25 287 (14.40%) Node.js
26 283 (14.20%) AngularJS
26 283 (14.20%) HTML
27 268 (13.45%) REST
28 252 (12.64%) Banking
29 243 (12.19%) Pair Programming

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 102 (5.12%) Confluence
2 79 (3.96%) Apache Spark
3 47 (2.36%) Elasticsearch
4 39 (1.96%) Mule
5 35 (1.76%) Cloud Foundry
6 31 (1.56%) Apache
7 30 (1.51%) Red Hat Fuse
8 27 (1.35%) JBoss
9 25 (1.25%) SharePoint
10 24 (1.20%) NServiceBus
11 22 (1.10%) WebSphere
12 18 (0.90%) CMS
13 17 (0.85%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 14 (0.70%) Tomcat
15 13 (0.65%) Oracle Service Bus
16 11 (0.55%) Jetty
17 10 (0.50%) WebLogic
18 9 (0.45%) Apache Solr
19 8 (0.40%) Apache Airflow
19 8 (0.40%) nginx
Applications
1 6 (0.30%) Figma
2 4 (0.20%) Chatbot
3 3 (0.15%) Photoshop
3 3 (0.15%) Sketch
4 2 (0.10%) Microsoft Office
4 2 (0.10%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.050%) 3ds Max
5 1 (0.050%) Adobe Illustrator
5 1 (0.050%) Blender
5 1 (0.050%) InVision
5 1 (0.050%) Maya
5 1 (0.050%) Microsoft Excel
5 1 (0.050%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 8 (0.40%) Dynamics CRM
2 4 (0.20%) Shopify
3 3 (0.15%) Adobe Campaign
3 3 (0.15%) Magento
4 2 (0.10%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.10%) SAP Hybris
4 2 (0.10%) SAP S/4HANA
5 1 (0.050%) Dynamics AX
5 1 (0.050%) Dynamics NAV
5 1 (0.050%) Exstream
5 1 (0.050%) NetSuite
5 1 (0.050%) RMDS
5 1 (0.050%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.050%) thinkFolio
5 1 (0.050%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 471 (23.63%) AWS
2 454 (22.78%) Azure
3 117 (5.87%) Serverless
4 108 (5.42%) GCP
5 95 (4.77%) GitHub
6 54 (2.71%) AWS Lambda
7 51 (2.56%) PaaS
8 46 (2.31%) Power Platform
9 40 (2.01%) IaaS
10 35 (1.76%) Cloud Computing
11 32 (1.61%) OpenShift
12 29 (1.46%) SaaS
13 28 (1.40%) Azure Functions
14 27 (1.35%) Logic Apps
15 26 (1.30%) AWS CloudFormation
15 26 (1.30%) Azure Active Directory
16 24 (1.20%) Amazon S3
17 19 (0.95%) PowerApps
18 18 (0.90%) Amazon ElastiCache
19 16 (0.80%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 45 (2.26%) HTTP
2 24 (1.20%) TCP/IP
3 19 (0.95%) Wi-Fi
4 16 (0.80%) Internet
5 14 (0.70%) UPnP
6 12 (0.60%) DECT
6 12 (0.60%) DNS
6 12 (0.60%) IPv6
7 11 (0.55%) IPv4
7 11 (0.55%) LAN
8 10 (0.50%) ATM
8 10 (0.50%) Multicast
8 10 (0.50%) PPP
9 9 (0.45%) WAN
10 8 (0.40%) SSL
11 7 (0.35%) Broadband
12 5 (0.25%) DHCP
12 5 (0.25%) VLAN
13 4 (0.20%) HTTPS
13 4 (0.20%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 172 (8.63%) SQL Server
2 158 (7.93%) NoSQL
3 124 (6.22%) MongoDB
4 93 (4.67%) MySQL
4 93 (4.67%) Relational Database
5 88 (4.42%) PostgreSQL
6 67 (3.36%) Hadoop
7 61 (3.06%) Big Data
8 42 (2.11%) Data Warehouse
9 32 (1.61%) Redis
10 31 (1.56%) Azure SQL Database
11 26 (1.30%) Power BI
12 24 (1.20%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 24 (1.20%) Amazon RDS
12 24 (1.20%) Cosmos DB
13 22 (1.10%) Apache Cassandra
13 22 (1.10%) RDBMS
14 21 (1.05%) BigQuery
15 19 (0.95%) Hazelcast
16 18 (0.90%) HBase
Development Applications
1 419 (21.02%) Git (software)
2 320 (16.06%) Jenkins
3 222 (11.14%) JIRA
4 156 (7.83%) Selenium
5 140 (7.02%) Maven
6 118 (5.92%) Cucumber
7 116 (5.82%) JUnit
8 84 (4.21%) GitLab
9 64 (3.21%) Mockito
10 61 (3.06%) Gradle
11 58 (2.91%) webpack
12 57 (2.86%) Subversion
13 52 (2.61%) Jasmine
14 41 (2.06%) Octopus Deploy
15 40 (2.01%) TeamCity
16 39 (1.96%) Cypress.io
17 38 (1.91%) Mocha
18 32 (1.61%) Postman
18 32 (1.61%) SpecFlow
19 31 (1.56%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 340 (17.06%) Finance
2 252 (12.64%) Banking
3 143 (7.18%) Front Office
3 143 (7.18%) Public Sector
4 102 (5.12%) Investment Banking
5 47 (2.36%) Marketing
6 44 (2.21%) Telecoms
7 40 (2.01%) Retail
8 39 (1.96%) Manufacturing
9 36 (1.81%) Electronics
10 25 (1.25%) Games
11 18 (0.90%) Law
12 15 (0.75%) Automotive
13 14 (0.70%) Financial Institution
14 9 (0.45%) Retail Banking
15 7 (0.35%) Publishing
16 5 (0.25%) Advertising
17 3 (0.15%) Legal
17 3 (0.15%) Pharmaceutical
18 2 (0.10%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 1,373 (68.89%) Developer
2 443 (22.23%) Java Developer
3 259 (13.00%) Senior Developer
4 150 (7.53%) React Developer
5 132 (6.62%) .NET Developer
6 108 (5.42%) Full Stack Developer
7 107 (5.37%) Software Engineer
8 104 (5.22%) C# Developer
9 103 (5.17%) Senior Java Developer
10 94 (4.72%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 90 (4.52%) Python Developer
12 84 (4.21%) Scala Developer
13 77 (3.86%) Java Engineer
14 73 (3.66%) AWS Developer
15 72 (3.61%) JavaScript Developer
16 62 (3.11%) DevOps Engineer
17 58 (2.91%) Software Developer
18 54 (2.71%) AWS Engineer
19 50 (2.51%) Architect
20 47 (2.36%) Backend Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 358 (17.96%) .NET
2 357 (17.91%) React
3 348 (17.46%) Spring
4 290 (14.55%) CSS
5 287 (14.40%) Node.js
6 283 (14.20%) AngularJS
6 283 (14.20%) HTML
7 268 (13.45%) REST
8 227 (11.39%) RESTful
9 198 (9.93%) Web Services
10 183 (9.18%) Spring Boot
11 165 (8.28%) HTML5
12 156 (7.83%) Redux
13 144 (7.23%) Kafka
14 137 (6.87%) .NET Core
15 125 (6.27%) JSON
16 119 (5.97%) XML
17 101 (5.07%) ASP.NET
18 96 (4.82%) CSS3
19 95 (4.77%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 163 (8.18%) Greenfield Project
2 135 (6.77%) User Experience
3 73 (3.66%) Analytical Skills
4 57 (2.86%) Mobile App
5 55 (2.76%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 48 (2.41%) Self-Motivation
7 46 (2.31%) Data Structures
8 42 (2.11%) Algorithms
9 40 (2.01%) Fixed Income
10 39 (1.96%) Cloud Native
11 33 (1.66%) Enterprise Software
12 29 (1.46%) Derivative
13 26 (1.30%) Public Cloud
14 18 (0.90%) Equities
15 17 (0.85%) Embedded Systems
16 16 (0.80%) Credit Risk
16 16 (0.80%) Market Risk
17 14 (0.70%) Data Centre
18 13 (0.65%) NHS
19 11 (0.55%) Grid Computing
Operating Systems
1 217 (10.89%) Linux
2 122 (6.12%) Unix
3 98 (4.92%) Android
4 88 (4.42%) Apple iOS
5 54 (2.71%) Windows
6 27 (1.35%) Mac OS X
7 16 (0.80%) Mac OS
7 16 (0.80%) OpenWrt
8 14 (0.70%) Windows 10
9 8 (0.40%) Ubuntu
10 7 (0.35%) CentOS
10 7 (0.35%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 5 (0.25%) Embedded Linux
12 2 (0.10%) tvOS
12 2 (0.10%) Windows Server
13 1 (0.050%) Solaris
13 1 (0.050%) Tizen
13 1 (0.050%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,319 (66.18%) Agile Software Development
2 777 (38.99%) BDD
3 528 (26.49%) Microservices
4 527 (26.44%) DevOps
5 464 (23.28%) Scrum
6 430 (21.58%) Test Automation
7 378 (18.97%) Software Engineering
8 349 (17.51%) Continuous Integration
9 243 (12.19%) Pair Programming
10 183 (9.18%) Continuous Delivery
10 183 (9.18%) Problem-Solving
11 170 (8.53%) OO
12 168 (8.43%) Kanban
13 153 (7.68%) Unit Testing
14 137 (6.87%) Front End Development
15 127 (6.37%) Continuous Improvement
16 119 (5.97%) Mentoring
17 118 (5.92%) Open Source
18 116 (5.82%) OOP
19 110 (5.52%) MVC
Programming Languages
1 845 (42.40%) Java
2 591 (29.65%) JavaScript
3 344 (17.26%) C#
4 343 (17.21%) SQL
5 323 (16.21%) Python
6 181 (9.08%) TypeScript
7 178 (8.93%) Scala
8 177 (8.88%) Java 8
9 132 (6.62%) Kotlin
10 91 (4.57%) C++
11 77 (3.86%) Ruby
12 61 (3.06%) ES6
13 58 (2.91%) C
14 57 (2.86%) Go
15 53 (2.66%) Shell Script
16 52 (2.61%) PowerShell
17 43 (2.16%) Apple Swift
18 42 (2.11%) PHP
19 38 (1.91%) Bash Shell
19 38 (1.91%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 178 (8.93%) Security Cleared
2 145 (7.28%) SC Cleared
3 120 (6.02%) Degree
4 30 (1.51%) Numerate Degree
5 16 (0.80%) BPSS Clearance
6 14 (0.70%) DV Cleared
7 10 (0.50%) Computer Science Degree
8 6 (0.30%) AWS Certification
8 6 (0.30%) DBS Check
8 6 (0.30%) ISTQB
8 6 (0.30%) OCPJP
8 6 (0.30%) Sun Certification
9 5 (0.25%) ISEB
10 4 (0.20%) BC Cleared
10 4 (0.20%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 2 (0.10%) Master's Degree
11 2 (0.10%) PMI Certification
11 2 (0.10%) PMP
12 1 (0.050%) SAFe Agilist
12 1 (0.050%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 180 (9.03%) QA
2 21 (1.05%) WCAG
3 12 (0.60%) JTAG
4 5 (0.25%) GDPR
5 4 (0.20%) Data Quality
5 4 (0.20%) MiFID
6 3 (0.15%) PMO
7 1 (0.050%) Disclosure Scotland
System Software
1 362 (18.16%) Docker
2 32 (1.61%) Active Directory
3 14 (0.70%) HDFS
4 8 (0.40%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 4 (0.20%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.10%) KVM
6 2 (0.10%) Platform Symphony
6 2 (0.10%) Postfix
6 2 (0.10%) Varnish
6 2 (0.10%) VMware Infrastructure
7 1 (0.050%) Firmware
7 1 (0.050%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.050%) NDS
7 1 (0.050%) NetIQ eDirectory
7 1 (0.050%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 298 (14.95%) Kubernetes
2 146 (7.33%) Terraform
3 70 (3.51%) Ansible
4 28 (1.40%) Opscode Chef
5 16 (0.80%) Grafana
5 16 (0.80%) Prometheus
6 15 (0.75%) Puppet
7 8 (0.40%) Oozie
7 8 (0.40%) Rancher
8 5 (0.25%) Consul
8 5 (0.25%) Kibana
8 5 (0.25%) Rundeck
8 5 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
9 4 (0.20%) Docker Swarm
9 4 (0.20%) HP ALM
10 3 (0.15%) Hadoop YARN
10 3 (0.15%) HP Quality Center
10 3 (0.15%) MIIS
11 2 (0.10%) Ambari
12 1 (0.050%) Salt
Vendors
1 136 (6.82%) Microsoft
2 117 (5.87%) Oracle
3 67 (3.36%) Google
4 39 (1.96%) Atlassian
5 37 (1.86%) SAP
6 30 (1.51%) Splunk
7 20 (1.00%) Sybase
8 17 (0.85%) IBM
9 16 (0.80%) Dynatrace
9 16 (0.80%) WSO2
10 15 (0.75%) Xamarin
11 14 (0.70%) CA Agile Central
11 14 (0.70%) MuleSoft
12 13 (0.65%) AppDynamics
12 13 (0.65%) Apple
13 12 (0.60%) Adobe
14 11 (0.55%) CA
14 11 (0.55%) New Relic
15 10 (0.50%) Murex
15 10 (0.50%) Talend