Period
to 23 October 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 October 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
23 Oct 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 27 19 13
Rank change year-on-year -8 -6 0
Contract jobs citing CSS 4,617 7,250 7,548
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 5.97% 7.67% 8.19%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.22% 21.70% 25.17%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,261 5,291 5,539
England median daily rate £450 £425 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%
10th Percentile £313 £306 £284
90th Percentile £600 £575 £575
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £413
% change year-on-year +5.88% +3.03% +3.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 50 48 63
England median hourly rate £37.35 £42.25 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -11.60% +5.63% +9.59%
10th Percentile £23.90 £17.80 £14.60
90th Percentile £66.25 £58.25 £48.75
UK median hourly rate £36.70 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year -13.65% +6.25% +10.34%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 24,021 33,406 29,994
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 31.08% 35.33% 32.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,926 23,777 21,228
England median daily rate £500 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £340 £325 £313
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £498 £475 £450
% change year-on-year +4.74% +5.56% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 239 300 359
England median hourly rate £44.57 £41.69 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.90% +4.22% +6.67%
10th Percentile £19.40 £16.93 £18.70
90th Percentile £73.75 £57.63 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £43.50 £41.57 £40.00
% change year-on-year +4.64% +3.93% +6.67%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 October 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 October 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 23 October 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -3 2,474 £500 +5.26% 874
South East -22 706 £425 +3.03% 557
North of England -21 521 £396 +5.05% 601
Midlands -9 360 £400 +0.95% 378
South West -14 351 £400 +1.27% 291
North West -19 277 £385 +2.67% 316
West Midlands -5 236 £413 +3.13% 189
Yorkshire -24 192 £400 +5.26% 210
East of England -2 182 £425 +9.32% 214
East Midlands -12 116 £369 -1.67% 188
North East -9 52 £398 +1.66% 75
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 23 October 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,196 (90.88%) HTML
2 3,666 (79.40%) JavaScript
3 2,188 (47.39%) Agile Software Development
4 1,531 (33.16%) AngularJS
5 1,505 (32.60%) HTML5
6 1,370 (29.67%) React
7 1,297 (28.09%) Front End Development
8 1,102 (23.87%) CSS3
9 1,081 (23.41%) C#
10 1,058 (22.92%) .NET
11 997 (21.59%) Git (software)
12 962 (20.84%) TDD
13 929 (20.12%) Node.js
14 842 (18.24%) jQuery
15 797 (17.26%) User Experience
16 788 (17.07%) Sass
17 774 (16.76%) Java
18 763 (16.53%) SQL
19 726 (15.72%) MVC
20 649 (14.06%) TypeScript
21 647 (14.01%) SQL Server
22 643 (13.93%) Scrum
23 619 (13.41%) Web Development
24 585 (12.67%) Finance
25 579 (12.54%) ASP.NET
26 566 (12.26%) Redux
27 559 (12.11%) Azure
28 519 (11.24%) Twitter Bootstrap
29 502 (10.87%) Continuous Integration
30 477 (10.33%) Test Automation

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 340 (7.36%) CMS
2 136 (2.95%) SharePoint
3 132 (2.86%) WordPress
4 128 (2.77%) Confluence
5 95 (2.06%) Apache
6 86 (1.86%) Drupal
7 72 (1.56%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 62 (1.34%) Umbraco
9 61 (1.32%) Elasticsearch
10 53 (1.15%) IIS
11 52 (1.13%) WebSphere
12 47 (1.02%) Sitecore CMS
12 47 (1.02%) Tomcat
13 45 (0.97%) JBoss
14 25 (0.54%) nginx
15 24 (0.52%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 22 (0.48%) Apache Solr
16 22 (0.48%) WebLogic
17 21 (0.45%) EPiServer
18 20 (0.43%) SharePoint 2013
Applications
1 179 (3.88%) Photoshop
2 116 (2.51%) Sketch
3 82 (1.78%) Adobe Illustrator
4 62 (1.34%) InVision
5 50 (1.08%) Microsoft Office
6 40 (0.87%) Adobe XD
7 39 (0.84%) Zeplin
8 34 (0.74%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 30 (0.65%) Microsoft Excel
10 28 (0.61%) GIMP
11 25 (0.54%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 16 (0.35%) InDesign
13 15 (0.32%) Marvel
14 12 (0.26%) Figma
15 11 (0.24%) MS Visio
16 8 (0.17%) Adobe After Effects
16 8 (0.17%) InfoPath
16 8 (0.17%) UXPin
17 7 (0.15%) Chatbot
18 6 (0.13%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 111 (2.40%) Magento
2 33 (0.71%) Dynamics CRM
3 22 (0.48%) Shopify
4 19 (0.41%) Adobe Campaign
5 9 (0.19%) Eloqua
6 8 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
6 8 (0.17%) R3 Corda
7 7 (0.15%) NetSuite
8 6 (0.13%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.065%) Oracle BPM
9 3 (0.065%) Oracle EBS
9 3 (0.065%) osCommerce
9 3 (0.065%) SAP Hybris
9 3 (0.065%) Visualfiles
10 2 (0.043%) Primavera
10 2 (0.043%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 2 (0.043%) SDL Web 8
10 2 (0.043%) WebTrends
11 1 (0.022%) SessionCam
11 1 (0.022%) Unica
Cloud Services
1 559 (12.11%) Azure
2 373 (8.08%) AWS
3 189 (4.09%) npm
4 140 (3.03%) GitHub
5 91 (1.97%) Serverless
6 90 (1.95%) GCP
7 85 (1.84%) SaaS
8 65 (1.41%) Google Analytics
9 64 (1.39%) Office 365
10 56 (1.21%) Power Platform
11 53 (1.15%) AWS Lambda
12 48 (1.04%) PaaS
13 36 (0.78%) Amazon S3
14 34 (0.74%) Amazon EC2
15 33 (0.71%) Yarn
16 32 (0.69%) Adobe Analytics
17 29 (0.63%) Adobe Creative Cloud
18 28 (0.61%) Amazon SQS
19 25 (0.54%) Dynamics 365
20 23 (0.50%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 111 (2.40%) HTTP
2 37 (0.80%) SSL
3 32 (0.69%) TCP/IP
4 27 (0.58%) Internet
5 22 (0.48%) Intranet
6 16 (0.35%) SSH
7 13 (0.28%) Network Security
8 10 (0.22%) FTP
9 8 (0.17%) SMS
10 7 (0.15%) DNS
10 7 (0.15%) Reverse Proxy
11 6 (0.13%) Firewall
11 6 (0.13%) HTTPS
12 4 (0.087%) Skype
12 4 (0.087%) VPN
13 3 (0.065%) DSL
13 3 (0.065%) Intrusion Detection
13 3 (0.065%) MQTT
13 3 (0.065%) RTMP
13 3 (0.065%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 647 (14.01%) SQL Server
2 344 (7.45%) MySQL
3 213 (4.61%) Relational Database
4 162 (3.51%) NoSQL
5 120 (2.60%) PostgreSQL
6 117 (2.53%) MongoDB
7 45 (0.97%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 43 (0.93%) Big Data
8 43 (0.93%) Power BI
9 40 (0.87%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 36 (0.78%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 32 (0.69%) Oracle Database
11 32 (0.69%) RDBMS
12 28 (0.61%) Apache Cassandra
12 28 (0.61%) Redis
13 26 (0.56%) Amazon RDS
14 25 (0.54%) SQL Server 2008
15 24 (0.52%) SQL Server 2012
16 23 (0.50%) Blockchain
16 23 (0.50%) DB2
Development Applications
1 997 (21.59%) Git (software)
2 369 (7.99%) Jenkins
3 336 (7.28%) JIRA
4 330 (7.15%) webpack
5 243 (5.26%) gulp
6 201 (4.35%) Jasmine
7 200 (4.33%) Grunt
8 198 (4.29%) Visual Studio
9 197 (4.27%) Selenium
10 140 (3.03%) Karma Test Runner
11 127 (2.75%) Cucumber
12 120 (2.60%) Subversion
12 120 (2.60%) Team Foundation Server
13 115 (2.49%) TeamCity
14 106 (2.30%) Visual Studio Team System
15 104 (2.25%) JUnit
16 97 (2.10%) Bitbucket
17 90 (1.95%) Maven
18 80 (1.73%) Mocha
19 78 (1.69%) Babel
General
1 585 (12.67%) Finance
2 255 (5.52%) Marketing
3 217 (4.70%) Retail
4 177 (3.83%) Banking
5 172 (3.73%) Public Sector
6 106 (2.30%) Games
7 93 (2.01%) Front Office
8 76 (1.65%) Law
9 75 (1.62%) Telecoms
10 59 (1.28%) Advertising
11 57 (1.23%) Manufacturing
12 53 (1.15%) Investment Banking
13 39 (0.84%) Publishing
14 37 (0.80%) Electronics
15 23 (0.50%) Legal
16 20 (0.43%) Pharmaceutical
17 18 (0.39%) Automotive
18 17 (0.37%) Police
19 14 (0.30%) Financial Institution
20 8 (0.17%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 3,740 (81.00%) Developer
2 951 (20.60%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 634 (13.73%) React Developer
4 505 (10.94%) JavaScript Developer
5 465 (10.07%) Full Stack Developer
6 435 (9.42%) .NET Developer
7 400 (8.66%) Angular Developer
8 330 (7.15%) Senior Developer
9 307 (6.65%) C# Developer
10 259 (5.61%) Designer
11 242 (5.24%) Java Developer
12 200 (4.33%) UI Developer
13 194 (4.20%) Web Developer
14 185 (4.01%) HTML Developer
15 173 (3.75%) PHP Developer
16 155 (3.36%) C# .NET Developer
17 154 (3.34%) UX Designer
18 141 (3.05%) Software Developer
19 138 (2.99%) Node.js Developer
20 132 (2.86%) HTML CSS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,196 (90.88%) HTML
2 1,531 (33.16%) AngularJS
3 1,505 (32.60%) HTML5
4 1,370 (29.67%) React
5 1,102 (23.87%) CSS3
6 1,058 (22.92%) .NET
7 929 (20.12%) Node.js
8 842 (18.24%) jQuery
9 788 (17.07%) Sass
10 579 (12.54%) ASP.NET
11 566 (12.26%) Redux
12 519 (11.24%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 444 (9.62%) REST
14 440 (9.53%) Web Services
15 398 (8.62%) RESTful
16 377 (8.17%) JSON
17 374 (8.10%) Vue.js
18 335 (7.26%) XML
19 321 (6.95%) ASP.NET Web API
20 314 (6.80%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 797 (17.26%) User Experience
2 274 (5.93%) Greenfield Project
3 226 (4.89%) Analytical Skills
4 195 (4.22%) Mobile App
5 108 (2.34%) Enterprise Software
6 87 (1.88%) W3C
7 86 (1.86%) Hedge funds
8 60 (1.30%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 47 (1.02%) Data Structures
10 46 (1.00%) Equities
11 39 (0.84%) Graphic Design
11 39 (0.84%) Social Media
12 35 (0.76%) Linux Command Line
13 34 (0.74%) Virtual Team
14 33 (0.71%) Digital Media
15 29 (0.63%) Self-Motivation
16 28 (0.61%) Management Information System
16 28 (0.61%) Vector Graphics
17 27 (0.58%) Algorithms
18 24 (0.52%) e-Learning
Operating Systems
1 283 (6.13%) Linux
2 141 (3.05%) Windows
3 99 (2.14%) Unix
4 88 (1.91%) Apple iOS
5 71 (1.54%) Android
6 23 (0.50%) Mac OS X
7 21 (0.45%) Ubuntu
8 17 (0.37%) Mac OS
9 13 (0.28%) Windows Server
10 12 (0.26%) Windows 10
11 7 (0.15%) VMS
12 5 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
13 4 (0.087%) Windows Server 2008
14 3 (0.065%) Solaris
15 2 (0.043%) CentOS
15 2 (0.043%) Debian
15 2 (0.043%) Windows 7
16 1 (0.022%) tvOS
16 1 (0.022%) Windows Server 2003
16 1 (0.022%) Windows Vista
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,188 (47.39%) Agile Software Development
2 1,297 (28.09%) Front End Development
3 962 (20.84%) TDD
4 726 (15.72%) MVC
5 643 (13.93%) Scrum
6 619 (13.41%) Web Development
7 502 (10.87%) Continuous Integration
8 477 (10.33%) Test Automation
9 420 (9.10%) DevOps
10 410 (8.88%) OO
11 394 (8.53%) BDD
12 391 (8.47%) Microservices
13 353 (7.65%) E-Commerce
14 317 (6.87%) Problem-Solving
15 305 (6.61%) Unit Testing
16 287 (6.22%) Responsive Web Design
17 248 (5.37%) Software Engineering
18 247 (5.35%) Analytics
19 220 (4.76%) Wireframes
20 202 (4.38%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 3,666 (79.40%) JavaScript
2 1,081 (23.41%) C#
3 774 (16.76%) Java
4 763 (16.53%) SQL
5 649 (14.06%) TypeScript
6 469 (10.16%) PHP
7 417 (9.03%) ES6
8 293 (6.35%) Python
9 184 (3.99%) Ruby
10 112 (2.43%) Scala
11 99 (2.14%) T-SQL
12 91 (1.97%) Java 8
13 77 (1.67%) PowerShell
14 50 (1.08%) ES7
15 36 (0.78%) PL/SQL
16 34 (0.74%) PHP 7
17 33 (0.71%) Perl
18 30 (0.65%) Bash Shell
19 29 (0.63%) Go
19 29 (0.63%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 237 (5.13%) Security Cleared
2 211 (4.57%) Degree
3 158 (3.42%) SC Cleared
4 55 (1.19%) Computer Science Degree
5 36 (0.78%) BPSS Clearance
6 15 (0.32%) ISEB
7 13 (0.28%) DBS Check
7 13 (0.28%) Master's Degree
8 12 (0.26%) ISTQB
9 9 (0.19%) AWS Certification
10 7 (0.15%) BC Cleared
10 7 (0.15%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 7 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
11 6 (0.13%) DV Cleared
12 4 (0.087%) A+ Certification
12 4 (0.087%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 4 (0.087%) MCSD
13 2 (0.043%) Cisco Certification
13 2 (0.043%) CTC Cleared
14 1 (0.022%) IIBA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 157 (3.40%) QA
2 103 (2.23%) WCAG
3 16 (0.35%) GDPR
4 9 (0.19%) PMO
4 9 (0.19%) SLA
5 6 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
6 5 (0.11%) WAI
7 3 (0.065%) Data Quality
8 2 (0.043%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 2 (0.043%) MiFID
8 2 (0.043%) PCI DSS
8 2 (0.043%) PSD2
9 1 (0.022%) COBIT
9 1 (0.022%) Dublin Core
9 1 (0.022%) HL7
9 1 (0.022%) ISO 9001
9 1 (0.022%) Section 508
System Software
1 352 (7.62%) Docker
2 21 (0.45%) Active Directory
3 19 (0.41%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.087%) vSphere
6 2 (0.043%) HDFS
7 1 (0.022%) GridGain
7 1 (0.022%) vCloud
7 1 (0.022%) VMware NSX
7 1 (0.022%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 121 (2.62%) Kubernetes
2 47 (1.02%) Ansible
3 34 (0.74%) Terraform
4 31 (0.67%) Kibana
5 29 (0.63%) Puppet
6 26 (0.56%) Grafana
7 13 (0.28%) HP Quality Center
8 11 (0.24%) Opscode Chef
9 10 (0.22%) Single Sign-On
10 9 (0.19%) Docker Swarm
10 9 (0.19%) MIIS
11 6 (0.13%) TeamSite
12 5 (0.11%) Hadoop YARN
13 3 (0.065%) Rancher
13 3 (0.065%) SCCM
14 2 (0.043%) Graphite
14 2 (0.043%) MOM
14 2 (0.043%) Nagios
14 2 (0.043%) Packer
14 2 (0.043%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 426 (9.23%) Microsoft
2 218 (4.72%) Adobe
3 210 (4.55%) Oracle
4 168 (3.64%) Google
5 74 (1.60%) Sitecore
6 73 (1.58%) Atlassian
7 67 (1.45%) Salesforce.com
8 52 (1.13%) ServiceNow
9 43 (0.93%) IBM
10 39 (0.84%) hybris
11 35 (0.76%) SAP
12 32 (0.69%) Cypress Semiconductor
13 23 (0.50%) Zend
14 22 (0.48%) Remedy
15 19 (0.41%) MuleSoft
16 18 (0.39%) MicroStrategy
16 18 (0.39%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 18 (0.39%) Tableau
16 18 (0.39%) webMethods
17 16 (0.35%) Cognos