Period
to 25 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 25 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK > England
6 months to
25 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 46 45 26
Rank change year-on-year -1 -19 -7
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,151 1,331 5,200
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.92% 5.15% 6.44%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.51% 5.88% 7.34%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,371 1,034 4,032
10th Percentile £413 £358 £400
25th Percentile £463 £438 £444
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
75th Percentile £638 £588 £600
90th Percentile £713 £655 £693
UK median daily rate £550 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +4.76% - +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 2 4
10th Percentile £60.50 £48.45 £20.11
25th Percentile £62.79 £49.04 £30.39
Median hourly rate £65.50 £51.06 £40.37
Median % change year-on-year +28.29% +26.48% -10.29%
75th Percentile £71.00 £54.04 £49.75
90th Percentile £73.10 £55.22 £63.70
UK median hourly rate £65.50 £51.06 £38.74
% change year-on-year +28.29% +31.81% -13.92%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 57,169 22,628 70,871
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.24% 87.55% 87.74%
Number of daily rates quoted 39,939 15,462 47,927
10th Percentile £315 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £390 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +7.84% +0.05% +2.70%
75th Percentile £613 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,501 635 1,920
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.00 £11.50
25th Percentile £14.50 £15.75 £14.38
Median hourly rate £24.27 £26.00 £22.97
Median % change year-on-year -6.65% +13.22% +17.77%
75th Percentile £48.75 £46.00 £46.50
90th Percentile £62.50 £55.00 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £24.50 £25.00 £22.86
% change year-on-year -2.00% +9.37% +18.33%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Daily rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD in England.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in England

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD in England over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in England

TDD
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the England region over the 6 months to 25 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +1 2,117 £593 +9.72% 761
North of England -11 265 £475 -9.52% 262
South East +42 255 £475 - 182
North West -4 127 £475 -9.52% 167
South West -15 127 £458 -12.86% 79
East of England -10 119 £513 +7.89% 60
Yorkshire -22 104 £475 -5.00% 54
Midlands -60 83 £450 +10.43% 136
West Midlands -40 67 £475 +1.60% 75
North East +13 34 £475 -12.04% 41
East Midlands -43 13 £415 +20.66% 60
TDD
UK

For the 6 months to 25 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,230 (70.77%) Agile Software Development
2 1,304 (41.38%) Java
3 1,161 (36.85%) BDD
4 966 (30.66%) JavaScript
5 879 (27.90%) Microservices
6 825 (26.18%) Scrum
7 796 (25.26%) DevOps
8 781 (24.79%) AWS
9 756 (23.99%) Git (software)
10 701 (22.25%) Test Automation
11 691 (21.93%) Azure
12 682 (21.64%) Continuous Integration
13 670 (21.26%) Spring
14 640 (20.31%) Software Engineering
15 616 (19.55%) Docker
16 611 (19.39%) React
17 608 (19.30%) SQL
18 599 (19.01%) C#
19 573 (18.18%) Jenkins
20 543 (17.23%) .NET
21 515 (16.34%) Social Skills
22 506 (16.06%) Pair Programming
23 483 (15.33%) Kubernetes
24 459 (14.57%) Finance
25 455 (14.44%) HTML
26 430 (13.65%) CSS
27 425 (13.49%) AngularJS
28 419 (13.30%) Full Stack Development
29 417 (13.23%) Node.js
29 417 (13.23%) RESTful

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 203 (6.44%) Confluence
2 70 (2.22%) Apache Spark
3 40 (1.27%) Apache
4 39 (1.24%) Tomcat
5 38 (1.21%) JBoss
6 35 (1.11%) Elasticsearch
6 35 (1.11%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 33 (1.05%) CMS
8 30 (0.95%) Cloud Foundry
9 25 (0.79%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 25 (0.79%) Mule
10 22 (0.70%) Oracle Coherence
10 22 (0.70%) Red Hat Fuse
11 18 (0.57%) WebSphere
11 18 (0.57%) WordPress
12 17 (0.54%) SharePoint
13 14 (0.44%) IIS
13 14 (0.44%) WebLogic
14 12 (0.38%) nginx
15 10 (0.32%) Jetty
Applications
1 15 (0.48%) Microsoft Excel
2 10 (0.32%) Photoshop
3 8 (0.25%) Microsoft Office
4 3 (0.095%) MS Visio
5 2 (0.063%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.063%) Figma
6 1 (0.032%) Adobe XD
6 1 (0.032%) InDesign
6 1 (0.032%) InVision
6 1 (0.032%) S-PLUS
6 1 (0.032%) Spreadsheet
6 1 (0.032%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 7 (0.22%) Magento
2 6 (0.19%) Shopify
3 5 (0.16%) SAP S/4HANA
4 4 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.095%) Adobe Campaign
5 3 (0.095%) IBM Planning Analytics
5 3 (0.095%) SAP BRIM
6 2 (0.063%) Dynamics CRM
6 2 (0.063%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.032%) BusinessWorks
7 1 (0.032%) Oracle BPM
7 1 (0.032%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
7 1 (0.032%) Payment Gateway
7 1 (0.032%) Primavera
7 1 (0.032%) RMDS
7 1 (0.032%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.032%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 781 (24.79%) AWS
2 691 (21.93%) Azure
3 224 (7.11%) Serverless
4 212 (6.73%) GCP
5 119 (3.78%) GitHub
6 99 (3.14%) AWS Lambda
7 69 (2.19%) PaaS
8 50 (1.59%) SaaS
9 45 (1.43%) IaaS
10 41 (1.30%) npm
11 39 (1.24%) Amazon EC2
11 39 (1.24%) AWS CloudFormation
12 33 (1.05%) OpenShift
13 32 (1.02%) Amazon ECS
13 32 (1.02%) Azure Functions
14 29 (0.92%) Amazon SQS
15 28 (0.89%) Amazon S3
16 27 (0.86%) Azure Active Directory
17 26 (0.83%) Azure Data Factory
18 25 (0.79%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 61 (1.94%) HTTP
2 26 (0.83%) Internet
3 21 (0.67%) RTMP
4 14 (0.44%) LAN
4 14 (0.44%) TCP/IP
5 12 (0.38%) Broadband
6 8 (0.25%) DNS
6 8 (0.25%) UPnP
6 8 (0.25%) Wi-Fi
7 7 (0.22%) Kerberos
7 7 (0.22%) SSL
8 6 (0.19%) DECT
8 6 (0.19%) IPv4
8 6 (0.19%) IPv6
8 6 (0.19%) Multicast
8 6 (0.19%) PPP
9 2 (0.063%) 5G
9 2 (0.063%) AMQP
9 2 (0.063%) MQTT
9 2 (0.063%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 287 (9.11%) NoSQL
2 210 (6.66%) SQL Server
3 196 (6.22%) Relational Database
4 160 (5.08%) MySQL
5 149 (4.73%) MongoDB
6 101 (3.21%) PostgreSQL
7 93 (2.95%) Oracle Database
8 75 (2.38%) Big Data
9 55 (1.75%) Apache Cassandra
10 45 (1.43%) Hadoop
11 40 (1.27%) Data Warehouse
12 38 (1.21%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 34 (1.08%) Redis
14 33 (1.05%) RDBMS
15 31 (0.98%) Azure SQL Database
15 31 (0.98%) Oracle Database 12c
15 31 (0.98%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 27 (0.86%) Data Lake
17 26 (0.83%) BigQuery
18 23 (0.73%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 756 (23.99%) Git (software)
2 573 (18.18%) Jenkins
3 378 (12.00%) JIRA
4 294 (9.33%) Cucumber
5 223 (7.08%) JUnit
6 209 (6.63%) Maven
7 206 (6.54%) Selenium
8 126 (4.00%) TeamCity
9 120 (3.81%) Mockito
10 94 (2.98%) Gradle
11 85 (2.70%) Jasmine
12 83 (2.63%) Subversion
13 73 (2.32%) GitLab
14 70 (2.22%) Visual Studio
15 64 (2.03%) Postman
16 53 (1.68%) CircleCI
17 51 (1.62%) Octopus Deploy
18 50 (1.59%) Mocha
19 49 (1.56%) SpecFlow
20 47 (1.49%) Bitbucket
General
1 515 (16.34%) Social Skills
2 459 (14.57%) Finance
3 358 (11.36%) Banking
4 171 (5.43%) Front Office
5 147 (4.67%) Public Sector
6 145 (4.60%) Investment Banking
7 112 (3.55%) Retail
8 84 (2.67%) Analytical Skills
9 75 (2.38%) Manufacturing
10 73 (2.32%) Games
11 46 (1.46%) Marketing
12 36 (1.14%) Telecoms
13 31 (0.98%) Automotive
13 31 (0.98%) Documentation Skills
14 27 (0.86%) Influencing Skills
15 21 (0.67%) Law
15 21 (0.67%) Publishing
16 18 (0.57%) Electronics
16 18 (0.57%) Retail Banking
17 15 (0.48%) Legal
Job Titles
1 2,216 (70.33%) Developer
2 660 (20.95%) Java Developer
3 361 (11.46%) Senior Developer
4 260 (8.25%) C# Developer
5 213 (6.76%) .NET Developer
6 201 (6.38%) React Developer
7 200 (6.35%) Full Stack Developer
8 166 (5.27%) Software Engineer
9 145 (4.60%) Scala Developer
10 138 (4.38%) JavaScript Developer
11 124 (3.94%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
12 122 (3.87%) Senior Java Developer
13 109 (3.46%) Software Developer
14 97 (3.08%) C# .NET Developer
15 85 (2.70%) Java Engineer
16 72 (2.28%) Python Developer
17 70 (2.22%) iOS Developer
18 69 (2.19%) DevOps Engineer
19 67 (2.13%) Tester
20 65 (2.06%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 670 (21.26%) Spring
2 611 (19.39%) React
3 543 (17.23%) .NET
4 455 (14.44%) HTML
5 430 (13.65%) CSS
6 425 (13.49%) AngularJS
7 417 (13.23%) Node.js
7 417 (13.23%) RESTful
8 404 (12.82%) Spring Boot
9 390 (12.38%) REST
10 275 (8.73%) Web Services
11 249 (7.90%) Kafka
12 225 (7.14%) HTML5
13 211 (6.70%) .NET Core
14 196 (6.22%) Redux
15 160 (5.08%) GraphQL
16 145 (4.60%) JSON
17 132 (4.19%) XML
18 128 (4.06%) .NET Framework
19 113 (3.59%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 194 (6.16%) Greenfield Project
2 166 (5.27%) User Experience
3 104 (3.30%) Data Protection Act
3 104 (3.30%) Mobile App
4 80 (2.54%) Fixed Income
5 70 (2.22%) Derivative
6 65 (2.06%) Cloud Native
7 64 (2.03%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 61 (1.94%) Algorithms
9 58 (1.84%) Self-Motivation
10 49 (1.56%) Data Structures
10 49 (1.56%) Enterprise Software
11 42 (1.33%) Client/Server
12 38 (1.21%) Hybrid Cloud
13 32 (1.02%) Interest Rate Derivative
13 32 (1.02%) Public Cloud
14 29 (0.92%) Credit Risk
14 29 (0.92%) Management Information System
14 29 (0.92%) Video\Live Streaming
15 27 (0.86%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 269 (8.54%) Linux
2 148 (4.70%) Unix
3 131 (4.16%) Apple iOS
4 113 (3.59%) Android
5 67 (2.13%) Windows
6 24 (0.76%) Mac OS X
7 12 (0.38%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 10 (0.32%) Windows Server
8 10 (0.32%) Windows Server 2016
9 8 (0.25%) OpenWrt
10 7 (0.22%) Mac OS
10 7 (0.22%) tvOS
11 6 (0.19%) VMS
12 5 (0.16%) Debian
13 4 (0.13%) CentOS
14 3 (0.095%) Amazon Linux
15 2 (0.063%) Embedded Linux
15 2 (0.063%) Ubuntu
15 2 (0.063%) Windows Server 2019
16 1 (0.032%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,230 (70.77%) Agile Software Development
2 1,161 (36.85%) BDD
3 879 (27.90%) Microservices
4 825 (26.18%) Scrum
5 796 (25.26%) DevOps
6 701 (22.25%) Test Automation
7 682 (21.64%) Continuous Integration
8 640 (20.31%) Software Engineering
9 506 (16.06%) Pair Programming
10 419 (13.30%) Full Stack Development
11 372 (11.81%) Unit Testing
12 284 (9.01%) Problem-Solving
13 280 (8.89%) Continuous Delivery
14 275 (8.73%) Kanban
15 254 (8.06%) MVC
16 241 (7.65%) Continuous Improvement
17 234 (7.43%) OO
18 211 (6.70%) User Stories
19 196 (6.22%) Mentoring
20 193 (6.13%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 1,304 (41.38%) Java
2 966 (30.66%) JavaScript
3 608 (19.30%) SQL
4 599 (19.01%) C#
5 410 (13.01%) TypeScript
6 362 (11.49%) Python
7 274 (8.70%) Java 8
8 264 (8.38%) Scala
9 185 (5.87%) Java 11
10 149 (4.73%) Kotlin
11 134 (4.25%) C++
12 93 (2.95%) PHP
13 72 (2.28%) ES6
13 72 (2.28%) Go
13 72 (2.28%) Ruby
14 67 (2.13%) Apple Swift
15 60 (1.90%) Bash Shell
16 55 (1.75%) PowerShell
17 51 (1.62%) Groovy
18 47 (1.49%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 197 (6.25%) Security Cleared
2 169 (5.36%) SC Cleared
3 119 (3.78%) Degree
4 38 (1.21%) Sun Certification
5 33 (1.05%) OCPJP
6 31 (0.98%) Computer Science Degree
7 21 (0.67%) ISTQB
8 13 (0.41%) BPSS Clearance
9 12 (0.38%) DBS Check
9 12 (0.38%) ISEB
10 11 (0.35%) Numerate Degree
11 10 (0.32%) Master's Degree
12 9 (0.29%) AWS Certification
13 6 (0.19%) DV Cleared
13 6 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
14 3 (0.095%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 3 (0.095%) PMI Certification
14 3 (0.095%) SAFe Agilist
14 3 (0.095%) TOGAF Certification
15 2 (0.063%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 204 (6.47%) QA
2 87 (2.76%) Accessibility
3 10 (0.32%) WCAG
4 7 (0.22%) Data Quality
5 6 (0.19%) GDPR
5 6 (0.19%) JTAG
5 6 (0.19%) PMO
6 4 (0.13%) MiFID
7 3 (0.095%) ISO 20022
7 3 (0.095%) SEPA
8 2 (0.063%) Disclosure Scotland
9 1 (0.032%) IFRS
9 1 (0.032%) PCI DSS
9 1 (0.032%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.032%) Solvency II
System Software
1 616 (19.55%) Docker
2 33 (1.05%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.29%) Varnish
4 5 (0.16%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 4 (0.13%) NDS
5 4 (0.13%) NetIQ eDirectory
5 4 (0.13%) VirtualBox
6 3 (0.095%) Firmware
6 3 (0.095%) Platform Symphony
6 3 (0.095%) Postfix
6 3 (0.095%) Squid
6 3 (0.095%) VMware Infrastructure
6 3 (0.095%) vSphere
7 1 (0.032%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 483 (15.33%) Kubernetes
2 209 (6.63%) Terraform
3 115 (3.65%) Ansible
4 95 (3.01%) Prometheus
5 91 (2.89%) Grafana
6 24 (0.76%) Puppet
7 17 (0.54%) ZABBIX
8 16 (0.51%) Opscode Chef
9 15 (0.48%) Kibana
9 15 (0.48%) MIIS
10 14 (0.44%) Docker Swarm
11 11 (0.35%) ITRS Geneos
12 7 (0.22%) Packer
13 5 (0.16%) logstash
14 4 (0.13%) Istio
14 4 (0.13%) Netcool
14 4 (0.13%) Rancher
15 3 (0.095%) NetIQ Identity Manager
15 3 (0.095%) Oozie
16 2 (0.063%) Microsoft Intune
Vendors
1 218 (6.92%) Oracle
2 147 (4.67%) Microsoft
3 97 (3.08%) Google
4 53 (1.68%) Splunk
5 52 (1.65%) CA Agile Central
6 40 (1.27%) Atlassian
7 36 (1.14%) New Relic
8 34 (1.08%) CA
9 33 (1.05%) Sun
10 31 (0.98%) Adobe
11 30 (0.95%) Databricks
12 27 (0.86%) SAP
12 27 (0.86%) TIBCO
13 24 (0.76%) IBM
14 22 (0.70%) Xamarin
15 21 (0.67%) Sybase
16 17 (0.54%) MuleSoft
17 16 (0.51%) Spiceworks
18 14 (0.44%) DevExpress
19 13 (0.41%) hybris