Period
to 31 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 31 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
31 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 54 46 25
Rank change year-on-year -8 -21 -6
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,435 1,607 5,450
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.23% 4.98% 6.54%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.04% 16.06% 20.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,740 1,115 3,936
10th Percentile £313 £313 £313
25th Percentile £387 £363 £369
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
75th Percentile £550 £539 £525
90th Percentile £638 £600 £600
UK median daily rate £463 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +2.78% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 34 9 48
10th Percentile £23.83 £23.10 £30.03
25th Percentile £34.13 £30.00 £43.44
Median hourly rate £48.26 £35.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year +37.88% -30.00% +17.65%
75th Percentile £56.13 £52.50 £57.50
90th Percentile £63.80 £54.20 £78.75
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £50.00
% change year-on-year +6.25% -20.00% +17.65%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 17,340 10,008 26,774
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.12% 31.00% 32.12%
Number of daily rates quoted 12,565 7,189 19,038
10th Percentile £360 £338 £345
25th Percentile £425 £413 £410
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £620 £600 £575
90th Percentile £700 £688 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £490
% change year-on-year - +2.04% +3.16%
Number of hourly rates quoted 173 91 241
10th Percentile £15.75 £20.77 £17.09
25th Percentile £30.00 £30.43 £26.25
Median hourly rate £47.25 £45.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +8.55%
75th Percentile £57.82 £59.50 £53.00
90th Percentile £66.40 £66.00 £60.00
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £44.92
% change year-on-year - +0.19% +9.55%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 31 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 31 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 31 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -10 1,358 £500 - 699
North of England -6 283 £402 -5.53% 492
South East -3 257 £425 -5.56% 309
North West 0 179 £388 -8.82% 282
Midlands -19 177 £393 -1.88% 276
South West -4 129 £425 +1.19% 184
West Midlands -30 103 £424 -5.83% 167
Yorkshire -19 89 £475 +11.76% 165
East Midlands +1 69 £368 +13.08% 108
East of England -27 54 £413 +3.13% 120
North East -12 15 £413 -21.43% 45
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 31 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,152 (88.38%) HTML
2 1,902 (78.11%) JavaScript
3 980 (40.25%) React
4 962 (39.51%) Agile Software Development
5 709 (29.12%) AngularJS
6 656 (26.94%) Front End Development
7 642 (26.37%) HTML5
8 542 (22.26%) Node.js
9 503 (20.66%) TypeScript
10 502 (20.62%) Git (software)
11 465 (19.10%) Full Stack Development
12 454 (18.64%) Java
13 453 (18.60%) User Experience
14 449 (18.44%) CSS3
15 436 (17.91%) Social Skills
16 426 (17.49%) Azure
17 423 (17.37%) .NET
18 419 (17.21%) C#
19 417 (17.13%) SQL
20 407 (16.71%) TDD
21 376 (15.44%) DevOps
22 355 (14.58%) Sass
23 344 (14.13%) jQuery
24 326 (13.39%) AWS
25 322 (13.22%) REST
26 304 (12.48%) Redux
27 286 (11.75%) Docker
28 281 (11.54%) Finance
29 277 (11.38%) RESTful
30 274 (11.25%) Accessibility

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 148 (6.08%) CMS
2 84 (3.45%) SharePoint
3 83 (3.41%) WordPress
4 54 (2.22%) Confluence
5 46 (1.89%) Drupal
6 42 (1.72%) Apache
7 35 (1.44%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 30 (1.23%) nginx
9 27 (1.11%) IIS
9 27 (1.11%) Tomcat
10 19 (0.78%) Elasticsearch
11 17 (0.70%) Headless CMS
12 13 (0.53%) IBM Domino
12 13 (0.53%) JBoss
13 12 (0.49%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 12 (0.49%) WebLogic
14 11 (0.45%) SharePoint 2010
14 11 (0.45%) Umbraco
15 9 (0.37%) Apache Solr
15 9 (0.37%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 55 (2.26%) Photoshop
2 49 (2.01%) Sketch
3 30 (1.23%) Figma
4 26 (1.07%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 21 (0.86%) Adobe XD
6 19 (0.78%) Adobe Illustrator
7 18 (0.74%) InVision
8 13 (0.53%) Microsoft Office
9 10 (0.41%) InfoPath
9 10 (0.41%) Microsoft Excel
9 10 (0.41%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 6 (0.25%) InDesign
11 5 (0.21%) Chatbot
12 4 (0.16%) Adobe After Effects
12 4 (0.16%) Adobe Premiere
12 4 (0.16%) Zeplin
13 3 (0.12%) CINEMA 4D
13 3 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
14 2 (0.082%) GIMP
14 2 (0.082%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 67 (2.75%) Magento
2 33 (1.36%) Shopify
3 11 (0.45%) Adobe Campaign
4 9 (0.37%) Dynamics CRM
5 4 (0.16%) Oracle ERP
5 4 (0.16%) Temenos T24
6 3 (0.12%) Exchequer
6 3 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 2 (0.082%) Oracle Applications
7 2 (0.082%) Payment Gateway
7 2 (0.082%) SAP CRM
7 2 (0.082%) SAP Hybris
8 1 (0.041%) Distributed Ledger
8 1 (0.041%) Eloqua
8 1 (0.041%) SAP BPC
8 1 (0.041%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 1 (0.041%) Sentinel
8 1 (0.041%) Social Studio
8 1 (0.041%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 426 (17.49%) Azure
2 326 (13.39%) AWS
3 111 (4.56%) GitHub
4 99 (4.07%) npm
5 93 (3.82%) Serverless
6 70 (2.87%) GCP
7 66 (2.71%) AWS Lambda
8 61 (2.51%) SaaS
9 45 (1.85%) Microsoft 365
10 42 (1.72%) PaaS
11 35 (1.44%) Google Analytics
12 34 (1.40%) Power Platform
13 33 (1.36%) Amazon S3
14 32 (1.31%) Yarn
15 25 (1.03%) Amazon EC2
16 23 (0.94%) Amazon EKS
17 21 (0.86%) Azure Service Bus
18 20 (0.82%) Azure Active Directory
18 20 (0.82%) Heroku
19 19 (0.78%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 54 (2.22%) HTTP
2 49 (2.01%) Internet
3 18 (0.74%) AMQP
4 16 (0.66%) DNS
5 15 (0.62%) SSL
6 14 (0.57%) HTTPS
7 12 (0.49%) RTMP
8 11 (0.45%) Intranet
9 9 (0.37%) VPN
10 8 (0.33%) TCP/IP
11 4 (0.16%) Kerberos
12 3 (0.12%) Firewall
13 2 (0.082%) Broadband
13 2 (0.082%) DHCP
13 2 (0.082%) LAN
13 2 (0.082%) PuTTY
13 2 (0.082%) WAN
13 2 (0.082%) X.500
14 1 (0.041%) Cisco ASA
14 1 (0.041%) NetScaler
Database & Business Intelligence
1 256 (10.51%) SQL Server
2 135 (5.54%) MongoDB
3 131 (5.38%) MySQL
4 104 (4.27%) NoSQL
4 104 (4.27%) Relational Database
5 74 (3.04%) PostgreSQL
6 47 (1.93%) Redis
7 29 (1.19%) Oracle Database
8 26 (1.07%) RDBMS
9 24 (0.99%) Power BI
10 23 (0.94%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 23 (0.94%) SQL Server 2016
11 20 (0.82%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 20 (0.82%) Tableau
12 19 (0.78%) Oracle Reports
12 19 (0.78%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 18 (0.74%) Azure SQL Database
14 17 (0.70%) Big Data
15 14 (0.57%) Apache Cassandra
16 13 (0.53%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 502 (20.62%) Git (software)
2 243 (9.98%) Jenkins
3 185 (7.60%) webpack
4 183 (7.52%) JIRA
5 98 (4.02%) Maven
6 92 (3.78%) Jasmine
7 83 (3.41%) gulp
8 80 (3.29%) Cypress.io
9 65 (2.67%) Mocha
10 56 (2.30%) Grunt
11 51 (2.09%) Karma Test Runner
12 50 (2.05%) Bitbucket
12 50 (2.05%) JUnit
13 48 (1.97%) TeamCity
14 44 (1.81%) Selenium
15 43 (1.77%) Cucumber
16 42 (1.72%) Visual Studio
17 34 (1.40%) GitLab
17 34 (1.40%) Team Foundation Server
18 33 (1.36%) Storybook
General
1 436 (17.91%) Social Skills
2 281 (11.54%) Finance
3 139 (5.71%) Analytical Skills
4 137 (5.63%) Marketing
5 116 (4.76%) Public Sector
6 115 (4.72%) Banking
7 74 (3.04%) Retail
8 51 (2.09%) Presentation Skills
9 50 (2.05%) Telecoms
10 40 (1.64%) Front Office
11 33 (1.36%) Law
12 31 (1.27%) Manufacturing
12 31 (1.27%) Publishing
13 29 (1.19%) Games
13 29 (1.19%) Investment Banking
14 26 (1.07%) Documentation Skills
15 23 (0.94%) Influencing Skills
16 20 (0.82%) Legal
17 18 (0.74%) Electronics
18 17 (0.70%) French Language
Job Titles
1 1,819 (74.70%) Developer
2 443 (18.19%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 299 (12.28%) React Developer
4 257 (10.55%) Full Stack Developer
5 231 (9.49%) Senior Developer
6 192 (7.89%) .NET Developer
6 192 (7.89%) JavaScript Developer
7 183 (7.52%) Angular Developer
8 145 (5.95%) Designer
9 120 (4.93%) Java Developer
10 99 (4.07%) UI Developer
11 98 (4.02%) C# Developer
12 96 (3.94%) HTML Developer
13 86 (3.53%) PHP Developer
14 74 (3.04%) Software Engineer
15 67 (2.75%) HTML CSS Developer
15 67 (2.75%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 67 (2.75%) UX Designer
16 62 (2.55%) Software Developer
17 61 (2.51%) Web Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,152 (88.38%) HTML
2 980 (40.25%) React
3 709 (29.12%) AngularJS
4 642 (26.37%) HTML5
5 542 (22.26%) Node.js
6 449 (18.44%) CSS3
7 423 (17.37%) .NET
8 355 (14.58%) Sass
9 344 (14.13%) jQuery
10 322 (13.22%) REST
11 304 (12.48%) Redux
12 277 (11.38%) RESTful
13 261 (10.72%) Web Services
14 195 (8.01%) Vue.js
15 194 (7.97%) ASP.NET
16 190 (7.80%) Jest
17 180 (7.39%) GraphQL
18 179 (7.35%) JSON
18 179 (7.35%) Spring
19 161 (6.61%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 453 (18.60%) User Experience
2 130 (5.34%) Mobile App
3 115 (4.72%) Greenfield Project
4 67 (2.75%) Data Structures
5 44 (1.81%) Enterprise Software
6 43 (1.77%) Algorithms
6 43 (1.77%) Data Protection Act
7 36 (1.48%) Self-Motivation
8 35 (1.44%) Social Media
9 30 (1.23%) W3C
10 24 (0.99%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 21 (0.86%) N-Tier
12 19 (0.78%) Hedge funds
13 18 (0.74%) Management Information System
14 17 (0.70%) Blog
15 16 (0.66%) Virtual Team
16 13 (0.53%) Public Cloud
17 12 (0.49%) Fixed Income
17 12 (0.49%) NHS
17 12 (0.49%) PKI
Operating Systems
1 102 (4.19%) Linux
2 87 (3.57%) Unix
3 68 (2.79%) Windows
4 50 (2.05%) Android
5 42 (1.72%) Apple iOS
6 13 (0.53%) Mac OS
7 11 (0.45%) Windows Server
8 6 (0.25%) Windows 10
8 6 (0.25%) Windows Server 2012
8 6 (0.25%) Windows Server 2016
9 4 (0.16%) VMS
10 2 (0.082%) Solaris
10 2 (0.082%) Windows Server 2019
11 1 (0.041%) Embedded Linux
11 1 (0.041%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 1 (0.041%) Windows 7
11 1 (0.041%) Windows Server 2003
11 1 (0.041%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 962 (39.51%) Agile Software Development
2 656 (26.94%) Front End Development
3 465 (19.10%) Full Stack Development
4 407 (16.71%) TDD
5 376 (15.44%) DevOps
6 269 (11.05%) Microservices
7 267 (10.97%) MVC
8 266 (10.92%) Web Development
9 261 (10.72%) Scrum
10 244 (10.02%) Problem-Solving
11 241 (9.90%) Test Automation
12 237 (9.73%) Software Engineering
13 236 (9.69%) Continuous Integration
14 188 (7.72%) Unit Testing
15 149 (6.12%) OO
16 147 (6.04%) SDLC
17 142 (5.83%) E-Commerce
18 141 (5.79%) BDD
19 125 (5.13%) Computer Science
20 124 (5.09%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 1,902 (78.11%) JavaScript
2 503 (20.66%) TypeScript
3 454 (18.64%) Java
4 419 (17.21%) C#
5 417 (17.13%) SQL
6 240 (9.86%) Python
7 226 (9.28%) ES6
8 217 (8.91%) PHP
9 76 (3.12%) Java 8
10 69 (2.83%) PowerShell
11 53 (2.18%) PL/SQL
12 51 (2.09%) Ruby
13 47 (1.93%) Kotlin
14 44 (1.81%) Scala
15 43 (1.77%) Bash Shell
16 34 (1.40%) T-SQL
17 31 (1.27%) VB.NET
18 29 (1.19%) ES7
19 22 (0.90%) C++
19 22 (0.90%) Go
Qualifications
1 153 (6.28%) Degree
2 144 (5.91%) Security Cleared
3 108 (4.44%) SC Cleared
4 44 (1.81%) Computer Science Degree
5 16 (0.66%) Master's Degree
6 12 (0.49%) AWS Certification
7 11 (0.45%) BPSS Clearance
7 11 (0.45%) ITIL Certification
8 9 (0.37%) Numerate Degree
9 8 (0.33%) DV Cleared
9 8 (0.33%) ISTQB
10 5 (0.21%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 5 (0.21%) Microsoft Certification
11 3 (0.12%) ISEB
12 2 (0.082%) CCA
12 2 (0.082%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
12 2 (0.082%) MCSE
12 2 (0.082%) PhD
12 2 (0.082%) Postgraduate
13 1 (0.041%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 274 (11.25%) Accessibility
2 99 (4.07%) QA
3 47 (1.93%) WCAG
4 23 (0.94%) Data Quality
5 15 (0.62%) GDPR
6 6 (0.25%) WAI
7 4 (0.16%) SLA
8 2 (0.082%) HL7
9 1 (0.041%) Disclosure Scotland
9 1 (0.041%) GRC
9 1 (0.041%) PMO
9 1 (0.041%) Section 508
System Software
1 286 (11.75%) Docker
2 27 (1.11%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.16%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.041%) OpenAM
4 1 (0.041%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.041%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 147 (6.04%) Kubernetes
2 36 (1.48%) Terraform
3 33 (1.36%) Ansible
4 20 (0.82%) Kibana
5 17 (0.70%) Grafana
6 16 (0.66%) Single Sign-On
7 14 (0.57%) Puppet
8 6 (0.25%) Opscode Chef
9 5 (0.21%) Active Directory Federation Services
9 5 (0.21%) Prometheus
10 4 (0.16%) Graphite
10 4 (0.16%) HP Fortify
10 4 (0.16%) logstash
11 3 (0.12%) Icinga
11 3 (0.12%) Rancher
12 2 (0.082%) Data Guard
12 2 (0.082%) HP ALM
12 2 (0.082%) HP Quality Center
12 2 (0.082%) MIIS
12 2 (0.082%) Nagios
Vendors
1 182 (7.47%) Microsoft
2 151 (6.20%) Oracle
3 136 (5.59%) Adobe
4 68 (2.79%) Salesforce.com
5 65 (2.67%) Google
6 44 (1.81%) ServiceNow
7 22 (0.90%) SAP
8 18 (0.74%) Splunk
9 17 (0.70%) hybris
9 17 (0.70%) Telerik
10 16 (0.66%) Marketo
11 15 (0.62%) Sitecore
12 14 (0.57%) Atlassian
12 14 (0.57%) Nintex
13 13 (0.53%) Xerox
14 12 (0.49%) CA
14 12 (0.49%) DevExpress
15 11 (0.45%) Apple
15 11 (0.45%) Optimizely
16 9 (0.37%) Xamarin