Period
to 21 July 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 21 July 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
21 Jul 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 17 13 16
Rank change year-on-year -4 +3 +5
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,696 7,595 8,133
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 8.10% 8.60% 8.00%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.59% 26.46% 27.44%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,621 5,383 5,936
England median daily rate £425 £400 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% - +10.34%
10th Percentile £300 £275 £263
90th Percentile £575 £550 £550
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £388
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +7.64%
Number of hourly rates quoted 46 71 77
England median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £32.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +25.00% -1.66%
10th Percentile £12.67 £14.25 £9.50
90th Percentile £49.38 £46.25 £50.28
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £29.50
% change year-on-year +6.25% +35.59% -9.34%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 32,623 28,701 29,639
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 34.33% 32.48% 29.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,185 19,902 20,933
England median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £319 £308 £295
90th Percentile £631 £625 £600
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
% change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 358 366 376
England median hourly rate £41.52 £40.75 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +1.88% +8.67% +3.81%
10th Percentile £15.25 £15.54 £12.63
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.75 £52.00
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £40.38 £37.50
% change year-on-year +1.54% +7.68% +2.74%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 21 July 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 21 July 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 21 July 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 3,757 £475 +5.56% 1,079
South East -1 1,332 £415 +10.67% 621
North of England 0 1,229 £375 - 725
Midlands -7 679 £375 +7.14% 445
North West +2 651 £375 +7.14% 423
Yorkshire -4 472 £388 +1.97% 256
West Midlands -6 431 £388 +9.93% 234
South West -4 405 £375 +3.18% 289
East of England -4 288 £400 +14.29% 205
East Midlands -5 248 £375 +7.14% 211
North East -10 108 £356 -8.06% 46
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 21 July 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,174 (93.22%) HTML
2 6,217 (80.78%) JavaScript
3 3,442 (44.72%) Agile Software Development
4 3,083 (40.06%) HTML5
5 2,654 (34.49%) AngularJS
6 2,459 (31.95%) CSS3
7 2,149 (27.92%) Front End Development
8 1,985 (25.79%) React
9 1,909 (24.81%) jQuery
10 1,792 (23.28%) Git (software)
11 1,633 (21.22%) .NET
12 1,600 (20.79%) TDD
13 1,582 (20.56%) C#
14 1,550 (20.14%) Node.js
15 1,418 (18.43%) User Experience
16 1,376 (17.88%) MVC
17 1,325 (17.22%) Web Development
18 1,255 (16.31%) Sass
19 1,210 (15.72%) Java
20 1,130 (14.68%) SQL
21 1,024 (13.31%) Scrum
22 990 (12.86%) ASP.NET
23 965 (12.54%) SQL Server
24 939 (12.20%) Finance
25 898 (11.67%) Web Services
26 890 (11.56%) REST
27 821 (10.67%) PHP
28 817 (10.62%) ES6
29 814 (10.58%) Redux
30 772 (10.03%) Continuous Integration

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 445 (5.78%) CMS
2 224 (2.91%) WordPress
3 186 (2.42%) SharePoint
4 164 (2.13%) Confluence
5 147 (1.91%) Drupal
6 142 (1.85%) Apache
7 102 (1.33%) Elasticsearch
8 101 (1.31%) Tomcat
9 100 (1.30%) IIS
10 97 (1.26%) Umbraco
11 91 (1.18%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 75 (0.97%) WebSphere
13 65 (0.84%) Sitecore CMS
14 50 (0.65%) JBoss
14 50 (0.65%) nginx
15 41 (0.53%) SharePoint 2013
16 38 (0.49%) Apache Spark
16 38 (0.49%) EPiServer
17 31 (0.40%) SharePoint 2010
18 29 (0.38%) WebLogic
Applications
1 231 (3.00%) Photoshop
2 124 (1.61%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 104 (1.35%) InVision
4 96 (1.25%) Adobe Illustrator
5 39 (0.51%) Microsoft Excel
6 38 (0.49%) Microsoft Office
7 37 (0.48%) OmniGraffle
8 27 (0.35%) InfoPath
9 25 (0.32%) GIMP
10 17 (0.22%) Adobe After Effects
10 17 (0.22%) UserZoom
11 14 (0.18%) Fireworks
11 14 (0.18%) MS Visio
12 13 (0.17%) InDesign
12 13 (0.17%) UXPin
13 12 (0.16%) Chatbot
14 11 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
15 9 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
16 7 (0.091%) Microsoft PowerPoint
17 2 (0.026%) Stata
Business Applications
1 139 (1.81%) Magento
2 71 (0.92%) Dynamics CRM
3 18 (0.23%) ION MarketView
4 14 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
5 11 (0.14%) Remedy ITSM
6 8 (0.10%) Adobe Campaign
6 8 (0.10%) SDL Web 8
7 7 (0.091%) Distributed Ledger
7 7 (0.091%) Eloqua
7 7 (0.091%) Shopify
8 5 (0.065%) Dynamics AX
9 4 (0.052%) Endur
9 4 (0.052%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 3 (0.039%) Dynamics NAV
10 3 (0.039%) Maximo
10 3 (0.039%) NetSuite
10 3 (0.039%) R3 Corda
10 3 (0.039%) SAP Hybris
10 3 (0.039%) SAP PM
11 2 (0.026%) OpenCart
Cloud Services
1 569 (7.39%) Amazon AWS
2 562 (7.30%) Microsoft Azure
3 268 (3.48%) npm
4 249 (3.24%) GitHub
5 144 (1.87%) Serverless
6 109 (1.42%) SaaS
7 72 (0.94%) Heroku
7 72 (0.94%) Office 365
8 70 (0.91%) Google Cloud Platform
9 68 (0.88%) Google Analytics
10 49 (0.64%) PaaS
11 45 (0.58%) AWS Lambda
12 41 (0.53%) Dynamics 365
13 33 (0.43%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 33 (0.43%) Amazon S3
13 33 (0.43%) IaaS
14 30 (0.39%) Amazon EC2
15 26 (0.34%) Cloud Computing
16 24 (0.31%) Yarn
17 23 (0.30%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 309 (4.02%) HTTP
2 118 (1.53%) Internet
3 67 (0.87%) SSL
4 61 (0.79%) TCP/IP
5 57 (0.74%) DNS
5 57 (0.74%) SMS
6 51 (0.66%) FTP
7 44 (0.57%) Intranet
8 18 (0.23%) Broadband
9 12 (0.16%) HTTPS
10 11 (0.14%) Reverse Proxy
11 10 (0.13%) RTMP
12 9 (0.12%) SMTP
13 8 (0.10%) Network Security
14 7 (0.091%) Firewall
14 7 (0.091%) Kerberos
15 6 (0.078%) IMAP
15 6 (0.078%) Skype
15 6 (0.078%) Wi-Fi
16 5 (0.065%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 965 (12.54%) SQL Server
2 682 (8.86%) MySQL
3 417 (5.42%) Relational Database
4 332 (4.31%) MongoDB
5 290 (3.77%) PostgreSQL
6 241 (3.13%) NoSQL
7 133 (1.73%) Redis
8 115 (1.49%) SQL Server 2012
9 87 (1.13%) Big Data
9 87 (1.13%) RDBMS
10 71 (0.92%) SQL Server 2008
11 64 (0.83%) Apache Cassandra
12 57 (0.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 57 (0.74%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 56 (0.73%) Oracle Database
14 52 (0.68%) Blockchain
15 44 (0.57%) Data Warehouse
15 44 (0.57%) Hadoop
16 43 (0.56%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 38 (0.49%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 1,792 (23.28%) Git (software)
2 563 (7.32%) Jenkins
3 551 (7.16%) webpack
4 520 (6.76%) gulp
5 419 (5.44%) JIRA
6 387 (5.03%) Grunt
7 352 (4.57%) Jasmine
8 342 (4.44%) Selenium
9 295 (3.83%) Visual Studio
10 245 (3.18%) Subversion
11 203 (2.64%) Karma Test Runner
12 202 (2.62%) Team Foundation Server
13 201 (2.61%) Mocha
14 182 (2.36%) Babel
15 171 (2.22%) Maven
16 170 (2.21%) Axure RP
17 148 (1.92%) JUnit
18 138 (1.79%) Cucumber
19 135 (1.75%) TeamCity
20 98 (1.27%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 939 (12.20%) Finance
2 414 (5.38%) Banking
3 351 (4.56%) Retail
4 300 (3.90%) Marketing
5 130 (1.69%) Telecoms
6 102 (1.33%) Games
7 100 (1.30%) Front Office
8 97 (1.26%) Investment Banking
9 67 (0.87%) Law
10 66 (0.86%) Advertising
11 55 (0.71%) Legal
12 53 (0.69%) Manufacturing
13 51 (0.66%) Publishing
14 41 (0.53%) Back Office
15 31 (0.40%) Financial Institution
16 29 (0.38%) Electronics
17 22 (0.29%) Automotive
18 18 (0.23%) Local Government
19 16 (0.21%) Pharmaceutical
20 12 (0.16%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6,367 (82.73%) Developer
2 1,680 (21.83%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,216 (15.80%) JavaScript Developer
4 945 (12.28%) React Developer
5 815 (10.59%) .NET Developer
6 666 (8.65%) Angular Developer
7 652 (8.47%) Full Stack Developer
8 529 (6.87%) HTML Developer
9 492 (6.39%) C# Developer
10 483 (6.28%) Senior Developer
10 483 (6.28%) Web Developer
11 470 (6.11%) Java Developer
12 453 (5.89%) Designer
13 444 (5.77%) UI Developer
14 421 (5.47%) HTML CSS Developer
15 405 (5.26%) PHP Developer
16 332 (4.31%) C# .NET Developer
17 270 (3.51%) UX Designer
18 261 (3.39%) Node.js Developer
19 202 (2.62%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,174 (93.22%) HTML
2 3,083 (40.06%) HTML5
3 2,654 (34.49%) AngularJS
4 2,459 (31.95%) CSS3
5 1,985 (25.79%) React
6 1,909 (24.81%) jQuery
7 1,633 (21.22%) .NET
8 1,550 (20.14%) Node.js
9 1,255 (16.31%) Sass
10 990 (12.86%) ASP.NET
11 898 (11.67%) Web Services
12 890 (11.56%) REST
13 814 (10.58%) Redux
14 770 (10.01%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 732 (9.51%) RESTful
16 659 (8.56%) XML
17 623 (8.10%) JSON
18 616 (8.00%) Ajax
19 559 (7.26%) ASP.NET Web API
20 541 (7.03%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 1,418 (18.43%) User Experience
2 498 (6.47%) Greenfield Project
3 449 (5.83%) Mobile App
4 300 (3.90%) Analytical Skills
5 239 (3.11%) Fintech
6 179 (2.33%) Computer Science
7 130 (1.69%) Enterprise Software
8 115 (1.49%) Self-Motivation
9 105 (1.36%) Data Structures
10 99 (1.29%) Algorithms
11 77 (1.00%) W3C
12 58 (0.75%) Fixed Income
13 56 (0.73%) Social Media
14 54 (0.70%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 47 (0.61%) Linux Command Line
16 39 (0.51%) Virtual Team
17 36 (0.47%) Derivative
18 28 (0.36%) Client/Server
18 28 (0.36%) Public Cloud
19 27 (0.35%) N-Tier
Operating Systems
1 596 (7.74%) Linux
2 264 (3.43%) Android
3 261 (3.39%) Windows
4 246 (3.20%) Apple iOS
5 165 (2.14%) Unix
6 53 (0.69%) Windows Server
7 42 (0.55%) Mac OS X
8 31 (0.40%) Ubuntu
9 18 (0.23%) Mac OS
10 15 (0.19%) Windows Server 2003
11 13 (0.17%) Windows 10
12 12 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
12 12 (0.16%) Windows Server 2012
13 11 (0.14%) CentOS
13 11 (0.14%) VMS
14 9 (0.12%) Oracle Linux
15 6 (0.078%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 6 (0.078%) Solaris
16 4 (0.052%) Windows 7
16 4 (0.052%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,442 (44.72%) Agile Software Development
2 2,149 (27.92%) Front End Development
3 1,600 (20.79%) TDD
4 1,376 (17.88%) MVC
5 1,325 (17.22%) Web Development
6 1,024 (13.31%) Scrum
7 772 (10.03%) Continuous Integration
8 731 (9.50%) BDD
9 678 (8.81%) Test Automation
10 673 (8.74%) OO
11 600 (7.80%) E-Commerce
12 578 (7.51%) Microservices
13 577 (7.50%) Unit Testing
14 572 (7.43%) Responsive Web Design
15 492 (6.39%) Problem-Solving
16 481 (6.25%) DevOps
17 440 (5.72%) Software Engineering
18 398 (5.17%) Open Source
19 391 (5.08%) Wireframes
20 331 (4.30%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 6,217 (80.78%) JavaScript
2 1,582 (20.56%) C#
3 1,210 (15.72%) Java
4 1,130 (14.68%) SQL
5 821 (10.67%) PHP
6 817 (10.62%) ES6
7 678 (8.81%) TypeScript
8 476 (6.19%) Python
9 226 (2.94%) Ruby
10 205 (2.66%) Java 8
11 187 (2.43%) T-SQL
12 169 (2.20%) Scala
13 108 (1.40%) ES7
14 101 (1.31%) PowerShell
15 92 (1.20%) Go
16 88 (1.14%) C++
17 86 (1.12%) PL/SQL
18 70 (0.91%) Groovy
19 52 (0.68%) C
20 50 (0.65%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 352 (4.57%) Degree
2 268 (3.48%) Security Cleared
3 199 (2.59%) SC Cleared
4 109 (1.42%) Computer Science Degree
5 30 (0.39%) Microsoft Certification
6 21 (0.27%) BPSS Clearance
6 21 (0.27%) ITIL Certification
7 11 (0.14%) DBS Check
8 7 (0.091%) CESG Certified Professional
8 7 (0.091%) CTC Cleared
8 7 (0.091%) IISP
9 5 (0.065%) CISMP
9 5 (0.065%) DV Cleared
10 4 (0.052%) AWS Certification
10 4 (0.052%) BC Cleared
10 4 (0.052%) Master's Degree
10 4 (0.052%) Numerate Degree
11 3 (0.039%) MCSD
11 3 (0.039%) PMI Certification
11 3 (0.039%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 232 (3.01%) QA
2 46 (0.60%) WCAG
3 30 (0.39%) GDPR
4 22 (0.29%) SLA
5 21 (0.27%) WAI
6 17 (0.22%) PMO
7 15 (0.19%) Data Quality
8 12 (0.16%) Disclosure Scotland
8 12 (0.16%) MiFID
9 9 (0.12%) GCP
10 8 (0.10%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 6 (0.078%) PCI DSS
12 3 (0.039%) PMBOK
13 2 (0.026%) Actionable Recommendations
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA C
14 1 (0.013%) PSD2
14 1 (0.013%) Section 508
System Software
1 524 (6.81%) Docker
2 28 (0.36%) Active Directory
3 15 (0.19%) Virtual Machines
4 10 (0.13%) VirtualBox
5 8 (0.10%) HDFS
6 6 (0.078%) Hyper-V
6 6 (0.078%) LXC
7 5 (0.065%) Microsoft App-V
7 5 (0.065%) VMware ESXi
8 4 (0.052%) etcd
8 4 (0.052%) flannel
8 4 (0.052%) VMware Infrastructure
9 3 (0.039%) vCloud
10 1 (0.013%) Apache Flume
10 1 (0.013%) Firmware
10 1 (0.013%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 103 (1.34%) Kubernetes
2 99 (1.29%) Puppet
3 89 (1.16%) Ansible
4 62 (0.81%) Opscode Chef
5 38 (0.49%) Terraform
6 36 (0.47%) Docker Swarm
7 24 (0.31%) Kibana
8 18 (0.23%) Mesos
9 15 (0.19%) Grafana
9 15 (0.19%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
10 11 (0.14%) HAProxy
11 10 (0.13%) Marathon
12 9 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
13 8 (0.10%) TeamSite
14 6 (0.078%) Matomo
14 6 (0.078%) SCCM
15 5 (0.065%) logstash
15 5 (0.065%) vCenter Server
16 4 (0.052%) Rancher
16 4 (0.052%) rkt
Vendors
1 562 (7.30%) Microsoft
2 417 (5.42%) Oracle
3 395 (5.13%) Adobe
4 214 (2.78%) Google
5 135 (1.75%) Salesforce.com
6 102 (1.33%) Sitecore
7 100 (1.30%) ServiceNow
8 74 (0.96%) SAP
9 70 (0.91%) IBM
10 58 (0.75%) Capita
11 52 (0.68%) Zend
12 48 (0.62%) Twitter
13 37 (0.48%) Atlassian
13 37 (0.48%) hybris
14 30 (0.39%) Xamarin
15 27 (0.35%) Apple
15 27 (0.35%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 25 (0.32%) Splunk
17 24 (0.31%) CA Agile Central
18 21 (0.27%) Perforce