Period
to 21 January 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 21 January 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
21 Jan 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 31 22 17
Rank change year-on-year -9 -5 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,789 6,528 6,906
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 5.71% 7.21% 7.60%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 18.79% 20.89% 23.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,658 4,742 5,158
England median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £310 £310 £285
90th Percentile £600 £584 £575
UK median daily rate £450 £438 £425
% change year-on-year +2.86% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 46 49 46
England median hourly rate £35.45 £41.00 £43.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -13.54% -6.29% +29.63%
10th Percentile £23.50 £13.88 £17.88
90th Percentile £53.00 £58.53 £49.38
UK median hourly rate £35.45 £35.61 £41.25
% change year-on-year -0.46% -13.67% +26.92%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 20,160 31,250 29,526
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.39% 34.51% 32.47%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,058 22,187 21,273
England median daily rate £500 £494 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.21% +4.00% +11.76%
10th Percentile £333 £325 £313
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK median daily rate £490 £475 £461
% change year-on-year +3.16% +3.04% +8.47%
Number of hourly rates quoted 221 262 317
England median hourly rate £42.50 £41.52 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.37% +3.79% -
10th Percentile £18.75 £19.03 £18.65
90th Percentile £78.75 £59.88 £52.50
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £41.53 £40.00
% change year-on-year +2.34% +3.83% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 21 January 2020.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 21 January 2020.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 21 January 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -2 1,986 £500 +4.17% 760
South East -25 538 £413 -2.94% 525
North of England -14 474 £400 +6.04% 615
South West -9 322 £395 -1.25% 322
Midlands -10 299 £390 -2.50% 362
North West -16 243 £388 +0.65% 367
West Midlands -5 190 £413 +3.13% 176
Yorkshire -13 182 £400 +6.67% 164
East of England 0 147 £410 +5.81% 239
East Midlands -8 109 £350 -6.67% 186
North East -16 49 £381 -4.69% 85
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 21 January 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,432 (90.58%) HTML
2 2,945 (77.72%) JavaScript
3 1,694 (44.71%) Agile Software Development
4 1,198 (31.62%) AngularJS
5 1,191 (31.43%) HTML5
6 1,018 (26.87%) React
7 1,005 (26.52%) Front End Development
8 925 (24.41%) Git (software)
9 885 (23.36%) .NET
10 875 (23.09%) C#
11 860 (22.70%) CSS3
12 730 (19.27%) Node.js
13 724 (19.11%) TDD
14 672 (17.74%) User Experience
15 667 (17.60%) Java
16 660 (17.42%) SQL
17 611 (16.13%) jQuery
18 591 (15.60%) MVC
19 580 (15.31%) SQL Server
20 553 (14.59%) Sass
21 512 (13.51%) Web Development
22 497 (13.12%) Scrum
23 475 (12.54%) Azure
24 470 (12.40%) Test Automation
25 469 (12.38%) TypeScript
26 461 (12.17%) ASP.NET
27 454 (11.98%) Finance
28 453 (11.96%) Continuous Integration
29 406 (10.72%) REST
30 404 (10.66%) Redux

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 265 (6.99%) CMS
2 123 (3.25%) SharePoint
3 102 (2.69%) Confluence
4 89 (2.35%) Drupal
5 87 (2.30%) WordPress
6 80 (2.11%) Apache
7 56 (1.48%) Umbraco
8 49 (1.29%) IIS
9 38 (1.00%) Tomcat
10 35 (0.92%) Elasticsearch
11 34 (0.90%) Sitecore CMS
11 34 (0.90%) WebLogic
11 34 (0.90%) WebSphere
12 32 (0.84%) Adobe Experience Manager
13 30 (0.79%) nginx
14 28 (0.74%) JBoss
15 20 (0.53%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 15 (0.40%) Cloud Foundry
16 15 (0.40%) SharePoint 2013
17 14 (0.37%) Moodle
Applications
1 149 (3.93%) Photoshop
2 108 (2.85%) Sketch
3 67 (1.77%) Adobe Illustrator
3 67 (1.77%) InVision
4 38 (1.00%) Adobe XD
4 38 (1.00%) Microsoft Office
5 36 (0.95%) Microsoft Excel
6 34 (0.90%) Zeplin
7 29 (0.77%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 19 (0.50%) InDesign
9 15 (0.40%) GIMP
9 15 (0.40%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 12 (0.32%) Figma
11 11 (0.29%) Marvel
12 10 (0.26%) InfoPath
13 9 (0.24%) Adobe After Effects
14 6 (0.16%) UserZoom
14 6 (0.16%) UXPin
15 5 (0.13%) Lectora
15 5 (0.13%) SketchUp
Business Applications
1 99 (2.61%) Magento
2 25 (0.66%) Shopify
3 20 (0.53%) Dynamics CRM
4 6 (0.16%) Visualfiles
5 4 (0.11%) NetSuite
5 4 (0.11%) osCommerce
5 4 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
5 4 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 3 (0.079%) Oracle BPM
6 3 (0.079%) Oracle EBS
6 3 (0.079%) R3 Corda
7 2 (0.053%) Eloqua
7 2 (0.053%) Oracle Applications
7 2 (0.053%) Primavera
7 2 (0.053%) SDL Web 8
7 2 (0.053%) WebTrends
8 1 (0.026%) Adobe Campaign
8 1 (0.026%) Odoo
8 1 (0.026%) Sprinklr
Cloud Services
1 475 (12.54%) Azure
2 307 (8.10%) AWS
3 188 (4.96%) GitHub
4 124 (3.27%) npm
5 106 (2.80%) GCP
6 82 (2.16%) SaaS
7 58 (1.53%) Google Analytics
8 52 (1.37%) Power Platform
9 48 (1.27%) Serverless
10 42 (1.11%) Office 365
11 40 (1.06%) PaaS
12 27 (0.71%) Cloud Computing
13 26 (0.69%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 26 (0.69%) Amazon S3
14 24 (0.63%) Yarn
15 20 (0.53%) Heroku
16 18 (0.48%) Azure Stack
17 17 (0.45%) AWS Lambda
18 16 (0.42%) PowerApps
19 14 (0.37%) CloudFront
Communications & Networking
1 131 (3.46%) HTTP
2 42 (1.11%) SSL
3 38 (1.00%) TCP/IP
4 27 (0.71%) Internet
4 27 (0.71%) Intranet
5 12 (0.32%) DSL
6 11 (0.29%) HTTPS
7 10 (0.26%) SSH
8 9 (0.24%) DNS
8 9 (0.24%) Network Security
9 8 (0.21%) Firewall
9 8 (0.21%) FTP
10 5 (0.13%) Extranet
10 5 (0.13%) Reverse Proxy
10 5 (0.13%) SMS
11 4 (0.11%) DMZ
12 3 (0.079%) RTMP
12 3 (0.079%) Skype
12 3 (0.079%) SMTP
13 2 (0.053%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 580 (15.31%) SQL Server
2 282 (7.44%) MySQL
3 201 (5.30%) Relational Database
4 133 (3.51%) NoSQL
5 120 (3.17%) MongoDB
6 109 (2.88%) PostgreSQL
7 40 (1.06%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 35 (0.92%) Oracle Database
9 33 (0.87%) Power BI
10 32 (0.84%) SQL Server Analysis Services
11 30 (0.79%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 29 (0.77%) RDBMS
13 27 (0.71%) Flink
13 27 (0.71%) QlikView
14 25 (0.66%) SQL Server 2008
15 24 (0.63%) Redis
16 23 (0.61%) OLAP
17 22 (0.58%) SQL Server 2012
18 20 (0.53%) Apache Cassandra
18 20 (0.53%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 925 (24.41%) Git (software)
2 315 (8.31%) Jenkins
3 287 (7.57%) JIRA
4 230 (6.07%) webpack
5 201 (5.30%) gulp
6 183 (4.83%) Selenium
7 157 (4.14%) Visual Studio
8 152 (4.01%) Grunt
9 134 (3.54%) Team Foundation Server
10 111 (2.93%) Cucumber
11 110 (2.90%) Jasmine
11 110 (2.90%) JUnit
12 94 (2.48%) Visual Studio Team System
13 88 (2.32%) TeamCity
14 86 (2.27%) Karma Test Runner
15 69 (1.82%) Subversion
16 66 (1.74%) Octopus Deploy
17 61 (1.61%) Bitbucket
18 59 (1.56%) Babel
19 58 (1.53%) GitLab
General
1 454 (11.98%) Finance
2 185 (4.88%) Marketing
3 176 (4.65%) Public Sector
4 139 (3.67%) Retail
5 138 (3.64%) Banking
6 95 (2.51%) Games
7 62 (1.64%) Law
8 61 (1.61%) Front Office
9 55 (1.45%) Telecoms
10 48 (1.27%) Manufacturing
11 45 (1.19%) Investment Banking
12 36 (0.95%) Advertising
13 32 (0.84%) Electronics
14 26 (0.69%) Publishing
15 18 (0.48%) Automotive
16 17 (0.45%) Police
17 16 (0.42%) Legal
18 13 (0.34%) Back Office
19 10 (0.26%) Pharmaceutical
20 7 (0.18%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 3,068 (80.97%) Developer
2 751 (19.82%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 444 (11.72%) React Developer
4 379 (10.00%) JavaScript Developer
5 378 (9.98%) .NET Developer
6 367 (9.69%) Full Stack Developer
7 290 (7.65%) Senior Developer
8 281 (7.42%) C# Developer
9 267 (7.05%) Angular Developer
10 228 (6.02%) Designer
11 227 (5.99%) Java Developer
12 184 (4.86%) HTML Developer
13 153 (4.04%) Web Developer
14 144 (3.80%) C# .NET Developer
15 140 (3.69%) UI Developer
16 138 (3.64%) HTML CSS Developer
17 135 (3.56%) UX Designer
18 134 (3.54%) Software Developer
19 127 (3.35%) PHP Developer
20 115 (3.04%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,432 (90.58%) HTML
2 1,198 (31.62%) AngularJS
3 1,191 (31.43%) HTML5
4 1,018 (26.87%) React
5 885 (23.36%) .NET
6 860 (22.70%) CSS3
7 730 (19.27%) Node.js
8 611 (16.13%) jQuery
9 553 (14.59%) Sass
10 461 (12.17%) ASP.NET
11 406 (10.72%) REST
12 404 (10.66%) Redux
13 401 (10.58%) RESTful
14 385 (10.16%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 375 (9.90%) Web Services
16 350 (9.24%) JSON
17 324 (8.55%) Vue.js
18 315 (8.31%) XML
19 295 (7.79%) Spring
20 237 (6.25%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 672 (17.74%) User Experience
2 206 (5.44%) Analytical Skills
3 189 (4.99%) Mobile App
4 173 (4.57%) Greenfield Project
5 101 (2.67%) W3C
6 80 (2.11%) Hedge funds
7 79 (2.08%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 74 (1.95%) Enterprise Software
9 52 (1.37%) Data Structures
10 47 (1.24%) Equities
11 39 (1.03%) Self-Motivation
12 36 (0.95%) Graphic Design
13 33 (0.87%) Social Media
13 33 (0.87%) Virtual Team
14 25 (0.66%) Management Information System
15 21 (0.55%) Algorithms
15 21 (0.55%) Digital Media
16 18 (0.48%) Learning Management System
17 17 (0.45%) e-Learning
18 16 (0.42%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 205 (5.41%) Linux
2 106 (2.80%) Windows
3 103 (2.72%) Unix
4 72 (1.90%) Apple iOS
5 63 (1.66%) Android
6 23 (0.61%) Mac OS X
7 18 (0.48%) Mac OS
7 18 (0.48%) Ubuntu
8 8 (0.21%) Windows Server
9 5 (0.13%) Windows 10
9 5 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
9 5 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
10 4 (0.11%) CentOS
11 3 (0.079%) Windows 7
12 2 (0.053%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 2 (0.053%) Solaris
12 2 (0.053%) Windows 2000
12 2 (0.053%) Windows Server 2003
12 2 (0.053%) Windows Vista
12 2 (0.053%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,694 (44.71%) Agile Software Development
2 1,005 (26.52%) Front End Development
3 724 (19.11%) TDD
4 591 (15.60%) MVC
5 512 (13.51%) Web Development
6 497 (13.12%) Scrum
7 470 (12.40%) Test Automation
8 453 (11.96%) Continuous Integration
9 363 (9.58%) DevOps
10 340 (8.97%) Microservices
11 320 (8.45%) OO
12 307 (8.10%) E-Commerce
13 286 (7.55%) Problem-Solving
14 270 (7.13%) BDD
15 237 (6.25%) Responsive Web Design
16 207 (5.46%) Software Engineering
16 207 (5.46%) Unit Testing
17 190 (5.01%) Open Source
18 189 (4.99%) Wireframes
19 167 (4.41%) Web Design
Programming Languages
1 2,945 (77.72%) JavaScript
2 875 (23.09%) C#
3 667 (17.60%) Java
4 660 (17.42%) SQL
5 469 (12.38%) TypeScript
6 377 (9.95%) PHP
7 314 (8.29%) ES6
8 230 (6.07%) Python
9 187 (4.94%) Ruby
10 136 (3.59%) Scala
11 111 (2.93%) T-SQL
12 86 (2.27%) Java 8
13 82 (2.16%) PowerShell
14 57 (1.50%) Bash Shell
15 52 (1.37%) PL/SQL
16 50 (1.32%) ES7
17 39 (1.03%) Groovy
18 34 (0.90%) VB.NET
19 27 (0.71%) C++
20 26 (0.69%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 229 (6.04%) Security Cleared
2 191 (5.04%) Degree
3 146 (3.85%) SC Cleared
4 53 (1.40%) Computer Science Degree
5 36 (0.95%) BPSS Clearance
6 27 (0.71%) BC Cleared
7 16 (0.42%) Master's Degree
8 10 (0.26%) Microsoft Certification
9 8 (0.21%) CTC Cleared
9 8 (0.21%) DV Cleared
10 7 (0.18%) AWS Certification
10 7 (0.18%) ISEB
11 6 (0.16%) DBS Check
12 5 (0.13%) Numerate Degree
13 4 (0.11%) A+ Certification
13 4 (0.11%) MCSD
14 3 (0.079%) ISTQB
15 2 (0.053%) Cisco Certification
15 2 (0.053%) HND
15 2 (0.053%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 128 (3.38%) WCAG
2 122 (3.22%) QA
3 16 (0.42%) GDPR
4 9 (0.24%) PMO
5 8 (0.21%) Disclosure Scotland
5 8 (0.21%) SLA
6 3 (0.079%) Data Quality
6 3 (0.079%) WAI
7 2 (0.053%) ISO 9001
7 2 (0.053%) Section 508
8 1 (0.026%) COBIT
8 1 (0.026%) PCI DSS
8 1 (0.026%) PSD2
8 1 (0.026%) SEPA
8 1 (0.026%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 260 (6.86%) Docker
2 25 (0.66%) Active Directory
3 14 (0.37%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
4 5 (0.13%) zsh
5 4 (0.11%) vSphere
6 2 (0.053%) HDFS
7 1 (0.026%) Apache Flume
7 1 (0.026%) GridGain
7 1 (0.026%) ISA Server
7 1 (0.026%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 103 (2.72%) Kubernetes
2 46 (1.21%) Kibana
3 32 (0.84%) Grafana
4 30 (0.79%) Terraform
5 29 (0.77%) Puppet
6 17 (0.45%) Ansible
7 11 (0.29%) MIIS
8 10 (0.26%) Opscode Chef
9 7 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
10 6 (0.16%) Docker Swarm
10 6 (0.16%) TeamSite
11 5 (0.13%) HP Quality Center
12 3 (0.079%) Hadoop YARN
13 2 (0.053%) Control-M
13 2 (0.053%) HAProxy
13 2 (0.053%) logstash
13 2 (0.053%) Mesos
13 2 (0.053%) SCCM
14 1 (0.026%) NetIQ Identity Manager
14 1 (0.026%) Oracle Identity Manager
Vendors
1 353 (9.32%) Microsoft
2 184 (4.86%) Oracle
3 170 (4.49%) Google
4 150 (3.96%) Adobe
5 58 (1.53%) Sitecore
6 54 (1.43%) Salesforce.com
7 42 (1.11%) hybris
8 41 (1.08%) SAP
9 40 (1.06%) IBM
10 37 (0.98%) Remedy
11 35 (0.92%) Atlassian
11 35 (0.92%) ServiceNow
12 26 (0.69%) Tableau
13 25 (0.66%) MicroStrategy
13 25 (0.66%) Zend
14 23 (0.61%) Cognos
14 23 (0.61%) Demandware
15 19 (0.50%) Vermilion
16 17 (0.45%) Apple
16 17 (0.45%) webMethods