Period
to 23 October 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 October 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
23 Oct 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 19 13 13
Rank change year-on-year -6 0 +5
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,250 7,548 8,461
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 7.67% 8.19% 8.66%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.72% 25.17% 28.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,291 5,539 6,093
England median daily rate £425 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +6.25% +6.67%
10th Percentile £306 £284 £263
90th Percentile £575 £575 £556
UK median daily rate £425 £413 £400
% change year-on-year +3.03% +3.13% +8.11%
Number of hourly rates quoted 48 63 79
England median hourly rate £42.25 £40.00 £36.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +5.63% +9.59% +15.98%
10th Percentile £17.80 £14.60 £16.12
90th Percentile £58.25 £48.75 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £36.25
% change year-on-year +6.25% +10.34% +15.08%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 33,386 29,989 30,114
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 35.32% 32.54% 30.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,767 21,222 21,088
England median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +4.56%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £638 £625 £588
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
% change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 300 359 358
England median hourly rate £41.69 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +4.22% +6.67% +0.68%
10th Percentile £16.93 £18.70 £13.50
90th Percentile £57.63 £52.50 £51.50
UK median hourly rate £41.57 £40.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year +3.93% +6.67% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 October 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 October 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 23 October 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 3,639 £475 +5.56% 1,035
South East -1 1,283 £413 +3.13% 695
North of England -3 1,001 £377 +0.59% 835
Midlands -8 625 £396 +13.21% 518
North West -5 468 £375 +3.45% 505
Yorkshire -2 435 £380 -1.30% 258
South West -5 423 £395 +12.86% 362
West Midlands -10 384 £400 +14.12% 263
East of England -11 263 £389 +7.24% 272
East Midlands -3 241 £375 +7.14% 254
North East -9 99 £391 -8.00% 72
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 23 October 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,681 (92.15%) HTML
2 5,924 (81.71%) JavaScript
3 3,307 (45.61%) Agile Software Development
4 2,835 (39.10%) HTML5
5 2,597 (35.82%) AngularJS
6 2,186 (30.15%) CSS3
7 2,099 (28.95%) Front End Development
8 1,876 (25.88%) React
9 1,779 (24.54%) jQuery
10 1,757 (24.23%) Git (software)
11 1,539 (21.23%) .NET
12 1,533 (21.14%) TDD
13 1,519 (20.95%) C#
14 1,511 (20.84%) Node.js
15 1,337 (18.44%) Java
16 1,270 (17.52%) MVC
17 1,252 (17.27%) Sass
18 1,241 (17.12%) User Experience
19 1,109 (15.30%) Web Development
20 1,101 (15.19%) SQL
21 1,020 (14.07%) Scrum
22 942 (12.99%) REST
23 934 (12.88%) ASP.NET
24 912 (12.58%) Finance
25 880 (12.14%) SQL Server
26 860 (11.86%) Test Automation
27 812 (11.20%) PHP
28 800 (11.03%) Continuous Integration
29 763 (10.52%) Web Services
30 762 (10.51%) BDD

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 424 (5.85%) CMS
2 216 (2.98%) WordPress
3 212 (2.92%) Confluence
4 194 (2.68%) SharePoint
5 157 (2.17%) Drupal
6 148 (2.04%) Apache
7 121 (1.67%) Elasticsearch
8 116 (1.60%) Tomcat
9 99 (1.37%) IIS
10 94 (1.30%) Umbraco
11 74 (1.02%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 68 (0.94%) WebSphere
13 65 (0.90%) nginx
14 62 (0.86%) JBoss
15 57 (0.79%) Sitecore CMS
16 49 (0.68%) SharePoint 2013
17 44 (0.61%) WebLogic
18 39 (0.54%) SharePoint 2010
19 30 (0.41%) Apache Spark
20 29 (0.40%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 249 (3.43%) Photoshop
2 84 (1.16%) InVision
3 79 (1.09%) Adobe Illustrator
4 63 (0.87%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 35 (0.48%) Fireworks
6 28 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
7 26 (0.36%) InfoPath
8 20 (0.28%) InDesign
9 19 (0.26%) Microsoft Excel
10 18 (0.25%) GIMP
11 17 (0.23%) OmniGraffle
12 15 (0.21%) Adobe After Effects
13 11 (0.15%) Chatbot
14 8 (0.11%) UserZoom
15 7 (0.097%) MS Visio
16 6 (0.083%) Acrobat
16 6 (0.083%) Microsoft PowerPoint
17 4 (0.055%) Adobe Premiere
17 4 (0.055%) UXPin
18 3 (0.041%) Pixate
Business Applications
1 116 (1.60%) Magento
2 87 (1.20%) Dynamics CRM
3 17 (0.23%) SAP Hybris
4 16 (0.22%) Payment Gateway
5 15 (0.21%) Shopify
6 12 (0.17%) Remedy ITSM
7 10 (0.14%) Adobe Campaign
7 10 (0.14%) ION MarketView
8 8 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 5 (0.069%) Distributed Ledger
9 5 (0.069%) Dynamics NAV
10 4 (0.055%) Dynamics AX
10 4 (0.055%) OpenCart
10 4 (0.055%) SDL Web 8
11 3 (0.041%) Eloqua
11 3 (0.041%) NetSuite
11 3 (0.041%) SAP ERP
11 3 (0.041%) Unica
12 2 (0.028%) Endur
12 2 (0.028%) Oracle EBS
Cloud Services
1 625 (8.62%) Microsoft Azure
2 546 (7.53%) Amazon AWS
3 267 (3.68%) GitHub
4 228 (3.14%) npm
5 141 (1.94%) Serverless
6 97 (1.34%) Google Analytics
7 94 (1.30%) SaaS
8 90 (1.24%) AWS Lambda
9 80 (1.10%) Office 365
10 75 (1.03%) Google Cloud Platform
11 63 (0.87%) Heroku
12 47 (0.65%) PaaS
13 43 (0.59%) Dynamics 365
14 40 (0.55%) BrowserStack
15 36 (0.50%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 29 (0.40%) Amazon EC2
17 22 (0.30%) Amazon SQS
17 22 (0.30%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
17 22 (0.30%) IaaS
18 20 (0.28%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 302 (4.17%) HTTP
2 134 (1.85%) Internet
3 91 (1.26%) SSL
4 89 (1.23%) TCP/IP
5 49 (0.68%) Intranet
6 48 (0.66%) DNS
7 43 (0.59%) FTP
8 34 (0.47%) SMS
9 24 (0.33%) Firewall
10 16 (0.22%) SMTP
11 15 (0.21%) Skype
12 14 (0.19%) HTTPS
12 14 (0.19%) LAN
13 11 (0.15%) BIG-IP
14 10 (0.14%) IMAP
14 10 (0.14%) Kerberos
14 10 (0.14%) SSH
15 8 (0.11%) BGP
15 8 (0.11%) IPsec
15 8 (0.11%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 880 (12.14%) SQL Server
2 711 (9.81%) MySQL
3 397 (5.48%) Relational Database
4 370 (5.10%) MongoDB
5 328 (4.52%) PostgreSQL
6 299 (4.12%) NoSQL
7 109 (1.50%) RDBMS
8 96 (1.32%) Redis
9 81 (1.12%) Apache Cassandra
10 80 (1.10%) Big Data
11 66 (0.91%) SQL Server 2012
12 63 (0.87%) Oracle Database
13 56 (0.77%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 53 (0.73%) SQL Server 2008
15 51 (0.70%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 37 (0.51%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 37 (0.51%) Blockchain
16 37 (0.51%) Data Warehouse
17 35 (0.48%) Azure SQL Database
18 34 (0.47%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 1,757 (24.23%) Git (software)
2 586 (8.08%) Jenkins
3 503 (6.94%) JIRA
4 502 (6.92%) gulp
5 498 (6.87%) Selenium
6 409 (5.64%) webpack
7 344 (4.74%) Jasmine
8 322 (4.44%) Grunt
9 260 (3.59%) Visual Studio
10 245 (3.38%) Cucumber
11 232 (3.20%) Subversion
12 228 (3.14%) Team Foundation Server
13 218 (3.01%) Karma Test Runner
14 213 (2.94%) Maven
15 200 (2.76%) JUnit
16 197 (2.72%) Mocha
17 140 (1.93%) Protractor
18 128 (1.77%) Babel
19 125 (1.72%) Axure RP
20 123 (1.70%) Visual Studio Team System
General
1 912 (12.58%) Finance
2 363 (5.01%) Retail
3 345 (4.76%) Banking
4 253 (3.49%) Marketing
5 109 (1.50%) Games
6 103 (1.42%) Telecoms
7 92 (1.27%) Front Office
8 87 (1.20%) Investment Banking
9 85 (1.17%) Advertising
10 62 (0.86%) Legal
11 56 (0.77%) Publishing
12 55 (0.76%) Back Office
13 52 (0.72%) Law
14 51 (0.70%) Manufacturing
15 30 (0.41%) Electronics
16 29 (0.40%) Financial Institution
17 22 (0.30%) Automotive
18 12 (0.17%) Multimedia
18 12 (0.17%) Pharmaceutical
19 11 (0.15%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 6,105 (84.21%) Developer
2 1,670 (23.03%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,017 (14.03%) JavaScript Developer
4 879 (12.12%) React Developer
5 758 (10.46%) .NET Developer
6 630 (8.69%) Angular Developer
7 597 (8.23%) Full Stack Developer
8 533 (7.35%) Java Developer
9 480 (6.62%) Senior Developer
10 447 (6.17%) HTML Developer
11 446 (6.15%) C# Developer
12 408 (5.63%) UI Developer
13 396 (5.46%) PHP Developer
14 394 (5.43%) Web Developer
15 375 (5.17%) HTML CSS Developer
16 349 (4.81%) Designer
17 292 (4.03%) C# .NET Developer
18 214 (2.95%) Node.js Developer
19 202 (2.79%) UX Designer
20 169 (2.33%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,681 (92.15%) HTML
2 2,835 (39.10%) HTML5
3 2,597 (35.82%) AngularJS
4 2,186 (30.15%) CSS3
5 1,876 (25.88%) React
6 1,779 (24.54%) jQuery
7 1,539 (21.23%) .NET
8 1,511 (20.84%) Node.js
9 1,252 (17.27%) Sass
10 942 (12.99%) REST
11 934 (12.88%) ASP.NET
12 763 (10.52%) Web Services
13 751 (10.36%) Redux
14 704 (9.71%) XML
15 640 (8.83%) JSON
16 632 (8.72%) RESTful
17 597 (8.23%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 567 (7.82%) Ajax
19 544 (7.50%) ASP.NET Web API
20 507 (6.99%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 1,241 (17.12%) User Experience
2 443 (6.11%) Greenfield Project
3 346 (4.77%) Mobile App
4 302 (4.17%) Analytical Skills
5 243 (3.35%) Fintech
6 209 (2.88%) Computer Science
7 123 (1.70%) Self-Motivation
8 114 (1.57%) Enterprise Software
9 106 (1.46%) Data Structures
10 101 (1.39%) Algorithms
11 78 (1.08%) W3C
12 61 (0.84%) Linux Command Line
13 57 (0.79%) Fixed Income
14 54 (0.74%) Social Media
15 40 (0.55%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 39 (0.54%) Graphic Design
17 35 (0.48%) Derivative
18 34 (0.47%) Video on Demand
19 28 (0.39%) iPad
20 27 (0.37%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 493 (6.80%) Linux
2 266 (3.67%) Windows
3 208 (2.87%) Android
4 206 (2.84%) Apple iOS
5 203 (2.80%) Unix
6 53 (0.73%) Ubuntu
7 50 (0.69%) Windows Server
8 21 (0.29%) VMS
9 18 (0.25%) Mac OS
9 18 (0.25%) Mac OS X
10 16 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
11 15 (0.21%) Windows Server 2008
12 14 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 12 (0.17%) Windows Server 2003
14 11 (0.15%) CentOS
14 11 (0.15%) Solaris
15 4 (0.055%) Windows 7
16 3 (0.041%) Debian
16 3 (0.041%) Windows 8
17 2 (0.028%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,307 (45.61%) Agile Software Development
2 2,099 (28.95%) Front End Development
3 1,533 (21.14%) TDD
4 1,270 (17.52%) MVC
5 1,109 (15.30%) Web Development
6 1,020 (14.07%) Scrum
7 860 (11.86%) Test Automation
8 800 (11.03%) Continuous Integration
9 762 (10.51%) BDD
10 677 (9.34%) OO
11 611 (8.43%) Microservices
12 551 (7.60%) Unit Testing
13 548 (7.56%) E-Commerce
14 540 (7.45%) Responsive Web Design
15 533 (7.35%) DevOps
16 495 (6.83%) Problem-Solving
17 489 (6.74%) Software Engineering
18 326 (4.50%) Wireframes
19 324 (4.47%) Open Source
20 322 (4.44%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 5,924 (81.71%) JavaScript
2 1,519 (20.95%) C#
3 1,337 (18.44%) Java
4 1,101 (15.19%) SQL
5 812 (11.20%) PHP
6 717 (9.89%) ES6
7 699 (9.64%) TypeScript
8 436 (6.01%) Python
9 213 (2.94%) Ruby
10 210 (2.90%) Java 8
11 180 (2.48%) Scala
12 157 (2.17%) T-SQL
13 124 (1.71%) Go
14 92 (1.27%) PL/SQL
15 83 (1.14%) C++
16 82 (1.13%) PowerShell
17 81 (1.12%) Groovy
18 79 (1.09%) ES7
19 77 (1.06%) Perl
20 67 (0.92%) C
Qualifications
1 377 (5.20%) Degree
2 291 (4.01%) Security Cleared
3 233 (3.21%) SC Cleared
4 125 (1.72%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (0.36%) Microsoft Certification
6 22 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
7 16 (0.22%) ITIL Certification
8 13 (0.18%) DBS Check
9 9 (0.12%) CTC Cleared
9 9 (0.12%) DV Cleared
10 8 (0.11%) Postgraduate
11 7 (0.097%) APMP
11 7 (0.097%) CCNP
11 7 (0.097%) Cisco Certification
12 6 (0.083%) ISEB
12 6 (0.083%) Master's Degree
13 5 (0.069%) CCNA
13 5 (0.069%) CISSP
13 5 (0.069%) SSCP
14 4 (0.055%) BC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 288 (3.97%) QA
2 63 (0.87%) WCAG
3 17 (0.23%) WAI
4 16 (0.22%) PMO
5 15 (0.21%) Data Quality
6 14 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
6 14 (0.19%) SLA
7 13 (0.18%) GDPR
8 8 (0.11%) MiFID
9 7 (0.097%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 5 (0.069%) GxP
11 3 (0.041%) Government Security Classifications
11 3 (0.041%) PMBOK
12 2 (0.028%) PCI DSS
13 1 (0.014%) ISO 9001
13 1 (0.014%) MISRA
13 1 (0.014%) MISRA C
System Software
1 539 (7.43%) Docker
2 37 (0.51%) Active Directory
3 19 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
4 13 (0.18%) VirtualBox
5 10 (0.14%) LXC
5 10 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
6 8 (0.11%) HDFS
7 6 (0.083%) Hyper-V
8 5 (0.069%) KVM
8 5 (0.069%) vCloud
9 1 (0.014%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 1 (0.014%) etcd
9 1 (0.014%) flannel
9 1 (0.014%) Gluster
9 1 (0.014%) Microsoft App-V
9 1 (0.014%) VMware ESXi
9 1 (0.014%) Xen
Systems Management
1 136 (1.88%) Kubernetes
2 122 (1.68%) Puppet
3 81 (1.12%) Ansible
4 78 (1.08%) Kibana
5 56 (0.77%) Opscode Chef
5 56 (0.77%) Terraform
6 55 (0.76%) Grafana
7 36 (0.50%) Docker Swarm
8 20 (0.28%) logstash
9 16 (0.22%) Graphite
10 13 (0.18%) Mesos
11 11 (0.15%) HockeyApp
11 11 (0.15%) Single Sign-On
12 8 (0.11%) HAProxy
13 7 (0.097%) Capistrano
13 7 (0.097%) Cisco Prime
13 7 (0.097%) SCCM
13 7 (0.097%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
14 6 (0.083%) Matomo
15 5 (0.069%) Marathon
Vendors
1 518 (7.14%) Microsoft
2 396 (5.46%) Oracle
3 324 (4.47%) Adobe
4 259 (3.57%) Google
5 89 (1.23%) ServiceNow
6 87 (1.20%) Sitecore
7 82 (1.13%) Salesforce.com
8 77 (1.06%) hybris
9 74 (1.02%) SAP
10 72 (0.99%) IBM
11 55 (0.76%) Splunk
12 51 (0.70%) Twitter
13 49 (0.68%) Zend
14 43 (0.59%) Atlassian
15 42 (0.58%) Xamarin
16 35 (0.48%) Apple
17 27 (0.37%) Nintex
18 23 (0.32%) webMethods
19 21 (0.29%) Citrix
20 18 (0.25%) VMware