Period
to 27 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 27 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
27 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 24 16 13
Rank change year-on-year -8 -3 +4
Contract jobs citing CSS 5,644 7,432 7,351
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 6.78% 8.05% 8.66%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 20.77% 23.76% 26.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,075 5,413 5,182
England median daily rate £450 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +3.23%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £275
90th Percentile £600 £575 £550
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 62 40 64
England median hourly rate £50.00 £42.50 £38.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +17.65% +11.11% +15.04%
10th Percentile £21.43 £12.46 £13.90
90th Percentile £60.00 £50.00 £46.78
UK median hourly rate £49.25 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year +15.88% +6.25% +23.08%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 27,173 31,277 27,329
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 32.64% 33.89% 32.21%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,183 22,188 18,983
England median daily rate £500 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £343 £319 £306
90th Percentile £650 £631 £615
UK median daily rate £489 £470 £445
% change year-on-year +4.04% +5.62% +4.71%
Number of hourly rates quoted 281 334 359
England median hourly rate £44.00 £42.13 £41.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +4.45% +2.12% +10.00%
10th Percentile £18.50 £15.68 £18.40
90th Percentile £60.00 £61.75 £53.80
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £41.88 £41.13
% change year-on-year +1.47% +1.84% +9.67%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 27 June 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 27 June 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 27 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 2,843 £488 +2.63% 285
South East -9 940 £425 +2.41% 185
North of England -14 748 £400 +6.67% 231
Midlands -11 497 £400 +6.67% 192
South West -2 419 £425 +13.33% 98
Yorkshire -6 342 £400 +3.23% 61
North West -13 336 £388 +3.33% 146
West Midlands -10 307 £403 +7.40% 95
East Midlands -1 179 £380 +1.33% 96
East of England -26 174 £400 - 65
North East -1 70 £400 +14.29% 24
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 27 June 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 5,148 (91.21%) HTML
2 4,528 (80.23%) JavaScript
3 2,733 (48.42%) Agile Software Development
4 1,932 (34.23%) HTML5
5 1,830 (32.42%) AngularJS
6 1,602 (28.38%) Front End Development
7 1,511 (26.77%) React
8 1,419 (25.14%) Git (software)
9 1,360 (24.10%) .NET
10 1,357 (24.04%) CSS3
11 1,326 (23.49%) C#
12 1,267 (22.45%) jQuery
13 1,212 (21.47%) TDD
14 1,135 (20.11%) Node.js
15 1,073 (19.01%) Java
16 1,041 (18.44%) MVC
17 986 (17.47%) SQL
18 962 (17.04%) Sass
19 942 (16.69%) User Experience
20 880 (15.59%) Web Development
21 845 (14.97%) Scrum
22 790 (14.00%) ASP.NET
23 781 (13.84%) Finance
24 758 (13.43%) SQL Server
25 697 (12.35%) TypeScript
26 686 (12.15%) REST
27 683 (12.10%) Twitter Bootstrap
28 652 (11.55%) Web Services
29 648 (11.48%) Microsoft Azure
30 645 (11.43%) Test Automation

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 413 (7.32%) CMS
2 165 (2.92%) SharePoint
3 162 (2.87%) Confluence
3 162 (2.87%) WordPress
4 159 (2.82%) Apache
5 131 (2.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 112 (1.98%) Drupal
7 96 (1.70%) Elasticsearch
8 82 (1.45%) WebSphere
9 81 (1.44%) JBoss
10 68 (1.20%) Tomcat
11 59 (1.05%) Umbraco
12 55 (0.97%) IIS
13 42 (0.74%) Sitecore CMS
14 39 (0.69%) SharePoint 2013
15 37 (0.66%) EPiServer
15 37 (0.66%) WebLogic
16 35 (0.62%) Apache Solr
17 33 (0.58%) SharePoint 2010
18 21 (0.37%) nginx
Applications
1 193 (3.42%) Photoshop
2 119 (2.11%) Sketch
3 96 (1.70%) Adobe Illustrator
4 61 (1.08%) InVision
5 46 (0.82%) Microsoft Office
6 32 (0.57%) Microsoft Excel
7 29 (0.51%) Adobe XD
8 28 (0.50%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 23 (0.41%) Zeplin
10 21 (0.37%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 14 (0.25%) Chatbot
12 13 (0.23%) UXPin
13 12 (0.21%) Fireworks
13 12 (0.21%) MS Visio
14 11 (0.19%) Adobe After Effects
14 11 (0.19%) Camtasia
14 11 (0.19%) XMetaL
15 10 (0.18%) GIMP
16 8 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
17 6 (0.11%) InDesign
Business Applications
1 101 (1.79%) Magento
2 82 (1.45%) Dynamics CRM
3 19 (0.34%) Adobe Campaign
4 18 (0.32%) Shopify
5 9 (0.16%) NetSuite
6 8 (0.14%) Distributed Ledger
6 8 (0.14%) R3 Corda
7 7 (0.12%) Eloqua
7 7 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
8 5 (0.089%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 4 (0.071%) Remedy ITSM
9 4 (0.071%) Revive Adserver
10 3 (0.053%) SDL Web 8
10 3 (0.053%) WebTrends
11 2 (0.035%) OpenCart
11 2 (0.035%) Oracle BPM
11 2 (0.035%) Scribe Insight
12 1 (0.018%) BigMachines
12 1 (0.018%) SAP Hybris
12 1 (0.018%) SessionCam
Cloud Services
1 648 (11.48%) Microsoft Azure
2 489 (8.66%) Amazon AWS
3 211 (3.74%) GitHub
4 178 (3.15%) npm
5 106 (1.88%) Serverless
6 97 (1.72%) PaaS
7 91 (1.61%) Office 365
8 79 (1.40%) SaaS
9 75 (1.33%) AWS Lambda
10 71 (1.26%) Google Analytics
11 67 (1.19%) Power Platform
12 60 (1.06%) Google Cloud Platform
13 50 (0.89%) Adobe Analytics
14 49 (0.87%) Dynamics 365
15 47 (0.83%) Amazon SQS
16 43 (0.76%) Amazon EC2
17 41 (0.73%) Yarn
18 36 (0.64%) Azure Active Directory
19 34 (0.60%) Amazon S3
20 28 (0.50%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 103 (1.82%) HTTP
2 42 (0.74%) TCP/IP
3 37 (0.66%) SSL
4 31 (0.55%) Internet
5 26 (0.46%) FTP
6 21 (0.37%) DNS
7 20 (0.35%) Intranet
8 13 (0.23%) SSH
9 10 (0.18%) MQTT
10 9 (0.16%) HTTPS
10 9 (0.16%) Network Security
11 5 (0.089%) Firewall
11 5 (0.089%) Skype
11 5 (0.089%) SMS
11 5 (0.089%) VPN
12 4 (0.071%) Ethernet
12 4 (0.071%) RTMP
13 3 (0.053%) LAN
13 3 (0.053%) SNMP
13 3 (0.053%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 758 (13.43%) SQL Server
2 427 (7.57%) MySQL
3 242 (4.29%) NoSQL
4 231 (4.09%) Relational Database
5 198 (3.51%) MongoDB
6 190 (3.37%) PostgreSQL
7 61 (1.08%) Redis
8 59 (1.05%) Big Data
9 56 (0.99%) RDBMS
10 54 (0.96%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 52 (0.92%) Apache Cassandra
12 46 (0.82%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 45 (0.80%) Power BI
14 36 (0.64%) DB2
14 36 (0.64%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 35 (0.62%) Amazon RDS
16 33 (0.58%) SQL Server 2012
17 32 (0.57%) Azure SQL Database
18 31 (0.55%) Oracle Database
19 26 (0.46%) Blockchain
Development Applications
1 1,419 (25.14%) Git (software)
2 438 (7.76%) Jenkins
3 402 (7.12%) JIRA
4 328 (5.81%) gulp
5 324 (5.74%) webpack
6 284 (5.03%) Grunt
7 277 (4.91%) Visual Studio
8 265 (4.70%) Jasmine
9 218 (3.86%) Selenium
10 183 (3.24%) Subversion
11 182 (3.22%) Karma Test Runner
12 174 (3.08%) Team Foundation Server
13 171 (3.03%) Maven
14 165 (2.92%) JUnit
15 149 (2.64%) Cucumber
16 135 (2.39%) Mocha
17 132 (2.34%) Bitbucket
18 125 (2.21%) Visual Studio Team System
19 95 (1.68%) TeamCity
20 86 (1.52%) GitLab
General
1 781 (13.84%) Finance
2 297 (5.26%) Marketing
3 252 (4.46%) Banking
4 205 (3.63%) Retail
5 109 (1.93%) Front Office
6 66 (1.17%) Telecoms
7 65 (1.15%) Law
8 63 (1.12%) Games
9 60 (1.06%) Legal
10 58 (1.03%) Publishing
11 55 (0.97%) Investment Banking
12 43 (0.76%) Manufacturing
13 39 (0.69%) Advertising
14 29 (0.51%) Electronics
15 24 (0.43%) Pharmaceutical
16 19 (0.34%) Financial Institution
17 18 (0.32%) French Language
18 15 (0.27%) Automotive
19 12 (0.21%) Retail Banking
20 10 (0.18%) German Language
Job Titles
1 4,641 (82.23%) Developer
2 1,143 (20.25%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 708 (12.54%) React Developer
4 701 (12.42%) JavaScript Developer
5 612 (10.84%) Full Stack Developer
6 588 (10.42%) .NET Developer
7 434 (7.69%) Angular Developer
8 391 (6.93%) Senior Developer
9 364 (6.45%) Java Developer
10 329 (5.83%) C# Developer
11 293 (5.19%) Designer
12 262 (4.64%) UI Developer
13 252 (4.46%) Web Developer
14 230 (4.08%) PHP Developer
15 228 (4.04%) HTML Developer
16 220 (3.90%) C# .NET Developer
17 180 (3.19%) UX Designer
18 170 (3.01%) HTML CSS Developer
19 166 (2.94%) Node.js Developer
20 144 (2.55%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,148 (91.21%) HTML
2 1,932 (34.23%) HTML5
3 1,830 (32.42%) AngularJS
4 1,511 (26.77%) React
5 1,360 (24.10%) .NET
6 1,357 (24.04%) CSS3
7 1,267 (22.45%) jQuery
8 1,135 (20.11%) Node.js
9 962 (17.04%) Sass
10 790 (14.00%) ASP.NET
11 686 (12.15%) REST
12 683 (12.10%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 652 (11.55%) Web Services
14 575 (10.19%) RESTful
15 545 (9.66%) Redux
16 521 (9.23%) JSON
17 501 (8.88%) XML
18 476 (8.43%) Spring
19 463 (8.20%) .NET Framework
20 429 (7.60%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 942 (16.69%) User Experience
2 317 (5.62%) Greenfield Project
3 302 (5.35%) Mobile App
4 257 (4.55%) Analytical Skills
5 108 (1.91%) Enterprise Software
6 73 (1.29%) Hedge funds
6 73 (1.29%) W3C
7 64 (1.13%) Virtual Team
8 61 (1.08%) Data Structures
9 60 (1.06%) Social Media
10 56 (0.99%) Algorithms
11 54 (0.96%) Self-Motivation
12 48 (0.85%) Linux Command Line
13 41 (0.73%) Graphic Design
14 40 (0.71%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 32 (0.57%) Equities
16 30 (0.53%) Management Information System
17 29 (0.51%) Data Protection Act
17 29 (0.51%) Fixed Income
18 26 (0.46%) Vector Graphics
Operating Systems
1 423 (7.49%) Linux
2 193 (3.42%) Unix
3 152 (2.69%) Windows
4 104 (1.84%) Apple iOS
5 99 (1.75%) Android
6 44 (0.78%) Mac OS X
7 26 (0.46%) Ubuntu
8 17 (0.30%) Windows Server
9 13 (0.23%) VMS
10 12 (0.21%) CentOS
11 8 (0.14%) Fedora
11 8 (0.14%) Mac OS
12 6 (0.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 5 (0.089%) Debian
13 5 (0.089%) Windows 10
14 4 (0.071%) Solaris
15 2 (0.035%) Gentoo
15 2 (0.035%) tvOS
16 1 (0.018%) Android TV
16 1 (0.018%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,733 (48.42%) Agile Software Development
2 1,602 (28.38%) Front End Development
3 1,212 (21.47%) TDD
4 1,041 (18.44%) MVC
5 880 (15.59%) Web Development
6 845 (14.97%) Scrum
7 645 (11.43%) Test Automation
8 573 (10.15%) DevOps
9 522 (9.25%) BDD
10 498 (8.82%) Continuous Integration
11 467 (8.27%) OO
12 443 (7.85%) Microservices
13 438 (7.76%) Responsive Web Design
14 400 (7.09%) Unit Testing
15 391 (6.93%) Problem-Solving
16 383 (6.79%) E-Commerce
17 344 (6.09%) Software Engineering
18 297 (5.26%) Analytics
19 273 (4.84%) Kanban
20 270 (4.78%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 4,528 (80.23%) JavaScript
2 1,326 (23.49%) C#
3 1,073 (19.01%) Java
4 986 (17.47%) SQL
5 697 (12.35%) TypeScript
6 564 (9.99%) PHP
7 547 (9.69%) ES6
8 320 (5.67%) Python
9 227 (4.02%) Ruby
10 188 (3.33%) Java 8
11 154 (2.73%) T-SQL
12 101 (1.79%) Scala
13 81 (1.44%) PowerShell
14 70 (1.24%) ES7
15 56 (0.99%) Bash Shell
15 56 (0.99%) PL/SQL
16 53 (0.94%) Perl
16 53 (0.94%) VB.NET
17 45 (0.80%) Groovy
18 44 (0.78%) Go
Qualifications
1 272 (4.82%) Security Cleared
2 246 (4.36%) Degree
3 183 (3.24%) SC Cleared
4 71 (1.26%) BPSS Clearance
5 65 (1.15%) Computer Science Degree
6 44 (0.78%) DBS Check
7 16 (0.28%) DV Cleared
7 16 (0.28%) ISTQB
8 14 (0.25%) Master's Degree
9 9 (0.16%) ISEB
10 6 (0.11%) BC Cleared
10 6 (0.11%) ITIL Certification
10 6 (0.11%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
10 6 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
10 6 (0.11%) Numerate Degree
11 5 (0.089%) CISSP
11 5 (0.089%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 5 (0.089%) SSCP
12 3 (0.053%) MCP
12 3 (0.053%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 235 (4.16%) QA
2 56 (0.99%) WCAG
3 24 (0.43%) GDPR
4 15 (0.27%) Disclosure Scotland
5 10 (0.18%) Data Quality
6 6 (0.11%) SLA
7 4 (0.071%) ISO 15022
7 4 (0.071%) ISO 20022
8 3 (0.053%) Dublin Core
8 3 (0.053%) GxP
8 3 (0.053%) PSD2
8 3 (0.053%) WAI
9 2 (0.035%) HL7
9 2 (0.035%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 2 (0.035%) PMO
10 1 (0.018%) ISO 9001
10 1 (0.018%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 422 (7.48%) Docker
2 47 (0.83%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.23%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.089%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.071%) VirtualBox
6 2 (0.035%) Shibboleth
7 1 (0.018%) Apache Flume
7 1 (0.018%) HDFS
7 1 (0.018%) KVM
7 1 (0.018%) LXC
7 1 (0.018%) Postfix
7 1 (0.018%) Varnish
7 1 (0.018%) vCloud
7 1 (0.018%) Xen
7 1 (0.018%) XenApp
7 1 (0.018%) zsh
Systems Management
1 150 (2.66%) Kubernetes
2 56 (0.99%) Ansible
3 55 (0.97%) Puppet
4 37 (0.66%) Terraform
5 35 (0.62%) Kibana
6 22 (0.39%) Grafana
6 22 (0.39%) Opscode Chef
7 16 (0.28%) Docker Swarm
8 10 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
9 7 (0.12%) logstash
10 6 (0.11%) HP Quality Center
11 5 (0.089%) cPanel
11 5 (0.089%) Rancher
12 3 (0.053%) Packer
12 3 (0.053%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
12 3 (0.053%) ZABBIX
13 2 (0.035%) MIIS
13 2 (0.035%) Nagios
13 2 (0.035%) NetBackup
13 2 (0.035%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 489 (8.66%) Microsoft
2 297 (5.26%) Adobe
3 256 (4.54%) Oracle
4 160 (2.83%) Google
5 91 (1.61%) Salesforce.com
6 83 (1.47%) Atlassian
7 73 (1.29%) ServiceNow
8 64 (1.13%) Sitecore
9 57 (1.01%) Zend
10 54 (0.96%) hybris
11 43 (0.76%) IBM
12 35 (0.62%) Cypress Semiconductor
13 34 (0.60%) MuleSoft
14 32 (0.57%) SAP
15 29 (0.51%) Splunk
16 27 (0.48%) Telerik
17 24 (0.43%) Informatica
18 23 (0.41%) webMethods
18 23 (0.41%) Xamarin
19 22 (0.39%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud