Period
to 14 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 14 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK > England
6 months to
14 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 39 42 23
Rank change year-on-year +3 -19 -5
Contract jobs citing TDD 2,570 2,002 5,787
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 5.26% 5.15% 6.99%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.97% 5.98% 7.97%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,917 1,573 4,468
10th Percentile £406 £405 £400
25th Percentile £463 £463 £444
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £588
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £525 £525 £525
Number of hourly rates quoted 39 19 6
10th Percentile £45.00 £46.00 £24.68
25th Percentile £61.00 £55.25 £37.39
Median hourly rate £65.00 £61.50 £45.45
Median % change year-on-year +5.69% +35.31% +1.00%
75th Percentile £68.36 £64.50 £57.10
90th Percentile £73.44 £69.50 £61.60
UK median hourly rate £63.50 £61.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year +3.25% +44.71% -5.56%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 43,040 33,489 72,621
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 88.15% 86.21% 87.71%
Number of daily rates quoted 29,564 22,705 49,040
10th Percentile £313 £300 £306
25th Percentile £400 £400 £388
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +2.70%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,291 916 1,819
10th Percentile £11.75 £12.50 £11.85
25th Percentile £15.00 £15.85 £14.50
Median hourly rate £24.00 £22.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% -2.22% +7.14%
75th Percentile £46.50 £45.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £22.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +12.50%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Daily rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the England region over the 6 months to 14 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +2 1,826 £563 +2.27% 672
South East +21 173 £458 -1.08% 174
North of England 0 169 £465 -7.00% 248
South West -11 109 £500 -4.76% 73
North West +1 82 £450 -5.26% 180
Midlands -28 73 £450 +1.69% 103
East of England -28 65 £513 +4.06% 68
Yorkshire -15 52 £500 -4.76% 46
West Midlands -26 50 £459 -3.37% 75
North East +13 35 £475 +1.18% 22
East Midlands -10 16 £403 +26.57% 28
TDD
UK

For the 6 months to 14 June 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,814 (70.58%) Agile Software Development
2 986 (38.37%) Java
3 951 (37.00%) BDD
4 774 (30.12%) JavaScript
5 716 (27.86%) DevOps
6 694 (27.00%) Microservices
7 666 (25.91%) Azure
8 649 (25.25%) Scrum
9 599 (23.31%) AWS
10 595 (23.15%) Git (software)
11 552 (21.48%) Continuous Integration
12 527 (20.51%) Test Automation
12 527 (20.51%) Docker
13 521 (20.27%) Software Engineering
14 517 (20.12%) SQL
15 513 (19.96%) C#
16 507 (19.73%) .NET
17 497 (19.34%) Spring
18 475 (18.48%) Jenkins
19 423 (16.46%) Social Skills
20 410 (15.95%) React
21 389 (15.14%) Kubernetes
22 386 (15.02%) AngularJS
23 373 (14.51%) Pair Programming
24 369 (14.36%) Finance
25 361 (14.05%) Python
26 360 (14.01%) HTML
27 357 (13.89%) CSS
28 343 (13.35%) Node.js
29 335 (13.04%) RESTful

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 152 (5.91%) Confluence
2 84 (3.27%) Apache Spark
3 39 (1.52%) SharePoint
4 35 (1.36%) Apache
5 34 (1.32%) Cloud Foundry
6 31 (1.21%) Oracle Coherence
6 31 (1.21%) Tomcat
7 30 (1.17%) JBoss
7 30 (1.17%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 29 (1.13%) Elasticsearch
9 21 (0.82%) Mule
10 19 (0.74%) CMS
11 16 (0.62%) WebSphere
12 14 (0.54%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 14 (0.54%) Jetty
12 14 (0.54%) nginx
12 14 (0.54%) Red Hat Fuse
13 12 (0.47%) Apache Airflow
13 12 (0.47%) NServiceBus
14 10 (0.39%) IIS
Applications
1 10 (0.39%) Photoshop
2 9 (0.35%) Microsoft Excel
3 5 (0.19%) MS Visio
4 3 (0.12%) Figma
4 3 (0.12%) Microsoft Office
5 2 (0.078%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.078%) Sketch
5 2 (0.078%) Spreadsheet
6 1 (0.039%) S-PLUS
6 1 (0.039%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 7 (0.27%) Adobe Campaign
1 7 (0.27%) Dynamics CRM
2 3 (0.12%) SAP Hybris
2 3 (0.12%) SAP S/4HANA
3 2 (0.078%) Payment Gateway
3 2 (0.078%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 1 (0.039%) Dynamics AX
4 1 (0.039%) Dynamics NAV
4 1 (0.039%) Magento
4 1 (0.039%) NetSuite
4 1 (0.039%) Oracle BPM
4 1 (0.039%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
4 1 (0.039%) Primavera
4 1 (0.039%) SAP ERP
4 1 (0.039%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 1 (0.039%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 666 (25.91%) Azure
2 599 (23.31%) AWS
3 174 (6.77%) Serverless
4 157 (6.11%) GCP
5 107 (4.16%) GitHub
6 68 (2.65%) AWS Lambda
7 62 (2.41%) Power Platform
8 51 (1.98%) PaaS
9 45 (1.75%) Azure Active Directory
10 44 (1.71%) Azure Functions
10 44 (1.71%) Azure Service Bus
11 41 (1.60%) IaaS
12 37 (1.44%) SaaS
13 36 (1.40%) npm
14 35 (1.36%) OpenShift
15 30 (1.17%) AWS CloudFormation
16 27 (1.05%) Cloud Computing
17 25 (0.97%) Azure Logic Apps
18 24 (0.93%) Amazon S3
19 21 (0.82%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 25 (0.97%) HTTP
2 24 (0.93%) Internet
3 18 (0.70%) LAN
4 17 (0.66%) DNS
5 16 (0.62%) TCP/IP
6 14 (0.54%) Wi-Fi
7 12 (0.47%) Broadband
7 12 (0.47%) UPnP
8 10 (0.39%) ATM
8 10 (0.39%) DECT
9 9 (0.35%) IPv4
9 9 (0.35%) IPv6
10 8 (0.31%) Multicast
10 8 (0.31%) PPP
10 8 (0.31%) SSL
11 6 (0.23%) Kerberos
12 5 (0.19%) DMARC
12 5 (0.19%) RTMP
12 5 (0.19%) SMS
12 5 (0.19%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 187 (7.28%) NoSQL
2 182 (7.08%) SQL Server
3 116 (4.51%) MongoDB
4 112 (4.36%) Relational Database
5 91 (3.54%) PostgreSQL
6 79 (3.07%) MySQL
7 73 (2.84%) Hadoop
8 65 (2.53%) Big Data
9 45 (1.75%) Power BI
10 38 (1.48%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 38 (1.48%) Redis
11 37 (1.44%) Azure SQL Database
12 34 (1.32%) Data Warehouse
13 32 (1.25%) Apache Cassandra
14 31 (1.21%) BigQuery
15 30 (1.17%) Oracle Database
16 29 (1.13%) Tableau
17 26 (1.01%) Hazelcast
17 26 (1.01%) HBase
17 26 (1.01%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 595 (23.15%) Git (software)
2 475 (18.48%) Jenkins
3 303 (11.79%) JIRA
4 198 (7.70%) Cucumber
5 193 (7.51%) Maven
6 188 (7.32%) JUnit
7 159 (6.19%) Selenium
8 104 (4.05%) Mockito
9 101 (3.93%) TeamCity
10 93 (3.62%) Gradle
11 83 (3.23%) Subversion
12 77 (3.00%) Visual Studio
13 75 (2.92%) Octopus Deploy
14 69 (2.68%) GitLab
15 67 (2.61%) Jasmine
16 65 (2.53%) webpack
17 55 (2.14%) Cypress.io
18 54 (2.10%) Postman
19 48 (1.87%) Xcode
20 45 (1.75%) CircleCI
General
1 423 (16.46%) Social Skills
2 369 (14.36%) Finance
3 324 (12.61%) Banking
4 169 (6.58%) Front Office
5 131 (5.10%) Public Sector
6 126 (4.90%) Investment Banking
7 78 (3.04%) Retail
8 74 (2.88%) Analytical Skills
9 63 (2.45%) Manufacturing
10 55 (2.14%) Games
11 43 (1.67%) Marketing
12 35 (1.36%) Documentation Skills
12 35 (1.36%) Telecoms
13 31 (1.21%) Influencing Skills
14 25 (0.97%) Automotive
15 19 (0.74%) Law
16 16 (0.62%) Electronics
16 16 (0.62%) Retail Banking
17 14 (0.54%) Publishing
18 12 (0.47%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 1,830 (71.21%) Developer
2 506 (19.69%) Java Developer
3 278 (10.82%) Senior Developer
4 196 (7.63%) C# Developer
5 189 (7.35%) React Developer
6 188 (7.32%) .NET Developer
7 155 (6.03%) Full Stack Developer
8 138 (5.37%) Scala Developer
9 135 (5.25%) Software Engineer
10 111 (4.32%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 101 (3.93%) JavaScript Developer
12 83 (3.23%) Senior Java Developer
13 80 (3.11%) Java Engineer
14 79 (3.07%) AWS Developer
15 78 (3.04%) C# .NET Developer
16 73 (2.84%) Python Developer
17 68 (2.65%) Software Developer
18 66 (2.57%) Agile Developer
19 59 (2.30%) Backend Developer
20 56 (2.18%) Android Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 507 (19.73%) .NET
2 497 (19.34%) Spring
3 410 (15.95%) React
4 386 (15.02%) AngularJS
5 360 (14.01%) HTML
6 357 (13.89%) CSS
7 343 (13.35%) Node.js
8 335 (13.04%) RESTful
9 312 (12.14%) REST
10 248 (9.65%) Spring Boot
11 213 (8.29%) Web Services
12 212 (8.25%) .NET Core
13 195 (7.59%) Kafka
14 191 (7.43%) HTML5
15 187 (7.28%) Redux
16 156 (6.07%) GraphQL
17 124 (4.82%) JSON
18 119 (4.63%) XML
19 114 (4.44%) ASP.NET
20 106 (4.12%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 213 (8.29%) Greenfield Project
2 142 (5.53%) User Experience
3 83 (3.23%) Fixed Income
4 82 (3.19%) Mobile App
5 79 (3.07%) Self-Motivation
6 73 (2.84%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 64 (2.49%) Algorithms
8 60 (2.33%) Data Structures
9 58 (2.26%) Derivative
10 57 (2.22%) Cloud Native
11 53 (2.06%) Enterprise Software
12 30 (1.17%) Public Cloud
13 25 (0.97%) Client/Server
13 25 (0.97%) Interest Rate Derivative
14 22 (0.86%) Credit Risk
14 22 (0.86%) Data Protection Act
15 21 (0.82%) CMDB
16 19 (0.74%) Management Information System
17 18 (0.70%) Animation
17 18 (0.70%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 239 (9.30%) Linux
2 130 (5.06%) Unix
3 117 (4.55%) Android
4 113 (4.40%) Apple iOS
5 76 (2.96%) Windows
6 16 (0.62%) Mac OS
7 15 (0.58%) Mac OS X
8 14 (0.54%) Windows 10
9 13 (0.51%) OpenWrt
10 10 (0.39%) Windows Server 2016
11 8 (0.31%) Windows Server
12 5 (0.19%) Embedded Linux
12 5 (0.19%) Ubuntu
13 4 (0.16%) CentOS
13 4 (0.16%) Debian
13 4 (0.16%) VMS
14 3 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 2 (0.078%) tvOS
15 2 (0.078%) Windows Server 2019
16 1 (0.039%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,814 (70.58%) Agile Software Development
2 951 (37.00%) BDD
3 716 (27.86%) DevOps
4 694 (27.00%) Microservices
5 649 (25.25%) Scrum
6 552 (21.48%) Continuous Integration
7 527 (20.51%) Test Automation
8 521 (20.27%) Software Engineering
9 373 (14.51%) Pair Programming
10 282 (10.97%) Unit Testing
11 257 (10.00%) Problem-Solving
12 234 (9.11%) MVC
13 225 (8.75%) Continuous Delivery
13 225 (8.75%) Kanban
14 211 (8.21%) Continuous Improvement
15 193 (7.51%) OO
16 180 (7.00%) Mentoring
17 160 (6.23%) Front End Development
18 156 (6.07%) SDLC
19 150 (5.84%) User Stories
Programming Languages
1 986 (38.37%) Java
2 774 (30.12%) JavaScript
3 517 (20.12%) SQL
4 513 (19.96%) C#
5 361 (14.05%) Python
6 310 (12.06%) TypeScript
7 233 (9.07%) Scala
8 210 (8.17%) Java 8
9 146 (5.68%) C++
10 140 (5.45%) Kotlin
11 98 (3.81%) PowerShell
12 70 (2.72%) ES6
13 69 (2.68%) Ruby
14 62 (2.41%) PHP
15 58 (2.26%) Go
16 56 (2.18%) C
17 55 (2.14%) Bash Shell
18 52 (2.02%) Objective-C
19 51 (1.98%) Apple Swift
20 50 (1.95%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 154 (5.99%) Security Cleared
2 140 (5.45%) Degree
3 128 (4.98%) SC Cleared
4 26 (1.01%) Numerate Degree
5 19 (0.74%) Computer Science Degree
6 15 (0.58%) BPSS Clearance
7 13 (0.51%) ISTQB
8 11 (0.43%) Sun Certification
9 8 (0.31%) ISEB
9 8 (0.31%) OCPJP
10 7 (0.27%) DV Cleared
11 6 (0.23%) AWS Certification
11 6 (0.23%) Master's Degree
12 5 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
13 4 (0.16%) PMI Certification
13 4 (0.16%) SAFe Agilist
13 4 (0.16%) TOGAF Certification
14 3 (0.12%) BC Cleared
14 3 (0.12%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
15 2 (0.078%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 217 (8.44%) QA
2 66 (2.57%) Accessibility
3 12 (0.47%) WCAG
4 10 (0.39%) Data Quality
4 10 (0.39%) JTAG
5 7 (0.27%) GDPR
6 6 (0.23%) PMO
7 4 (0.16%) ISO 20022
7 4 (0.16%) MiFID
8 3 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
8 3 (0.12%) SEPA
9 1 (0.039%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 527 (20.51%) Docker
2 54 (2.10%) Active Directory
3 12 (0.47%) HDFS
4 10 (0.39%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 7 (0.27%) Platform Symphony
5 7 (0.27%) Varnish
6 5 (0.19%) NDS
6 5 (0.19%) NetIQ eDirectory
7 3 (0.12%) Squid
7 3 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
8 2 (0.078%) KVM
8 2 (0.078%) Postfix
8 2 (0.078%) vSphere
9 1 (0.039%) Firmware
9 1 (0.039%) Virtual Machines
9 1 (0.039%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 389 (15.14%) Kubernetes
2 153 (5.95%) Terraform
3 72 (2.80%) Ansible
4 68 (2.65%) Grafana
5 67 (2.61%) Prometheus
6 26 (1.01%) Opscode Chef
7 16 (0.62%) Puppet
7 16 (0.62%) ZABBIX
8 12 (0.47%) MIIS
9 10 (0.39%) Oozie
10 9 (0.35%) Rancher
11 8 (0.31%) ITRS Geneos
11 8 (0.31%) Kibana
12 4 (0.16%) Docker Swarm
12 4 (0.16%) Istio
12 4 (0.16%) NetIQ Identity Manager
12 4 (0.16%) Single Sign-On
13 3 (0.12%) Hadoop YARN
13 3 (0.12%) HP ALM
13 3 (0.12%) Packer
Vendors
1 186 (7.24%) Microsoft
2 155 (6.03%) Oracle
3 106 (4.12%) Google
4 59 (2.30%) Splunk
5 46 (1.79%) Atlassian
6 40 (1.56%) CA Agile Central
7 38 (1.48%) IBM
8 35 (1.36%) New Relic
9 31 (1.21%) CA
10 23 (0.89%) Adobe
10 23 (0.89%) SAP
11 22 (0.86%) Databricks
11 22 (0.86%) DevExpress
11 22 (0.86%) Xamarin
12 19 (0.74%) TIBCO
13 17 (0.66%) Sybase
14 16 (0.62%) Spiceworks
15 13 (0.51%) MuleSoft
16 11 (0.43%) AppDynamics
16 11 (0.43%) Murex