Period
to 20 April 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 April 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
20 Apr 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 18 13 19
Rank change year-on-year -5 +6 +2
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,252 7,129 7,703
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 7.82% 8.30% 7.84%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.66% 26.11% 27.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,295 4,913 5,674
England median daily rate £425 £400 £388
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +3.33%
10th Percentile £289 £269 £263
90th Percentile £575 £550 £538
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £385
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.90% +2.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 46 66 90
England median hourly rate £42.50 £36.50 £31.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +16.44% +17.74% -6.06%
10th Percentile £11.92 £16.50 £11.00
90th Percentile £48.75 £47.00 £57.50
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £37.00 £30.50
% change year-on-year +8.11% +21.31% -6.21%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 30,651 27,306 28,416
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 33.07% 31.79% 28.92%
Number of daily rates quoted 21,792 18,938 19,932
England median daily rate £475 £443 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +7.34% +4.12% +6.25%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £288
90th Percentile £625 £606 £600
UK median daily rate £475 £435 £425
% change year-on-year +9.20% +2.35% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 321 342 446
England median hourly rate £41.00 £40.75 £38.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +0.61% +5.16% +10.16%
10th Percentile £17.50 £17.18 £15.00
90th Percentile £58.75 £52.50 £57.00
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £40.50 £38.63
% change year-on-year +1.23% +4.85% +10.36%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 20 April 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 20 April 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 20 April 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 3,517 £475 +11.76% 1,071
South East +1 1,286 £420 +13.51% 718
North of England +1 1,142 £375 +3.45% 787
Midlands -5 647 £370 +4.59% 535
North West +5 636 £375 +7.14% 442
Yorkshire -6 431 £375 +2.74% 276
West Midlands -4 398 £375 - 271
South West -3 384 £375 - 304
East of England +2 271 £388 +10.71% 271
East Midlands -5 244 £369 +8.53% 263
North East -15 80 £375 -4.76% 69
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 20 April 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,741 (92.95%) HTML
2 5,674 (78.24%) JavaScript
3 3,279 (45.22%) Agile Software Development
4 2,965 (40.89%) HTML5
5 2,517 (34.71%) AngularJS
6 2,322 (32.02%) CSS3
7 1,989 (27.43%) Front End Development
8 1,788 (24.66%) jQuery
9 1,781 (24.56%) React
10 1,667 (22.99%) TDD
11 1,644 (22.67%) Git (software)
12 1,603 (22.10%) .NET
13 1,497 (20.64%) C#
14 1,410 (19.44%) Node.js
15 1,313 (18.11%) MVC
16 1,268 (17.48%) Web Development
17 1,262 (17.40%) User Experience
18 1,222 (16.85%) Java
19 1,146 (15.80%) Sass
20 1,087 (14.99%) SQL
21 958 (13.21%) SQL Server
21 958 (13.21%) Web Services
22 924 (12.74%) Scrum
23 917 (12.64%) ASP.NET
24 886 (12.22%) Finance
25 822 (11.33%) BDD
26 817 (11.27%) Continuous Integration
27 816 (11.25%) REST
28 787 (10.85%) Twitter Bootstrap
29 774 (10.67%) PHP

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 470 (6.48%) CMS
2 187 (2.58%) WordPress
3 153 (2.11%) Apache
3 153 (2.11%) SharePoint
4 150 (2.07%) Drupal
5 138 (1.90%) Confluence
6 105 (1.45%) Tomcat
7 101 (1.39%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 100 (1.38%) Umbraco
9 91 (1.25%) Elasticsearch
10 87 (1.20%) IIS
11 78 (1.08%) WebSphere
12 74 (1.02%) JBoss
13 64 (0.88%) Sitecore CMS
14 53 (0.73%) WebLogic
15 48 (0.66%) nginx
16 46 (0.63%) EPiServer
17 41 (0.57%) SharePoint 2013
18 26 (0.36%) Cloud Foundry
19 22 (0.30%) NServiceBus
Applications
1 235 (3.24%) Photoshop
2 144 (1.99%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 122 (1.68%) Adobe Illustrator
4 110 (1.52%) InVision
5 79 (1.09%) Microsoft Excel
6 52 (0.72%) OmniGraffle
7 43 (0.59%) Microsoft Office
8 20 (0.28%) Microsoft Project
9 19 (0.26%) InfoPath
10 18 (0.25%) Adobe After Effects
10 18 (0.25%) GIMP
10 18 (0.25%) UXPin
11 15 (0.21%) MS Visio
12 13 (0.18%) Adobe Premiere
12 13 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 11 (0.15%) UserZoom
14 9 (0.12%) InDesign
15 8 (0.11%) Flinto
16 7 (0.097%) Fireworks
17 4 (0.055%) Chatbot
Business Applications
1 157 (2.16%) Magento
2 46 (0.63%) Dynamics CRM
3 14 (0.19%) Eloqua
4 12 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
5 7 (0.097%) ION MarketView
5 7 (0.097%) Shopify
6 6 (0.083%) Dynamics AX
6 6 (0.083%) SAP Hybris
6 6 (0.083%) WebTrends
7 5 (0.069%) Adobe Campaign
8 4 (0.055%) Dynamics NAV
8 4 (0.055%) R3 Corda
8 4 (0.055%) SDL Web 8
9 3 (0.041%) Distributed Ledger
9 3 (0.041%) Infor M3
9 3 (0.041%) Maximo
9 3 (0.041%) NetSuite
9 3 (0.041%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 3 (0.041%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 2 (0.028%) SAP PM
Cloud Services
1 527 (7.27%) Amazon AWS
2 463 (6.38%) Microsoft Azure
3 254 (3.50%) npm
4 226 (3.12%) GitHub
5 133 (1.83%) Serverless
6 99 (1.37%) SaaS
7 83 (1.14%) Google Analytics
8 65 (0.90%) Google Cloud Platform
9 55 (0.76%) Heroku
10 49 (0.68%) PaaS
11 46 (0.63%) Office 365
12 44 (0.61%) IaaS
13 41 (0.57%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 38 (0.52%) OpenShift
15 37 (0.51%) AWS Lambda
16 31 (0.43%) Amazon S3
17 27 (0.37%) Amazon EC2
18 21 (0.29%) Cloud Computing
19 20 (0.28%) Yarn
20 19 (0.26%) Adobe Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 236 (3.25%) HTTP
2 85 (1.17%) Internet
3 68 (0.94%) SSL
4 54 (0.74%) TCP/IP
5 52 (0.72%) SMS
6 48 (0.66%) DNS
7 44 (0.61%) FTP
8 26 (0.36%) Intranet
9 15 (0.21%) Broadband
10 14 (0.19%) SMTP
11 8 (0.11%) Skype
12 6 (0.083%) Network Security
12 6 (0.083%) Wi-Fi
13 5 (0.069%) 3G
13 5 (0.069%) 4G
13 5 (0.069%) AMQP
13 5 (0.069%) Firewall
13 5 (0.069%) HTTPS
14 4 (0.055%) LAN
14 4 (0.055%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 958 (13.21%) SQL Server
2 683 (9.42%) MySQL
3 374 (5.16%) Relational Database
4 329 (4.54%) MongoDB
5 241 (3.32%) NoSQL
6 219 (3.02%) PostgreSQL
7 103 (1.42%) Redis
8 99 (1.37%) SQL Server 2012
9 86 (1.19%) SQL Server 2008
10 69 (0.95%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 65 (0.90%) Big Data
12 63 (0.87%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 51 (0.70%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 47 (0.65%) RDBMS
15 46 (0.63%) Oracle Database
16 44 (0.61%) SQL Server 2014
17 42 (0.58%) Hadoop
18 41 (0.57%) Apache Cassandra
19 39 (0.54%) Data Warehouse
20 37 (0.51%) DB2
Development Applications
1 1,644 (22.67%) Git (software)
2 577 (7.96%) Jenkins
3 498 (6.87%) webpack
4 488 (6.73%) gulp
5 390 (5.38%) JIRA
6 381 (5.25%) Grunt
7 341 (4.70%) Jasmine
8 310 (4.27%) Selenium
9 289 (3.99%) Visual Studio
10 253 (3.49%) Subversion
11 216 (2.98%) Mocha
12 209 (2.88%) Karma Test Runner
13 176 (2.43%) JUnit
14 173 (2.39%) Babel
15 166 (2.29%) Axure RP
16 160 (2.21%) Cucumber
17 156 (2.15%) Maven
18 140 (1.93%) Team Foundation Server
19 113 (1.56%) NUnit
20 101 (1.39%) Protractor
General
1 886 (12.22%) Finance
2 364 (5.02%) Banking
3 331 (4.56%) Marketing
4 310 (4.27%) Retail
5 138 (1.90%) Telecoms
6 92 (1.27%) Front Office
7 91 (1.25%) Games
8 72 (0.99%) Law
9 66 (0.91%) Investment Banking
10 53 (0.73%) Advertising
11 46 (0.63%) Publishing
12 44 (0.61%) Manufacturing
13 43 (0.59%) Legal
14 30 (0.41%) Electronics
15 28 (0.39%) Back Office
16 27 (0.37%) Multimedia
17 25 (0.34%) Financial Institution
18 19 (0.26%) Japanese Language
19 16 (0.22%) Retail Banking
20 14 (0.19%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 5,914 (81.55%) Developer
2 1,553 (21.41%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,167 (16.09%) JavaScript Developer
4 818 (11.28%) React Developer
5 773 (10.66%) .NET Developer
6 606 (8.36%) Angular Developer
7 600 (8.27%) Full Stack Developer
8 566 (7.80%) HTML Developer
9 519 (7.16%) Java Developer
10 479 (6.61%) Designer
11 472 (6.51%) Senior Developer
12 463 (6.38%) C# Developer
13 455 (6.27%) Web Developer
14 421 (5.81%) HTML CSS Developer
15 339 (4.67%) PHP Developer
16 329 (4.54%) UI Developer
17 314 (4.33%) C# .NET Developer
18 295 (4.07%) Node.js Developer
19 279 (3.85%) UX Designer
20 184 (2.54%) ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,741 (92.95%) HTML
2 2,965 (40.89%) HTML5
3 2,517 (34.71%) AngularJS
4 2,322 (32.02%) CSS3
5 1,788 (24.66%) jQuery
6 1,781 (24.56%) React
7 1,603 (22.10%) .NET
8 1,410 (19.44%) Node.js
9 1,146 (15.80%) Sass
10 958 (13.21%) Web Services
11 917 (12.64%) ASP.NET
12 816 (11.25%) REST
13 787 (10.85%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 725 (10.00%) RESTful
15 637 (8.78%) Redux
16 582 (8.03%) XML
17 544 (7.50%) JSON
18 526 (7.25%) LESS
19 525 (7.24%) Ajax
20 496 (6.84%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 1,262 (17.40%) User Experience
2 464 (6.40%) Greenfield Project
3 384 (5.30%) Mobile App
4 288 (3.97%) Analytical Skills
5 225 (3.10%) Fintech
6 162 (2.23%) Computer Science
7 135 (1.86%) Enterprise Software
8 91 (1.25%) Data Structures
9 86 (1.19%) Algorithms
10 85 (1.17%) Self-Motivation
11 65 (0.90%) W3C
12 61 (0.84%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 53 (0.73%) Virtual Team
14 52 (0.72%) Social Media
15 42 (0.58%) Derivative
16 41 (0.57%) Fixed Income
17 36 (0.50%) Digital Media
17 36 (0.50%) N-Tier
18 33 (0.46%) e-Learning
19 31 (0.43%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 550 (7.58%) Linux
2 211 (2.91%) Windows
3 209 (2.88%) Apple iOS
4 207 (2.85%) Android
5 179 (2.47%) Unix
6 74 (1.02%) Mac OS X
7 50 (0.69%) Windows Server
8 26 (0.36%) Ubuntu
9 18 (0.25%) Windows 10
10 15 (0.21%) Mac OS
11 12 (0.17%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 10 (0.14%) Oracle Linux
13 9 (0.12%) CentOS
13 9 (0.12%) Windows Server 2012
14 8 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
15 7 (0.097%) Windows Server 2003
16 6 (0.083%) Debian
17 5 (0.069%) VMS
18 3 (0.041%) Solaris
18 3 (0.041%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,279 (45.22%) Agile Software Development
2 1,989 (27.43%) Front End Development
3 1,667 (22.99%) TDD
4 1,313 (18.11%) MVC
5 1,268 (17.48%) Web Development
6 924 (12.74%) Scrum
7 822 (11.33%) BDD
8 817 (11.27%) Continuous Integration
9 666 (9.18%) Test Automation
10 612 (8.44%) OO
11 609 (8.40%) E-Commerce
12 553 (7.63%) Responsive Web Design
13 541 (7.46%) Unit Testing
14 508 (7.00%) Microservices
15 474 (6.54%) DevOps
16 431 (5.94%) Software Engineering
17 421 (5.81%) Problem-Solving
18 362 (4.99%) Open Source
18 362 (4.99%) SDLC
19 326 (4.50%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 5,674 (78.24%) JavaScript
2 1,497 (20.64%) C#
3 1,222 (16.85%) Java
4 1,087 (14.99%) SQL
5 774 (10.67%) PHP
6 701 (9.67%) ES6
7 578 (7.97%) TypeScript
8 463 (6.38%) Python
9 275 (3.79%) Ruby
10 236 (3.25%) Scala
11 216 (2.98%) Java 8
12 188 (2.59%) T-SQL
13 102 (1.41%) ES7
14 98 (1.35%) C++
15 94 (1.30%) Groovy
16 90 (1.24%) PL/SQL
17 86 (1.19%) VB.NET
18 82 (1.13%) PowerShell
19 59 (0.81%) C
20 58 (0.80%) Go
Qualifications
1 340 (4.69%) Degree
2 201 (2.77%) Security Cleared
3 135 (1.86%) SC Cleared
4 97 (1.34%) Computer Science Degree
5 22 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
6 16 (0.22%) DBS Check
7 14 (0.19%) Numerate Degree
8 11 (0.15%) ITIL Certification
9 10 (0.14%) DV Cleared
10 8 (0.11%) CESG Certified Professional
10 8 (0.11%) IISP
10 8 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
11 7 (0.097%) Master's Degree
12 6 (0.083%) CISMP
13 4 (0.055%) AWS Certification
13 4 (0.055%) MCSD
14 3 (0.041%) BC Cleared
14 3 (0.041%) CTC Cleared
14 3 (0.041%) OCPJP
14 3 (0.041%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 209 (2.88%) QA
2 50 (0.69%) WCAG
3 21 (0.29%) GDPR
4 14 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
5 13 (0.18%) WAI
6 12 (0.17%) GCP
7 10 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 10 (0.14%) SLA
8 7 (0.097%) Data Quality
8 7 (0.097%) PMO
9 5 (0.069%) MiFID
10 4 (0.055%) PCI DSS
11 2 (0.028%) Actionable Recommendations
11 2 (0.028%) PSD2
12 1 (0.014%) CESG Infosec
12 1 (0.014%) HMG Security Policy Framework
12 1 (0.014%) Section 508
System Software
1 509 (7.02%) Docker
2 30 (0.41%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.14%) Hyper-V
4 8 (0.11%) Virtual Machines
4 8 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
5 6 (0.083%) VMware ESXi
6 5 (0.069%) Microsoft App-V
6 5 (0.069%) VirtualBox
7 2 (0.028%) etcd
7 2 (0.028%) flannel
7 2 (0.028%) LXC
8 1 (0.014%) Apache Flume
8 1 (0.014%) Firmware
8 1 (0.014%) HDFS
8 1 (0.014%) Oracle RAC
8 1 (0.014%) Varnish
8 1 (0.014%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 116 (1.60%) Ansible
2 99 (1.37%) Puppet
3 81 (1.12%) Opscode Chef
4 67 (0.92%) Kubernetes
5 44 (0.61%) Terraform
6 24 (0.33%) Kibana
7 22 (0.30%) Docker Swarm
7 22 (0.30%) Grafana
8 11 (0.15%) HP ALM
8 11 (0.15%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
9 9 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
10 7 (0.097%) CA Service Virtualization
10 7 (0.097%) TeamSite
11 6 (0.083%) SCCM
12 5 (0.069%) HP Quality Center
12 5 (0.069%) Marathon
12 5 (0.069%) Nagios
12 5 (0.069%) OpenNebula
12 5 (0.069%) Rancher
12 5 (0.069%) vCenter Server
Vendors
1 561 (7.74%) Microsoft
2 402 (5.54%) Adobe
3 377 (5.20%) Oracle
4 207 (2.85%) Google
5 127 (1.75%) Salesforce.com
6 95 (1.31%) Sitecore
7 86 (1.19%) ServiceNow
8 77 (1.06%) SAP
9 54 (0.74%) Twitter
10 49 (0.68%) Capita
10 49 (0.68%) IBM
11 48 (0.66%) Zend
12 46 (0.63%) Splunk
13 45 (0.62%) Atlassian
14 41 (0.57%) hybris
15 24 (0.33%) Xamarin
16 23 (0.32%) Apple
17 22 (0.30%) Nintex
17 22 (0.30%) webMethods
18 21 (0.29%) Perforce