Period
to 15 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 15 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
15 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 53 44 29
Rank change year-on-year -9 -15 -8
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,782 1,323 4,719
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.16% 4.99% 6.05%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.07% 15.65% 19.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,008 922 3,367
10th Percentile £325 £300 £313
25th Percentile £400 £350 £368
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +8.33% - +5.88%
75th Percentile £575 £538 £538
90th Percentile £688 £600 £600
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 9 45
10th Percentile £27.01 £30.20 £24.40
25th Percentile £35.25 £32.48 £34.00
Median hourly rate £48.26 £43.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year +12.23% -14.00% +19.05%
75th Percentile £57.50 £55.00 £53.75
90th Percentile £71.30 £60.60 £97.50
UK median hourly rate £43.50 £44.00 £47.00
% change year-on-year -1.14% -6.38% +11.24%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 19,779 8,452 24,500
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 29.56% 31.91% 31.41%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,433 6,081 17,432
10th Percentile £363 £315 £340
25th Percentile £438 £405 £409
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £638 £589 £575
90th Percentile £713 £688 £656
UK median daily rate £525 £495 £500
% change year-on-year +6.06% -1.00% +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 210 62 216
10th Percentile £18.59 £22.50 £16.25
25th Percentile £31.25 £30.00 £32.53
Median hourly rate £49.00 £42.00 £46.45
Median % change year-on-year +16.67% -9.58% +11.42%
75th Percentile £63.19 £54.52 £53.75
90th Percentile £72.05 £61.25 £73.75
UK median hourly rate £49.00 £42.25 £45.00
% change year-on-year +15.98% -6.11% +8.25%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 15 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 15 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 15 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 1,575 £525 +8.25% 658
North of England -17 289 £425 - 438
South East -8 272 £450 - 268
Midlands -25 220 £424 +13.00% 259
South West -6 145 £425 +4.94% 150
North West -22 145 £400 -5.88% 245
Yorkshire +16 135 £475 +22.58% 147
West Midlands -37 121 £433 +7.45% 154
East Midlands -5 96 £398 +19.59% 104
East of England -19 65 £455 +13.75% 134
North East -34 9 £413 -15.90% 46
South Coast - 1 - -
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 15 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,460 (88.43%) HTML
2 2,213 (79.55%) JavaScript
3 1,169 (42.02%) Agile Software Development
4 1,150 (41.34%) React
5 819 (29.44%) AngularJS
6 719 (25.84%) Front End Development
7 717 (25.77%) HTML5
8 652 (23.44%) TypeScript
9 607 (21.82%) Git (software)
10 589 (21.17%) Node.js
11 559 (20.09%) C#
12 557 (20.02%) .NET
13 535 (19.23%) Java
14 531 (19.09%) Social Skills
15 528 (18.98%) Full Stack Development
16 495 (17.79%) DevOps
17 494 (17.76%) CSS3
18 483 (17.36%) Azure
18 483 (17.36%) SQL
19 444 (15.96%) TDD
20 433 (15.56%) User Experience
21 411 (14.77%) Sass
22 386 (13.87%) REST
23 373 (13.41%) AWS
23 373 (13.41%) jQuery
24 368 (13.23%) Finance
25 361 (12.98%) Microservices
26 342 (12.29%) SQL Server
27 332 (11.93%) Problem-Solving
28 331 (11.90%) Docker

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 185 (6.65%) CMS
2 100 (3.59%) SharePoint
3 78 (2.80%) Confluence
4 74 (2.66%) WordPress
5 56 (2.01%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 50 (1.80%) Tomcat
7 49 (1.76%) Elasticsearch
8 44 (1.58%) Apache
9 39 (1.40%) Drupal
10 37 (1.33%) nginx
11 35 (1.26%) IIS
12 21 (0.75%) Headless CMS
13 20 (0.72%) Umbraco
14 16 (0.58%) Moodle
15 14 (0.50%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 13 (0.47%) Apache Solr
16 13 (0.47%) SharePoint 2010
17 12 (0.43%) WebLogic
18 11 (0.40%) IBM Domino
18 11 (0.40%) JBoss
Applications
1 54 (1.94%) Photoshop
1 54 (1.94%) Sketch
2 34 (1.22%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 30 (1.08%) Figma
4 27 (0.97%) InVision
5 19 (0.68%) Adobe Illustrator
5 19 (0.68%) Adobe XD
6 12 (0.43%) Microsoft Excel
6 12 (0.43%) Microsoft Office
6 12 (0.43%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 9 (0.32%) Zeplin
8 7 (0.25%) InfoPath
9 6 (0.22%) Adobe Premiere
9 6 (0.22%) InDesign
10 5 (0.18%) Adobe After Effects
10 5 (0.18%) Chatbot
11 4 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
12 3 (0.11%) CINEMA 4D
12 3 (0.11%) GIMP
12 3 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 51 (1.83%) Magento
2 29 (1.04%) Shopify
3 12 (0.43%) Adobe Campaign
4 11 (0.40%) Dynamics CRM
5 10 (0.36%) Payment Gateway
6 7 (0.25%) Temenos T24
7 6 (0.22%) Social Studio
8 5 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
8 5 (0.18%) SAP Hybris
9 3 (0.11%) Exchequer
9 3 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 2 (0.072%) Oracle Applications
10 2 (0.072%) SAP CRM
10 2 (0.072%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 1 (0.036%) Dynamics AX
11 1 (0.036%) Eloqua
11 1 (0.036%) SAP BPC
Cloud Services
1 483 (17.36%) Azure
2 373 (13.41%) AWS
3 155 (5.57%) GitHub
4 127 (4.57%) npm
5 114 (4.10%) Serverless
6 84 (3.02%) GCP
7 81 (2.91%) SaaS
8 68 (2.44%) AWS Lambda
9 61 (2.19%) Power Platform
10 54 (1.94%) Yarn
11 52 (1.87%) Microsoft 365
12 50 (1.80%) PaaS
13 48 (1.73%) Google Analytics
14 34 (1.22%) Amazon EC2
15 33 (1.19%) OpenShift
16 32 (1.15%) Amazon EKS
16 32 (1.15%) Amazon S3
17 26 (0.93%) Adobe Creative Cloud
18 25 (0.90%) PowerApps
19 24 (0.86%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 68 (2.44%) Internet
2 53 (1.91%) HTTP
3 26 (0.93%) Intranet
4 24 (0.86%) RTMP
5 18 (0.65%) AMQP
6 14 (0.50%) DNS
7 11 (0.40%) HTTPS
8 9 (0.32%) TCP/IP
9 7 (0.25%) SSL
10 6 (0.22%) Extranet
11 5 (0.18%) Kerberos
12 4 (0.14%) FTP
12 4 (0.14%) Network Security
12 4 (0.14%) VPN
13 3 (0.11%) Firewall
14 2 (0.072%) Cisco ASA
14 2 (0.072%) MQTT
14 2 (0.072%) PuTTY
14 2 (0.072%) SSH
14 2 (0.072%) X.500
Database & Business Intelligence
1 342 (12.29%) SQL Server
2 146 (5.25%) Relational Database
3 142 (5.10%) MySQL
4 124 (4.46%) MongoDB
5 92 (3.31%) NoSQL
6 91 (3.27%) PostgreSQL
7 52 (1.87%) RDBMS
8 49 (1.76%) Redis
9 40 (1.44%) Power BI
10 37 (1.33%) Oracle Database
11 36 (1.29%) SQL Server 2016
12 30 (1.08%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 28 (1.01%) Big Data
14 25 (0.90%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 23 (0.83%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 17 (0.61%) Apache Cassandra
16 17 (0.61%) Data Warehouse
16 17 (0.61%) Tableau
17 15 (0.54%) Azure SQL Database
18 14 (0.50%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 607 (21.82%) Git (software)
2 268 (9.63%) Jenkins
3 208 (7.48%) JIRA
4 193 (6.94%) webpack
5 119 (4.28%) Maven
6 117 (4.21%) Jasmine
7 82 (2.95%) Cypress.io
7 82 (2.95%) gulp
8 80 (2.88%) Bitbucket
9 79 (2.84%) Mocha
10 76 (2.73%) Selenium
11 70 (2.52%) JUnit
12 69 (2.48%) Cucumber
13 67 (2.41%) Karma Test Runner
14 58 (2.08%) Grunt
15 51 (1.83%) TeamCity
16 45 (1.62%) Storybook
17 43 (1.55%) NUnit
18 42 (1.51%) GitLab
19 39 (1.40%) Subversion
General
1 531 (19.09%) Social Skills
2 368 (13.23%) Finance
3 162 (5.82%) Marketing
4 149 (5.36%) Analytical Skills
5 148 (5.32%) Banking
6 143 (5.14%) Public Sector
7 98 (3.52%) Retail
8 68 (2.44%) Presentation Skills
9 55 (1.98%) Front Office
10 49 (1.76%) Investment Banking
11 47 (1.69%) Telecoms
12 37 (1.33%) Publishing
13 35 (1.26%) Manufacturing
14 34 (1.22%) Games
15 27 (0.97%) Documentation Skills
16 26 (0.93%) Electronics
17 21 (0.75%) Legal
18 20 (0.72%) Advertising
19 19 (0.68%) Financial Institution
20 18 (0.65%) Law
Job Titles
1 2,054 (73.83%) Developer
2 483 (17.36%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 336 (12.08%) React Developer
4 287 (10.32%) Full Stack Developer
5 278 (9.99%) Senior Developer
6 249 (8.95%) .NET Developer
7 218 (7.84%) Angular Developer
8 195 (7.01%) JavaScript Developer
9 157 (5.64%) Designer
10 143 (5.14%) Java Developer
11 114 (4.10%) HTML Developer
12 111 (3.99%) C# Developer
13 104 (3.74%) UI Developer
14 84 (3.02%) Software Engineer
15 83 (2.98%) Senior Front-End Developer
16 81 (2.91%) PHP Developer
17 78 (2.80%) Software Developer
18 76 (2.73%) Lead Developer
19 75 (2.70%) C# .NET Developer
20 74 (2.66%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,460 (88.43%) HTML
2 1,150 (41.34%) React
3 819 (29.44%) AngularJS
4 717 (25.77%) HTML5
5 589 (21.17%) Node.js
6 557 (20.02%) .NET
7 494 (17.76%) CSS3
8 411 (14.77%) Sass
9 386 (13.87%) REST
10 373 (13.41%) jQuery
11 325 (11.68%) RESTful
12 309 (11.11%) Web Services
13 306 (11.00%) Redux
14 244 (8.77%) Vue.js
15 236 (8.48%) ASP.NET
16 209 (7.51%) .NET Core
17 208 (7.48%) Jest
17 208 (7.48%) Spring
18 203 (7.30%) XML
19 196 (7.05%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 433 (15.56%) User Experience
2 128 (4.60%) Mobile App
3 94 (3.38%) Greenfield Project
4 76 (2.73%) Data Protection Act
5 57 (2.05%) Enterprise Software
6 53 (1.91%) Data Structures
7 40 (1.44%) Algorithms
8 34 (1.22%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 34 (1.22%) Social Media
9 33 (1.19%) Self-Motivation
10 31 (1.11%) N-Tier
10 31 (1.11%) W3C
11 23 (0.83%) Virtual Team
12 19 (0.68%) Cloud Native
12 19 (0.68%) Public Cloud
13 17 (0.61%) iPad
14 16 (0.58%) Blog
14 16 (0.58%) Management Information System
14 16 (0.58%) NHS
15 14 (0.50%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 120 (4.31%) Linux
2 92 (3.31%) Unix
3 84 (3.02%) Windows
4 46 (1.65%) Android
5 44 (1.58%) Apple iOS
6 18 (0.65%) Windows Server
7 10 (0.36%) Mac OS
8 5 (0.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 5 (0.18%) Windows 10
8 5 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
8 5 (0.18%) Windows Server 2016
9 3 (0.11%) VMS
10 2 (0.072%) Solaris
11 1 (0.036%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,169 (42.02%) Agile Software Development
2 719 (25.84%) Front End Development
3 528 (18.98%) Full Stack Development
4 495 (17.79%) DevOps
5 444 (15.96%) TDD
6 361 (12.98%) Microservices
7 332 (11.93%) Problem-Solving
8 330 (11.86%) Scrum
9 326 (11.72%) Web Development
10 307 (11.04%) MVC
11 269 (9.67%) Software Engineering
12 268 (9.63%) Test Automation
13 262 (9.42%) Continuous Integration
14 221 (7.94%) Unit Testing
15 200 (7.19%) BDD
16 186 (6.69%) E-Commerce
17 184 (6.61%) SDLC
18 171 (6.15%) Analytics
19 156 (5.61%) OO
20 150 (5.39%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 2,213 (79.55%) JavaScript
2 652 (23.44%) TypeScript
3 559 (20.09%) C#
4 535 (19.23%) Java
5 483 (17.36%) SQL
6 277 (9.96%) Python
7 255 (9.17%) ES6
8 231 (8.30%) PHP
9 84 (3.02%) PowerShell
10 78 (2.80%) Java 8
11 62 (2.23%) Scala
12 54 (1.94%) Ruby
13 48 (1.73%) T-SQL
14 43 (1.55%) Kotlin
15 41 (1.47%) VB.NET
16 39 (1.40%) Bash Shell
17 30 (1.08%) Java 11
18 26 (0.93%) Go
18 26 (0.93%) XAML
19 24 (0.86%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 204 (7.33%) Degree
2 183 (6.58%) Security Cleared
3 131 (4.71%) SC Cleared
4 60 (2.16%) Computer Science Degree
5 23 (0.83%) BPSS Clearance
6 18 (0.65%) Master's Degree
7 14 (0.50%) DV Cleared
8 12 (0.43%) AWS Certification
9 11 (0.40%) ITIL Certification
10 9 (0.32%) Numerate Degree
11 8 (0.29%) ISTQB
12 7 (0.25%) Microsoft Certification
13 4 (0.14%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 4 (0.14%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 3 (0.11%) ISEB
14 3 (0.11%) Sun Certification
15 2 (0.072%) CCA
15 2 (0.072%) PhD
16 1 (0.036%) PMP
16 1 (0.036%) Tableau Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 315 (11.32%) Accessibility
2 109 (3.92%) QA
3 65 (2.34%) WCAG
4 27 (0.97%) Data Quality
5 19 (0.68%) GDPR
6 10 (0.36%) WAI
7 3 (0.11%) Disclosure Scotland
8 2 (0.072%) HL7
8 2 (0.072%) PMO
8 2 (0.072%) SLA
9 1 (0.036%) Section 508
System Software
1 331 (11.90%) Docker
2 40 (1.44%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.036%) Apache Flume
4 1 (0.036%) HDFS
4 1 (0.036%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.036%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.036%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 206 (7.40%) Kubernetes
2 97 (3.49%) Terraform
3 38 (1.37%) Ansible
4 27 (0.97%) Kibana
5 22 (0.79%) Grafana
5 22 (0.79%) Puppet
6 17 (0.61%) logstash
7 13 (0.47%) Opscode Chef
8 12 (0.43%) Prometheus
9 10 (0.36%) Graphite
10 9 (0.32%) Rancher
10 9 (0.32%) Single Sign-On
11 5 (0.18%) Netcool
12 4 (0.14%) Data Guard
13 3 (0.11%) Active Directory Federation Services
13 3 (0.11%) HP Fortify
13 3 (0.11%) Kubeflow
14 2 (0.072%) Automic
14 2 (0.072%) MIIS
14 2 (0.072%) Nagios
Vendors
1 250 (8.99%) Microsoft
2 187 (6.72%) Adobe
3 158 (5.68%) Oracle
4 91 (3.27%) Google
5 79 (2.84%) Salesforce.com
6 43 (1.55%) ServiceNow
7 39 (1.40%) SAP
8 26 (0.93%) Splunk
9 22 (0.79%) hybris
9 22 (0.79%) Nintex
10 19 (0.68%) Sitecore
11 17 (0.61%) Telerik
12 16 (0.58%) Atlassian
13 15 (0.54%) Apple
14 14 (0.50%) Marketo
15 13 (0.47%) CA
15 13 (0.47%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 12 (0.43%) Xamarin
17 11 (0.40%) ESRI
17 11 (0.40%) Xerox