Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Infrastructure as Code over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Infrastructure as Code (IaC)
UK > England
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 107 160 233
Rank change year-on-year +53 +73 +69
Contract jobs citing Infrastructure as Code 1,493 425 986
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 2.36% 1.67% 1.21%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.64% 1.91% 1.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,086 320 676
10th Percentile £431 £406 £425
25th Percentile £488 £456 £500
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £575
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% -8.70% +8.49%
75th Percentile £638 £600 £656
90th Percentile £700 £676 £725
UK median daily rate £550 £525 £565
% change year-on-year +4.76% -7.08% +6.60%
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 1 1
10th Percentile £35.00 " "
25th Percentile £47.19 " £66.25
Median hourly rate £60.75 £52.00 £67.50
Median % change year-on-year +16.83% -22.96% -
75th Percentile £81.25 " £68.75
90th Percentile £87.70 " "
UK median hourly rate £62.25 £40.00 £67.50
% change year-on-year +55.63% -40.74% -

Infrastructure as Code is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 56,487 22,251 71,168
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 89.23% 87.49% 87.68%
Number of daily rates quoted 39,431 15,168 48,115
10th Percentile £313 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £390 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £481 £475
Median % change year-on-year +6.60% +1.21% +2.70%
75th Percentile £613 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £475 £475
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,494 633 1,916
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.02 £11.50
25th Percentile £14.51 £16.00 £14.33
Median hourly rate £24.18 £26.50 £22.86
Median % change year-on-year -8.77% +15.94% +14.29%
75th Percentile £48.75 £46.00 £46.40
90th Percentile £62.45 £55.93 £53.75
UK median hourly rate £24.50 £26.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year -5.77% +15.56% +16.02%

Infrastructure as Code
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing Infrastructure as Code as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for Infrastructure as Code in England

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code in England.

Daily rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in England

Infrastructure as Code
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Infrastructure as Code in England over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in England

Infrastructure as Code
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Infrastructure as Code in England.

Hourly rate trend for Infrastructure as Code in England

Infrastructure as Code
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Infrastructure as Code in England over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Infrastructure as Code in England

Infrastructure as Code
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Infrastructure as Code within the England region over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +48 914 £575 +4.55% 300
North of England -33 144 £525 +9.38% 103
South East -24 117 £550 +7.84% 55
North West -36 85 £525 +8.25% 52
Midlands -33 67 £525 +22.81% 49
West Midlands -16 60 £525 -4.55% 32
East of England 0 49 £563 +12.50% 26
Yorkshire -25 41 £525 +16.67% 36
South West -24 29 £540 +13.68% 27
North East -5 20 £575 +0.52% 15
East Midlands -35 7 £405 +3.18% 17
Infrastructure as Code
UK

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Infrastructure as Code also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for Infrastructure as Code.

1 1,121 (75.08%) DevOps
2 1,044 (69.93%) Terraform
3 824 (55.19%) Azure
4 754 (50.50%) AWS
5 622 (41.66%) Kubernetes
6 577 (38.65%) Python
7 568 (38.04%) Docker
8 432 (28.94%) Jenkins
9 406 (27.19%) Ansible
10 404 (27.06%) Agile Software Development
11 337 (22.57%) Linux
12 314 (21.03%) Bash Shell
13 307 (20.56%) Java
14 305 (20.43%) PaaS
15 278 (18.62%) AWS CloudFormation
16 268 (17.95%) Microsoft
17 262 (17.55%) Microservices
18 258 (17.28%) PowerShell
19 256 (17.15%) Serverless
20 250 (16.74%) GCP
21 239 (16.01%) GitHub
22 224 (15.00%) IaaS
23 217 (14.53%) Finance
24 203 (13.60%) Git (software)
25 198 (13.26%) Social Skills
26 184 (12.32%) Scrum
27 179 (11.99%) Configuration Management
28 177 (11.86%) Windows
29 167 (11.19%) SQL
29 167 (11.19%) Site Reliability Engineering

Infrastructure as Code
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 68 (4.55%) Confluence
2 59 (3.95%) Apache Spark
3 51 (3.42%) Elasticsearch
4 43 (2.88%) Apache
5 26 (1.74%) Apache Airflow
6 24 (1.61%) nginx
7 18 (1.21%) OpenStack
8 13 (0.87%) SharePoint
9 9 (0.60%) Tomcat
10 7 (0.47%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 6 (0.40%) Cloud Foundry
12 5 (0.33%) Mule
13 4 (0.27%) CMS
13 4 (0.27%) Drupal
13 4 (0.27%) Mattermost
13 4 (0.27%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 3 (0.20%) JBoss
14 3 (0.20%) Jupyter
15 2 (0.13%) IIS
15 2 (0.13%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 4 (0.27%) Microsoft Office
2 2 (0.13%) Chatbot
3 1 (0.067%) Microsoft Excel
3 1 (0.067%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 6 (0.40%) Payment Gateway
2 5 (0.33%) SAP Hybris
3 3 (0.20%) Sentinel
4 2 (0.13%) Adobe Campaign
4 2 (0.13%) Dynamics AX
4 2 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
4 2 (0.13%) Oracle EBS
4 2 (0.13%) SAP CRM
5 1 (0.067%) Magento
5 1 (0.067%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 824 (55.19%) Azure
2 754 (50.50%) AWS
3 305 (20.43%) PaaS
4 278 (18.62%) AWS CloudFormation
5 256 (17.15%) Serverless
6 250 (16.74%) GCP
7 239 (16.01%) GitHub
8 224 (15.00%) IaaS
9 133 (8.91%) AWS Lambda
10 111 (7.43%) Amazon EKS
11 100 (6.70%) SaaS
12 88 (5.89%) Amazon ECS
13 80 (5.36%) Amazon EC2
14 68 (4.55%) Cloud Computing
15 66 (4.42%) Amazon S3
16 55 (3.68%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 47 (3.15%) Azure Functions
18 46 (3.08%) GitHub Actions
19 44 (2.95%) Virtual Private Cloud
20 43 (2.88%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 78 (5.22%) Firewall
2 76 (5.09%) DNS
3 35 (2.34%) VPN
4 31 (2.08%) SSL
5 26 (1.74%) Network Security
6 20 (1.34%) WAN
7 15 (1.00%) HTTP
7 15 (1.00%) TCP/IP
8 14 (0.94%) Reverse Proxy
9 13 (0.87%) BGP
10 11 (0.74%) DHCP
11 10 (0.67%) Internet
11 10 (0.67%) Kerberos
12 9 (0.60%) LAN
12 9 (0.60%) VLAN
13 7 (0.47%) OSPF
13 7 (0.47%) Wireless
14 6 (0.40%) EIGRP
14 6 (0.40%) SSH
15 4 (0.27%) NAS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 79 (5.29%) PostgreSQL
2 65 (4.35%) NoSQL
3 60 (4.02%) Hadoop
4 57 (3.82%) SQL Server
5 55 (3.68%) Amazon RDS
6 50 (3.35%) Data Lake
7 47 (3.15%) MongoDB
8 44 (2.95%) Big Data
9 42 (2.81%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 42 (2.81%) Azure SQL Database
10 40 (2.68%) Relational Database
11 26 (1.74%) MySQL
12 25 (1.67%) Data Warehouse
13 24 (1.61%) Power BI
14 18 (1.21%) Apache Cassandra
15 17 (1.14%) Amazon Redshift
16 16 (1.07%) RDBMS
17 15 (1.00%) BigQuery
17 15 (1.00%) Redis
17 15 (1.00%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 432 (28.94%) Jenkins
2 203 (13.60%) Git (software)
3 109 (7.30%) JIRA
4 93 (6.23%) GitLab
5 73 (4.89%) TeamCity
6 63 (4.22%) Maven
7 59 (3.95%) Gradle
8 48 (3.22%) CircleCI
9 38 (2.55%) Bitbucket
10 37 (2.48%) Sonatype Nexus
11 31 (2.08%) SonarQube
12 28 (1.88%) Subversion
13 22 (1.47%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 21 (1.41%) Octopus Deploy
15 19 (1.27%) Travis CI
16 13 (0.87%) Cypress.io
16 13 (0.87%) Selenium
17 12 (0.80%) Visual Studio Team System
18 11 (0.74%) GoCD
18 11 (0.74%) Visual Studio
General
1 217 (14.53%) Finance
2 198 (13.26%) Social Skills
3 117 (7.84%) Public Sector
4 60 (4.02%) Banking
5 48 (3.22%) Analytical Skills
6 42 (2.81%) Retail
7 41 (2.75%) Legal
8 39 (2.61%) Telecoms
9 38 (2.55%) Financial Institution
10 30 (2.01%) Presentation Skills
11 26 (1.74%) Investment Banking
11 26 (1.74%) Marketing
12 19 (1.27%) Electronics
12 19 (1.27%) Manufacturing
13 14 (0.94%) Law
14 11 (0.74%) Games
15 5 (0.33%) Documentation Skills
15 5 (0.33%) Publishing
16 2 (0.13%) Billing
16 2 (0.13%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 504 (33.76%) DevOps Engineer
2 291 (19.49%) Azure Engineer
3 237 (15.87%) Architect
4 204 (13.66%) AWS Engineer
5 182 (12.19%) Cloud Engineer
6 149 (9.98%) Azure DevOps Engineer
7 109 (7.30%) Azure DevOps
8 107 (7.17%) Azure Architect
9 106 (7.10%) AWS DevOps
10 99 (6.63%) Developer
11 90 (6.03%) Cloud Architect
12 89 (5.96%) AWS DevOps Engineer
13 72 (4.82%) Solutions Architect
14 65 (4.35%) Platform Engineer
15 63 (4.22%) Senior DevOps
16 61 (4.09%) Consultant
17 60 (4.02%) Site Reliability Engineer
18 58 (3.88%) Site Engineer
19 56 (3.75%) Senior DevOps Engineer
20 50 (3.35%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 106 (7.10%) .NET
2 105 (7.03%) ARM Templates
3 98 (6.56%) Node.js
4 91 (6.10%) Kafka
5 62 (4.15%) React
5 62 (4.15%) Web Services
6 52 (3.48%) Spring Boot
7 50 (3.35%) YAML
8 49 (3.28%) REST
9 41 (2.75%) Elastic Stack
9 41 (2.75%) Spring
10 33 (2.21%) JSON
11 28 (1.88%) AngularJS
12 26 (1.74%) .NET Core
13 23 (1.54%) HTML
14 22 (1.47%) .NET Framework
14 22 (1.47%) RESTful
15 18 (1.21%) ASP.NET
15 18 (1.21%) LDAP
16 17 (1.14%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 138 (9.24%) Cloud Native
2 134 (8.98%) Public Cloud
3 79 (5.29%) Data Protection Act
4 76 (5.09%) Data Centre
5 45 (3.01%) Management Information System
6 37 (2.48%) Enterprise Cloud
6 37 (2.48%) Hybrid Cloud
7 33 (2.21%) Linux Command Line
8 32 (2.14%) Hedge funds
9 29 (1.94%) PKI
10 19 (1.27%) Greenfield Project
11 18 (1.21%) Private Cloud
12 17 (1.14%) Legacy Applications
13 16 (1.07%) CMDB
13 16 (1.07%) Virtual Team
14 14 (0.94%) Legacy Systems
14 14 (0.94%) Mobile App
15 11 (0.74%) Algorithms
16 10 (0.67%) Self-Motivation
17 8 (0.54%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 337 (22.57%) Linux
2 177 (11.86%) Windows
3 47 (3.15%) Unix
4 39 (2.61%) Windows Server
5 21 (1.41%) Ubuntu
6 20 (1.34%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 12 (0.80%) CentOS
8 7 (0.47%) Solaris
9 5 (0.33%) Apple iOS
10 4 (0.27%) Amazon Linux
10 4 (0.27%) Android
10 4 (0.27%) VMS
10 4 (0.27%) Windows Server 2019
11 3 (0.20%) Oracle Linux
11 3 (0.20%) Windows Server 2016
12 2 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
12 2 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
13 1 (0.067%) Data ONTAP
13 1 (0.067%) Debian
13 1 (0.067%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,121 (75.08%) DevOps
2 404 (27.06%) Agile Software Development
3 262 (17.55%) Microservices
4 184 (12.32%) Scrum
5 179 (11.99%) Configuration Management
6 167 (11.19%) Site Reliability Engineering
7 161 (10.78%) Continuous Integration
8 133 (8.91%) Test Automation
9 125 (8.37%) Migration
10 124 (8.31%) Data Protection
11 119 (7.97%) Open Source
12 106 (7.10%) Analytics
13 101 (6.76%) Deployment Automation
13 101 (6.76%) Problem-Solving
14 99 (6.63%) Infrastructure Engineering
15 98 (6.56%) Continuous Delivery
16 95 (6.36%) Software Engineering
17 70 (4.69%) DevSecOps
18 65 (4.35%) Cybersecurity
18 65 (4.35%) TDD
Programming Languages
1 577 (38.65%) Python
2 314 (21.03%) Bash Shell
3 307 (20.56%) Java
4 258 (17.28%) PowerShell
5 167 (11.19%) SQL
6 143 (9.58%) JavaScript
7 122 (8.17%) Go
8 98 (6.56%) C#
9 64 (4.29%) Ruby
10 55 (3.68%) Groovy
11 45 (3.01%) TypeScript
12 44 (2.95%) C
13 40 (2.68%) C++
14 33 (2.21%) Perl
15 31 (2.08%) Shell Script
16 17 (1.14%) Scala
17 14 (0.94%) PHP
18 8 (0.54%) Java 11
19 7 (0.47%) Bicep
19 7 (0.47%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 158 (10.58%) Security Cleared
2 107 (7.17%) SC Cleared
3 61 (4.09%) Degree
4 51 (3.42%) AWS Certification
5 13 (0.87%) BPSS Clearance
5 13 (0.87%) CISSP
5 13 (0.87%) Computer Science Degree
5 13 (0.87%) Microsoft Certification
6 7 (0.47%) TOGAF Certification
7 6 (0.40%) CCNP
7 6 (0.40%) Cisco Certification
7 6 (0.40%) VMware Certified Professional (VCP)
8 5 (0.33%) MCSE
9 4 (0.27%) ITIL Certification
10 3 (0.20%) DV Cleared
11 2 (0.13%) DBS Check
12 1 (0.067%) OCP
12 1 (0.067%) Oracle Certification
12 1 (0.067%) RHCE
12 1 (0.067%) RHCSA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 42 (2.81%) GDPR
2 39 (2.61%) QA
3 11 (0.74%) Data Quality
4 10 (0.67%) PCI DSS
5 8 (0.54%) SLA
6 7 (0.47%) NIST
7 5 (0.33%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 4 (0.27%) Accessibility
9 3 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 2 (0.13%) COBIT
10 2 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
10 2 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27002 (supersedes ISO/IEC 17799)
10 2 (0.13%) PSD2
11 1 (0.067%) Cyber Essentials
11 1 (0.067%) GRC
11 1 (0.067%) SOC 1
11 1 (0.067%) SOC 2
System Software
1 568 (38.04%) Docker
2 69 (4.62%) Active Directory
3 48 (3.22%) VMware Infrastructure
4 19 (1.27%) Virtual Machines
5 18 (1.21%) vSphere
6 17 (1.14%) Hyper-V
7 11 (0.74%) VMware ESXi
8 8 (0.54%) NFS
9 7 (0.47%) HDFS
10 5 (0.33%) KVM
10 5 (0.33%) Oracle RAC
11 4 (0.27%) LXC
11 4 (0.27%) VMware NSX
12 3 (0.20%) Ceph
12 3 (0.20%) Virtual Desktop
12 3 (0.20%) VirtualBox
13 2 (0.13%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 2 (0.13%) SRDF
13 2 (0.13%) Varnish
13 2 (0.13%) Xen
Systems Management
1 1,044 (69.93%) Terraform
2 622 (41.66%) Kubernetes
3 406 (27.19%) Ansible
4 157 (10.52%) Puppet
5 126 (8.44%) Prometheus
6 117 (7.84%) Opscode Chef
7 87 (5.83%) Grafana
8 47 (3.15%) Istio
9 42 (2.81%) Packer
9 42 (2.81%) Rancher
10 32 (2.14%) Nagios
11 31 (2.08%) Kibana
12 16 (1.07%) logstash
13 15 (1.00%) Consul
14 11 (0.74%) Docker Swarm
14 11 (0.74%) Microsoft Intune
15 9 (0.60%) Fluentd
15 9 (0.60%) SCCM
16 6 (0.40%) ZABBIX
17 5 (0.33%) Ambari
Vendors
1 268 (17.95%) Microsoft
2 134 (8.98%) Google
3 77 (5.16%) VMware
4 64 (4.29%) Databricks
5 56 (3.75%) Splunk
6 54 (3.62%) Oracle
7 43 (2.88%) Atlassian
8 37 (2.48%) SAP
9 29 (1.94%) Red Hat
10 23 (1.54%) AppDynamics
11 22 (1.47%) Cisco
11 22 (1.47%) New Relic
12 20 (1.34%) ServiceNow
13 16 (1.07%) IBM
13 16 (1.07%) NetApp
14 13 (0.87%) Dynatrace
14 13 (0.87%) SaltStack
15 11 (0.74%) MuleSoft
16 10 (0.67%) Sybase
17 9 (0.60%) Cloudera