Period
to 24 May 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 24 May 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
24 May 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 43 25 17
Rank change year-on-year -18 -8 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,175 5,779 7,299
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 5.04% 6.90% 7.92%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 16.43% 20.89% 23.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,522 4,325 5,442
Median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £306 £313 £300
90th Percentile £625 £600 £575
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 40 52 43
Median hourly rate £35.00 £50.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -30.00% +11.11% +25.00%
10th Percentile £32.38 £17.11 £11.52
90th Percentile £53.20 £59.80 £49.75
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £40.50 £43.75
% change year-on-year -13.58% -7.43% +15.13%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 13,239 27,661 30,630
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.71% 33.00% 33.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,065 19,509 21,763
Median daily rate £500 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £338 £338 £313
90th Percentile £675 £650 £625
UK median daily rate £500 £490 £475
% change year-on-year +2.04% +3.16% +8.57%
Number of hourly rates quoted 194 274 325
Median hourly rate £35.00 £43.71 £42.27
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -19.92% +3.41% +4.36%
10th Percentile £24.50 £18.50 £17.35
90th Percentile £63.00 £60.53 £58.75
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £42.26
% change year-on-year -17.65% +0.57% +5.64%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 24 May 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 24 May 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 24 May 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -17 1,148 £500 +4.17% 218
North of England -23 264 £400 - 212
South East -28 260 £425 - 126
South West -11 206 £400 -5.88% 90
Midlands -11 175 £388 -3.13% 121
North West -18 130 £400 - 132
Yorkshire -16 112 £425 +6.25% 55
West Midlands -3 111 £400 - 64
East of England +13 99 £400 - 61
East Midlands -11 64 £379 -5.25% 57
North East -22 22 £350 -12.50% 25
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 24 May 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,910 (87.82%) HTML
2 1,728 (79.45%) JavaScript
3 942 (43.31%) Agile Software Development
4 639 (29.38%) HTML5
5 610 (28.05%) AngularJS
6 590 (27.13%) React
7 567 (26.07%) Front End Development
8 543 (24.97%) Git (software)
9 441 (20.28%) .NET
10 436 (20.05%) Node.js
11 427 (19.63%) C#
12 416 (19.13%) CSS3
13 410 (18.85%) Java
14 401 (18.44%) User Experience
15 390 (17.93%) SQL
16 344 (15.82%) TDD
17 314 (14.44%) jQuery
18 303 (13.93%) TypeScript
19 302 (13.89%) SQL Server
20 297 (13.66%) Sass
21 293 (13.47%) Web Development
22 291 (13.38%) DevOps
23 287 (13.20%) Scrum
24 286 (13.15%) Finance
25 284 (13.06%) Web Services
26 283 (13.01%) Azure
27 280 (12.87%) Test Automation
28 273 (12.55%) MVC
29 245 (11.26%) Redux
30 243 (11.17%) RESTful

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 125 (5.75%) CMS
2 59 (2.71%) SharePoint
3 51 (2.34%) Apache
4 47 (2.16%) WordPress
5 39 (1.79%) Confluence
5 39 (1.79%) Drupal
5 39 (1.79%) Elasticsearch
6 33 (1.52%) IIS
6 33 (1.52%) Tomcat
7 31 (1.43%) WebLogic
8 28 (1.29%) WebSphere
9 20 (0.92%) Umbraco
10 19 (0.87%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 17 (0.78%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 13 (0.60%) Mendix
13 10 (0.46%) JBoss
13 10 (0.46%) nginx
13 10 (0.46%) Sitecore CMS
14 9 (0.41%) SAP EP
14 9 (0.41%) SAP Portal
Applications
1 97 (4.46%) Sketch
2 54 (2.48%) InVision
3 47 (2.16%) Photoshop
4 29 (1.33%) Zeplin
5 21 (0.97%) Microsoft Excel
6 20 (0.92%) Adobe Illustrator
7 16 (0.74%) Adobe XD
7 16 (0.74%) Microsoft Office
8 14 (0.64%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 13 (0.60%) Adobe After Effects
10 6 (0.28%) InDesign
11 4 (0.18%) Adobe Premiere
11 4 (0.18%) InfoPath
11 4 (0.18%) Lectora
12 3 (0.14%) Camtasia
12 3 (0.14%) Figma
12 3 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
13 2 (0.092%) Microsoft Project
13 2 (0.092%) Spreadsheet
14 1 (0.046%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 45 (2.07%) Magento
2 22 (1.01%) Shopify
3 19 (0.87%) Dynamics CRM
4 6 (0.28%) Oracle ERP
4 6 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
5 4 (0.18%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.18%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 3 (0.14%) NetSuite
7 2 (0.092%) BigMachines
7 2 (0.092%) Oracle Applications
7 2 (0.092%) Visualfiles
8 1 (0.046%) Adobe Campaign
8 1 (0.046%) OpenCart
8 1 (0.046%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 1 (0.046%) Sprinklr
Cloud Services
1 283 (13.01%) Azure
2 224 (10.30%) AWS
3 116 (5.33%) GitHub
4 78 (3.59%) GCP
5 72 (3.31%) npm
6 36 (1.66%) SaaS
7 35 (1.61%) Serverless
8 29 (1.33%) PaaS
9 25 (1.15%) Adobe Creative Cloud
9 25 (1.15%) Power Platform
10 21 (0.97%) Heroku
11 19 (0.87%) Cloud Computing
12 18 (0.83%) Amazon S3
12 18 (0.83%) Google Analytics
13 15 (0.69%) Office 365
14 14 (0.64%) AWS Lambda
15 13 (0.60%) AWS CloudFormation
16 11 (0.51%) Amazon EC2
16 11 (0.51%) CloudFront
16 11 (0.51%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 47 (2.16%) HTTP
2 17 (0.78%) Internet
3 16 (0.74%) Intranet
4 15 (0.69%) SSL
5 11 (0.51%) DNS
6 9 (0.41%) HTTPS
6 9 (0.41%) TCP/IP
7 8 (0.37%) Firewall
8 6 (0.28%) DSL
9 5 (0.23%) DMZ
9 5 (0.23%) Extranet
9 5 (0.23%) Network Security
10 4 (0.18%) SMS
11 3 (0.14%) AMQP
11 3 (0.14%) Reverse Proxy
11 3 (0.14%) RTMP
11 3 (0.14%) Skype
12 2 (0.092%) 5G
12 2 (0.092%) LTE
12 2 (0.092%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 302 (13.89%) SQL Server
2 147 (6.76%) MySQL
3 107 (4.92%) Relational Database
4 93 (4.28%) NoSQL
5 75 (3.45%) PostgreSQL
6 68 (3.13%) MongoDB
7 40 (1.84%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 30 (1.38%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 25 (1.15%) Redis
10 20 (0.92%) Oracle Database
11 19 (0.87%) Apache Cassandra
12 18 (0.83%) Big Data
12 18 (0.83%) RDBMS
13 17 (0.78%) Cosmos DB
14 14 (0.64%) Pentaho
15 12 (0.55%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 12 (0.55%) Data Warehouse
16 11 (0.51%) OLAP
17 10 (0.46%) Azure SQL Database
17 10 (0.46%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 543 (24.97%) Git (software)
2 169 (7.77%) Jenkins
3 135 (6.21%) JIRA
4 118 (5.43%) webpack
5 94 (4.32%) gulp
6 84 (3.86%) Selenium
7 61 (2.80%) Grunt
7 61 (2.80%) Visual Studio
8 55 (2.53%) Jasmine
8 55 (2.53%) Team Foundation Server
9 53 (2.44%) JUnit
10 47 (2.16%) Cucumber
10 47 (2.16%) git-flow
11 41 (1.89%) Visual Studio Team System
12 35 (1.61%) Maven
13 34 (1.56%) GitLab
14 30 (1.38%) Postman
14 30 (1.38%) Travis CI
15 29 (1.33%) Cypress.io
16 28 (1.29%) Mocha
General
1 286 (13.15%) Finance
2 120 (5.52%) Banking
3 89 (4.09%) Public Sector
4 74 (3.40%) Marketing
5 50 (2.30%) Retail
6 46 (2.11%) Games
7 40 (1.84%) Investment Banking
8 39 (1.79%) Front Office
9 33 (1.52%) Law
10 29 (1.33%) Publishing
11 12 (0.55%) Financial Institution
11 12 (0.55%) Telecoms
12 10 (0.46%) Automotive
12 10 (0.46%) Back Office
13 8 (0.37%) Legal
13 8 (0.37%) Manufacturing
13 8 (0.37%) Pharmaceutical
14 7 (0.32%) Retail Banking
15 6 (0.28%) Advertising
15 6 (0.28%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 1,725 (79.31%) Developer
2 411 (18.90%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 276 (12.69%) React Developer
4 234 (10.76%) Full Stack Developer
5 214 (9.84%) JavaScript Developer
6 197 (9.06%) .NET Developer
7 159 (7.31%) Angular Developer
8 153 (7.03%) Designer
9 147 (6.76%) Senior Developer
10 139 (6.39%) C# Developer
10 139 (6.39%) Java Developer
11 105 (4.83%) HTML Developer
12 97 (4.46%) UI Developer
13 87 (4.00%) Web Developer
14 85 (3.91%) C# .NET Developer
15 69 (3.17%) HTML CSS Developer
16 66 (3.03%) UX Designer
17 61 (2.80%) PHP Developer
18 59 (2.71%) Node.js Developer
19 57 (2.62%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,910 (87.82%) HTML
2 639 (29.38%) HTML5
3 610 (28.05%) AngularJS
4 590 (27.13%) React
5 441 (20.28%) .NET
6 436 (20.05%) Node.js
7 416 (19.13%) CSS3
8 314 (14.44%) jQuery
9 297 (13.66%) Sass
10 284 (13.06%) Web Services
11 245 (11.26%) Redux
12 243 (11.17%) RESTful
13 225 (10.34%) ASP.NET
14 216 (9.93%) REST
15 198 (9.10%) JSON
16 181 (8.32%) XML
17 174 (8.00%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 148 (6.80%) Vue.js
19 145 (6.67%) Spring
20 131 (6.02%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 401 (18.44%) User Experience
2 115 (5.29%) Mobile App
3 107 (4.92%) Analytical Skills
4 93 (4.28%) Greenfield Project
5 47 (2.16%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 44 (2.02%) Data Structures
7 39 (1.79%) Enterprise Software
8 37 (1.70%) W3C
9 34 (1.56%) Self-Motivation
10 25 (1.15%) Virtual Team
11 19 (0.87%) Cloud Native
12 18 (0.83%) Algorithms
13 16 (0.74%) BYOD
13 16 (0.74%) Management Information System
14 15 (0.69%) Mobile Payment
15 13 (0.60%) Hedge funds
15 13 (0.60%) Public Cloud
16 12 (0.55%) Reinsurance
17 10 (0.46%) Blog
17 10 (0.46%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 95 (4.37%) Linux
2 56 (2.57%) Windows
3 47 (2.16%) Android
4 37 (1.70%) Unix
5 30 (1.38%) Apple iOS
6 10 (0.46%) Mac OS
7 7 (0.32%) Windows Server
8 5 (0.23%) CentOS
9 4 (0.18%) Mac OS X
9 4 (0.18%) Ubuntu
9 4 (0.18%) Windows Server 2016
10 3 (0.14%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 3 (0.14%) VMS
10 3 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
11 2 (0.092%) Windows 10
11 2 (0.092%) Windows 7
12 1 (0.046%) Kali Linux
12 1 (0.046%) Solaris
12 1 (0.046%) tvOS
12 1 (0.046%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 942 (43.31%) Agile Software Development
2 567 (26.07%) Front End Development
3 344 (15.82%) TDD
4 293 (13.47%) Web Development
5 291 (13.38%) DevOps
6 287 (13.20%) Scrum
7 280 (12.87%) Test Automation
8 273 (12.55%) MVC
9 196 (9.01%) Continuous Integration
10 195 (8.97%) Microservices
11 171 (7.86%) Problem-Solving
12 170 (7.82%) Software Engineering
13 168 (7.72%) E-Commerce
14 167 (7.68%) OO
15 145 (6.67%) SDLC
16 133 (6.11%) Unit Testing
17 132 (6.07%) BDD
18 125 (5.75%) Open Source
19 118 (5.43%) Computer Science
19 118 (5.43%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 1,728 (79.45%) JavaScript
2 427 (19.63%) C#
3 410 (18.85%) Java
4 390 (17.93%) SQL
5 303 (13.93%) TypeScript
6 197 (9.06%) PHP
7 175 (8.05%) ES6
8 122 (5.61%) Python
9 94 (4.32%) Ruby
10 84 (3.86%) T-SQL
11 54 (2.48%) Java 8
11 54 (2.48%) PL/SQL
12 47 (2.16%) Scala
13 36 (1.66%) VB.NET
14 35 (1.61%) Kotlin
15 30 (1.38%) PowerShell
16 26 (1.20%) C
16 26 (1.20%) VBA
17 24 (1.10%) Bash Shell
18 19 (0.87%) C++
Qualifications
1 174 (8.00%) Degree
2 160 (7.36%) Security Cleared
3 113 (5.20%) SC Cleared
4 74 (3.40%) Computer Science Degree
5 21 (0.97%) BPSS Clearance
6 18 (0.83%) BC Cleared
7 13 (0.60%) DBS Check
8 11 (0.51%) DV Cleared
9 9 (0.41%) Microsoft Certification
10 7 (0.32%) CTC Cleared
11 5 (0.23%) MCPD
11 5 (0.23%) Numerate Degree
12 4 (0.18%) MCAD
12 4 (0.18%) MCITP
13 3 (0.14%) HND
13 3 (0.14%) Master's Degree
14 2 (0.092%) MCSD
15 1 (0.046%) Dell Certification
15 1 (0.046%) ISTQB
15 1 (0.046%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 66 (3.03%) QA
2 50 (2.30%) WCAG
3 16 (0.74%) GDPR
4 7 (0.32%) SLA
5 5 (0.23%) PMO
6 3 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
7 2 (0.092%) Data Quality
7 2 (0.092%) ISO 20022
7 2 (0.092%) PCI DSS
7 2 (0.092%) WAI
8 1 (0.046%) Actionable Recommendations
8 1 (0.046%) HL7
System Software
1 128 (5.89%) Docker
2 15 (0.69%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.18%) zsh
4 3 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.046%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.046%) HDFS
5 1 (0.046%) ISA Server
5 1 (0.046%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 85 (3.91%) Kubernetes
2 51 (2.34%) Terraform
3 15 (0.69%) Ansible
3 15 (0.69%) Kibana
4 11 (0.51%) Opscode Chef
5 5 (0.23%) Grafana
5 5 (0.23%) Puppet
5 5 (0.23%) Single Sign-On
6 4 (0.18%) MIIS
7 3 (0.14%) Consul
7 3 (0.14%) Packer
8 2 (0.092%) Istio
8 2 (0.092%) logstash
8 2 (0.092%) OpenNebula
8 2 (0.092%) Plesk
9 1 (0.046%) CFEngine
9 1 (0.046%) Docker Swarm
9 1 (0.046%) Prometheus
9 1 (0.046%) Rancher
9 1 (0.046%) TeamSite
Vendors
1 155 (7.13%) Microsoft
2 126 (5.79%) Oracle
3 96 (4.41%) Adobe
4 77 (3.54%) Google
5 40 (1.84%) Salesforce.com
6 32 (1.47%) SAP
7 28 (1.29%) hybris
8 24 (1.10%) Sitecore
9 19 (0.87%) IBM
10 18 (0.83%) Atlassian
11 15 (0.69%) Zend
12 13 (0.60%) Xamarin
13 11 (0.51%) Cognos
13 11 (0.51%) Demandware
13 11 (0.51%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
13 11 (0.51%) Splunk
13 11 (0.51%) Twitter
14 10 (0.46%) Facebook
15 9 (0.41%) OutSystems
15 9 (0.41%) Tealium