Period
to 1 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 1 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
1 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 44 29 20
Rank change year-on-year -15 -9 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,274 4,952 7,342
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.91% 6.18% 7.89%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 15.44% 19.63% 22.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 975 3,613 5,479
Median daily rate £438 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.78% +5.88% +3.03%
10th Percentile £288 £313 £306
90th Percentile £600 £600 £575
UK median daily rate £425 £450 £425
% change year-on-year -5.56% +5.88% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 52 52
Median hourly rate £35.00 £49.25 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -28.93% +15.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £30.49 £25.00 £13.05
90th Percentile £55.00 £60.00 £57.35
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £46.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year -23.91% +8.24% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 8,253 25,225 33,109
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 31.83% 31.51% 35.57%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,601 17,741 23,607
Median daily rate £500 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £315 £340 £325
90th Percentile £694 £650 £638
UK median daily rate £495 £494 £475
% change year-on-year +0.30% +3.89% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 125 260 317
Median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £42.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% +6.51% +5.63%
10th Percentile £24.10 £18.40 £15.24
90th Percentile £58.40 £68.88 £58.75
Median hourly rate £35.00 £44.00 £41.81
% change year-on-year -20.45% +5.25% +4.51%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 1 October 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 1 October 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 1 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -28 657 £475 -2.56% 340
North of England +11 196 £413 +3.45% 373
Midlands +6 131 £364 -9.06% 276
South East -12 128 £450 +5.88% 229
North West +6 114 £425 +9.68% 212
South West -9 91 £400 - 162
West Midlands +8 88 £413 - 150
Yorkshire +3 55 £410 +2.50% 103
East Midlands +8 43 £350 -7.89% 125
East of England -8 32 £400 -5.88% 92
North East +15 27 £394 -1.50% 58
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 1 October 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,148 (90.11%) HTML
2 977 (76.69%) JavaScript
3 571 (44.82%) Agile Software Development
4 380 (29.83%) HTML5
5 371 (29.12%) AngularJS
6 368 (28.89%) Front End Development
7 318 (24.96%) Git (software)
8 302 (23.70%) React
9 294 (23.08%) User Experience
10 280 (21.98%) Node.js
11 266 (20.88%) Java
12 251 (19.70%) .NET
13 242 (19.00%) CSS3
14 230 (18.05%) C#
15 227 (17.82%) jQuery
16 213 (16.72%) SQL
17 198 (15.54%) TDD
18 196 (15.38%) DevOps
19 192 (15.07%) Sass
19 192 (15.07%) Security Cleared
20 190 (14.91%) Web Development
21 171 (13.42%) Azure
22 167 (13.11%) REST
23 163 (12.79%) Finance
24 158 (12.40%) SQL Server
25 143 (11.22%) Scrum
26 142 (11.15%) TypeScript
27 140 (10.99%) Test Automation
28 139 (10.91%) SC Cleared
29 131 (10.28%) RESTful

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 58 (4.55%) SharePoint
2 49 (3.85%) CMS
3 38 (2.98%) Elasticsearch
4 37 (2.90%) Apache
5 29 (2.28%) Confluence
6 26 (2.04%) IIS
7 25 (1.96%) WordPress
8 20 (1.57%) Tomcat
9 19 (1.49%) Drupal
10 16 (1.26%) Apache Solr
11 14 (1.10%) WebLogic
12 13 (1.02%) WebSphere
13 11 (0.86%) JBoss
13 11 (0.86%) nginx
13 11 (0.86%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 9 (0.71%) Umbraco
15 8 (0.63%) Apache Spark
15 8 (0.63%) Sitecore CMS
15 8 (0.63%) WebSphere Application Server
16 6 (0.47%) Appian
Applications
1 41 (3.22%) Sketch
2 26 (2.04%) Photoshop
3 18 (1.41%) Adobe Illustrator
3 18 (1.41%) Microsoft Office
4 17 (1.33%) Microsoft Excel
5 15 (1.18%) InVision
6 14 (1.10%) InfoPath
7 13 (1.02%) Figma
8 12 (0.94%) Zeplin
9 10 (0.78%) MS Visio
10 9 (0.71%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 7 (0.55%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 7 (0.55%) Chatbot
12 5 (0.39%) Adobe Premiere
13 4 (0.31%) InDesign
14 3 (0.24%) Adobe After Effects
14 3 (0.24%) Adobe XD
15 2 (0.16%) Flinto
15 2 (0.16%) OmniGraffle
16 1 (0.078%) GIMP
Business Applications
1 24 (1.88%) Magento
2 18 (1.41%) Dynamics CRM
3 12 (0.94%) Shopify
4 6 (0.47%) Oracle ERP
5 5 (0.39%) Visualfiles
6 3 (0.24%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.078%) NetSuite
7 1 (0.078%) OpenCart
7 1 (0.078%) Oracle Applications
7 1 (0.078%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 171 (13.42%) Azure
2 125 (9.81%) AWS
3 51 (4.00%) GCP
4 40 (3.14%) GitHub
5 39 (3.06%) npm
6 30 (2.35%) Serverless
7 22 (1.73%) Power Platform
8 21 (1.65%) Office 365
8 21 (1.65%) SaaS
9 16 (1.26%) PaaS
10 15 (1.18%) Cloud Computing
10 15 (1.18%) Google Analytics
11 11 (0.86%) AWS Lambda
12 10 (0.78%) Adobe Creative Cloud
12 10 (0.78%) Amazon S3
12 10 (0.78%) Azure Functions
13 7 (0.55%) Amazon EC2
13 7 (0.55%) BrowserStack
13 7 (0.55%) Logic Apps
13 7 (0.55%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 32 (2.51%) HTTP
2 15 (1.18%) Internet
3 14 (1.10%) Intranet
4 6 (0.47%) DNS
4 6 (0.47%) Remote Desktop
4 6 (0.47%) SSL
4 6 (0.47%) TCP/IP
5 5 (0.39%) Skype
6 4 (0.31%) Kerberos
7 2 (0.16%) DKIM
7 2 (0.16%) DSL
7 2 (0.16%) Firewall
7 2 (0.16%) Tactical Data Link
7 2 (0.16%) WebEx
8 1 (0.078%) HbbTV
8 1 (0.078%) HTTPS
8 1 (0.078%) Network Security
8 1 (0.078%) RTMP
8 1 (0.078%) SMS
8 1 (0.078%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 158 (12.40%) SQL Server
2 76 (5.97%) MySQL
3 56 (4.40%) PostgreSQL
4 51 (4.00%) Relational Database
5 50 (3.92%) MongoDB
6 45 (3.53%) NoSQL
7 33 (2.59%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 28 (2.20%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 25 (1.96%) Oracle Database
10 17 (1.33%) Redis
11 14 (1.10%) Big Data
12 12 (0.94%) Power BI
13 11 (0.86%) Cosmos DB
13 11 (0.86%) Data Warehouse
14 8 (0.63%) Oracle Reports
15 7 (0.55%) Oracle Database 11g
15 7 (0.55%) SQL Server 2016
16 6 (0.47%) BusinessObjects
16 6 (0.47%) OLAP
16 6 (0.47%) Oracle8/8i Database
Development Applications
1 318 (24.96%) Git (software)
2 117 (9.18%) Jenkins
3 78 (6.12%) gulp
4 70 (5.49%) JIRA
5 67 (5.26%) Grunt
6 66 (5.18%) Jasmine
6 66 (5.18%) Subversion
7 55 (4.32%) Visual Studio
8 49 (3.85%) webpack
9 48 (3.77%) Selenium
10 43 (3.38%) Mocha
11 35 (2.75%) Maven
12 28 (2.20%) JUnit
13 25 (1.96%) git-flow
14 24 (1.88%) Cypress.io
15 23 (1.81%) Cucumber
15 23 (1.81%) Team Foundation Server
16 21 (1.65%) Oracle APEX
16 21 (1.65%) TeamCity
17 19 (1.49%) GitLab
General
1 163 (12.79%) Finance
2 111 (8.71%) Public Sector
3 87 (6.83%) Banking
4 53 (4.16%) Marketing
5 31 (2.43%) Investment Banking
6 28 (2.20%) Front Office
7 24 (1.88%) Retail
8 19 (1.49%) Law
9 14 (1.10%) Telecoms
10 12 (0.94%) Games
10 12 (0.94%) Manufacturing
11 11 (0.86%) Financial Institution
12 9 (0.71%) Back Office
12 9 (0.71%) Pharmaceutical
13 7 (0.55%) Electronics
13 7 (0.55%) Publishing
13 7 (0.55%) Retail Banking
14 6 (0.47%) Advertising
14 6 (0.47%) Legal
15 4 (0.31%) Military
Job Titles
1 943 (74.02%) Developer
2 274 (21.51%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 140 (10.99%) React Developer
4 124 (9.73%) Full Stack Developer
5 104 (8.16%) Designer
6 92 (7.22%) JavaScript Developer
7 90 (7.06%) Angular Developer
8 70 (5.49%) UI Developer
9 69 (5.42%) .NET Developer
9 69 (5.42%) Senior Developer
10 62 (4.87%) Web Developer
11 50 (3.92%) Java Developer
12 47 (3.69%) C# Developer
12 47 (3.69%) PHP Developer
13 46 (3.61%) HTML Developer
14 44 (3.45%) UX Designer
15 38 (2.98%) Architect
16 37 (2.90%) Applications Developer
17 31 (2.43%) Interaction Designer
18 29 (2.28%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,148 (90.11%) HTML
2 380 (29.83%) HTML5
3 371 (29.12%) AngularJS
4 302 (23.70%) React
5 280 (21.98%) Node.js
6 251 (19.70%) .NET
7 242 (19.00%) CSS3
8 227 (17.82%) jQuery
9 192 (15.07%) Sass
10 167 (13.11%) REST
11 131 (10.28%) RESTful
12 129 (10.13%) Redux
12 129 (10.13%) Web Services
13 114 (8.95%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 106 (8.32%) ASP.NET
15 104 (8.16%) XML
16 103 (8.08%) JSON
17 82 (6.44%) Spring
18 64 (5.02%) .NET Framework
19 59 (4.63%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 294 (23.08%) User Experience
2 64 (5.02%) Mobile App
3 43 (3.38%) Analytical Skills
4 32 (2.51%) Greenfield Project
5 20 (1.57%) Cloud Native
6 17 (1.33%) Management Information System
7 15 (1.18%) Self-Motivation
8 14 (1.10%) Data Structures
8 14 (1.10%) Public Cloud
9 13 (1.02%) Enterprise Software
10 11 (0.86%) Client/Server
10 11 (0.86%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 11 (0.86%) Graphic Design
11 10 (0.78%) Algorithms
11 10 (0.78%) Robotics
12 9 (0.71%) Fixed Income
12 9 (0.71%) Social Media
12 9 (0.71%) W3C
13 8 (0.63%) Derivative
14 7 (0.55%) CMDB
Operating Systems
1 89 (6.99%) Linux
2 57 (4.47%) Windows
3 49 (3.85%) Unix
4 44 (3.45%) Android
5 41 (3.22%) Apple iOS
6 31 (2.43%) Mac OS X
7 15 (1.18%) Windows Server
7 15 (1.18%) Windows Server 2012
8 9 (0.71%) Windows Server 2016
9 4 (0.31%) Mac OS
10 3 (0.24%) CentOS
10 3 (0.24%) tvOS
11 2 (0.16%) Windows 10
12 1 (0.078%) Debian
12 1 (0.078%) MVS
12 1 (0.078%) Ubuntu
12 1 (0.078%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 571 (44.82%) Agile Software Development
2 368 (28.89%) Front End Development
3 198 (15.54%) TDD
4 196 (15.38%) DevOps
5 190 (14.91%) Web Development
6 143 (11.22%) Scrum
7 140 (10.99%) Test Automation
8 124 (9.73%) MVC
9 115 (9.03%) OO
10 108 (8.48%) Microservices
10 108 (8.48%) Problem-Solving
11 104 (8.16%) Software Engineering
12 103 (8.08%) Continuous Integration
13 100 (7.85%) Unit Testing
14 91 (7.14%) SDLC
15 81 (6.36%) Responsive Web Design
16 77 (6.04%) BDD
17 74 (5.81%) Computer Science
18 73 (5.73%) Web Design
19 69 (5.42%) Web Accessibility
Programming Languages
1 977 (76.69%) JavaScript
2 266 (20.88%) Java
3 230 (18.05%) C#
4 213 (16.72%) SQL
5 142 (11.15%) TypeScript
6 127 (9.97%) Python
7 113 (8.87%) PHP
8 67 (5.26%) ES6
9 47 (3.69%) PowerShell
9 47 (3.69%) T-SQL
10 42 (3.30%) PL/SQL
11 30 (2.35%) Scala
12 24 (1.88%) C
12 24 (1.88%) VB
13 20 (1.57%) VB.NET
14 19 (1.49%) Java 8
15 17 (1.33%) Bash Shell
15 17 (1.33%) Go
16 16 (1.26%) Kotlin
17 15 (1.18%) VBScript
Qualifications
1 192 (15.07%) Security Cleared
2 139 (10.91%) SC Cleared
3 110 (8.63%) Degree
4 44 (3.45%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (2.04%) DV Cleared
6 22 (1.73%) BPSS Clearance
7 12 (0.94%) DBS Check
8 7 (0.55%) Microsoft Certification
9 6 (0.47%) ISTQB
9 6 (0.47%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 5 (0.39%) Master's Degree
11 4 (0.31%) MCSD
12 3 (0.24%) MCPD
12 3 (0.24%) Numerate Degree
12 3 (0.24%) TOGAF Certification
13 2 (0.16%) MCAD
13 2 (0.16%) MCITP
14 1 (0.078%) BC Cleared
14 1 (0.078%) HNC
14 1 (0.078%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 80 (6.28%) WCAG
2 47 (3.69%) QA
3 12 (0.94%) GDPR
4 4 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
5 3 (0.24%) Government Security Classifications
5 3 (0.24%) WAI
6 2 (0.16%) Section 508
7 1 (0.078%) HL7
7 1 (0.078%) SLA
System Software
1 101 (7.93%) Docker
2 15 (1.18%) Active Directory
3 3 (0.24%) VMware Infrastructure
3 3 (0.24%) VMware NSX
4 1 (0.078%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.078%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.078%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 49 (3.85%) Kubernetes
2 41 (3.22%) Terraform
3 23 (1.81%) Ansible
4 16 (1.26%) Kibana
4 16 (1.26%) Opscode Chef
5 14 (1.10%) Puppet
6 12 (0.94%) Grafana
7 4 (0.31%) PowerCLI
8 3 (0.24%) Prometheus
9 2 (0.16%) Capistrano
9 2 (0.16%) logstash
10 1 (0.078%) CFEngine
10 1 (0.078%) HP Quality Center
10 1 (0.078%) Rancher
10 1 (0.078%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 102 (8.01%) Microsoft
2 83 (6.51%) Oracle
3 57 (4.47%) Google
4 41 (3.22%) Adobe
5 26 (2.04%) Salesforce.com
6 23 (1.81%) SAP
7 16 (1.26%) Splunk
8 13 (1.02%) ServiceNow
8 13 (1.02%) Sitecore
9 11 (0.86%) Red Hat
9 11 (0.86%) Xamarin
10 10 (0.78%) Atlassian
10 10 (0.78%) IFS
11 9 (0.71%) Cloudera
12 7 (0.55%) Bloomberg
12 7 (0.55%) hybris
12 7 (0.55%) MuleSoft
12 7 (0.55%) Pardot
12 7 (0.55%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
13 6 (0.47%) Cognos