The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 3 months to 26 March 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
26 Mar 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
UK / England
Rank 13 18 23
Rank change year-on-year +5 +5  
Contract jobs citing CSS 3520 3828 3375
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 8.53% 7.80% 6.98%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 27.01% 27.68% 25.81%
Number of daily rates quoted 2425 2740 2278
Median daily rate £400 £386 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.55% +3.00%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £275 £275 £250
10% offered a daily rate of more than £525 £525 £476
UK excluding London median daily rate £370 £350 £335
% change year-on-year +5.71% +4.47%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 34 43 24
Median hourly rate £40.00 £34.50 £32.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +15.94% +7.81%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £16.30 £10.50 £19.30
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £43.35 £55.00 £47.20
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £32.50 £35.00
% change year-on-year +23.07% -7.14%  

CSS is in the industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills.

Contract Software Library & Framework Skills
England
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills 13030 13829 13075
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in England 31.58% 28.19% 27.05%
Number of daily rates quoted 9047 9693 8586
Median daily rate £425 £410 £398
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.65% +3.14%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £300 £283
10% offered a daily rate of more than £575 £565 £550
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £363 £350
% change year-on-year +3.44% +3.57%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 171 213 173
Median hourly rate £41.64 £38.00 £35.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +9.57% +8.57%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £16.00 £13.00 £20.00
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £55.00 £57.00 £46.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £38.00 £36.00
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.55%  

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

The job posting trend of jobs advertised in England citing CSS as a proportion of all contract or permanent IT jobs with a match in the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 3 months to 26 March 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 3 months to 26 March 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 3 months to 26 March 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London 0 1617 £425 - 661
South East +3 579 £365 +4.28% 319
South West +4 259 £400 +14.28% 123
Yorkshire +10 236 £375 +7.14% 161
North West +2 217 £350 - 236
West Midlands +11 211 £375 +15.38% 142
East Midlands +12 153 £340 +13.33% 131
East of England -1 114 £325 -7.14% 146
North East +4 104 £385 -0.64% 27
Midlands +14 7 £400 -20.00% 9
CSS
UK

CSS
Top 30 Related IT Skills in England

For the 6 months to 26 March 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6704 (92.65%) HTML
2 5753 (79.51%) JavaScript
3 3175 (43.88%) Agile Software Development
4 2976 (41.13%) HTML5
5 2427 (33.54%) CSS3
6 2363 (32.66%) AngularJS
7 2026 (28.00%) jQuery
8 1916 (26.48%) Front End Development
9 1553 (21.46%) Java
10 1530 (21.14%) .NET
11 1388 (19.18%) C#
12 1382 (19.10%) MVC
13 1381 (19.09%) Web Development
14 1354 (18.71%) Git (software)
15 1351 (18.67%) TDD
16 1175 (16.24%) User Experience
17 1120 (15.48%) React
18 1097 (15.16%) SQL
19 1054 (14.57%) Scrum
20 1005 (13.89%) Node.js
21 949 (13.11%) ASP.NET
22 945 (13.06%) Sass
23 932 (12.88%) XML
24 915 (12.65%) Web Services
25 875 (12.09%) Finance
26 859 (11.87%) JSON
27 849 (11.73%) REST
28 835 (11.54%) PHP
29 834 (11.53%) SQL Server
30 828 (11.44%) Ajax

CSS
Top Related IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 559 (7.73%) CMS
2 227 (3.14%) SharePoint
3 224 (3.10%) Apache
4 202 (2.79%) Confluence
5 194 (2.68%) Drupal
6 190 (2.63%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 173 (2.39%) WordPress
8 121 (1.67%) Umbraco
9 111 (1.53%) Tomcat
10 101 (1.40%) IIS
11 87 (1.20%) JBoss
11 87 (1.20%) WebSphere
12 79 (1.09%) Sitecore CMS
13 78 (1.08%) EPiServer
13 78 (1.08%) SharePoint 2013
14 76 (1.05%) Elasticsearch
15 69 (0.95%) WebLogic
16 67 (0.93%) Apache Solr
17 53 (0.73%) SharePoint 2010
18 33 (0.46%) nginx
Applications
1 293 (4.05%) Photoshop
2 165 (2.28%) MS Excel
3 125 (1.73%) Adobe Illustrator
4 95 (1.31%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 43 (0.59%) OmniGraffle
6 32 (0.44%) MS Office
7 26 (0.36%) Fireworks
8 24 (0.33%) InVision
8 24 (0.33%) MS Visio
9 19 (0.26%) InDesign
10 10 (0.14%) GIMP
11 9 (0.12%) InfoPath
11 9 (0.12%) MS PowerPoint
12 7 (0.097%) HipChat
12 7 (0.097%) UXPin
13 6 (0.083%) Adobe After Effects
14 3 (0.041%) Edge Animate
15 2 (0.028%) Adobe Premiere
15 2 (0.028%) MS Project
15 2 (0.028%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 123 (1.70%) Dynamics CRM
2 114 (1.58%) Magento
3 50 (0.69%) Adobe Campaign
4 46 (0.64%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 28 (0.39%) Unica
6 26 (0.36%) Dynamics AX
7 12 (0.17%) Oracle BPM
8 8 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
9 7 (0.097%) Oracle Applications
10 6 (0.083%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 5 (0.069%) Remedy ITSM
11 5 (0.069%) SAP CRM
12 4 (0.055%) FastStats
12 4 (0.055%) FastStats PeopleStage
12 4 (0.055%) Fredhopper
12 4 (0.055%) SAP Business One
12 4 (0.055%) SDL Web 8
13 3 (0.041%) Payment Gateway
13 3 (0.041%) Revive Adserver
14 2 (0.028%) OpenCart
Cloud Services
1 337 (4.66%) Amazon AWS
2 273 (3.77%) Microsoft Azure
3 192 (2.65%) GitHub
4 80 (1.11%) SaaS
5 75 (1.04%) Google Analytics
6 60 (0.83%) Office 365
7 45 (0.62%) PaaS
8 36 (0.50%) Adobe Analytics
9 35 (0.48%) Google Cloud Platform
10 33 (0.46%) IaaS
11 25 (0.35%) Heroku
12 21 (0.29%) Amazon EC2
12 21 (0.29%) AWS CloudFormation
13 20 (0.28%) Amazon S3
14 15 (0.21%) AWS Lambda
15 12 (0.17%) Cloud Computing
15 12 (0.17%) Slack
16 11 (0.15%) Amazon SQS
17 10 (0.14%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
17 10 (0.14%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 313 (4.33%) HTTP
2 150 (2.07%) Internet
3 66 (0.91%) TCP/IP
4 65 (0.90%) Intranet
5 57 (0.79%) LDAP
6 43 (0.59%) DNS
6 43 (0.59%) SSL
7 28 (0.39%) SMTP
8 25 (0.35%) SNMP
9 23 (0.32%) Firewall
10 21 (0.29%) Network Security
11 18 (0.25%) Extranet
12 16 (0.22%) HTTPS
13 15 (0.21%) SSH
14 13 (0.18%) Broadband
15 12 (0.17%) LAN
15 12 (0.17%) WAN
16 11 (0.15%) VoIP
16 11 (0.15%) VPN
17 10 (0.14%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 834 (11.53%) SQL Server
2 655 (9.05%) MySQL
3 412 (5.69%) Relational Database
4 354 (4.89%) MongoDB
5 347 (4.80%) NoSQL
6 234 (3.23%) PostgreSQL
7 130 (1.80%) SQL Server 2008
8 118 (1.63%) Big Data
9 110 (1.52%) Oracle Database
10 108 (1.49%) Apache Cassandra
11 89 (1.23%) SQL Server 2012
12 80 (1.11%) RDBMS
13 76 (1.05%) Hadoop
14 59 (0.82%) Redis
15 46 (0.64%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 46 (0.64%) SQL Server Reporting Services
16 43 (0.59%) DB2
17 38 (0.53%) HBase
18 37 (0.51%) SQL Server 2014
19 30 (0.41%) BusinessObjects
Development Applications
1 1354 (18.71%) Git (software)
2 443 (6.12%) Jenkins
3 375 (5.18%) JIRA
4 373 (5.15%) Grunt
5 360 (4.98%) gulp
6 356 (4.92%) Subversion
7 336 (4.64%) Jasmine
8 302 (4.17%) Visual Studio
9 292 (4.04%) Selenium
10 269 (3.72%) Team Foundation Server
11 237 (3.28%) Maven
12 222 (3.07%) Cucumber
13 221 (3.05%) JUnit
14 195 (2.69%) webpack
15 184 (2.54%) Mocha
16 138 (1.91%) Axure RP
17 135 (1.87%) Karma Test Runner
18 134 (1.85%) TeamCity
19 120 (1.66%) Eclipse
20 114 (1.58%) Ant
General
1 875 (12.09%) Finance
2 392 (5.42%) Banking
3 340 (4.70%) Marketing
4 242 (3.34%) Retail
5 140 (1.93%) Telecoms
6 128 (1.77%) Advertising
7 114 (1.58%) Investment Banking
8 109 (1.51%) Publishing
9 100 (1.38%) Games
10 97 (1.34%) Manufacturing
11 79 (1.09%) Front Office
12 51 (0.70%) Electronics
13 50 (0.69%) Back Office
14 47 (0.65%) Legal
15 32 (0.44%) Pharmaceutical
16 25 (0.35%) Financial Institution
17 21 (0.29%) Law
18 20 (0.28%) Automotive
18 20 (0.28%) Local Government
19 14 (0.19%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 5918 (81.79%) Developer
2 1583 (21.88%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1258 (17.39%) JavaScript Developer
4 748 (10.34%) .NET Developer
5 704 (9.73%) HTML Developer
6 699 (9.66%) Java Developer
7 582 (8.04%) HTML CSS Developer
8 561 (7.75%) Angular Developer
9 498 (6.88%) Web Developer
10 487 (6.73%) Senior Developer
11 456 (6.30%) C# Developer
12 453 (6.26%) Designer
13 409 (5.65%) UI Developer
14 349 (4.82%) Full Stack Developer
15 347 (4.80%) C# .NET Developer
16 300 (4.15%) PHP Developer
17 288 (3.98%) UX Designer
18 236 (3.26%) ASP.NET Developer
19 226 (3.12%) Architect
20 184 (2.54%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6704 (92.65%) HTML
2 2976 (41.13%) HTML5
3 2427 (33.54%) CSS3
4 2363 (32.66%) AngularJS
5 2026 (28.00%) jQuery
6 1530 (21.14%) .NET
7 1120 (15.48%) React
8 1005 (13.89%) Node.js
9 949 (13.11%) ASP.NET
10 945 (13.06%) Sass
11 932 (12.88%) XML
12 915 (12.65%) Web Services
13 859 (11.87%) JSON
14 849 (11.73%) REST
15 828 (11.44%) Ajax
16 687 (9.49%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 656 (9.07%) RESTful
18 586 (8.10%) Spring
19 459 (6.34%) ASP.NET MVC
20 456 (6.30%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 1175 (16.24%) User Experience
2 374 (5.17%) Mobile App
3 251 (3.47%) Analytical Skills
4 155 (2.14%) Computer Science
5 108 (1.49%) W3C
6 100 (1.38%) Enterprise Software
7 99 (1.37%) Fintech
8 49 (0.68%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 48 (0.66%) Data Structures
10 47 (0.65%) Virtual Team
11 44 (0.61%) Management Information System
11 44 (0.61%) Social Media
12 43 (0.59%) iPad
13 39 (0.54%) Graphic Design
13 39 (0.54%) N-Tier
14 35 (0.48%) Digital Media
15 33 (0.46%) Linux Command Line
16 30 (0.41%) RIA
17 29 (0.40%) NHS
18 27 (0.37%) Web 2.0
Operating Systems
1 635 (8.78%) Linux
2 298 (4.12%) Unix
3 279 (3.86%) Windows
4 186 (2.57%) Apple iOS
5 171 (2.36%) Android
6 119 (1.64%) Mac OS X
7 68 (0.94%) Windows Server
8 47 (0.65%) Ubuntu
9 31 (0.43%) Windows Server 2008
10 26 (0.36%) CentOS
11 21 (0.29%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 14 (0.19%) Windows Server 2012
13 9 (0.12%) Mac OS
13 9 (0.12%) Windows Phone
14 8 (0.11%) Oracle Linux
14 8 (0.11%) webOS
14 8 (0.11%) Windows Phone 7
15 6 (0.083%) Solaris
15 6 (0.083%) Windows Server 2003
16 5 (0.069%) CoreOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3175 (43.88%) Agile Software Development
2 1916 (26.48%) Front End Development
3 1382 (19.10%) MVC
4 1381 (19.09%) Web Development
5 1351 (18.67%) TDD
6 1054 (14.57%) Scrum
7 817 (11.29%) OO
8 661 (9.13%) BDD
9 654 (9.04%) Responsive Web Design
10 644 (8.90%) Continuous Integration
11 567 (7.84%) E-Commerce
12 484 (6.69%) Web Design
13 396 (5.47%) Prototyping
14 388 (5.36%) Software Engineering
15 379 (5.24%) Open Source
16 344 (4.75%) Unit Testing
17 315 (4.35%) Wireframes
18 294 (4.06%) Microservices
19 281 (3.88%) DevOps
20 268 (3.70%) Configuration Management
Programming Languages
1 5753 (79.51%) JavaScript
2 1553 (21.46%) Java
3 1388 (19.18%) C#
4 1097 (15.16%) SQL
5 835 (11.54%) PHP
6 513 (7.09%) Python
7 398 (5.50%) Ruby
8 337 (4.66%) Scala
9 282 (3.90%) ES6
10 159 (2.20%) TypeScript
11 141 (1.95%) T-SQL
12 133 (1.84%) PowerShell
13 126 (1.74%) VB.NET
14 87 (1.20%) PL/SQL
15 70 (0.97%) Groovy
16 63 (0.87%) Perl
17 62 (0.86%) XPath
18 57 (0.79%) Shell Script
19 51 (0.70%) C++
20 46 (0.64%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 345 (4.77%) Degree
2 336 (4.64%) Security Cleared
3 188 (2.60%) SC Cleared
4 58 (0.80%) DV Cleared
5 38 (0.53%) BPSS Clearance
6 27 (0.37%) Microsoft Certification
7 20 (0.28%) BC Cleared
8 12 (0.17%) Cisco Certification
9 11 (0.15%) ISTQB
9 11 (0.15%) MCTS
10 8 (0.11%) CCNP
10 8 (0.11%) ISEB
10 8 (0.11%) OCPJP
11 7 (0.097%) CCDA
11 7 (0.097%) CCDP
11 7 (0.097%) CCNA
11 7 (0.097%) CCVP
12 6 (0.083%) DBS Check
12 6 (0.083%) MBA
13 5 (0.069%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 233 (3.22%) QA
2 37 (0.51%) WCAG
3 35 (0.48%) Disclosure Scotland
4 25 (0.35%) WAI
5 16 (0.22%) FATCA
6 7 (0.097%) Actionable Recommendations
6 7 (0.097%) ISO 9001
6 7 (0.097%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 7 (0.097%) MiFID
6 7 (0.097%) PCI DSS
7 4 (0.055%) Data Quality
7 4 (0.055%) PMO
7 4 (0.055%) SDET
7 4 (0.055%) SLA
8 3 (0.041%) Dodd-Frank
8 3 (0.041%) EMIR
8 3 (0.041%) HMG Security Policy Framework
9 2 (0.028%) FedRAMP
9 2 (0.028%) HL7
10 1 (0.014%) COBIT
System Software
1 265 (3.66%) Docker
2 31 (0.43%) Active Directory
3 14 (0.19%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
5 9 (0.12%) LXC
5 9 (0.12%) Varnish
6 7 (0.097%) Shibboleth
7 6 (0.083%) HDFS
8 5 (0.069%) VirtualBox
8 5 (0.069%) VMware ESXi
8 5 (0.069%) vSphere
9 4 (0.055%) Apache Flume
10 2 (0.028%) Hyper-V
11 1 (0.014%) Time Sharing Option
Systems Management
1 123 (1.70%) Puppet
2 58 (0.80%) Opscode Chef
3 49 (0.68%) Ansible
4 34 (0.47%) Kubernetes
5 18 (0.25%) Terraform
6 16 (0.22%) Kibana
7 13 (0.18%) Nagios
8 11 (0.15%) Salt
9 9 (0.12%) Capistrano
9 9 (0.12%) TeamSite
10 8 (0.11%) HP Quality Center
10 8 (0.11%) Piwik
10 8 (0.11%) ZABBIX
11 5 (0.069%) WMI
12 4 (0.055%) Grafana
12 4 (0.055%) logstash
12 4 (0.055%) MOM
13 2 (0.028%) Packer
13 2 (0.028%) Pingdom
13 2 (0.028%) Zenoss
Vendors
1 565 (7.81%) Microsoft
2 421 (5.82%) Oracle
3 417 (5.76%) Adobe
4 249 (3.44%) Google
5 123 (1.70%) ServiceNow
6 114 (1.58%) Sitecore
7 102 (1.41%) SAP
8 80 (1.11%) Salesforce.com
9 70 (0.97%) Zend
10 60 (0.83%) Xamarin
11 57 (0.79%) hybris
12 56 (0.77%) IBM
13 43 (0.59%) Atlassian
14 40 (0.55%) Red Hat
15 38 (0.53%) Apple
15 38 (0.53%) Splunk
16 32 (0.44%) Twitter
17 27 (0.37%) New Relic
18 26 (0.36%) Solace
19 22 (0.30%) VMware
South East
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £300 - £400 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Explore Recruitment Solutions
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Explore Recruitment Solutions
Rate: £500 - £550 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Oscar
Rate: £400 - £550 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Vantage Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: From £300 to £350 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Square One Resources
Rate: Up to £400 per day 3 Months Contract
Posted: 2 days ago
Brighton, East Sussex
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Rate: Up to £350 PD
Posted: 2 days ago
Watford, Hertfordshire
Whitby Munn
Rate: From £300 to £400 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Explore Recruitment Solutions
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Warwickshire
Oscar
Rate: £200 - £275 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Brighton, East Sussex
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Rate: £350 per Day
Posted: 2 days ago
Towcester, Northamptonshire
Latcom Ltd
Rate: From £275 to £325 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Brighton, East Sussex
Oscar
Rate: £200 - £250 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Ripley, Derbyshire
Syntax Consultancy Ltd
Rate: From £300 to £320 per day 300-320/day (DOE)
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Venturi
Rate: £300 - £350 per day
Posted: Yesterday
West Midlands
Oscar
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Senitor Associates
Rate: £250 - £365 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Experis Ltd
Rate: £450 - £500 per day + DOE
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Salt
Rate: £400 - £500 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Explore Recruitment Solutions
Rate: £250 - £350 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
Basingstoke, Hampshire
Trust In Soda
Rate: From £190 to £210 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Source Technology
Rate: From £350 to £400 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
Southampton, Hampshire
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: Negotiable
Posted: 2 days ago
South East London
Vantage Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: Up to £375 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Buckinghamshire
Rullion
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Oscar
Rate: £450 - £550 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Ascend Consulting
Rate: From £300 to £350 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Uxbridge, Middlesex
PCR
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Northamptonshire
Oscar
Rate: £275 - £325 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
AMS contingency
Posted: 2 days ago