Period
to 27 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 27 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK > England
6 months to
27 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 22 19 20
Rank change year-on-year -3 +1 +9
Contract jobs citing TDD 5,828 7,345 6,280
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 7.00% 7.96% 7.40%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 8.01% 9.17% 8.63%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,436 5,706 4,889
England median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £400 £363 £325
90th Percentile £663 £625 £625
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £470
% change year-on-year +5.00% +6.38% +4.44%
Number of hourly rates quoted 14 30 28
England median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £41.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% +9.09% -2.94%
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £41.25
% change year-on-year -22.22% +9.09% -4.07%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 72,763 80,101 72,747
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 87.41% 86.78% 85.74%
Number of daily rates quoted 48,336 53,212 47,880
England median daily rate £475 £463 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.70% +2.78% +5.88%
10th Percentile £306 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £438
% change year-on-year +5.56% +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,959 2,200 1,910
England median hourly rate £25.12 £22.00 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.18% -12.00% -
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.25 £11.49
90th Percentile £52.60 £50.00 £51.50
UK median hourly rate £25.12 £21.50 £25.00
% change year-on-year +16.84% -14.00% -0.73%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 27 June 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 27 June 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the England region over the 6 months to 27 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -3 3,551 £550 +4.76% 338
South East +1 784 £463 +2.78% 107
North of England -11 650 £450 +8.43% 135
East of England 0 308 £475 -9.52% 63
Midlands -18 289 £450 +5.88% 70
Yorkshire -17 280 £490 +15.29% 43
North West -10 278 £425 +3.98% 80
South West +5 243 £488 +21.88% 59
West Midlands -20 186 £463 +8.82% 48
North East +21 91 £450 +13.92% 12
East Midlands -21 84 £411 +0.92% 21
TDD
UK

For the 6 months to 27 June 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for TDD.

1 4,354 (74.71%) Agile Software Development
2 2,434 (41.76%) Java
3 2,327 (39.93%) BDD
4 2,103 (36.08%) JavaScript
5 1,531 (26.27%) Scrum
6 1,518 (26.05%) Git (software)
7 1,454 (24.95%) Microservices
8 1,409 (24.18%) C#
9 1,360 (23.34%) .NET
10 1,316 (22.58%) HTML
11 1,315 (22.56%) Continuous Integration
12 1,264 (21.69%) Amazon AWS
13 1,225 (21.02%) AngularJS
14 1,212 (20.80%) CSS
15 1,189 (20.40%) Test Automation
16 1,052 (18.05%) Jenkins
17 1,041 (17.86%) React
18 1,028 (17.64%) DevOps
19 1,015 (17.42%) Microsoft Azure
20 983 (16.87%) Spring
21 980 (16.82%) RESTful
22 976 (16.75%) Finance
23 970 (16.64%) SQL
24 942 (16.16%) Docker
25 894 (15.34%) Node.js
26 880 (15.10%) REST
27 845 (14.50%) Web Services
28 796 (13.66%) Java 8
29 741 (12.71%) Linux
30 722 (12.39%) Python

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 315 (5.40%) Confluence
2 234 (4.02%) Elasticsearch
3 184 (3.16%) Apache Spark
4 163 (2.80%) Apache
5 120 (2.06%) CMS
6 100 (1.72%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 85 (1.46%) Tomcat
8 79 (1.36%) Mule
9 73 (1.25%) WebSphere
10 70 (1.20%) Oracle Service Bus
11 58 (1.00%) JBoss
12 55 (0.94%) Apache Solr
13 32 (0.55%) nginx
14 31 (0.53%) SharePoint
14 31 (0.53%) Sitecore CMS
15 24 (0.41%) Jetty
16 23 (0.39%) IIS
17 22 (0.38%) Umbraco
18 21 (0.36%) Apache Airflow
18 21 (0.36%) OpenStack
Applications
1 23 (0.39%) Microsoft Excel
2 14 (0.24%) InVision
3 13 (0.22%) MS Visio
3 13 (0.22%) Photoshop
4 12 (0.21%) Adobe XD
5 10 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
6 8 (0.14%) Adobe Illustrator
7 7 (0.12%) Zeplin
8 6 (0.10%) Chatbot
9 2 (0.034%) Adobe Premiere
9 2 (0.034%) OmniGraffle
9 2 (0.034%) Sketch
10 1 (0.017%) GIMP
10 1 (0.017%) Microsoft Project
10 1 (0.017%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 44 (0.75%) Dynamics CRM
2 32 (0.55%) Magento
3 10 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
3 10 (0.17%) Remedy ITSM
4 8 (0.14%) Dynamics AX
5 7 (0.12%) SAP FI
6 6 (0.10%) SAP Hybris
7 5 (0.086%) Fredhopper
7 5 (0.086%) NetSuite
8 4 (0.069%) BusinessWorks
8 4 (0.069%) Summit
9 3 (0.051%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 2 (0.034%) Distributed Ledger
10 2 (0.034%) Infor M3
10 2 (0.034%) Oracle BPM
10 2 (0.034%) Oracle Cash Management
10 2 (0.034%) Unit4 Business World
11 1 (0.017%) Oracle Assets
11 1 (0.017%) Oracle General Ledger
11 1 (0.017%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 1,264 (21.69%) Amazon AWS
2 1,015 (17.42%) Microsoft Azure
3 229 (3.93%) Serverless
4 212 (3.64%) GitHub
5 161 (2.76%) Amazon EC2
6 140 (2.40%) Google Cloud Platform
7 116 (1.99%) Amazon SQS
8 114 (1.96%) AWS Lambda
8 114 (1.96%) PaaS
9 103 (1.77%) SaaS
10 92 (1.58%) Amazon S3
11 71 (1.22%) AWS CloudFormation
12 67 (1.15%) npm
13 59 (1.01%) Azure Functions
14 53 (0.91%) IaaS
15 47 (0.81%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 43 (0.74%) Amazon Kinesis
17 41 (0.70%) Virtual Private Cloud
18 40 (0.69%) Azure Active Directory
19 38 (0.65%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 179 (3.07%) HTTP
2 61 (1.05%) Internet
3 52 (0.89%) TCP/IP
4 35 (0.60%) AMQP
5 27 (0.46%) DNS
6 24 (0.41%) SSL
7 23 (0.39%) FTP
8 13 (0.22%) MQTT
9 12 (0.21%) Firewall
10 11 (0.19%) Skype
10 11 (0.19%) Wireless
11 9 (0.15%) 3GPP
11 9 (0.15%) 5G
11 9 (0.15%) LTE
12 8 (0.14%) Reverse Proxy
12 8 (0.14%) SSH
13 7 (0.12%) Broadband
13 7 (0.12%) H.323
13 7 (0.12%) Intranet
14 6 (0.10%) MPLS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 577 (9.90%) SQL Server
2 487 (8.36%) NoSQL
3 456 (7.82%) MongoDB
4 368 (6.31%) PostgreSQL
5 307 (5.27%) MySQL
6 303 (5.20%) Relational Database
7 240 (4.12%) Big Data
8 204 (3.50%) Hadoop
9 171 (2.93%) Redis
10 161 (2.76%) Apache Cassandra
11 98 (1.68%) Data Warehouse
12 88 (1.51%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 85 (1.46%) Amazon RDS
14 84 (1.44%) Cosmos DB
15 79 (1.36%) HBase
16 77 (1.32%) Azure SQL Database
17 67 (1.15%) Oracle Database
18 62 (1.06%) Neo4j
19 56 (0.96%) RDBMS
20 51 (0.88%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 1,518 (26.05%) Git (software)
2 1,052 (18.05%) Jenkins
3 587 (10.07%) JIRA
4 425 (7.29%) Selenium
5 402 (6.90%) Maven
6 378 (6.49%) JUnit
7 362 (6.21%) Cucumber
8 290 (4.98%) Mockito
9 237 (4.07%) TeamCity
10 210 (3.60%) Subversion
11 196 (3.36%) webpack
12 187 (3.21%) Visual Studio
13 168 (2.88%) Jasmine
14 166 (2.85%) Visual Studio Team System
15 147 (2.52%) Bitbucket
16 146 (2.51%) Team Foundation Server
17 145 (2.49%) gulp
18 136 (2.33%) Gradle
19 123 (2.11%) SonarQube
20 118 (2.02%) Grunt
General
1 976 (16.75%) Finance
2 456 (7.82%) Banking
3 194 (3.33%) Marketing
4 177 (3.04%) Retail
5 163 (2.80%) Telecoms
6 161 (2.76%) Front Office
7 131 (2.25%) Investment Banking
8 122 (2.09%) Manufacturing
9 112 (1.92%) Electronics
10 103 (1.77%) Games
11 53 (0.91%) Financial Institution
12 49 (0.84%) Publishing
13 33 (0.57%) Advertising
14 29 (0.50%) Legal
15 28 (0.48%) Retail Banking
16 27 (0.46%) Law
17 24 (0.41%) Back Office
18 11 (0.19%) Automotive
19 6 (0.10%) Online Betting
20 4 (0.069%) Billing
Job Titles
1 4,397 (75.45%) Developer
2 1,406 (24.12%) Java Developer
3 723 (12.41%) Senior Developer
4 632 (10.84%) .NET Developer
5 527 (9.04%) React Developer
6 504 (8.65%) Full Stack Developer
7 458 (7.86%) C# Developer
8 396 (6.79%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 353 (6.06%) JavaScript Developer
10 324 (5.56%) Senior Java Developer
11 255 (4.38%) C# .NET Developer
12 251 (4.31%) Angular Developer
13 212 (3.64%) Python Developer
14 196 (3.36%) Agile Developer
15 190 (3.26%) Architect
16 188 (3.23%) AWS Developer
16 188 (3.23%) Lead Developer
17 171 (2.93%) Software Developer
18 166 (2.85%) Scala Developer
19 145 (2.49%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,360 (23.34%) .NET
2 1,316 (22.58%) HTML
3 1,225 (21.02%) AngularJS
4 1,212 (20.80%) CSS
5 1,041 (17.86%) React
6 983 (16.87%) Spring
7 980 (16.82%) RESTful
8 894 (15.34%) Node.js
9 880 (15.10%) REST
10 845 (14.50%) Web Services
11 572 (9.81%) HTML5
12 565 (9.69%) ASP.NET
13 526 (9.03%) Spring Boot
14 474 (8.13%) SOAP
15 462 (7.93%) Redux
16 455 (7.81%) JSON
17 424 (7.28%) .NET Core
18 417 (7.16%) ASP.NET Web API
19 398 (6.83%) Kafka
20 353 (6.06%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 645 (11.07%) Greenfield Project
2 333 (5.71%) User Experience
3 180 (3.09%) Analytical Skills
4 163 (2.80%) Enterprise Software
5 154 (2.64%) Mobile App
6 109 (1.87%) Algorithms
7 98 (1.68%) Data Structures
8 96 (1.65%) Virtual Team
9 93 (1.60%) Derivative
10 76 (1.30%) Self-Motivation
11 66 (1.13%) Hedge funds
12 62 (1.06%) Data Protection Act
13 60 (1.03%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 59 (1.01%) Linux Command Line
15 53 (0.91%) Equity Derivative
16 52 (0.89%) Public Cloud
17 51 (0.88%) Equities
18 49 (0.84%) Fixed Income
19 42 (0.72%) Video on Demand
20 40 (0.69%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 741 (12.71%) Linux
2 415 (7.12%) Unix
3 159 (2.73%) Mac OS X
4 157 (2.69%) Android
5 153 (2.63%) Apple iOS
6 125 (2.14%) Windows
7 52 (0.89%) CentOS
8 27 (0.46%) Mac OS
9 26 (0.45%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 21 (0.36%) VMS
11 19 (0.33%) tvOS
11 19 (0.33%) Ubuntu
12 17 (0.29%) Windows Server
13 4 (0.069%) Debian
14 2 (0.034%) Windows Server 2003
14 2 (0.034%) Windows XP
15 1 (0.017%) Solaris
15 1 (0.017%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,354 (74.71%) Agile Software Development
2 2,327 (39.93%) BDD
3 1,531 (26.27%) Scrum
4 1,454 (24.95%) Microservices
5 1,315 (22.56%) Continuous Integration
6 1,189 (20.40%) Test Automation
7 1,028 (17.64%) DevOps
8 686 (11.77%) MVC
9 670 (11.50%) Kanban
10 610 (10.47%) Pair Programming
11 596 (10.23%) OO
12 585 (10.04%) Front End Development
13 580 (9.95%) Software Engineering
14 553 (9.49%) Unit Testing
15 521 (8.94%) Continuous Delivery
16 446 (7.65%) SOLID
17 444 (7.62%) Web Development
18 396 (6.79%) E-Commerce
19 394 (6.76%) Open Source
20 391 (6.71%) Problem-Solving
Programming Languages
1 2,434 (41.76%) Java
2 2,103 (36.08%) JavaScript
3 1,409 (24.18%) C#
4 970 (16.64%) SQL
5 796 (13.66%) Java 8
6 722 (12.39%) Python
7 414 (7.10%) Scala
8 371 (6.37%) TypeScript
9 365 (6.26%) Ruby
10 310 (5.32%) ES6
11 182 (3.12%) PHP
12 156 (2.68%) Bash Shell
13 132 (2.26%) Kotlin
14 121 (2.08%) C++
15 100 (1.72%) C
16 95 (1.63%) Shell Script
17 94 (1.61%) T-SQL
18 93 (1.60%) Go
19 79 (1.36%) PowerShell
20 76 (1.30%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 332 (5.70%) Security Cleared
2 245 (4.20%) Degree
2 245 (4.20%) SC Cleared
3 115 (1.97%) BPSS Clearance
4 55 (0.94%) Computer Science Degree
5 48 (0.82%) DBS Check
5 48 (0.82%) ISEB
6 47 (0.81%) ISTQB
7 28 (0.48%) CTC Cleared
8 25 (0.43%) DV Cleared
9 21 (0.36%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 19 (0.33%) Sun Certification
11 16 (0.27%) OCPJP
12 12 (0.21%) AWS Certification
13 9 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
14 6 (0.10%) Master's Degree
15 5 (0.086%) BC Cleared
16 4 (0.069%) TOGAF Certification
17 3 (0.051%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
17 3 (0.051%) OCAJ
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 357 (6.13%) QA
2 37 (0.63%) Data Quality
3 36 (0.62%) WCAG
4 25 (0.43%) Disclosure Scotland
5 11 (0.19%) MiFID
6 9 (0.15%) GDPR
7 5 (0.086%) PSD2
8 4 (0.069%) PMO
9 3 (0.051%) EMIR
9 3 (0.051%) HL7
9 3 (0.051%) PCI DSS
10 2 (0.034%) Dodd-Frank
10 2 (0.034%) IFRS
10 2 (0.034%) WAI
11 1 (0.017%) GAMP
11 1 (0.017%) GxP
11 1 (0.017%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 1 (0.017%) SLA
System Software
1 942 (16.16%) Docker
2 64 (1.10%) Active Directory
3 47 (0.81%) HDFS
4 45 (0.77%) VMware Infrastructure
5 40 (0.69%) vSphere
6 23 (0.39%) Apache Flume
7 22 (0.38%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 17 (0.29%) Postfix
9 14 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
10 6 (0.10%) NDS
10 6 (0.10%) NetIQ eDirectory
11 5 (0.086%) VirtualBox
12 4 (0.069%) Varnish
12 4 (0.069%) Virtual Servers
12 4 (0.069%) VMware Workstation
13 3 (0.051%) Xen
14 2 (0.034%) vCloud
15 1 (0.017%) Hyper-V
15 1 (0.017%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 494 (8.48%) Kubernetes
2 248 (4.26%) Ansible
3 169 (2.90%) Terraform
4 115 (1.97%) Puppet
5 94 (1.61%) Opscode Chef
6 40 (0.69%) Hadoop YARN
7 26 (0.45%) Kibana
8 20 (0.34%) logstash
9 19 (0.33%) Mesos
9 19 (0.33%) Rancher
10 18 (0.31%) ZABBIX
11 17 (0.29%) Control-M
12 16 (0.27%) Docker Swarm
12 16 (0.27%) Prometheus
13 13 (0.22%) Grafana
13 13 (0.22%) Marathon
14 12 (0.21%) Nagios
14 12 (0.21%) Oozie
15 11 (0.19%) HP Quality Center
16 9 (0.15%) ITRS Geneos
Vendors
1 389 (6.67%) Microsoft
2 368 (6.31%) Oracle
3 191 (3.28%) Google
4 140 (2.40%) Atlassian
5 135 (2.32%) SAP
6 94 (1.61%) WSO2
7 77 (1.32%) Red Hat
8 69 (1.18%) Splunk
9 57 (0.98%) VMware
10 53 (0.91%) IBM
11 44 (0.75%) Talend
12 39 (0.67%) Sitecore
13 33 (0.57%) Adobe
14 31 (0.53%) Salesforce.com
15 30 (0.51%) MuleSoft
16 28 (0.48%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 26 (0.45%) Cadence
17 26 (0.45%) Xamarin
18 25 (0.43%) hybris
19 24 (0.41%) Apple