Period
to 23 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
23 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 54 49 34
Rank change year-on-year -5 -15 -11
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,814 1,599 3,746
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.10% 4.68% 5.69%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.50% 15.27% 18.88%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,096 1,120 2,672
10th Percentile £350 £281 £310
25th Percentile £413 £356 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +13.89% - -
75th Percentile £638 £538 £538
90th Percentile £712 £600 £613
UK median daily rate £500 £440 £450
% change year-on-year +13.77% -2.33% +2.27%
Number of hourly rates quoted 30 28 37
10th Percentile £31.43 £24.13 £22.00
25th Percentile £41.72 £25.50 £25.68
Median hourly rate £55.00 £40.50 £36.70
Median % change year-on-year +35.80% +10.35% -10.92%
75th Percentile £67.80 £54.25 £52.50
90th Percentile £70.01 £58.71 £53.00
UK median hourly rate £55.00 £42.50 £36.70
% change year-on-year +29.41% +15.80% -8.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 19,411 10,474 19,838
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 28.30% 30.63% 30.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,437 7,509 14,168
10th Percentile £381 £315 £331
25th Percentile £450 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £488 £500
Median % change year-on-year +12.82% -2.50% +2.04%
75th Percentile £650 £587 £575
90th Percentile £743 £663 £650
UK median daily rate £550 £475 £490
% change year-on-year +15.79% -3.06% +3.16%
Number of hourly rates quoted 220 119 178
10th Percentile £21.00 £24.80 £17.21
25th Percentile £36.19 £31.56 £33.03
Median hourly rate £50.88 £45.00 £46.95
Median % change year-on-year +13.06% -4.15% +13.09%
75th Percentile £67.75 £57.50 £53.21
90th Percentile £77.21 £62.01 £78.75
UK median hourly rate £51.25 £45.00 £46.40
% change year-on-year +13.89% -3.02% +11.73%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 January 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 23 January 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 23 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London -2 1,645 £550 +15.79% 567
North of England -19 270 £475 +11.76% 393
South East -25 238 £450 +5.88% 229
Midlands -11 235 £456 +30.36% 213
Yorkshire +10 139 £500 +17.65% 136
South West -26 133 £450 +12.50% 124
West Midlands -21 132 £500 +36.99% 140
North West -44 109 £445 +11.25% 210
East Midlands -5 98 £450 +28.57% 71
East of England -16 67 £475 +2.70% 117
North East -16 24 £475 +1.60% 47
South Coast - 1 - -
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 23 January 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,512 (89.27%) HTML
2 2,251 (79.99%) JavaScript
3 1,322 (46.98%) Agile Software Development
4 1,168 (41.51%) React
5 797 (28.32%) Front End Development
6 766 (27.22%) HTML5
7 754 (26.79%) AngularJS
8 743 (26.40%) TypeScript
9 646 (22.96%) .NET
10 644 (22.89%) Git (software)
11 629 (22.35%) C#
12 567 (20.15%) Node.js
13 556 (19.76%) Azure
14 549 (19.51%) DevOps
15 539 (19.15%) CSS3
16 527 (18.73%) Full Stack Development
17 513 (18.23%) User Experience
18 498 (17.70%) SQL
19 464 (16.49%) CI/CD
20 461 (16.38%) Java
21 457 (16.24%) Social Skills
22 452 (16.06%) TDD
23 438 (15.57%) Sass
24 426 (15.14%) Finance
25 387 (13.75%) Scrum
26 365 (12.97%) REST
27 364 (12.94%) SQL Server
28 362 (12.86%) Web Development
29 360 (12.79%) jQuery
30 342 (12.15%) Problem-Solving

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 180 (6.40%) CMS
2 119 (4.23%) SharePoint
3 71 (2.52%) Confluence
4 58 (2.06%) IIS
5 57 (2.03%) Elasticsearch
6 50 (1.78%) WordPress
7 49 (1.74%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 47 (1.67%) Tomcat
9 32 (1.14%) Apache
9 32 (1.14%) SharePoint 2010
10 27 (0.96%) Headless CMS
11 25 (0.89%) Drupal
12 22 (0.78%) SharePoint 2013
13 18 (0.64%) Sitecore CMS
13 18 (0.64%) Umbraco
14 17 (0.60%) nginx
15 15 (0.53%) JBoss
16 13 (0.46%) Moodle
17 11 (0.39%) GemFire
17 11 (0.39%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 61 (2.17%) Sketch
2 35 (1.24%) Photoshop
3 33 (1.17%) InVision
4 29 (1.03%) Adobe XD
5 23 (0.82%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 23 (0.82%) Adobe Illustrator
6 22 (0.78%) Microsoft Office
7 14 (0.50%) Zeplin
8 8 (0.28%) Microsoft Excel
9 7 (0.25%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 6 (0.21%) InDesign
10 6 (0.21%) MS Visio
11 5 (0.18%) OmniGraffle
12 4 (0.14%) Chatbot
13 3 (0.11%) Adobe Premiere
13 3 (0.11%) InfoPath
14 2 (0.071%) Adobe After Effects
14 2 (0.071%) GIMP
14 2 (0.071%) Microsoft Project
14 2 (0.071%) Notepad++
Business Applications
1 40 (1.42%) Shopify
2 30 (1.07%) Magento
3 18 (0.64%) Payment Gateway
4 12 (0.43%) Dynamics CRM
5 6 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
5 6 (0.21%) Social Studio
6 4 (0.14%) Adobe Campaign
6 4 (0.14%) Oracle ERP
7 3 (0.11%) Temenos T24
7 3 (0.11%) WebTrends
8 2 (0.071%) Dynamics AX
8 2 (0.071%) SAP CRM
9 1 (0.036%) Eloqua
9 1 (0.036%) NetSuite
9 1 (0.036%) Oracle Applications
9 1 (0.036%) Oracle BPM
9 1 (0.036%) Oracle EBS
9 1 (0.036%) Oracle EBS R12
9 1 (0.036%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 1 (0.036%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 556 (19.76%) Azure
2 339 (12.05%) AWS
3 168 (5.97%) GitHub
4 110 (3.91%) npm
5 100 (3.55%) SaaS
6 88 (3.13%) Serverless
7 73 (2.59%) Power Platform
8 72 (2.56%) GCP
9 66 (2.35%) PaaS
10 57 (2.03%) Google Analytics
11 51 (1.81%) Microsoft 365
12 47 (1.67%) Yarn
13 37 (1.31%) PowerApps
14 36 (1.28%) Azure Active Directory
14 36 (1.28%) OpenShift
15 35 (1.24%) IaaS
16 34 (1.21%) Azure Functions
17 33 (1.17%) Figma
18 32 (1.14%) AWS Lambda
19 29 (1.03%) Amazon EKS
Communications & Networking
1 77 (2.74%) Internet
2 46 (1.63%) HTTP
3 28 (1.00%) Intranet
4 26 (0.92%) RTMP
5 22 (0.78%) DNS
6 14 (0.50%) HTTPS
7 10 (0.36%) Broadband
7 10 (0.36%) Firewall
8 9 (0.32%) SSL
9 8 (0.28%) DMZ
9 8 (0.28%) VPN
10 7 (0.25%) TCP/IP
11 6 (0.21%) Extranet
12 5 (0.18%) Network Security
13 4 (0.14%) FTP
14 2 (0.071%) MQTT
14 2 (0.071%) SSH
15 1 (0.036%) PuTTY
15 1 (0.036%) Skype
15 1 (0.036%) WinSCP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 364 (12.94%) SQL Server
2 177 (6.29%) Relational Database
3 161 (5.72%) MySQL
4 129 (4.58%) MongoDB
5 126 (4.48%) NoSQL
6 118 (4.19%) PostgreSQL
7 50 (1.78%) RDBMS
8 40 (1.42%) Redis
9 36 (1.28%) Power BI
10 34 (1.21%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 29 (1.03%) Oracle Database
12 24 (0.85%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 21 (0.75%) SQL Server 2016
14 18 (0.64%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 18 (0.64%) Apache Cassandra
14 18 (0.64%) Data Warehouse
15 17 (0.60%) GIS
15 17 (0.60%) InterSystems Cache
15 17 (0.60%) SQL Server 2019
16 16 (0.57%) Big Data
Development Applications
1 644 (22.89%) Git (software)
2 236 (8.39%) Jenkins
3 203 (7.21%) JIRA
4 187 (6.65%) webpack
5 101 (3.59%) Maven
6 95 (3.38%) Jasmine
7 93 (3.30%) Selenium
8 81 (2.88%) gulp
9 74 (2.63%) Cypress.io
10 72 (2.56%) Bitbucket
11 71 (2.52%) Cucumber
12 67 (2.38%) GitLab
13 66 (2.35%) Grunt
14 65 (2.31%) JUnit
14 65 (2.31%) Mocha
15 59 (2.10%) TeamCity
16 55 (1.95%) Karma Test Runner
17 52 (1.85%) Visual Studio
18 43 (1.53%) Storybook
19 42 (1.49%) SonarQube
General
1 457 (16.24%) Social Skills
2 426 (15.14%) Finance
3 200 (7.11%) Banking
4 186 (6.61%) Public Sector
5 144 (5.12%) Marketing
6 139 (4.94%) Analytical Skills
7 108 (3.84%) Front Office
8 96 (3.41%) Investment Banking
8 96 (3.41%) Retail
9 58 (2.06%) Presentation Skills
10 48 (1.71%) Telecoms
11 34 (1.21%) Games
11 34 (1.21%) Manufacturing
12 33 (1.17%) Publishing
13 29 (1.03%) Pharmaceutical
14 28 (1.00%) Electronics
15 18 (0.64%) Back Office
15 18 (0.64%) Documentation Skills
16 17 (0.60%) Financial Institution
17 16 (0.57%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 2,100 (74.63%) Developer
2 556 (19.76%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 363 (12.90%) React Developer
4 295 (10.48%) Full Stack Developer
5 253 (8.99%) Senior Developer
6 231 (8.21%) .NET Developer
7 220 (7.82%) JavaScript Developer
8 179 (6.36%) Angular Developer
9 176 (6.25%) Designer
10 117 (4.16%) Java Developer
11 116 (4.12%) UI Developer
12 104 (3.70%) HTML Developer
13 101 (3.59%) Lead Developer
14 96 (3.41%) C# Developer
15 83 (2.95%) Software Developer
16 81 (2.88%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 74 (2.63%) Software Engineer
18 73 (2.59%) Python Developer
19 72 (2.56%) UX Designer
20 70 (2.49%) PHP Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,512 (89.27%) HTML
2 1,168 (41.51%) React
3 766 (27.22%) HTML5
4 754 (26.79%) AngularJS
5 646 (22.96%) .NET
6 567 (20.15%) Node.js
7 539 (19.15%) CSS3
8 438 (15.57%) Sass
9 365 (12.97%) REST
10 360 (12.79%) jQuery
11 313 (11.12%) Redux
12 306 (10.87%) Web Services
13 282 (10.02%) RESTful
14 254 (9.03%) Vue.js
15 253 (8.99%) ASP.NET
16 232 (8.24%) JSON
17 230 (8.17%) .NET Core
18 217 (7.71%) XML
19 203 (7.21%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 177 (6.29%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 513 (18.23%) User Experience
2 104 (3.70%) Mobile App
3 102 (3.62%) Greenfield Project
4 59 (2.10%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 54 (1.92%) Enterprise Software
6 53 (1.88%) Data Protection Act
7 46 (1.63%) Cloud Native
8 43 (1.53%) Virtual Team
9 42 (1.49%) Data Structures
10 41 (1.46%) Self-Motivation
11 34 (1.21%) N-Tier
12 33 (1.17%) Algorithms
13 32 (1.14%) Management Information System
14 28 (1.00%) Public Cloud
15 27 (0.96%) Equities
16 23 (0.82%) Social Media
16 23 (0.82%) W3C
17 20 (0.71%) Derivative
17 20 (0.71%) iPad
18 19 (0.68%) e-Learning
Operating Systems
1 148 (5.26%) Linux
2 95 (3.38%) Unix
3 80 (2.84%) Windows
4 38 (1.35%) Android
5 32 (1.14%) Apple iOS
6 19 (0.68%) Mac OS
6 19 (0.68%) Windows Server
7 11 (0.39%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 5 (0.18%) Ubuntu
9 4 (0.14%) Solaris
10 2 (0.071%) AIX
10 2 (0.071%) Fedora
10 2 (0.071%) Mac OS X
10 2 (0.071%) VMS
10 2 (0.071%) Windows Server 2008
10 2 (0.071%) Windows Server 2012
10 2 (0.071%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,322 (46.98%) Agile Software Development
2 797 (28.32%) Front End Development
3 549 (19.51%) DevOps
4 527 (18.73%) Full Stack Development
5 464 (16.49%) CI/CD
6 452 (16.06%) TDD
7 387 (13.75%) Scrum
8 362 (12.86%) Web Development
9 342 (12.15%) Problem-Solving
10 313 (11.12%) Microservices
11 303 (10.77%) MVC
12 298 (10.59%) Test Automation
13 287 (10.20%) Software Engineering
14 263 (9.35%) UX Design
15 236 (8.39%) Continuous Integration
16 229 (8.14%) Unit Testing
17 208 (7.39%) SDLC
18 199 (7.07%) E-Commerce
18 199 (7.07%) OO
19 190 (6.75%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 2,251 (79.99%) JavaScript
2 743 (26.40%) TypeScript
3 629 (22.35%) C#
4 498 (17.70%) SQL
5 461 (16.38%) Java
6 290 (10.31%) Python
7 245 (8.71%) ES6
8 225 (8.00%) PHP
9 113 (4.02%) PowerShell
10 78 (2.77%) Ruby
11 65 (2.31%) T-SQL
12 56 (1.99%) Java 8
13 41 (1.46%) Scala
14 32 (1.14%) Bash
15 29 (1.03%) VB.NET
16 26 (0.92%) XAML
17 25 (0.89%) C
18 23 (0.82%) Go
18 23 (0.82%) Java 11
19 19 (0.68%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 209 (7.43%) Security Cleared
2 182 (6.47%) Degree
3 155 (5.51%) SC Cleared
4 52 (1.85%) Computer Science Degree
5 40 (1.42%) BPSS Clearance
6 28 (1.00%) DV Cleared
7 17 (0.60%) Master's Degree
8 10 (0.36%) ISTQB
9 6 (0.21%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
9 6 (0.21%) ITIL Certification
10 4 (0.14%) Microsoft Certification
10 4 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
10 4 (0.14%) Sun Certification
11 3 (0.11%) AWS Certification
11 3 (0.11%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 2 (0.071%) ISEB
12 2 (0.071%) TOGAF Certification
13 1 (0.036%) MCSD
13 1 (0.036%) MCSE
13 1 (0.036%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 298 (10.59%) Accessibility
2 141 (5.01%) QA
3 65 (2.31%) WCAG
4 12 (0.43%) GDPR
5 9 (0.32%) Data Quality
6 8 (0.28%) PCI DSS
6 8 (0.28%) SLA
7 5 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
7 5 (0.18%) WAI
8 2 (0.071%) PMBOK
9 1 (0.036%) ISO 9001
9 1 (0.036%) PMO
System Software
1 292 (10.38%) Docker
2 56 (1.99%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.14%) Slurm Workload Manager
4 2 (0.071%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.036%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.036%) HDFS
5 1 (0.036%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.036%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 204 (7.25%) Kubernetes
2 132 (4.69%) Terraform
3 45 (1.60%) Ansible
4 31 (1.10%) Puppet
5 23 (0.82%) Kibana
6 22 (0.78%) Netcool
7 19 (0.68%) logstash
8 13 (0.46%) Grafana
9 11 (0.39%) Graphite
9 11 (0.39%) Opscode Chef
9 11 (0.39%) Prometheus
10 10 (0.36%) Single Sign-On
11 8 (0.28%) Active Directory Federation Services
12 6 (0.21%) Data Guard
12 6 (0.21%) Rancher
13 3 (0.11%) Kubeflow
13 3 (0.11%) MIIS
13 3 (0.11%) Nagios
14 2 (0.071%) Automic
14 2 (0.071%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 290 (10.31%) Microsoft
2 153 (5.44%) Adobe
3 152 (5.40%) Oracle
4 109 (3.87%) Google
5 66 (2.35%) Salesforce.com
6 48 (1.71%) SAP
7 46 (1.63%) ServiceNow
8 39 (1.39%) Splunk
9 28 (1.00%) Nintex
9 28 (1.00%) Sitecore
10 27 (0.96%) AppDynamics
11 23 (0.82%) hybris
12 21 (0.75%) New Relic
13 19 (0.68%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 13 (0.46%) OutSystems
14 13 (0.46%) Zend
15 12 (0.43%) Apple
15 12 (0.43%) ESRI
16 10 (0.36%) Atlassian
16 10 (0.36%) IBM