The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 3 months to 24 June 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK / England
3 months to
24 Jun 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 13 16 20
Rank change year-on-year +3 +4  
Contract jobs citing CSS 3758 3962 3678
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 8.85% 8.02% 7.21%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 27.48% 27.66% 25.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 2675 2901 2557
Median daily rate £413 £400 £350
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.12% +14.28%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £275 £250
10% offered a daily rate of more than £550 £525 £500
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £350 £325
% change year-on-year +7.14% +7.69%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 34 52
Median hourly rate £31.00 £32.00 £30.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -3.12% +6.66%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £11.93 £13.55 £14.98
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £45.00 £46.00 £43.20
UK excluding London median hourly rate £38.25 £29.75 £33.77
% change year-on-year +28.57% -11.90%  

CSS is in the industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills.

Contract Software Library & Framework Skills
England
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills 13677 14326 14175
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in England 32.21% 29.02% 27.78%
Number of daily rates quoted 9502 10197 9645
Median daily rate £450 £425 £388
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +9.67%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £320 £300 £285
10% offered a daily rate of more than £588 £570 £550
UK excluding London median daily rate £398 £375 £350
% change year-on-year +6.00% +7.14%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 184 167 191
Median hourly rate £42.50 £36.00 £37.23
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +18.05% -3.29%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £21.85 £18.80 £17.50
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £55.00 £50.00 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £36.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +18.05% -10.00%  

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

The job posting trend of jobs advertised in England citing CSS as a proportion of all contract or permanent IT jobs with a match in the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in England

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 3 months to 24 June 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in England

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in England

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 3 months to 24 June 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 3 months to 24 June 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London 0 1806 £450 +5.88% 599
South East +12 639 £375 +4.16% 315
North West +9 248 £365 -1.35% 199
Yorkshire +5 238 £380 -5.00% 143
West Midlands +4 199 £350 +7.69% 138
South West -4 196 £350 +6.06% 135
East Midlands +16 195 £350 +9.37% 112
East of England +7 186 £350 -2.77% 134
North East +47 32 £413 +3.12% 25
Midlands +13 4 £450 +9.75% 251
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 24 June 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6748 (92.29%) HTML
2 5801 (79.34%) JavaScript
3 3297 (45.09%) Agile Software Development
4 3139 (42.93%) HTML5
5 2611 (35.71%) AngularJS
6 2533 (34.64%) CSS3
7 2077 (28.41%) jQuery
8 2025 (27.69%) Front End Development
9 1626 (22.24%) Git (software)
10 1611 (22.03%) TDD
11 1599 (21.87%) Java
12 1555 (21.27%) .NET
13 1486 (20.32%) C#
14 1469 (20.09%) MVC
15 1344 (18.38%) React
16 1338 (18.30%) Web Development
17 1250 (17.10%) Node.js
18 1243 (17.00%) User Experience
19 1172 (16.03%) SQL
20 1120 (15.32%) Scrum
21 1029 (14.07%) Sass
22 917 (12.54%) ASP.NET
23 891 (12.19%) Web Services
24 870 (11.90%) REST
25 869 (11.88%) Finance
26 868 (11.87%) Ajax
27 863 (11.80%) SQL Server
28 856 (11.71%) JSON
29 855 (11.69%) XML
30 789 (10.79%) OO

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 564 (7.71%) CMS
2 244 (3.34%) Confluence
3 241 (3.30%) SharePoint
4 218 (2.98%) Apache
5 195 (2.67%) Drupal
6 169 (2.31%) WordPress
7 135 (1.85%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 122 (1.67%) Tomcat
9 115 (1.57%) JBoss
10 106 (1.45%) IIS
11 99 (1.35%) Elasticsearch
12 98 (1.34%) WebSphere
13 94 (1.29%) Umbraco
13 94 (1.29%) WebLogic
14 86 (1.18%) Sitecore CMS
15 85 (1.16%) SharePoint 2013
16 78 (1.07%) EPiServer
17 62 (0.85%) Apache Solr
18 60 (0.82%) SharePoint 2010
19 53 (0.72%) nginx
Applications
1 316 (4.32%) Photoshop
2 132 (1.81%) Adobe Illustrator
3 122 (1.67%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 57 (0.78%) OmniGraffle
5 47 (0.64%) InVision
6 41 (0.56%) Microsoft Office
7 31 (0.42%) MS Visio
8 24 (0.33%) Microsoft Excel
9 16 (0.22%) UXPin
10 13 (0.18%) InDesign
11 12 (0.16%) Adobe After Effects
12 11 (0.15%) Fireworks
13 10 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 8 (0.11%) InfoPath
15 6 (0.082%) ImageReady
16 5 (0.068%) GIMP
16 5 (0.068%) Pixate
17 2 (0.027%) Adobe Captivate
17 2 (0.027%) Chatbot
17 2 (0.027%) Snagit
Business Applications
1 106 (1.45%) Magento
2 87 (1.19%) Dynamics CRM
3 29 (0.40%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 26 (0.36%) SAP Hybris
5 20 (0.27%) Adobe Campaign
6 14 (0.19%) Unica
7 13 (0.18%) Oracle BPM
8 11 (0.15%) Payment Gateway
9 10 (0.14%) SDL Web 8
10 9 (0.12%) Eloqua
10 9 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 7 (0.096%) Dynamics AX
11 7 (0.096%) Oracle Applications
11 7 (0.096%) Remedy ITSM
12 4 (0.055%) FastStats
12 4 (0.055%) FastStats PeopleStage
12 4 (0.055%) Pega PRPC
12 4 (0.055%) SAP CRM
13 3 (0.041%) Revive Adserver
13 3 (0.041%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 373 (5.10%) Amazon AWS
2 259 (3.54%) Microsoft Azure
3 183 (2.50%) GitHub
4 92 (1.26%) SaaS
5 64 (0.88%) Office 365
6 62 (0.85%) Google Analytics
7 40 (0.55%) Cloud Computing
8 39 (0.53%) Google Cloud Platform
9 35 (0.48%) Salesforce Service Cloud
10 25 (0.34%) Amazon EC2
11 23 (0.31%) PaaS
12 22 (0.30%) Adobe Analytics
13 21 (0.29%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 21 (0.29%) IaaS
14 20 (0.27%) AWS Lambda
15 18 (0.25%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
16 17 (0.23%) Amazon S3
16 17 (0.23%) Heroku
17 15 (0.21%) OpenShift
18 14 (0.19%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 323 (4.42%) HTTP
2 146 (2.00%) Internet
3 50 (0.68%) Intranet
4 48 (0.66%) TCP/IP
5 41 (0.56%) SSL
6 39 (0.53%) LDAP
7 29 (0.40%) DNS
8 21 (0.29%) Firewall
9 19 (0.26%) Extranet
10 18 (0.25%) Network Security
11 16 (0.22%) WebEx
12 14 (0.19%) SSH
13 11 (0.15%) SMS
13 11 (0.15%) SMTP
13 11 (0.15%) Wireshark
14 10 (0.14%) AMQP
14 10 (0.14%) Skype
15 9 (0.12%) HTTPS
15 9 (0.12%) VoIP
16 7 (0.096%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 863 (11.80%) SQL Server
2 658 (9.00%) MySQL
3 431 (5.89%) Relational Database
4 416 (5.69%) MongoDB
5 316 (4.32%) NoSQL
6 175 (2.39%) PostgreSQL
7 147 (2.01%) SQL Server 2008
8 133 (1.82%) SQL Server 2012
9 118 (1.61%) Big Data
10 115 (1.57%) Oracle Database
11 70 (0.96%) Apache Cassandra
12 66 (0.90%) Hadoop
13 64 (0.88%) RDBMS
14 56 (0.77%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 51 (0.70%) SQL Server 2005
16 45 (0.62%) Redis
17 43 (0.59%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 34 (0.46%) SQL Server 2014
19 33 (0.45%) MariaDB
20 27 (0.37%) HBase
Development Applications
1 1626 (22.24%) Git (software)
2 535 (7.32%) Jenkins
3 490 (6.70%) Grunt
4 489 (6.69%) gulp
5 440 (6.02%) JIRA
6 420 (5.74%) Subversion
7 340 (4.65%) Jasmine
8 302 (4.13%) Selenium
9 294 (4.02%) Visual Studio
10 263 (3.60%) Team Foundation Server
11 250 (3.42%) JUnit
12 235 (3.21%) webpack
13 232 (3.17%) Maven
14 208 (2.84%) Mocha
15 198 (2.71%) Cucumber
16 164 (2.24%) IntelliJ
17 161 (2.20%) Karma Test Runner
18 133 (1.82%) Axure RP
19 121 (1.65%) TeamCity
20 106 (1.45%) WebDriver
General
1 869 (11.88%) Finance
2 411 (5.62%) Banking
3 307 (4.20%) Marketing
4 249 (3.41%) Retail
5 128 (1.75%) Front Office
6 119 (1.63%) Investment Banking
7 106 (1.45%) Advertising
8 97 (1.33%) Telecoms
9 79 (1.08%) Publishing
10 70 (0.96%) Games
11 55 (0.75%) Manufacturing
12 38 (0.52%) Electronics
13 35 (0.48%) Legal
14 30 (0.41%) Pharmaceutical
15 28 (0.38%) Automotive
15 28 (0.38%) Back Office
15 28 (0.38%) Law
16 26 (0.36%) Financial Institution
17 15 (0.21%) Retail Banking
18 11 (0.15%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 6131 (83.85%) Developer
2 1637 (22.39%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1256 (17.18%) JavaScript Developer
4 769 (10.52%) .NET Developer
5 714 (9.76%) Java Developer
6 701 (9.59%) HTML Developer
7 684 (9.35%) Angular Developer
8 574 (7.85%) HTML CSS Developer
9 532 (7.28%) Senior Developer
10 491 (6.71%) Web Developer
11 472 (6.46%) C# Developer
12 445 (6.09%) Full Stack Developer
13 433 (5.92%) UI Developer
14 417 (5.70%) Designer
15 348 (4.76%) C# .NET Developer
16 331 (4.53%) PHP Developer
17 272 (3.72%) Node.js Developer
18 250 (3.42%) UX Designer
19 239 (3.27%) ASP.NET Developer
20 201 (2.75%) Scala Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6748 (92.29%) HTML
2 3139 (42.93%) HTML5
3 2611 (35.71%) AngularJS
4 2533 (34.64%) CSS3
5 2077 (28.41%) jQuery
6 1555 (21.27%) .NET
7 1344 (18.38%) React
8 1250 (17.10%) Node.js
9 1029 (14.07%) Sass
10 917 (12.54%) ASP.NET
11 891 (12.19%) Web Services
12 870 (11.90%) REST
13 868 (11.87%) Ajax
14 856 (11.71%) JSON
15 855 (11.69%) XML
16 720 (9.85%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 689 (9.42%) RESTful
18 621 (8.49%) Spring
19 480 (6.56%) LESS
20 423 (5.79%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 1243 (17.00%) User Experience
2 408 (5.58%) Greenfield Project
3 293 (4.01%) Mobile App
4 239 (3.27%) Analytical Skills
5 165 (2.26%) Computer Science
6 112 (1.53%) Fintech
7 108 (1.48%) Enterprise Software
7 108 (1.48%) W3C
8 63 (0.86%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 49 (0.67%) Virtual Team
10 47 (0.64%) Management Information System
11 46 (0.63%) Graphic Design
12 45 (0.62%) NHS
13 43 (0.59%) Social Media
14 40 (0.55%) iPad
15 39 (0.53%) Linux Command Line
16 38 (0.52%) Web 2.0
17 36 (0.49%) Fixed Income
18 35 (0.48%) Data Structures
18 35 (0.48%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 722 (9.87%) Linux
2 328 (4.49%) Unix
3 254 (3.47%) Windows
4 148 (2.02%) Apple iOS
5 147 (2.01%) Android
6 126 (1.72%) Mac OS X
7 59 (0.81%) Windows Server
8 33 (0.45%) Ubuntu
9 24 (0.33%) Mac OS
10 21 (0.29%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 20 (0.27%) CentOS
12 16 (0.22%) Windows Server 2008
13 14 (0.19%) Windows Server 2012
14 9 (0.12%) Windows 10
14 9 (0.12%) Windows Server 2003
15 6 (0.082%) Oracle Linux
16 5 (0.068%) Debian
16 5 (0.068%) Solaris
17 4 (0.055%) SUSE
18 1 (0.014%) Windows Mobile
Processes & Methodologies
1 3297 (45.09%) Agile Software Development
2 2025 (27.69%) Front End Development
3 1611 (22.03%) TDD
4 1469 (20.09%) MVC
5 1338 (18.30%) Web Development
6 1120 (15.32%) Scrum
7 789 (10.79%) OO
8 778 (10.64%) Test Automation
9 714 (9.76%) Continuous Integration
10 694 (9.49%) Responsive Web Design
11 670 (9.16%) BDD
12 548 (7.49%) E-Commerce
13 498 (6.81%) Web Design
14 450 (6.15%) Open Source
15 422 (5.77%) Unit Testing
16 406 (5.55%) Microservices
17 367 (5.02%) DevOps
18 359 (4.91%) Software Engineering
19 341 (4.66%) Prototyping
20 321 (4.39%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 5801 (79.34%) JavaScript
2 1599 (21.87%) Java
3 1486 (20.32%) C#
4 1172 (16.03%) SQL
5 762 (10.42%) PHP
6 561 (7.67%) Python
7 401 (5.48%) Scala
8 397 (5.43%) Ruby
9 388 (5.31%) ES6
10 285 (3.90%) TypeScript
11 179 (2.45%) T-SQL
12 127 (1.74%) PowerShell
13 120 (1.64%) VB.NET
14 91 (1.24%) PL/SQL
15 84 (1.15%) Groovy
16 71 (0.97%) C++
17 68 (0.93%) Bash Shell
18 66 (0.90%) C
19 63 (0.86%) Perl
20 58 (0.79%) ECMAScript
Qualifications
1 386 (5.28%) Degree
2 262 (3.58%) Security Cleared
3 177 (2.42%) SC Cleared
4 94 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
5 39 (0.53%) BPSS Clearance
6 38 (0.52%) DV Cleared
7 28 (0.38%) Microsoft Certification
8 16 (0.22%) BC Cleared
8 16 (0.22%) CTC Cleared
8 16 (0.22%) OCPJP
9 12 (0.16%) ISTQB
9 12 (0.16%) Master's Degree
10 6 (0.082%) ISEB
10 6 (0.082%) MBA
11 5 (0.068%) CISA
11 5 (0.068%) CISM
11 5 (0.068%) CISSP
11 5 (0.068%) ITIL Certification
11 5 (0.068%) MCSE
11 5 (0.068%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 219 (3.00%) QA
2 36 (0.49%) WCAG
3 31 (0.42%) Disclosure Scotland
4 30 (0.41%) WAI
5 13 (0.18%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 13 (0.18%) SLA
6 9 (0.12%) PCI DSS
7 8 (0.11%) FATCA
8 7 (0.096%) ISO 9001
8 7 (0.096%) MiFID
9 6 (0.082%) COBIT
10 5 (0.068%) FedRAMP
11 3 (0.041%) Data Quality
11 3 (0.041%) Dodd-Frank
11 3 (0.041%) EMIR
11 3 (0.041%) HMG Security Policy Framework
11 3 (0.041%) PMO
12 2 (0.027%) Actionable Recommendations
13 1 (0.014%) GDPR
13 1 (0.014%) Solvency II
System Software
1 323 (4.42%) Docker
2 25 (0.34%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.14%) VirtualBox
4 9 (0.12%) LXC
4 9 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
5 6 (0.082%) Apache Flume
5 6 (0.082%) Shibboleth
6 5 (0.068%) UAG
7 4 (0.055%) HDFS
7 4 (0.055%) Virtual Machines
8 3 (0.041%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.041%) vSphere
9 2 (0.027%) Varnish
9 2 (0.027%) Virtual Servers
9 2 (0.027%) VMware ESXi
10 1 (0.014%) Hyper-V
10 1 (0.014%) Virtual Desktop
Systems Management
1 173 (2.37%) Puppet
2 61 (0.83%) Ansible
2 61 (0.83%) Opscode Chef
3 46 (0.63%) Kubernetes
4 21 (0.29%) Terraform
5 20 (0.27%) Kibana
6 11 (0.15%) Nagios
6 11 (0.15%) Piwik
6 11 (0.15%) Salt
7 8 (0.11%) Grafana
7 8 (0.11%) HP Quality Center
7 8 (0.11%) ZABBIX
8 6 (0.082%) Capistrano
9 5 (0.068%) logstash
9 5 (0.068%) Mesos
10 4 (0.055%) cPanel
10 4 (0.055%) Docker Swarm
10 4 (0.055%) Graphite
10 4 (0.055%) Icinga
10 4 (0.055%) MOM
Vendors
1 501 (6.85%) Microsoft
2 409 (5.59%) Oracle
3 386 (5.28%) Adobe
4 266 (3.64%) Google
5 124 (1.70%) Sitecore
6 114 (1.56%) ServiceNow
7 92 (1.26%) SAP
8 82 (1.12%) IBM
9 78 (1.07%) Salesforce.com
10 55 (0.75%) Zend
11 52 (0.71%) hybris
12 39 (0.53%) Red Hat
13 38 (0.52%) Twitter
14 36 (0.49%) New Relic
15 33 (0.45%) Xamarin
16 32 (0.44%) Apple
17 30 (0.41%) Demandware
17 30 (0.41%) Telerik
18 28 (0.38%) webMethods
19 26 (0.36%) Atlassian
London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Fruition IT Resources Limited
Rate: £375 - £425 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Oxfordshire
Mason Frank International
Posted: Yesterday
Buckinghamshire
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: £300 - £375 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Coventry, West Midlands (County)
HAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Rate: £300.00 - £350.00 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
TEKsystems
Rate: £575 - £650 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
TEKsystems
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Rate: £350 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Premier IT
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
ISL
Rate: £300 - £400 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Warwickshire
Spring Technology
Posted: Yesterday
Telford, Shropshire
E-synergy Solutions
Rate: £450 - £550 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
London
Square One Resources
Rate: Unspecified
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Venturi
Rate: £450 - £475 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Mortimer Spinks
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Oscar
Rate: £300 - £340 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Careerwise UK Limited
Rate: £500 - £550 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Nakama
Rate: From £400 to £440 per day Weekly pay through Nakama
Posted: 3 days ago
London
IT Talent Solutions
Rate: From £400 to £425 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Borehamwood, Hertfordshire
IT Connections
Rate: £250 to £300 Per Day
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
TEKsystems
Rate: £350 - £420 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Leamington Spa, Warwickshire
Anderson Lamb
Rate: Competitive daily rates apply
Posted: 4 days ago
West Midlands
TEKsystems
Rate: £400 - £420 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
South East
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: €70 - €75 per hour
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Lorien Resourcing
Posted: 3 days ago
Coventry, West Midlands (County)
TEKsystems
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Revolution Technology
Rate: From £400 to £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Elevate Direct
Rate: From £300 to £350 per day
Posted: Yesterday