Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 9 August 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
9 Aug 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 58 55 45
Rank change year-on-year -3 -10 -20
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,757 2,465 1,553
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 3.81% 4.22% 4.97%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.25% 14.04% 16.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,031 1,762 1,088
10th Percentile £363 £313 £309
25th Percentile £438 £388 £364
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £540 £475 £450
Median % change year-on-year +13.68% +5.56% -
75th Percentile £638 £550 £550
90th Percentile £738 £638 £605
UK median daily rate £532 £463 £450
% change year-on-year +15.03% +2.78% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 41 34 10
10th Percentile £22.50 £23.83 £23.30
25th Percentile £35.10 £34.06 £30.31
Median hourly rate £57.50 £45.88 £40.00
Median % change year-on-year +25.34% +14.69% -20.00%
75th Percentile £67.50 £56.50 £53.44
90th Percentile £75.39 £57.50 £58.70
UK median hourly rate £57.50 £41.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +38.55% -7.78% -10.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 19,342 17,559 9,553
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 26.74% 30.07% 30.58%
Number of daily rates quoted 14,371 12,696 6,816
10th Percentile £405 £360 £331
25th Percentile £475 £425 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £525 £500
Median % change year-on-year +9.52% +5.00% -
75th Percentile £675 £625 £594
90th Percentile £775 £700 £675
UK median daily rate £565 £509 £500
% change year-on-year +11.11% +1.70% +2.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 203 176 88
10th Percentile £19.65 £15.94 £20.69
25th Percentile £37.63 £27.88 £30.94
Median hourly rate £58.28 £47.88 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +21.73% +6.39% -4.43%
75th Percentile £67.50 £61.23 £58.75
90th Percentile £76.93 £68.36 £66.83
UK median hourly rate £57.95 £47.25 £45.00
% change year-on-year +22.63% +5.00% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 9 August 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in England

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 9 August 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 9 August 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London -3 1,609 £575 +15.00% 380
North of England -12 304 £500 +24.53% 204
South East -22 243 £463 +8.50% 159
Midlands -3 205 £475 +21.02% 131
North West -19 169 £478 +23.23% 110
West Midlands -3 141 £500 +17.82% 76
Yorkshire -7 100 £475 - 72
South West -34 88 £530 +24.66% 101
East Midlands -8 64 £431 +15.00% 56
East of England -15 47 £500 +18.69% 60
North East +12 36 £540 +30.91% 22
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 9 August 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,422 (87.85%) HTML
2 2,182 (79.14%) JavaScript
3 1,392 (50.49%) Agile
4 1,207 (43.78%) React
5 778 (28.22%) HTML5
6 705 (25.57%) TypeScript
7 696 (25.24%) Azure
8 685 (24.85%) Git (software)
9 679 (24.63%) AngularJS
10 658 (23.87%) C#
11 646 (23.43%) Front End Development
12 615 (22.31%) .NET
13 612 (22.20%) SQL
14 593 (21.51%) User Experience
15 591 (21.44%) Full Stack Development
16 556 (20.17%) Node.js
17 522 (18.93%) Java
18 505 (18.32%) DevOps
19 460 (16.68%) jQuery
20 443 (16.07%) Web Development
21 442 (16.03%) CSS3
22 440 (15.96%) Social Skills
23 431 (15.63%) TDD
23 431 (15.63%) SQL Server
24 426 (15.45%) Finance
25 414 (15.02%) CI/CD
26 383 (13.89%) REST
27 377 (13.67%) Test Automation
28 366 (13.28%) Scrum
29 363 (13.17%) AWS

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 122 (4.43%) SharePoint
2 111 (4.03%) CMS
3 99 (3.59%) Confluence
4 50 (1.81%) Adobe Experience Manager
4 50 (1.81%) Apache
5 49 (1.78%) nginx
6 41 (1.49%) WordPress
7 35 (1.27%) Tomcat
8 34 (1.23%) Apache Spark
8 34 (1.23%) Drupal
9 32 (1.16%) Apache Solr
10 27 (0.98%) Umbraco
10 27 (0.98%) WebLogic
11 21 (0.76%) JBoss
12 16 (0.58%) Cloud Foundry
12 16 (0.58%) Red Hat Fuse
13 15 (0.54%) Sitecore CMS
13 15 (0.54%) uWSGI
13 15 (0.54%) WebSphere
14 14 (0.51%) SharePoint 2013
Applications
1 48 (1.74%) Sketch
2 27 (0.98%) InVision
3 25 (0.91%) Photoshop
4 23 (0.83%) Adobe Illustrator
5 17 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
5 17 (0.62%) Microsoft Office
6 12 (0.44%) Zeplin
7 11 (0.40%) Adobe XD
7 11 (0.40%) UXPin
8 10 (0.36%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 7 (0.25%) Chatbot
10 5 (0.18%) Spreadsheet
11 4 (0.15%) InDesign
11 4 (0.15%) InfoPath
12 3 (0.11%) Adobe After Effects
12 3 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 3 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
13 2 (0.073%) FreeHand
13 2 (0.073%) OmniGraffle
14 1 (0.036%) Acrobat
Business Applications
1 18 (0.65%) Dynamics CRM
1 18 (0.65%) Magento
2 15 (0.54%) Shopify
3 6 (0.22%) Oracle Utilities
3 6 (0.22%) Payment Gateway
4 4 (0.15%) Oracle EBS
4 4 (0.15%) Remedy ITSM
5 3 (0.11%) Oracle EBS R12
5 3 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
6 2 (0.073%) Adobe Campaign
6 2 (0.073%) SAP CAR
6 2 (0.073%) SAP S/4HANA
6 2 (0.073%) WebTrends
7 1 (0.036%) Algo Collateral
7 1 (0.036%) assyst
7 1 (0.036%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.036%) SAP Retail
Cloud Services
1 696 (25.24%) Azure
2 363 (13.17%) AWS
3 220 (7.98%) Azure DevOps
4 150 (5.44%) GitHub
5 98 (3.55%) npm
6 95 (3.45%) GCP
7 89 (3.23%) Power Platform
8 86 (3.12%) Serverless
9 63 (2.29%) Microsoft 365
10 59 (2.14%) PowerApps
10 59 (2.14%) SaaS
11 50 (1.81%) Figma
12 49 (1.78%) AWS Lambda
13 46 (1.67%) Amazon S3
14 39 (1.41%) Power Automate
15 35 (1.27%) Dynamics 365
15 35 (1.27%) Pulumi
16 27 (0.98%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 26 (0.94%) PaaS
18 25 (0.91%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 58 (2.10%) HTTP
2 39 (1.41%) Network Security
3 27 (0.98%) Internet
4 22 (0.80%) Intranet
5 20 (0.73%) RTMP
6 13 (0.47%) DNS
7 12 (0.44%) SSL
8 11 (0.40%) SSH
9 9 (0.33%) Skype
9 9 (0.33%) TCP/IP
10 8 (0.29%) HTTPS
11 6 (0.22%) FTP
11 6 (0.22%) SNMP
12 5 (0.18%) Broadband
13 4 (0.15%) VPN
14 2 (0.073%) Kerberos
14 2 (0.073%) SMTP
14 2 (0.073%) Software-Defined Radio
15 1 (0.036%) AMQP
15 1 (0.036%) MQTT
Database & Business Intelligence
1 431 (15.63%) SQL Server
2 156 (5.66%) MySQL
3 149 (5.40%) PostgreSQL
4 148 (5.37%) MongoDB
5 143 (5.19%) Relational Database
6 141 (5.11%) NoSQL
7 74 (2.68%) Redis
8 50 (1.81%) Power BI
9 49 (1.78%) Big Data
10 43 (1.56%) Elasticsearch
11 28 (1.02%) DynamoDB
12 23 (0.83%) Oracle Database
13 22 (0.80%) Hazelcast
14 17 (0.62%) Apache Cassandra
14 17 (0.62%) Azure SQL Database
14 17 (0.62%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 15 (0.54%) MarkLogic
15 15 (0.54%) RDBMS
16 14 (0.51%) Amazon RDS
17 13 (0.47%) Amazon Redshift
Development Applications
1 685 (24.85%) Git (software)
2 263 (9.54%) JIRA
3 203 (7.36%) Jenkins
4 172 (6.24%) webpack
5 143 (5.19%) Cypress.io
6 123 (4.46%) Visual Studio
7 108 (3.92%) Jasmine
7 108 (3.92%) Maven
8 105 (3.81%) Selenium
9 90 (3.26%) GitLab
10 86 (3.12%) gulp
11 82 (2.97%) TeamCity
12 74 (2.68%) NUnit
13 70 (2.54%) Bitbucket
14 62 (2.25%) Gradle
15 58 (2.10%) Grunt
15 58 (2.10%) JUnit
16 56 (2.03%) Team Foundation Server
17 54 (1.96%) Eclipse
18 52 (1.89%) git-flow
General
1 440 (15.96%) Social Skills
2 426 (15.45%) Finance
3 250 (9.07%) Public Sector
4 204 (7.40%) Banking
5 164 (5.95%) Analytical Skills
6 93 (3.37%) Investment Banking
7 82 (2.97%) Front Office
8 81 (2.94%) Marketing
9 72 (2.61%) Retail
10 56 (2.03%) Legal
11 49 (1.78%) Presentation Skills
12 30 (1.09%) Financial Institution
12 30 (1.09%) Law
13 26 (0.94%) Telecoms
14 25 (0.91%) Manufacturing
15 20 (0.73%) Influencing Skills
15 20 (0.73%) Military
15 20 (0.73%) Pharmaceutical
16 19 (0.69%) Documentation Skills
16 19 (0.69%) Police
Job Titles
1 2,033 (73.74%) Developer
2 396 (14.36%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 341 (12.37%) React Developer
4 323 (11.72%) Full Stack Developer
5 245 (8.89%) .NET Developer
6 232 (8.41%) JavaScript Developer
7 206 (7.47%) Designer
8 184 (6.67%) Senior Developer
9 143 (5.19%) Angular Developer
10 142 (5.15%) Java Developer
11 123 (4.46%) Software Developer
12 122 (4.43%) C# Developer
13 118 (4.28%) Software Engineer
14 109 (3.95%) Python Developer
15 89 (3.23%) Web Developer
16 83 (3.01%) Interaction Designer
16 83 (3.01%) UX Designer
17 77 (2.79%) C# .NET Developer
18 76 (2.76%) UI Developer
19 67 (2.43%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,422 (87.85%) HTML
2 1,207 (43.78%) React
3 778 (28.22%) HTML5
4 679 (24.63%) AngularJS
5 615 (22.31%) .NET
6 556 (20.17%) Node.js
7 460 (16.68%) jQuery
8 442 (16.03%) CSS3
9 383 (13.89%) REST
10 359 (13.02%) RESTful
11 337 (12.22%) Sass
12 313 (11.35%) Redux
13 262 (9.50%) ASP.NET
13 262 (9.50%) Web Services
14 247 (8.96%) JSON
15 243 (8.81%) Spring
16 211 (7.65%) .NET Core
17 208 (7.54%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 196 (7.11%) .NET Framework
19 188 (6.82%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 593 (21.51%) User Experience
2 93 (3.37%) Greenfield Project
3 82 (2.97%) Mobile App
4 58 (2.10%) Virtual Team
5 47 (1.70%) Management Information System
6 45 (1.63%) Derivative
7 39 (1.41%) Self-Motivation
8 36 (1.31%) Video Conferencing
9 34 (1.23%) Fixed Income
9 34 (1.23%) Public Cloud
10 31 (1.12%) Cloud Native
10 31 (1.12%) Data Structures
11 30 (1.09%) Enterprise Software
12 29 (1.05%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 28 (1.02%) Data Protection Act
14 27 (0.98%) W3C
15 24 (0.87%) Algorithms
16 20 (0.73%) Hedge funds
17 19 (0.69%) iPad
18 18 (0.65%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 142 (5.15%) Linux
2 116 (4.21%) Windows
3 43 (1.56%) Unix
4 15 (0.54%) Android
5 14 (0.51%) Apple iOS
6 6 (0.22%) Windows Server
7 5 (0.18%) Mac OS
7 5 (0.18%) Solaris
8 4 (0.15%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 4 (0.15%) Ubuntu
8 4 (0.15%) Windows 10
8 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2012
8 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2016
9 3 (0.11%) AIX
9 3 (0.11%) Mac OS X
10 2 (0.073%) Debian
11 1 (0.036%) Tizen
11 1 (0.036%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,392 (50.49%) Agile
2 646 (23.43%) Front End Development
3 591 (21.44%) Full Stack Development
4 505 (18.32%) DevOps
5 443 (16.07%) Web Development
6 431 (15.63%) TDD
7 414 (15.02%) CI/CD
8 377 (13.67%) Test Automation
9 366 (13.28%) Scrum
10 358 (12.99%) UX Design
11 327 (11.86%) Microservices
12 319 (11.57%) MVC
13 318 (11.53%) Software Engineering
14 296 (10.74%) Problem-Solving
15 274 (9.94%) Continuous Integration
16 193 (7.00%) SDLC
17 186 (6.75%) Unit Testing
18 184 (6.67%) Prototyping
19 167 (6.06%) OO
20 158 (5.73%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 2,182 (79.14%) JavaScript
2 705 (25.57%) TypeScript
3 658 (23.87%) C#
4 612 (22.20%) SQL
5 522 (18.93%) Java
6 342 (12.40%) Python
7 210 (7.62%) ES6
8 142 (5.15%) PHP
9 115 (4.17%) PowerShell
10 77 (2.79%) T-SQL
11 60 (2.18%) PL/SQL
12 53 (1.92%) Scala
13 50 (1.81%) Ruby
14 47 (1.70%) C
15 45 (1.63%) Bash
16 39 (1.41%) Go
17 35 (1.27%) Shell Script
18 29 (1.05%) VB.NET
19 27 (0.98%) C++
20 26 (0.94%) VBA
Qualifications
1 251 (9.10%) Security Cleared
2 217 (7.87%) SC Cleared
3 198 (7.18%) Degree
4 76 (2.76%) Computer Science Degree
5 54 (1.96%) BPSS Clearance
6 30 (1.09%) DV Cleared
7 10 (0.36%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
8 8 (0.29%) Microsoft Certification
9 7 (0.25%) ISEB
10 6 (0.22%) ITIL Certification
11 5 (0.18%) AWS Certification
12 4 (0.15%) DBS Check
12 4 (0.15%) HNC
12 4 (0.15%) HND
12 4 (0.15%) ISTQB
13 3 (0.11%) CEH
13 3 (0.11%) CISSP
14 2 (0.073%) MCSA
14 2 (0.073%) OCPJP
14 2 (0.073%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 251 (9.10%) Accessibility
2 122 (4.43%) QA
3 75 (2.72%) WCAG
4 16 (0.58%) GDPR
5 8 (0.29%) WAI
6 3 (0.11%) Data Quality
7 2 (0.073%) Disclosure Scotland
7 2 (0.073%) PCI DSS
7 2 (0.073%) SLA
8 1 (0.036%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.036%) ISO/IEC 27001
System Software
1 293 (10.63%) Docker
2 23 (0.83%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.22%) Varnish
4 4 (0.15%) VMware NSX
5 2 (0.073%) Firmware
5 2 (0.073%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.036%) Hyper-V
6 1 (0.036%) VirtualBox
6 1 (0.036%) VMware Infrastructure
6 1 (0.036%) zsh
Systems Management
1 243 (8.81%) Kubernetes
2 109 (3.95%) Terraform
3 44 (1.60%) Ansible
4 34 (1.23%) Grafana
5 29 (1.05%) Kibana
6 17 (0.62%) Puppet
7 15 (0.54%) Single Sign-On
8 9 (0.33%) logstash
9 6 (0.22%) Active Directory Federation Services
10 5 (0.18%) Opscode Chef
11 4 (0.15%) PowerCLI
11 4 (0.15%) SCCM
11 4 (0.15%) Sysprep
12 3 (0.11%) Graphite
12 3 (0.11%) HP ALM
12 3 (0.11%) Prometheus
12 3 (0.11%) WMI
13 2 (0.073%) Control-M
13 2 (0.073%) MIIS
14 1 (0.036%) Nagios
Vendors
1 346 (12.55%) Microsoft
2 203 (7.36%) Oracle
3 110 (3.99%) Adobe
4 78 (2.83%) Google
5 48 (1.74%) Sitecore
6 44 (1.60%) Salesforce.com
7 41 (1.49%) ServiceNow
8 33 (1.20%) SAP
9 27 (0.98%) MuleSoft
10 26 (0.94%) Splunk
11 23 (0.83%) Atlassian
12 21 (0.76%) Red Hat
13 9 (0.33%) IBM
14 7 (0.25%) WooCommerce
15 6 (0.22%) Apple
15 6 (0.22%) Optimizely
15 6 (0.22%) Progress
15 6 (0.22%) Sybase
16 5 (0.18%) Remedy
16 5 (0.18%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud