Period
to 13 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 13 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
13 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 49 36 23
Rank change year-on-year -13 -13 -5
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,886 2,854 6,168
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 4.52% 5.30% 6.99%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.84% 17.41% 21.04%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,335 2,030 4,589
10th Percentile £300 £313 £313
25th Percentile £363 £363 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £450 £450 £450
75th Percentile £538 £538 £525
90th Percentile £600 £625 £588
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 39 25 54
10th Percentile £22.10 £23.17 £15.31
25th Percentile £26.50 £30.00 £28.13
Median hourly rate £42.00 £50.00 £48.00
Median % change year-on-year -16.00% +4.17% +12.94%
75th Percentile £55.00 £52.50 £53.75
90th Percentile £57.74 £53.45 £55.00
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £47.12 £43.75
% change year-on-year -12.98% +7.69% +9.38%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,709 16,389 29,319
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.49% 30.44% 33.22%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,182 11,695 21,153
10th Percentile £325 £338 £331
25th Percentile £408 £413 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £500
75th Percentile £594 £588 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £488
% change year-on-year - +2.56% +2.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 149 153 246
10th Percentile £22.03 £19.87 £18.50
25th Percentile £31.25 £31.19 £27.56
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £44.09
Median % change year-on-year -2.17% +4.33% +7.54%
75th Percentile £57.50 £55.00 £52.50
90th Percentile £63.25 £73.75 £60.00
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £43.50
% change year-on-year -2.17% +5.75% +7.41%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 13 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 13 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -19 1,055 £490 -2.00% 545
North of England +8 232 £400 - 405
South East +2 222 £400 -5.88% 265
North West +11 148 £388 -3.13% 220
Midlands -7 145 £365 -5.81% 302
South West -22 82 £435 +8.75% 182
East Midlands +13 73 £350 -1.41% 116
West Midlands -18 68 £375 -6.25% 185
Yorkshire -18 65 £425 - 143
East of England -22 41 £434 +8.44% 93
North East +25 19 £419 +4.69% 42
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 13 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,666 (88.34%) HTML
2 1,451 (76.94%) JavaScript
3 710 (37.65%) Agile Software Development
4 587 (31.12%) React
5 551 (29.22%) Front End Development
6 520 (27.57%) HTML5
7 474 (25.13%) Node.js
8 459 (24.34%) AngularJS
9 400 (21.21%) Git (software)
10 383 (20.31%) User Experience
11 375 (19.88%) CSS3
12 369 (19.57%) Azure
13 349 (18.50%) .NET
14 327 (17.34%) SQL
15 322 (17.07%) TypeScript
16 300 (15.91%) TDD
17 288 (15.27%) Java
18 287 (15.22%) C#
19 282 (14.95%) jQuery
20 281 (14.90%) DevOps
21 252 (13.36%) Redux
22 244 (12.94%) Sass
23 237 (12.57%) REST
24 233 (12.35%) MVC
25 229 (12.14%) Web Development
26 221 (11.72%) PHP
27 210 (11.13%) AWS
28 202 (10.71%) Docker
29 198 (10.50%) Software Engineering
30 195 (10.34%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 100 (5.30%) CMS
2 74 (3.92%) WordPress
3 49 (2.60%) SharePoint
4 43 (2.28%) Confluence
5 27 (1.43%) Apache
6 25 (1.33%) Drupal
7 21 (1.11%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 20 (1.06%) IIS
9 15 (0.80%) Elasticsearch
9 15 (0.80%) Jadu
10 13 (0.69%) Cloud Foundry
10 13 (0.69%) Tomcat
11 12 (0.64%) nginx
11 12 (0.64%) Umbraco
11 12 (0.64%) WebSphere
12 10 (0.53%) WebLogic
13 9 (0.48%) Headless CMS
14 7 (0.37%) SharePoint 2010
15 6 (0.32%) Apache Solr
15 6 (0.32%) JBoss
Applications
1 34 (1.80%) Photoshop
2 31 (1.64%) Sketch
3 20 (1.06%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 19 (1.01%) Adobe Illustrator
5 17 (0.90%) InVision
6 16 (0.85%) Adobe XD
7 14 (0.74%) Chatbot
7 14 (0.74%) Figma
8 11 (0.58%) Adobe After Effects
8 11 (0.58%) Microsoft Office
9 10 (0.53%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 9 (0.48%) Adobe Premiere
11 8 (0.42%) InfoPath
12 7 (0.37%) CINEMA 4D
13 6 (0.32%) Zeplin
14 4 (0.21%) OmniGraffle
14 4 (0.21%) UserZoom
15 3 (0.16%) Microsoft Excel
16 1 (0.053%) Acrobat
16 1 (0.053%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 43 (2.28%) Magento
2 28 (1.48%) Shopify
3 15 (0.80%) Dynamics CRM
4 2 (0.11%) Dynamics NAV
4 2 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.053%) Adobe Campaign
5 1 (0.053%) Distributed Ledger
5 1 (0.053%) Exstream
5 1 (0.053%) SAP Hybris
5 1 (0.053%) Sentinel
5 1 (0.053%) Siebel CRM
5 1 (0.053%) Tesseract
5 1 (0.053%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 369 (19.57%) Azure
2 210 (11.13%) AWS
3 90 (4.77%) GitHub
4 70 (3.71%) Serverless
5 55 (2.92%) PaaS
6 49 (2.60%) npm
7 46 (2.44%) GCP
8 38 (2.01%) Microsoft 365
9 36 (1.91%) AWS Lambda
10 32 (1.70%) Power Platform
11 28 (1.48%) Google Analytics
11 28 (1.48%) SaaS
12 24 (1.27%) Heroku
13 22 (1.17%) Amazon S3
13 22 (1.17%) Logic Apps
14 19 (1.01%) AWS CloudFormation
15 18 (0.95%) IaaS
15 18 (0.95%) Yarn
16 17 (0.90%) PowerApps
17 16 (0.85%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 36 (1.91%) HTTP
2 16 (0.85%) Internet
3 10 (0.53%) HTTPS
3 10 (0.53%) Intranet
4 9 (0.48%) DNS
4 9 (0.48%) SSL
5 7 (0.37%) VPN
6 3 (0.16%) TCP/IP
7 2 (0.11%) Broadband
7 2 (0.11%) Intrusion Detection
7 2 (0.11%) Skype
8 1 (0.053%) AMQP
8 1 (0.053%) DHCP
8 1 (0.053%) Extranet
8 1 (0.053%) Firewall
8 1 (0.053%) IPFS
8 1 (0.053%) LAN
8 1 (0.053%) WAN
8 1 (0.053%) WebEx
8 1 (0.053%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 178 (9.44%) SQL Server
2 144 (7.64%) MySQL
3 92 (4.88%) NoSQL
4 90 (4.77%) MongoDB
5 59 (3.13%) Relational Database
6 53 (2.81%) PostgreSQL
7 34 (1.80%) Azure SQL Database
8 22 (1.17%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 21 (1.11%) Redis
9 21 (1.11%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 20 (1.06%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 17 (0.90%) Big Data
11 17 (0.90%) Cosmos DB
12 14 (0.74%) RDBMS
13 13 (0.69%) Power BI
14 11 (0.58%) Amazon RDS
14 11 (0.58%) Apache Cassandra
14 11 (0.58%) Oracle Database
15 9 (0.48%) Couchbase
15 9 (0.48%) Oracle Reports
Development Applications
1 400 (21.21%) Git (software)
2 159 (8.43%) Jenkins
3 157 (8.32%) webpack
4 119 (6.31%) JIRA
5 71 (3.76%) gulp
6 64 (3.39%) Jasmine
7 56 (2.97%) Cypress.io
8 55 (2.92%) Maven
9 48 (2.55%) Mocha
10 44 (2.33%) SonarQube
11 43 (2.28%) Visual Studio
12 42 (2.23%) Grunt
13 33 (1.75%) JUnit
14 29 (1.54%) Selenium
15 27 (1.43%) GitLab
15 27 (1.43%) Team Foundation Server
16 22 (1.17%) Gradle
16 22 (1.17%) Karma Test Runner
17 21 (1.11%) Bitbucket
17 21 (1.11%) TeamCity
General
1 187 (9.92%) Finance
2 117 (6.20%) Marketing
3 107 (5.67%) Public Sector
4 83 (4.40%) Banking
5 60 (3.18%) Retail
6 44 (2.33%) Law
7 37 (1.96%) Telecoms
8 28 (1.48%) Games
9 25 (1.33%) Investment Banking
10 24 (1.27%) Front Office
11 23 (1.22%) Manufacturing
12 15 (0.80%) Local Government
13 14 (0.74%) Legal
14 12 (0.64%) Advertising
14 12 (0.64%) Electronics
15 10 (0.53%) French Language
16 9 (0.48%) Publishing
17 8 (0.42%) Back Office
18 7 (0.37%) Financial Institution
19 5 (0.27%) Police
Job Titles
1 1,466 (77.73%) Developer
2 393 (20.84%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 272 (14.42%) React Developer
4 239 (12.67%) Full Stack Developer
5 161 (8.54%) Senior Developer
6 157 (8.32%) JavaScript Developer
7 147 (7.79%) .NET Developer
8 123 (6.52%) Angular Developer
9 122 (6.47%) Designer
10 95 (5.04%) PHP Developer
11 77 (4.08%) HTML Developer
11 77 (4.08%) Node.js Developer
12 75 (3.98%) Web Developer
13 70 (3.71%) UI Developer
14 68 (3.61%) Java Developer
15 66 (3.50%) C# Developer
16 62 (3.29%) HTML CSS Developer
17 50 (2.65%) Lead Developer
18 48 (2.55%) UX Designer
19 47 (2.49%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,666 (88.34%) HTML
2 587 (31.12%) React
3 520 (27.57%) HTML5
4 474 (25.13%) Node.js
5 459 (24.34%) AngularJS
6 375 (19.88%) CSS3
7 349 (18.50%) .NET
8 282 (14.95%) jQuery
9 252 (13.36%) Redux
10 244 (12.94%) Sass
11 237 (12.57%) REST
12 195 (10.34%) Web Services
13 183 (9.70%) RESTful
14 158 (8.38%) Vue.js
15 155 (8.22%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 143 (7.58%) JSON
17 139 (7.37%) GraphQL
18 130 (6.89%) XML
19 127 (6.73%) .NET Core
20 126 (6.68%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 383 (20.31%) User Experience
2 120 (6.36%) Greenfield Project
3 106 (5.62%) Mobile App
4 88 (4.67%) Analytical Skills
5 49 (2.60%) Social Media
6 45 (2.39%) Data Structures
7 29 (1.54%) Enterprise Software
7 29 (1.54%) Self-Motivation
8 26 (1.38%) Algorithms
9 23 (1.22%) Cloud Native
9 23 (1.22%) Public Cloud
10 20 (1.06%) Hedge funds
10 20 (1.06%) N-Tier
11 16 (0.85%) Graphic Design
11 16 (0.85%) Virtual Team
12 15 (0.80%) NHS
13 14 (0.74%) W3C
14 12 (0.64%) Animation
15 10 (0.53%) Management Information System
16 9 (0.48%) PKI
Operating Systems
1 77 (4.08%) Linux
2 49 (2.60%) Android
3 44 (2.33%) Unix
4 40 (2.12%) Windows
5 37 (1.96%) Apple iOS
6 14 (0.74%) Mac OS
7 8 (0.42%) Mac OS X
8 7 (0.37%) Windows Server
9 6 (0.32%) Windows 10
9 6 (0.32%) Windows Server 2012
10 4 (0.21%) VMS
11 3 (0.16%) Ubuntu
11 3 (0.16%) Windows Server 2016
12 2 (0.11%) Alpine Linux
12 2 (0.11%) CentOS
12 2 (0.11%) Windows Server 2019
13 1 (0.053%) Embedded Linux
13 1 (0.053%) Tizen
13 1 (0.053%) Windows 7
13 1 (0.053%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 710 (37.65%) Agile Software Development
2 551 (29.22%) Front End Development
3 300 (15.91%) TDD
4 281 (14.90%) DevOps
5 233 (12.35%) MVC
6 229 (12.14%) Web Development
7 198 (10.50%) Software Engineering
8 178 (9.44%) Scrum
8 178 (9.44%) Test Automation
9 174 (9.23%) Microservices
10 146 (7.74%) OO
11 144 (7.64%) Continuous Integration
12 129 (6.84%) Unit Testing
13 115 (6.10%) Problem-Solving
14 107 (5.67%) E-Commerce
15 100 (5.30%) BDD
16 97 (5.14%) Web Design
17 91 (4.83%) SDLC
18 88 (4.67%) Analytics
19 87 (4.61%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 1,451 (76.94%) JavaScript
2 327 (17.34%) SQL
3 322 (17.07%) TypeScript
4 288 (15.27%) Java
5 287 (15.22%) C#
6 221 (11.72%) PHP
7 162 (8.59%) ES6
8 148 (7.85%) Python
9 58 (3.08%) PowerShell
10 46 (2.44%) PL/SQL
10 46 (2.44%) Ruby
11 42 (2.23%) Java 8
12 32 (1.70%) Kotlin
13 26 (1.38%) Go
14 21 (1.11%) Scala
14 21 (1.11%) T-SQL
15 18 (0.95%) Bash Shell
16 15 (0.80%) C++
17 13 (0.69%) C
17 13 (0.69%) ES7
Qualifications
1 134 (7.10%) Security Cleared
2 118 (6.26%) SC Cleared
3 79 (4.19%) Degree
4 29 (1.54%) Computer Science Degree
5 12 (0.64%) BPSS Clearance
6 6 (0.32%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.21%) Master's Degree
8 3 (0.16%) AWS Certification
8 3 (0.16%) DBS Check
9 2 (0.11%) ISTQB
9 2 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
10 1 (0.053%) HNC
10 1 (0.053%) HND
10 1 (0.053%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 1 (0.053%) ITIL Certification
10 1 (0.053%) MCSE
10 1 (0.053%) Numerate Degree
10 1 (0.053%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 68 (3.61%) QA
2 47 (2.49%) WCAG
3 18 (0.95%) GDPR
4 7 (0.37%) WAI
5 2 (0.11%) Cyber Essentials
5 2 (0.11%) Disclosure Scotland
5 2 (0.11%) NCSC
5 2 (0.11%) NIST
5 2 (0.11%) PCI DSS
5 2 (0.11%) Section 508
5 2 (0.11%) SLA
6 1 (0.053%) Actionable Recommendations
6 1 (0.053%) Government Security Classifications
6 1 (0.053%) GRC
System Software
1 202 (10.71%) Docker
2 16 (0.85%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.11%) Virtual Machines
3 2 (0.11%) VMware NSX
4 1 (0.053%) OpenAM
4 1 (0.053%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 107 (5.67%) Kubernetes
2 42 (2.23%) Terraform
3 15 (0.80%) Ansible
4 9 (0.48%) Single Sign-On
5 8 (0.42%) Grafana
6 7 (0.37%) Kibana
7 6 (0.32%) Puppet
8 5 (0.27%) Icinga
8 5 (0.27%) Prometheus
9 4 (0.21%) Opscode Chef
10 2 (0.11%) MIIS
10 2 (0.11%) PowerCLI
11 1 (0.053%) cPanel
11 1 (0.053%) Hadoop YARN
11 1 (0.053%) HP ALM
11 1 (0.053%) HP Fortify
11 1 (0.053%) Istio
11 1 (0.053%) Plesk
Vendors
1 136 (7.21%) Microsoft
2 91 (4.83%) Oracle
3 78 (4.14%) Adobe
4 65 (3.45%) Google
5 46 (2.44%) ServiceNow
6 40 (2.12%) Salesforce.com
7 16 (0.85%) Optimizely
7 16 (0.85%) SAP
8 15 (0.80%) Sitecore
9 14 (0.74%) Zend
10 13 (0.69%) Apple
11 12 (0.64%) DevExpress
12 11 (0.58%) WooCommerce
13 10 (0.53%) hybris
13 10 (0.53%) Nintex
13 10 (0.53%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 9 (0.48%) CA Agile Central
14 9 (0.48%) VMware
15 8 (0.42%) MEDITECH
15 8 (0.42%) Splunk