Period
to 22 January 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 22 January 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
22 Jan 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 17 13 19
Rank change year-on-year -4 +6 0
Contract jobs citing CSS 6,956 7,606 7,864
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 7.58% 8.59% 7.95%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.35% 27.08% 27.12%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,193 5,327 5,802
England median daily rate £425 £400 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +6.67% -
10th Percentile £285 £275 £260
90th Percentile £575 £563 £525
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £375
% change year-on-year +6.25% +6.67% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 47 66 135
England median hourly rate £42.50 £33.75 £31.52
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +25.93% +7.07% -5.20%
10th Percentile £14.20 £18.22 £11.25
90th Percentile £49.25 £49.75 £51.25
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £32.50 £31.52
% change year-on-year +23.08% +3.11% -5.91%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 29,785 28,091 29,000
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 32.47% 31.73% 29.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 21,445 19,483 20,222
England median daily rate £475 £425 £420
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +11.76% +1.19% +5.00%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £281
90th Percentile £625 £600 £588
UK median daily rate £463 £425 £413
% change year-on-year +8.82% +3.03% +3.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 322 312 539
England median hourly rate £40.00 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +6.67% +7.14%
10th Percentile £18.03 £15.34 £15.62
90th Percentile £52.50 £51.25 £55.55
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £40.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year - +6.67% +7.14%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 22 January 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 22 January 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 22 January 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 3,537 £463 +8.82% 1,269
South East -4 1,168 £400 +6.67% 666
North of England +5 966 £375 - 772
Midlands -11 601 £350 -6.67% 480
North West +9 540 £363 -3.33% 457
South West +3 415 £350 - 281
West Midlands -5 355 £350 -9.68% 252
Yorkshire -3 338 £375 - 271
East of England +4 258 £375 +10.29% 276
East Midlands -9 239 £340 -7.48% 226
North East 0 87 £425 - 44
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 22 January 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,444 (92.64%) HTML
2 5,475 (78.71%) JavaScript
3 3,184 (45.77%) Agile Software Development
4 2,882 (41.43%) HTML5
5 2,400 (34.50%) AngularJS
6 2,246 (32.29%) CSS3
7 1,892 (27.20%) Front End Development
8 1,809 (26.01%) jQuery
9 1,665 (23.94%) TDD
10 1,614 (23.20%) Git (software)
11 1,584 (22.77%) .NET
12 1,565 (22.50%) React
13 1,477 (21.23%) C#
14 1,357 (19.51%) Java
15 1,351 (19.42%) MVC
16 1,349 (19.39%) Node.js
17 1,188 (17.08%) Web Development
18 1,139 (16.37%) Sass
19 1,129 (16.23%) User Experience
20 1,057 (15.20%) SQL
21 1,007 (14.48%) Web Services
22 1,002 (14.40%) Scrum
23 921 (13.24%) Finance
23 921 (13.24%) SQL Server
24 878 (12.62%) ASP.NET
25 807 (11.60%) PHP
26 798 (11.47%) Continuous Integration
27 781 (11.23%) REST
28 736 (10.58%) BDD
29 712 (10.24%) Twitter Bootstrap

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 475 (6.83%) CMS
2 203 (2.92%) Apache
3 199 (2.86%) Drupal
4 183 (2.63%) WordPress
5 174 (2.50%) SharePoint
6 147 (2.11%) Confluence
7 115 (1.65%) IIS
8 114 (1.64%) Tomcat
9 112 (1.61%) Elasticsearch
9 112 (1.61%) Umbraco
10 111 (1.60%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 95 (1.37%) JBoss
12 81 (1.16%) WebLogic
13 79 (1.14%) Sitecore CMS
14 65 (0.93%) WebSphere
15 63 (0.91%) nginx
16 51 (0.73%) EPiServer
17 47 (0.68%) Apache Solr
18 44 (0.63%) SharePoint 2013
19 36 (0.52%) SharePoint 2010
Applications
1 272 (3.91%) Photoshop
2 146 (2.10%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 145 (2.08%) Adobe Illustrator
4 75 (1.08%) InVision
5 70 (1.01%) Microsoft Excel
6 53 (0.76%) OmniGraffle
7 37 (0.53%) Microsoft Office
8 17 (0.24%) InDesign
9 16 (0.23%) MS Visio
10 15 (0.22%) Adobe Premiere
11 14 (0.20%) Adobe After Effects
12 13 (0.19%) GIMP
12 13 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 11 (0.16%) Fireworks
13 11 (0.16%) Microsoft Project
14 10 (0.14%) UXPin
15 8 (0.12%) InfoPath
16 7 (0.10%) Flinto
17 6 (0.086%) Acrobat
18 4 (0.058%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 159 (2.29%) Magento
2 40 (0.58%) Dynamics CRM
3 14 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
3 14 (0.20%) Payment Gateway
4 13 (0.19%) SAP Hybris
5 12 (0.17%) Eloqua
6 10 (0.14%) Shopify
7 9 (0.13%) Dynamics NAV
8 8 (0.12%) KANA IQ
8 8 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 7 (0.10%) WebTrends
10 5 (0.072%) Oracle BPM
11 4 (0.058%) Dynamics AX
11 4 (0.058%) Social Studio
11 4 (0.058%) Unica
12 3 (0.043%) SDL Web 8
13 2 (0.029%) Distributed Ledger
13 2 (0.029%) Infor M3
13 2 (0.029%) Maximo
13 2 (0.029%) Movex
Cloud Services
1 445 (6.40%) Amazon AWS
2 385 (5.53%) Microsoft Azure
3 255 (3.67%) npm
4 168 (2.42%) GitHub
5 105 (1.51%) SaaS
6 76 (1.09%) Google Analytics
7 73 (1.05%) Serverless
8 59 (0.85%) PaaS
9 47 (0.68%) Office 365
10 46 (0.66%) Google Cloud Platform
11 43 (0.62%) IaaS
12 38 (0.55%) Heroku
13 34 (0.49%) OpenShift
14 32 (0.46%) Amazon EC2
15 31 (0.45%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 27 (0.39%) AWS Lambda
17 24 (0.35%) Amazon S3
18 19 (0.27%) Trello
19 18 (0.26%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
20 15 (0.22%) Salesforce Service Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 165 (2.37%) HTTP
2 107 (1.54%) Internet
3 54 (0.78%) SMS
3 54 (0.78%) SSL
4 46 (0.66%) TCP/IP
5 34 (0.49%) DNS
6 30 (0.43%) Intranet
7 29 (0.42%) FTP
8 13 (0.19%) Firewall
8 13 (0.19%) SMTP
9 8 (0.12%) HTTPS
10 7 (0.10%) Reverse Proxy
10 7 (0.10%) Skype
11 6 (0.086%) CTI
12 5 (0.072%) MQTT
13 4 (0.058%) Broadband
13 4 (0.058%) Ethernet
13 4 (0.058%) IMAP
13 4 (0.058%) Kerberos
13 4 (0.058%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 921 (13.24%) SQL Server
2 656 (9.43%) MySQL
3 369 (5.30%) MongoDB
4 302 (4.34%) Relational Database
5 246 (3.54%) NoSQL
6 189 (2.72%) PostgreSQL
7 102 (1.47%) SQL Server 2012
8 89 (1.28%) SQL Server 2008
9 87 (1.25%) Big Data
10 64 (0.92%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 57 (0.82%) Apache Cassandra
12 55 (0.79%) Oracle Database
13 52 (0.75%) RDBMS
14 51 (0.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 49 (0.70%) Redis
16 43 (0.62%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 38 (0.55%) SQL Server 2014
18 34 (0.49%) Hadoop
19 33 (0.47%) DB2
20 32 (0.46%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 1,614 (23.20%) Git (software)
2 554 (7.96%) Jenkins
3 474 (6.81%) gulp
4 406 (5.84%) JIRA
5 393 (5.65%) Grunt
6 374 (5.38%) webpack
7 322 (4.63%) Jasmine
8 303 (4.36%) Selenium
9 261 (3.75%) Subversion
10 256 (3.68%) Visual Studio
11 205 (2.95%) Karma Test Runner
12 185 (2.66%) Mocha
13 177 (2.54%) JUnit
14 162 (2.33%) Cucumber
15 161 (2.31%) Maven
16 156 (2.24%) Team Foundation Server
17 152 (2.19%) Axure RP
18 126 (1.81%) Babel
19 112 (1.61%) NUnit
20 105 (1.51%) Eclipse
General
1 921 (13.24%) Finance
2 384 (5.52%) Marketing
3 341 (4.90%) Banking
4 293 (4.21%) Retail
5 142 (2.04%) Telecoms
6 96 (1.38%) Games
7 80 (1.15%) Advertising
8 77 (1.11%) Front Office
9 63 (0.91%) Publishing
10 53 (0.76%) Manufacturing
11 51 (0.73%) Law
12 49 (0.70%) Investment Banking
13 42 (0.60%) Electronics
14 28 (0.40%) Automotive
15 26 (0.37%) Financial Institution
16 24 (0.35%) Back Office
17 23 (0.33%) Legal
17 23 (0.33%) Multimedia
17 23 (0.33%) Retail Banking
18 14 (0.20%) Japanese Language
Job Titles
1 5,715 (82.16%) Developer
2 1,473 (21.18%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,149 (16.52%) JavaScript Developer
4 744 (10.70%) .NET Developer
5 663 (9.53%) React Developer
6 600 (8.63%) HTML Developer
7 572 (8.22%) Java Developer
8 555 (7.98%) Angular Developer
9 506 (7.27%) Full Stack Developer
10 498 (7.16%) Senior Developer
11 482 (6.93%) C# Developer
12 455 (6.54%) Designer
13 445 (6.40%) HTML CSS Developer
14 399 (5.74%) Web Developer
15 363 (5.22%) UI Developer
16 323 (4.64%) C# .NET Developer
17 322 (4.63%) PHP Developer
18 269 (3.87%) UX Designer
19 262 (3.77%) Node.js Developer
20 188 (2.70%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,444 (92.64%) HTML
2 2,882 (41.43%) HTML5
3 2,400 (34.50%) AngularJS
4 2,246 (32.29%) CSS3
5 1,809 (26.01%) jQuery
6 1,584 (22.77%) .NET
7 1,565 (22.50%) React
8 1,349 (19.39%) Node.js
9 1,139 (16.37%) Sass
10 1,007 (14.48%) Web Services
11 878 (12.62%) ASP.NET
12 781 (11.23%) REST
13 712 (10.24%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 705 (10.14%) RESTful
15 627 (9.01%) XML
16 616 (8.86%) JSON
17 587 (8.44%) Ajax
18 487 (7.00%) Spring
19 466 (6.70%) LESS
20 465 (6.68%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 1,129 (16.23%) User Experience
2 367 (5.28%) Greenfield Project
3 350 (5.03%) Mobile App
4 251 (3.61%) Analytical Skills
5 182 (2.62%) Fintech
6 169 (2.43%) Computer Science
7 125 (1.80%) Enterprise Software
8 68 (0.98%) W3C
9 67 (0.96%) Virtual Team
10 62 (0.89%) Social Media
11 51 (0.73%) Data Structures
12 50 (0.72%) N-Tier
13 47 (0.68%) Derivative
14 44 (0.63%) Digital Media
15 43 (0.62%) Algorithms
16 42 (0.60%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 39 (0.56%) Management Information System
18 38 (0.55%) Linux Command Line
19 36 (0.52%) Graphic Design
19 36 (0.52%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 543 (7.81%) Linux
2 231 (3.32%) Windows
3 197 (2.83%) Unix
4 145 (2.08%) Android
4 145 (2.08%) Apple iOS
5 55 (0.79%) Windows Server
6 51 (0.73%) Mac OS X
7 26 (0.37%) Mac OS
8 19 (0.27%) Ubuntu
9 17 (0.24%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 11 (0.16%) Oracle Linux
10 11 (0.16%) Windows 10
11 8 (0.12%) Solaris
12 7 (0.10%) Windows 2000
12 7 (0.10%) Windows Server 2003
13 6 (0.086%) Debian
14 5 (0.072%) Windows Server 2008
15 4 (0.058%) CentOS
15 4 (0.058%) Windows Server 2012
16 3 (0.043%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,184 (45.77%) Agile Software Development
2 1,892 (27.20%) Front End Development
3 1,665 (23.94%) TDD
4 1,351 (19.42%) MVC
5 1,188 (17.08%) Web Development
6 1,002 (14.40%) Scrum
7 798 (11.47%) Continuous Integration
8 736 (10.58%) BDD
9 695 (9.99%) Test Automation
10 670 (9.63%) OO
11 578 (8.31%) Responsive Web Design
12 545 (7.83%) E-Commerce
13 450 (6.47%) Unit Testing
14 424 (6.10%) Software Engineering
15 402 (5.78%) DevOps
16 372 (5.35%) Microservices
17 331 (4.76%) Prototyping
18 330 (4.74%) Kanban
19 323 (4.64%) Web Design
20 309 (4.44%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 5,475 (78.71%) JavaScript
2 1,477 (21.23%) C#
3 1,357 (19.51%) Java
4 1,057 (15.20%) SQL
5 807 (11.60%) PHP
6 554 (7.96%) ES6
7 446 (6.41%) TypeScript
8 408 (5.87%) Python
9 296 (4.26%) Scala
10 275 (3.95%) Ruby
11 180 (2.59%) T-SQL
12 113 (1.62%) VB.NET
13 105 (1.51%) Groovy
14 92 (1.32%) C++
15 85 (1.22%) ES7
16 79 (1.14%) PL/SQL
17 70 (1.01%) PowerShell
18 69 (0.99%) C
19 54 (0.78%) Perl
20 46 (0.66%) Go
Qualifications
1 357 (5.13%) Degree
2 197 (2.83%) Security Cleared
3 131 (1.88%) SC Cleared
4 101 (1.45%) Computer Science Degree
5 16 (0.23%) BPSS Clearance
6 13 (0.19%) DBS Check
7 12 (0.17%) DV Cleared
8 11 (0.16%) Numerate Degree
9 8 (0.12%) Microsoft Certification
10 5 (0.072%) ISTQB
10 5 (0.072%) ITIL Certification
10 5 (0.072%) Master's Degree
11 4 (0.058%) ISEB
12 3 (0.043%) BC Cleared
12 3 (0.043%) CTC Cleared
12 3 (0.043%) IBM Certification
12 3 (0.043%) OCPJP
13 2 (0.029%) APMP
13 2 (0.029%) AWS Certification
13 2 (0.029%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 227 (3.26%) QA
2 60 (0.86%) WCAG
3 21 (0.30%) WAI
4 20 (0.29%) Disclosure Scotland
5 12 (0.17%) GCP
6 9 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 8 (0.12%) HL7
8 6 (0.086%) SLA
9 4 (0.058%) GDPR
9 4 (0.058%) PMO
10 2 (0.029%) RosettaNet
11 1 (0.014%) CESG Infosec
11 1 (0.014%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 1 (0.014%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.014%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 1 (0.014%) PCI DSS
11 1 (0.014%) PSD2
System Software
1 472 (6.79%) Docker
2 35 (0.50%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.23%) VMware Infrastructure
4 12 (0.17%) Virtual Machines
5 6 (0.086%) VirtualBox
6 5 (0.072%) Hyper-V
6 5 (0.072%) ISA Server
7 4 (0.058%) LXC
7 4 (0.058%) Varnish
7 4 (0.058%) VMware ESXi
8 2 (0.029%) Oracle RAC
9 1 (0.014%) HDFS
9 1 (0.014%) Microsoft App-V
9 1 (0.014%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 101 (1.45%) Puppet
2 91 (1.31%) Ansible
3 64 (0.92%) Opscode Chef
4 63 (0.91%) Kubernetes
5 39 (0.56%) Terraform
6 28 (0.40%) Kibana
7 27 (0.39%) Grafana
8 15 (0.22%) Sysdig
9 13 (0.19%) Business Desktop Deployment
10 10 (0.14%) Docker Swarm
11 8 (0.12%) CA Service Virtualization
12 7 (0.10%) Rancher
13 6 (0.086%) HP Quality Center
13 6 (0.086%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
14 5 (0.072%) Galera Cluster
14 5 (0.072%) ITRS Geneos
14 5 (0.072%) OpenNebula
15 4 (0.058%) Nagios
16 3 (0.043%) Matomo
16 3 (0.043%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 522 (7.50%) Microsoft
2 398 (5.72%) Adobe
3 369 (5.30%) Oracle
4 187 (2.69%) Google
5 114 (1.64%) Sitecore
6 105 (1.51%) Salesforce.com
7 89 (1.28%) ServiceNow
8 69 (0.99%) SAP
9 67 (0.96%) hybris
10 63 (0.91%) Zend
11 56 (0.81%) Twitter
12 43 (0.62%) IBM
13 40 (0.58%) Splunk
14 39 (0.56%) New Relic
15 37 (0.53%) Atlassian
15 37 (0.53%) PayPal
16 36 (0.52%) Xamarin
17 30 (0.43%) VMware
18 29 (0.42%) Nintex
19 26 (0.37%) Capita