Period
to 24 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 24 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
24 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 45 32 22
Rank change year-on-year -13 -10 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,605 3,733 6,611
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.67% 5.68% 7.24%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 15.15% 18.73% 20.98%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,385 2,786 5,017
Median daily rate £450 £450 £450
10th Percentile £281 £306 £306
90th Percentile £600 £600 £588
UK median daily rate £443 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -1.67% +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 30 37 52
Median hourly rate £40.50 £36.70 £41.20
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +10.35% -10.92% -8.44%
10th Percentile £24.71 £22.00 £14.06
90th Percentile £58.71 £53.00 £57.95
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £36.70 £39.25
% change year-on-year +15.80% -6.50% -10.29%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 10,596 19,928 31,507
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.85% 30.34% 34.51%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,534 14,194 22,661
Median daily rate £490 £500 £498
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.00% +0.50% +4.74%
10th Percentile £315 £331 £325
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK median daily rate £480 £495 £480
% change year-on-year -3.03% +3.13% +3.78%
Number of hourly rates quoted 122 179 241
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.40 £41.53
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -3.02% +11.73% +3.83%
10th Percentile £22.29 £17.45 £18.00
90th Percentile £62.03 £78.75 £60.00
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £41.69
% change year-on-year -2.17% +10.34% +4.22%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 24 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 24 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 24 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -26 852 £490 -2.00% 434
North of England +4 219 £425 +6.25% 452
South East -3 178 £425 +5.26% 252
Midlands 0 153 £351 -9.71% 268
North West +2 115 £406 +4.84% 261
South West -2 98 £400 - 163
West Midlands -7 89 £365 -11.52% 157
East Midlands +8 63 £350 - 111
Yorkshire -12 63 £425 - 149
North East +26 41 £468 +24.67% 42
East of England -15 36 £463 +12.80% 103
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 24 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,427 (88.91%) HTML
2 1,231 (76.70%) JavaScript
3 614 (38.26%) Agile Software Development
4 473 (29.47%) HTML5
5 429 (26.73%) Front End Development
6 416 (25.92%) React
7 392 (24.42%) AngularJS
8 369 (22.99%) Node.js
9 351 (21.87%) Git (software)
10 334 (20.81%) CSS3
11 315 (19.63%) User Experience
12 312 (19.44%) .NET
13 296 (18.44%) Java
14 292 (18.19%) Azure
15 277 (17.26%) SQL
16 264 (16.45%) C#
17 249 (15.51%) REST
18 243 (15.14%) jQuery
19 237 (14.77%) TDD
20 227 (14.14%) Web Development
21 223 (13.89%) DevOps
22 218 (13.58%) TypeScript
23 197 (12.27%) MVC
24 196 (12.21%) PHP
25 192 (11.96%) Redux
26 189 (11.78%) Sass
27 177 (11.03%) Finance
28 174 (10.84%) AWS
29 169 (10.53%) Web Services
30 160 (9.97%) SQL Server

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 88 (5.48%) CMS
2 63 (3.93%) WordPress
3 45 (2.80%) SharePoint
4 38 (2.37%) Confluence
5 33 (2.06%) Apache
6 25 (1.56%) Drupal
7 24 (1.50%) IIS
8 23 (1.43%) Elasticsearch
9 20 (1.25%) WebSphere
10 16 (1.00%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 13 (0.81%) Umbraco
11 13 (0.81%) WebLogic
12 12 (0.75%) Jadu
13 11 (0.69%) Appian
14 10 (0.62%) JBoss
14 10 (0.62%) nginx
15 9 (0.56%) WebSphere Application Server
16 8 (0.50%) Apache Solr
17 7 (0.44%) Oracle SOA Suite
17 7 (0.44%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 31 (1.93%) Photoshop
2 28 (1.74%) Sketch
3 24 (1.50%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 21 (1.31%) Adobe Illustrator
5 20 (1.25%) InVision
6 16 (1.00%) Adobe After Effects
6 16 (1.00%) Adobe Premiere
7 13 (0.81%) Microsoft Office
7 13 (0.81%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 11 (0.69%) Figma
9 10 (0.62%) Chatbot
9 10 (0.62%) CINEMA 4D
9 10 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
10 9 (0.56%) Adobe XD
10 9 (0.56%) MS Visio
10 9 (0.56%) Zeplin
11 6 (0.37%) InfoPath
12 4 (0.25%) UserZoom
13 2 (0.12%) Flinto
13 2 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 30 (1.87%) Magento
2 18 (1.12%) Dynamics CRM
2 18 (1.12%) Shopify
3 3 (0.19%) SAP ERP
4 2 (0.12%) Dynamics NAV
4 2 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 2 (0.12%) SAP Hybris
5 1 (0.062%) Exstream
5 1 (0.062%) OpenCart
5 1 (0.062%) Oracle Applications
5 1 (0.062%) Siebel CRM
5 1 (0.062%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 292 (18.19%) Azure
2 174 (10.84%) AWS
3 81 (5.05%) GitHub
4 52 (3.24%) GCP
5 49 (3.05%) Serverless
6 45 (2.80%) npm
7 40 (2.49%) PaaS
8 39 (2.43%) Office 365
9 29 (1.81%) Power Platform
10 27 (1.68%) Logic Apps
11 22 (1.37%) Google Analytics
12 21 (1.31%) AWS Lambda
13 20 (1.25%) PowerApps
13 20 (1.25%) SaaS
14 17 (1.06%) Amazon S3
14 17 (1.06%) Azure Functions
15 15 (0.93%) Yarn
16 12 (0.75%) AWS CloudFormation
16 12 (0.75%) Cloud Computing
16 12 (0.75%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 41 (2.55%) HTTP
2 17 (1.06%) Intranet
3 10 (0.62%) Internet
4 6 (0.37%) DNS
4 6 (0.37%) SSL
5 5 (0.31%) Remote Desktop
5 5 (0.31%) Skype
5 5 (0.31%) TCP/IP
6 3 (0.19%) DSL
6 3 (0.19%) Intrusion Detection
7 2 (0.12%) Tactical Data Link
8 1 (0.062%) AMQP
8 1 (0.062%) Extranet
8 1 (0.062%) Network Security
8 1 (0.062%) SMS
8 1 (0.062%) VPN
8 1 (0.062%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 160 (9.97%) SQL Server
2 125 (7.79%) MySQL
3 61 (3.80%) NoSQL
4 57 (3.55%) MongoDB
5 52 (3.24%) Relational Database
6 49 (3.05%) PostgreSQL
7 28 (1.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 23 (1.43%) Azure SQL Database
8 23 (1.43%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 22 (1.37%) Big Data
10 20 (1.25%) Cosmos DB
11 15 (0.93%) Oracle Database
12 11 (0.69%) Power BI
12 11 (0.69%) RDBMS
13 10 (0.62%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 9 (0.56%) Amazon RDS
14 9 (0.56%) Apache Cassandra
15 8 (0.50%) Redis
15 8 (0.50%) SQL Server 2016
16 6 (0.37%) SQL Server 2012
Development Applications
1 351 (21.87%) Git (software)
2 129 (8.04%) Jenkins
3 106 (6.60%) webpack
4 94 (5.86%) JIRA
5 70 (4.36%) gulp
6 67 (4.17%) Jasmine
7 51 (3.18%) Selenium
8 49 (3.05%) Grunt
9 44 (2.74%) Maven
9 44 (2.74%) Visual Studio
10 40 (2.49%) Cypress.io
11 38 (2.37%) Subversion
12 36 (2.24%) Mocha
13 34 (2.12%) JUnit
13 34 (2.12%) SonarQube
14 32 (1.99%) GitLab
15 31 (1.93%) Karma Test Runner
16 24 (1.50%) Team Foundation Server
17 22 (1.37%) Cucumber
18 20 (1.25%) Gradle
General
1 177 (11.03%) Finance
2 108 (6.73%) Public Sector
3 104 (6.48%) Marketing
4 75 (4.67%) Banking
5 40 (2.49%) Retail
6 28 (1.74%) Investment Banking
6 28 (1.74%) Law
7 25 (1.56%) Front Office
8 24 (1.50%) Games
9 23 (1.43%) Telecoms
10 20 (1.25%) Manufacturing
11 16 (1.00%) Local Government
12 13 (0.81%) Back Office
13 12 (0.75%) Advertising
14 11 (0.69%) Electronics
14 11 (0.69%) Legal
15 9 (0.56%) Financial Institution
16 8 (0.50%) Pharmaceutical
16 8 (0.50%) Publishing
17 5 (0.31%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,222 (76.14%) Developer
2 292 (18.19%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 216 (13.46%) Full Stack Developer
4 199 (12.40%) React Developer
5 121 (7.54%) .NET Developer
6 117 (7.29%) Angular Developer
7 116 (7.23%) Designer
8 114 (7.10%) JavaScript Developer
8 114 (7.10%) Senior Developer
9 84 (5.23%) Web Developer
10 75 (4.67%) PHP Developer
11 73 (4.55%) Java Developer
12 67 (4.17%) HTML Developer
13 63 (3.93%) Node.js Developer
14 56 (3.49%) UI Developer
15 51 (3.18%) C# Developer
16 50 (3.12%) HTML CSS Developer
17 45 (2.80%) Architect
17 45 (2.80%) UX Designer
18 37 (2.31%) Interaction Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,427 (88.91%) HTML
2 473 (29.47%) HTML5
3 416 (25.92%) React
4 392 (24.42%) AngularJS
5 369 (22.99%) Node.js
6 334 (20.81%) CSS3
7 312 (19.44%) .NET
8 249 (15.51%) REST
9 243 (15.14%) jQuery
10 192 (11.96%) Redux
11 189 (11.78%) Sass
12 169 (10.53%) Web Services
13 157 (9.78%) RESTful
14 144 (8.97%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 125 (7.79%) Vue.js
16 121 (7.54%) JSON
17 117 (7.29%) ASP.NET
17 117 (7.29%) Spring
18 116 (7.23%) XML
19 108 (6.73%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 315 (19.63%) User Experience
2 87 (5.42%) Mobile App
3 83 (5.17%) Greenfield Project
4 63 (3.93%) Analytical Skills
5 34 (2.12%) Social Media
6 28 (1.74%) Cloud Native
7 26 (1.62%) Enterprise Software
8 21 (1.31%) Public Cloud
9 18 (1.12%) Data Structures
10 16 (1.00%) Animation
10 16 (1.00%) Self-Motivation
11 15 (0.93%) N-Tier
12 13 (0.81%) Management Information System
13 12 (0.75%) Mobile Payment
13 12 (0.75%) NHS
14 11 (0.69%) Hedge funds
14 11 (0.69%) Virtual Team
15 10 (0.62%) Over-the-Top Content
16 9 (0.56%) Graphic Design
16 9 (0.56%) Video Editing
Operating Systems
1 77 (4.80%) Linux
2 62 (3.86%) Windows
3 49 (3.05%) Android
4 43 (2.68%) Apple iOS
5 33 (2.06%) Unix
6 17 (1.06%) Windows Server 2012
7 13 (0.81%) Windows Server
8 12 (0.75%) Mac OS X
9 8 (0.50%) Windows 10
9 8 (0.50%) Windows Server 2016
10 4 (0.25%) Mac OS
10 4 (0.25%) Ubuntu
11 2 (0.12%) CentOS
11 2 (0.12%) VMS
12 1 (0.062%) MVS
12 1 (0.062%) Solaris
12 1 (0.062%) Tizen
12 1 (0.062%) tvOS
12 1 (0.062%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 614 (38.26%) Agile Software Development
2 429 (26.73%) Front End Development
3 237 (14.77%) TDD
4 227 (14.14%) Web Development
5 223 (13.89%) DevOps
6 197 (12.27%) MVC
7 157 (9.78%) Software Engineering
8 156 (9.72%) Test Automation
9 146 (9.10%) Scrum
10 139 (8.66%) Microservices
10 139 (8.66%) OO
11 127 (7.91%) Continuous Integration
12 118 (7.35%) Problem-Solving
13 100 (6.23%) Unit Testing
14 92 (5.73%) BDD
14 92 (5.73%) SDLC
15 90 (5.61%) E-Commerce
16 88 (5.48%) Prototyping
17 84 (5.23%) Analytics
18 82 (5.11%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 1,231 (76.70%) JavaScript
2 296 (18.44%) Java
3 277 (17.26%) SQL
4 264 (16.45%) C#
5 218 (13.58%) TypeScript
6 196 (12.21%) PHP
7 137 (8.54%) Python
8 101 (6.29%) ES6
9 59 (3.68%) PowerShell
10 32 (1.99%) Scala
11 26 (1.62%) Kotlin
11 26 (1.62%) PL/SQL
12 24 (1.50%) Go
12 24 (1.50%) T-SQL
13 23 (1.43%) Java 8
14 22 (1.37%) VB.NET
15 21 (1.31%) C
16 19 (1.18%) Ruby
17 17 (1.06%) C++
18 16 (1.00%) VB
Qualifications
1 143 (8.91%) Security Cleared
2 120 (7.48%) SC Cleared
3 99 (6.17%) Degree
4 43 (2.68%) Computer Science Degree
5 14 (0.87%) BPSS Clearance
6 11 (0.69%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.25%) Master's Degree
7 4 (0.25%) Numerate Degree
8 3 (0.19%) DBS Check
9 2 (0.12%) HNC
9 2 (0.12%) HND
9 2 (0.12%) ISTQB
9 2 (0.12%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 2 (0.12%) Microsoft Certification
10 1 (0.062%) BC Cleared
10 1 (0.062%) MCPD
10 1 (0.062%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 68 (4.24%) QA
2 43 (2.68%) WCAG
3 21 (1.31%) GDPR
4 9 (0.56%) WAI
5 4 (0.25%) Section 508
6 2 (0.12%) Cyber Essentials
6 2 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.12%) NCSC
6 2 (0.12%) NIST
6 2 (0.12%) PCI DSS
6 2 (0.12%) SLA
7 1 (0.062%) Actionable Recommendations
7 1 (0.062%) Government Security Classifications
7 1 (0.062%) HL7
System Software
1 156 (9.72%) Docker
2 9 (0.56%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.25%) VMware NSX
4 2 (0.12%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.062%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 88 (5.48%) Kubernetes
2 47 (2.93%) Terraform
3 16 (1.00%) Ansible
4 11 (0.69%) Puppet
5 10 (0.62%) Kibana
6 9 (0.56%) Opscode Chef
7 8 (0.50%) Grafana
8 5 (0.31%) PowerCLI
8 5 (0.31%) Prometheus
9 3 (0.19%) Icinga
9 3 (0.19%) Single Sign-On
10 2 (0.12%) Capistrano
11 1 (0.062%) cPanel
11 1 (0.062%) HP ALM
11 1 (0.062%) HP Quality Center
11 1 (0.062%) logstash
11 1 (0.062%) MIIS
11 1 (0.062%) Plesk
Vendors
1 126 (7.85%) Microsoft
2 71 (4.42%) Adobe
3 67 (4.17%) Google
4 66 (4.11%) Oracle
5 37 (2.31%) Salesforce.com
6 33 (2.06%) ServiceNow
7 21 (1.31%) SAP
8 18 (1.12%) Splunk
9 14 (0.87%) Sitecore
10 11 (0.69%) Bloomberg
10 11 (0.69%) WooCommerce
11 10 (0.62%) Apple
12 9 (0.56%) VMware
13 8 (0.50%) CA Agile Central
13 8 (0.50%) hybris
13 8 (0.50%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
13 8 (0.50%) Zend
14 7 (0.44%) Atlassian
14 7 (0.44%) MEDITECH
15 6 (0.37%) Red Hat