Period
to 19 November 2017

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
19 Nov 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 14 13 19
Rank change year-on-year -1 +6 -1
Contract jobs citing CSS 7403 8521 8226
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 7.94% 8.75% 7.85%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.49% 28.52% 27.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 5478 6055 6088
England median daily rate £425 £400 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +6.67% +3.45%
10th Percentile £287 £263 £250
90th Percentile £575 £563 £525
UK median daily rate £420 £400 £375
% change year-on-year +5.00% +6.67% +3.45%
Number of hourly rates quoted 69 87 145
England median hourly rate £42.50 £36.00 £31.52
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +18.06% +14.21% -9.94%
10th Percentile £15.00 £18.22 £11.00
90th Percentile £48.75 £49.70 £47.33
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £35.69 £32.00
% change year-on-year +19.10% +11.52% -8.57%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 30223 29881 30183
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 32.42% 30.68% 28.82%
Number of daily rates quoted 21510 20879 20919
England median daily rate £463 £425 £413
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +8.82% +3.03% +3.13%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £275
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £410
% change year-on-year +5.88% +3.66% +2.50%
Number of hourly rates quoted 364 344 505
England median hourly rate £40.00 £37.50 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.67% - +9.49%
10th Percentile £18.58 £14.52 £14.64
90th Percentile £52.50 £50.00 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £37.50 £37.50
% change year-on-year +6.67% - +7.14%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 19 November 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 19 November 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 19 November 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 3817 £475 +11.76% 364
South East -2 1226 £400 +10.34% 243
North of England +6 954 £375 - 258
Midlands -1 668 £350 -3.45% 191
North West +11 507 £363 -3.33% 128
South West -4 414 £350 - 73
West Midlands -7 371 £350 -1.41% 84
Yorkshire -3 346 £380 +1.33% 112
East of England +2 301 £371 +6.07% 96
East Midlands -1 294 £340 -6.21% 105
North East +19 98 £425 - 18
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 19 November 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6887 (93.03%) HTML
2 5857 (79.12%) JavaScript
3 3325 (44.91%) Agile Software Development
4 3152 (42.58%) HTML5
5 2555 (34.51%) AngularJS
6 2491 (33.65%) CSS3
7 2016 (27.23%) Front End Development
8 1942 (26.23%) jQuery
9 1770 (23.91%) TDD
10 1723 (23.27%) Git (software)
11 1608 (21.72%) React
12 1607 (21.71%) .NET
13 1512 (20.42%) C#
14 1473 (19.90%) MVC
15 1472 (19.88%) Node.js
16 1461 (19.74%) Java
17 1331 (17.98%) Web Development
18 1276 (17.24%) User Experience
19 1189 (16.06%) Sass
20 1130 (15.26%) Scrum
21 1083 (14.63%) SQL
22 1050 (14.18%) Web Services
23 992 (13.40%) Finance
24 950 (12.83%) SQL Server
25 918 (12.40%) ASP.NET
26 903 (12.20%) REST
27 862 (11.64%) PHP
28 806 (10.89%) OO
29 799 (10.79%) Continuous Integration
30 763 (10.31%) JSON

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 504 (6.81%) CMS
2 248 (3.35%) Drupal
3 214 (2.89%) WordPress
4 210 (2.84%) Apache
5 203 (2.74%) SharePoint
6 191 (2.58%) Confluence
7 129 (1.74%) IIS
8 126 (1.70%) Elasticsearch
9 125 (1.69%) Tomcat
10 107 (1.45%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 105 (1.42%) Umbraco
12 103 (1.39%) JBoss
13 80 (1.08%) Sitecore CMS
14 79 (1.07%) WebSphere
15 78 (1.05%) WebLogic
16 68 (0.92%) nginx
17 61 (0.82%) Apache Solr
18 52 (0.70%) SharePoint 2013
19 51 (0.69%) SharePoint 2010
20 43 (0.58%) EPiServer
Applications
1 303 (4.09%) Photoshop
2 161 (2.17%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 144 (1.95%) Adobe Illustrator
4 63 (0.85%) OmniGraffle
5 59 (0.80%) Microsoft Excel
6 53 (0.72%) InVision
7 39 (0.53%) Microsoft Office
8 35 (0.47%) MS Visio
9 18 (0.24%) Adobe After Effects
9 18 (0.24%) InDesign
10 13 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 13 (0.18%) Microsoft Project
11 11 (0.15%) Fireworks
11 11 (0.15%) GIMP
11 11 (0.15%) InfoPath
11 11 (0.15%) UXPin
12 10 (0.14%) Adobe Premiere
13 6 (0.081%) Acrobat
14 4 (0.054%) LaTeX
14 4 (0.054%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 170 (2.30%) Magento
2 58 (0.78%) Dynamics CRM
3 21 (0.28%) Adobe Campaign
4 16 (0.22%) SAP Hybris
5 13 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
6 9 (0.12%) Eloqua
6 9 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 9 (0.12%) Shopify
7 8 (0.11%) KANA IQ
7 8 (0.11%) WebTrends
8 7 (0.095%) SDL Web 8
9 5 (0.068%) Dynamics NAV
9 5 (0.068%) Oracle BPM
10 4 (0.054%) RMDS
10 4 (0.054%) Unica
11 2 (0.027%) Cognos Business Intelligence
11 2 (0.027%) Endur
11 2 (0.027%) Maximo
11 2 (0.027%) Social Studio
12 1 (0.014%) Sage CRM
Cloud Services
1 445 (6.01%) Amazon AWS
2 363 (4.90%) Microsoft Azure
3 251 (3.39%) npm
4 161 (2.17%) GitHub
5 119 (1.61%) SaaS
6 60 (0.81%) Serverless
7 58 (0.78%) Office 365
8 57 (0.77%) Google Analytics
9 45 (0.61%) PaaS
10 33 (0.45%) IaaS
11 31 (0.42%) Adobe Creative Cloud
11 31 (0.42%) Amazon EC2
12 29 (0.39%) AWS Lambda
13 27 (0.36%) Heroku
14 26 (0.35%) Cloud Computing
14 26 (0.35%) Google Cloud Platform
15 21 (0.28%) Amazon S3
16 20 (0.27%) Salesforce Service Cloud
17 17 (0.23%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
18 15 (0.20%) Firebase
Communications & Networking
1 184 (2.49%) HTTP
2 120 (1.62%) Internet
3 60 (0.81%) SMS
4 41 (0.55%) TCP/IP
5 40 (0.54%) Intranet
6 38 (0.51%) SSL
7 27 (0.36%) DNS
8 17 (0.23%) Firewall
9 14 (0.19%) FTP
9 14 (0.19%) LDAP
10 8 (0.11%) Skype
11 7 (0.095%) HTTPS
11 7 (0.095%) Reverse Proxy
11 7 (0.095%) SMTP
12 6 (0.081%) ATM
12 6 (0.081%) CTI
12 6 (0.081%) Ethernet
12 6 (0.081%) Tactical Data Link
13 5 (0.068%) MQTT
14 4 (0.054%) Bluetooth
Database & Business Intelligence
1 950 (12.83%) SQL Server
2 682 (9.21%) MySQL
3 397 (5.36%) MongoDB
4 360 (4.86%) Relational Database
5 274 (3.70%) NoSQL
6 181 (2.44%) PostgreSQL
7 111 (1.50%) SQL Server 2012
8 100 (1.35%) Big Data
9 87 (1.18%) SQL Server 2008
10 67 (0.91%) RDBMS
11 66 (0.89%) Oracle Database
12 65 (0.88%) Apache Cassandra
13 59 (0.80%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 54 (0.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 47 (0.63%) SQL Server 2005
16 46 (0.62%) Hadoop
17 35 (0.47%) Redis
17 35 (0.47%) SQL Server 2014
18 30 (0.41%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 27 (0.36%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 1723 (23.27%) Git (software)
2 555 (7.50%) Jenkins
3 537 (7.25%) gulp
4 459 (6.20%) Grunt
5 424 (5.73%) JIRA
6 353 (4.77%) Jasmine
7 342 (4.62%) webpack
8 317 (4.28%) Subversion
9 301 (4.07%) Selenium
10 278 (3.76%) Visual Studio
11 224 (3.03%) Karma Test Runner
12 204 (2.76%) Maven
13 202 (2.73%) Team Foundation Server
14 193 (2.61%) JUnit
15 176 (2.38%) Mocha
16 160 (2.16%) Axure RP
17 158 (2.13%) Cucumber
18 140 (1.89%) IntelliJ
19 121 (1.63%) NUnit
20 106 (1.43%) TeamCity
General
1 992 (13.40%) Finance
2 423 (5.71%) Banking
3 372 (5.02%) Marketing
4 310 (4.19%) Retail
5 146 (1.97%) Telecoms
6 126 (1.70%) Front Office
7 111 (1.50%) Games
8 106 (1.43%) Investment Banking
9 92 (1.24%) Advertising
10 83 (1.12%) Publishing
11 67 (0.91%) Manufacturing
12 51 (0.69%) Electronics
13 41 (0.55%) Automotive
13 41 (0.55%) Law
14 30 (0.41%) Financial Institution
15 27 (0.36%) Retail Banking
16 21 (0.28%) Legal
17 19 (0.26%) Back Office
18 14 (0.19%) Pharmaceutical
19 10 (0.14%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6112 (82.56%) Developer
2 1559 (21.06%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1298 (17.53%) JavaScript Developer
4 746 (10.08%) .NET Developer
5 668 (9.02%) HTML Developer
6 628 (8.48%) Angular Developer
7 608 (8.21%) Java Developer
8 523 (7.06%) Senior Developer
9 504 (6.81%) HTML CSS Developer
10 499 (6.74%) C# Developer
11 489 (6.61%) Designer
12 480 (6.48%) Full Stack Developer
13 439 (5.93%) UI Developer
14 438 (5.92%) Web Developer
15 340 (4.59%) C# .NET Developer
16 335 (4.53%) PHP Developer
17 286 (3.86%) Node.js Developer
18 285 (3.85%) UX Designer
19 213 (2.88%) Agile Developer
20 193 (2.61%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6887 (93.03%) HTML
2 3152 (42.58%) HTML5
3 2555 (34.51%) AngularJS
4 2491 (33.65%) CSS3
5 1942 (26.23%) jQuery
6 1608 (21.72%) React
7 1607 (21.71%) .NET
8 1472 (19.88%) Node.js
9 1189 (16.06%) Sass
10 1050 (14.18%) Web Services
11 918 (12.40%) ASP.NET
12 903 (12.20%) REST
13 763 (10.31%) JSON
14 755 (10.20%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 737 (9.96%) RESTful
16 695 (9.39%) Ajax
17 684 (9.24%) XML
18 520 (7.02%) Spring
19 497 (6.71%) LESS
20 468 (6.32%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 1276 (17.24%) User Experience
2 382 (5.16%) Greenfield Project
3 372 (5.02%) Mobile App
4 259 (3.50%) Analytical Skills
5 172 (2.32%) Computer Science
6 154 (2.08%) Fintech
7 93 (1.26%) W3C
8 90 (1.22%) Enterprise Software
9 60 (0.81%) Virtual Team
10 57 (0.77%) Social Media
11 50 (0.68%) N-Tier
12 49 (0.66%) Data Structures
12 49 (0.66%) Management Information System
13 48 (0.65%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 47 (0.63%) Graphic Design
15 45 (0.61%) Derivative
15 45 (0.61%) Linux Command Line
16 40 (0.54%) Digital Media
16 40 (0.54%) Video on Demand
17 32 (0.43%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 642 (8.67%) Linux
2 264 (3.57%) Windows
3 220 (2.97%) Unix
4 165 (2.23%) Android
5 147 (1.99%) Apple iOS
6 55 (0.74%) Windows Server
7 37 (0.50%) Mac OS X
8 35 (0.47%) Mac OS
9 16 (0.22%) Ubuntu
10 15 (0.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 15 (0.20%) Windows 10
11 11 (0.15%) Oracle Linux
12 9 (0.12%) Debian
12 9 (0.12%) Solaris
13 8 (0.11%) Windows Server 2003
14 7 (0.095%) Windows 2000
14 7 (0.095%) Windows Server 2008
15 5 (0.068%) CentOS
16 3 (0.041%) SUSE
17 2 (0.027%) Fedora
Processes & Methodologies
1 3325 (44.91%) Agile Software Development
2 2016 (27.23%) Front End Development
3 1770 (23.91%) TDD
4 1473 (19.90%) MVC
5 1331 (17.98%) Web Development
6 1130 (15.26%) Scrum
7 806 (10.89%) OO
8 799 (10.79%) Continuous Integration
9 734 (9.91%) Test Automation
10 705 (9.52%) BDD
11 661 (8.93%) Responsive Web Design
12 539 (7.28%) E-Commerce
13 455 (6.15%) Unit Testing
14 408 (5.51%) Software Engineering
15 399 (5.39%) Web Design
16 348 (4.70%) Prototyping
17 346 (4.67%) Wireframes
18 342 (4.62%) Open Source
19 335 (4.53%) Microservices
20 334 (4.51%) DevOps
Programming Languages
1 5857 (79.12%) JavaScript
2 1512 (20.42%) C#
3 1461 (19.74%) Java
4 1083 (14.63%) SQL
5 862 (11.64%) PHP
6 547 (7.39%) ES6
7 435 (5.88%) Python
8 427 (5.77%) TypeScript
9 331 (4.47%) Scala
10 261 (3.53%) Ruby
11 203 (2.74%) T-SQL
12 111 (1.50%) VB.NET
13 97 (1.31%) C++
14 91 (1.23%) Groovy
15 87 (1.18%) ECMAScript
16 71 (0.96%) C
17 68 (0.92%) PL/SQL
18 64 (0.86%) PowerShell
19 50 (0.68%) Perl
20 46 (0.62%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 368 (4.97%) Degree
2 212 (2.86%) Security Cleared
3 142 (1.92%) SC Cleared
4 99 (1.34%) Computer Science Degree
5 22 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
6 11 (0.15%) DBS Check
6 11 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
7 10 (0.14%) DV Cleared
7 10 (0.14%) ISTQB
8 5 (0.068%) CTC Cleared
8 5 (0.068%) ITIL Certification
9 3 (0.041%) BC Cleared
9 3 (0.041%) IBM Certification
9 3 (0.041%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
9 3 (0.041%) Master's Degree
9 3 (0.041%) MCSD
9 3 (0.041%) Numerate Degree
9 3 (0.041%) OCPJP
10 2 (0.027%) APMP
10 2 (0.027%) AWS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 230 (3.11%) QA
2 51 (0.69%) WCAG
3 29 (0.39%) WAI
4 18 (0.24%) SLA
5 17 (0.23%) Disclosure Scotland
6 11 (0.15%) HL7
7 9 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 5 (0.068%) GCP
9 4 (0.054%) GDPR
10 3 (0.041%) COBIT
10 3 (0.041%) PCI DSS
10 3 (0.041%) PMO
11 2 (0.027%) Data Quality
11 2 (0.027%) FedRAMP
11 2 (0.027%) RosettaNet
11 2 (0.027%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 1 (0.014%) ISO 9001
12 1 (0.014%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 1 (0.014%) PSD2
12 1 (0.014%) Solvency II
System Software
1 423 (5.71%) Docker
2 36 (0.49%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.18%) VMware Infrastructure
4 10 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
5 9 (0.12%) VirtualBox
6 6 (0.081%) LXC
7 5 (0.068%) ISA Server
7 5 (0.068%) Varnish
8 3 (0.041%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.041%) UAG
8 3 (0.041%) Virtual Desktop
8 3 (0.041%) VMware ESXi
9 2 (0.027%) Apache Flume
9 2 (0.027%) HDFS
9 2 (0.027%) Oracle RAC
10 1 (0.014%) Hyper-V
Systems Management
1 108 (1.46%) Puppet
2 65 (0.88%) Kubernetes
3 62 (0.84%) Ansible
4 53 (0.72%) Opscode Chef
5 37 (0.50%) Terraform
6 22 (0.30%) Kibana
7 18 (0.24%) Grafana
8 17 (0.23%) Business Desktop Deployment
9 15 (0.20%) Sysdig
10 6 (0.081%) Rancher
11 5 (0.068%) Galera Cluster
11 5 (0.068%) ITRS Geneos
11 5 (0.068%) Nagios
11 5 (0.068%) OpenNebula
12 4 (0.054%) CA Service Virtualization
12 4 (0.054%) HP Quality Center
13 3 (0.041%) cPanel
13 3 (0.041%) Piwik
13 3 (0.041%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
13 3 (0.041%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 526 (7.11%) Microsoft
2 420 (5.67%) Adobe
3 398 (5.38%) Oracle
4 190 (2.57%) Google
5 119 (1.61%) Sitecore
6 101 (1.36%) ServiceNow
7 88 (1.19%) Salesforce.com
8 83 (1.12%) SAP
9 70 (0.95%) Zend
10 65 (0.88%) hybris
11 57 (0.77%) IBM
12 51 (0.69%) New Relic
13 47 (0.63%) Twitter
14 42 (0.57%) Xamarin
15 35 (0.47%) Nintex
16 33 (0.45%) Atlassian
17 31 (0.42%) Telerik
18 29 (0.39%) VMware
19 28 (0.38%) ATG
19 28 (0.38%) Demandware