Period
to 25 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 25 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
25 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 54 47 29
Rank change year-on-year -7 -18 -9
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,360 1,447 5,449
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.20% 4.87% 6.17%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.09% 15.60% 19.67%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,403 998 3,824
10th Percentile £313 £300 £313
25th Percentile £400 £350 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
75th Percentile £563 £538 £525
90th Percentile £650 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £430 £415 £405
% change year-on-year +3.61% +2.47% +1.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 33 11 55
10th Percentile £23.80 £23.50 £24.50
25th Percentile £35.00 £32.18 £33.63
Median hourly rate £43.50 £45.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year -3.33% -10.00% +17.65%
75th Percentile £57.50 £54.38 £54.38
90th Percentile £72.02 £56.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.50 £45.00 £48.00
% change year-on-year -7.78% -6.25% +13.61%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 23,850 9,277 27,699
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.83% 31.21% 31.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,080 6,528 19,440
10th Percentile £363 £320 £335
25th Percentile £425 £406 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £500 £495
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +1.01% +4.21%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £450 £443
% change year-on-year +2.78% +1.69% +4.12%
Number of hourly rates quoted 225 75 271
10th Percentile £16.60 £21.35 £18.50
25th Percentile £27.73 £30.00 £31.75
Median hourly rate £49.00 £43.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +13.95% -4.44% +7.64%
75th Percentile £63.00 £50.19 £52.75
90th Percentile £72.30 £59.75 £63.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.00 £46.45 £45.00
% change year-on-year +5.49% +3.22% +8.43%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 25 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 2,660 £475 +5.56% 1,886
London -2 1,489 £525 +8.25% 644
UK excluding London -13 1,178 £430 +3.61% 1,332
Work from Home -15 1,007 £475 +15.15% 480
North of England -20 292 £425 +0.89% 429
South East -7 269 £440 -2.22% 277
Midlands -22 207 £418 +14.78% 230
Scotland -17 158 £450 +11.11% 75
North West -17 157 £400 -5.88% 256
South West -5 142 £425 +3.66% 163
Yorkshire -3 123 £475 +15.15% 131
West Midlands -35 116 £425 - 143
East Midlands -2 86 £375 +17.92% 86
East of England -20 61 £431 +7.75% 126
Wales -8 29 £413 -10.81% 26
Northern Ireland +13 21 £472 +6.92% 6
North East -24 12 £413 +4.70% 42

For the 6 months to 25 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,965 (88.24%) HTML
2 2,661 (79.20%) JavaScript
3 1,451 (43.18%) Agile Software Development
4 1,398 (41.61%) React
5 982 (29.23%) AngularJS
6 849 (25.27%) HTML5
7 848 (25.24%) Front End Development
8 780 (23.21%) Git (software)
9 770 (22.92%) TypeScript
10 722 (21.49%) Node.js
11 666 (19.82%) Java
12 656 (19.52%) Full Stack Development
13 638 (18.99%) Social Skills
14 629 (18.72%) .NET
15 628 (18.69%) C#
16 612 (18.21%) Azure
17 581 (17.29%) CSS3
18 579 (17.23%) DevOps
19 559 (16.64%) SQL
20 556 (16.55%) User Experience
21 527 (15.68%) TDD
22 493 (14.67%) REST
23 491 (14.61%) Sass
24 471 (14.02%) jQuery
25 458 (13.63%) AWS
26 423 (12.59%) Docker
27 419 (12.47%) Accessibility
28 417 (12.41%) Finance
29 410 (12.20%) Microservices
30 397 (11.82%) Scrum

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 204 (6.07%) CMS
2 111 (3.30%) SharePoint
3 78 (2.32%) WordPress
4 77 (2.29%) Confluence
5 64 (1.90%) Apache
6 63 (1.88%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 62 (1.85%) Tomcat
8 54 (1.61%) Elasticsearch
9 52 (1.55%) Drupal
10 48 (1.43%) IIS
11 47 (1.40%) nginx
12 28 (0.83%) Umbraco
13 26 (0.77%) Headless CMS
14 25 (0.74%) WebLogic
15 23 (0.68%) SharePoint 2010
16 19 (0.57%) Apache Solr
17 16 (0.48%) JBoss
18 15 (0.45%) Moodle
18 15 (0.45%) Oracle SOA Suite
19 14 (0.42%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 61 (1.82%) Photoshop
2 58 (1.73%) Sketch
3 39 (1.16%) Figma
4 37 (1.10%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 28 (0.83%) InVision
6 26 (0.77%) Adobe Illustrator
7 25 (0.74%) Adobe XD
8 15 (0.45%) Microsoft Excel
9 13 (0.39%) InfoPath
9 13 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
10 12 (0.36%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 11 (0.33%) Zeplin
12 9 (0.27%) InDesign
13 7 (0.21%) Chatbot
14 5 (0.15%) Adobe After Effects
14 5 (0.15%) Adobe Premiere
15 4 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
15 4 (0.12%) MS Visio
15 4 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
16 3 (0.089%) GIMP
Business Applications
1 62 (1.85%) Magento
2 28 (0.83%) Shopify
3 18 (0.54%) Dynamics CRM
4 15 (0.45%) Payment Gateway
5 13 (0.39%) Adobe Campaign
6 7 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
6 7 (0.21%) Temenos T24
7 5 (0.15%) Oracle ERP
7 5 (0.15%) SAP MII
7 5 (0.15%) Social Studio
8 3 (0.089%) Dynamics AX
8 3 (0.089%) Exchequer
8 3 (0.089%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 2 (0.060%) Oracle Applications
9 2 (0.060%) SAP CRM
9 2 (0.060%) SAP Oil and Gas
10 1 (0.030%) Eloqua
10 1 (0.030%) SAP BPC
10 1 (0.030%) SDL Web 8
Cloud Services
1 612 (18.21%) Azure
2 458 (13.63%) AWS
3 196 (5.83%) GitHub
4 161 (4.79%) Serverless
5 151 (4.49%) npm
6 113 (3.36%) AWS Lambda
7 110 (3.27%) SaaS
8 91 (2.71%) GCP
9 75 (2.23%) Amazon S3
10 70 (2.08%) AWS CloudFormation
11 68 (2.02%) Microsoft 365
12 64 (1.90%) Google Analytics
13 63 (1.88%) Power Platform
14 55 (1.64%) PaaS
15 51 (1.52%) Yarn
16 39 (1.16%) OpenShift
17 38 (1.13%) Amazon EC2
18 33 (0.98%) Amazon EKS
19 31 (0.92%) Azure Active Directory
20 27 (0.80%) Azure Service Bus
Communications & Networking
1 72 (2.14%) HTTP
2 69 (2.05%) Internet
3 24 (0.71%) DNS
4 21 (0.63%) RTMP
5 19 (0.57%) Intranet
6 18 (0.54%) AMQP
7 17 (0.51%) SSL
8 12 (0.36%) TCP/IP
8 12 (0.36%) VPN
9 10 (0.30%) HTTPS
10 5 (0.15%) Kerberos
11 4 (0.12%) DHCP
11 4 (0.12%) Network Security
11 4 (0.12%) UPnP
11 4 (0.12%) ZigBee
12 2 (0.060%) Cisco ASA
12 2 (0.060%) MQTT
12 2 (0.060%) PuTTY
12 2 (0.060%) SSH
12 2 (0.060%) X.500
Database & Business Intelligence
1 394 (11.73%) SQL Server
2 173 (5.15%) MongoDB
3 164 (4.88%) MySQL
4 163 (4.85%) Relational Database
5 135 (4.02%) PostgreSQL
6 132 (3.93%) NoSQL
7 64 (1.90%) RDBMS
8 60 (1.79%) Oracle Database
9 55 (1.64%) Redis
10 46 (1.37%) Power BI
11 43 (1.28%) SQL Server 2016
12 33 (0.98%) Big Data
13 28 (0.83%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 27 (0.80%) Amazon Aurora
14 27 (0.80%) Apache Cassandra
14 27 (0.80%) Azure SQL Database
15 25 (0.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 24 (0.71%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 22 (0.65%) Tableau
18 18 (0.54%) Metadata
Development Applications
1 780 (23.21%) Git (software)
2 327 (9.73%) Jenkins
3 247 (7.35%) webpack
4 244 (7.26%) JIRA
5 143 (4.26%) Maven
6 137 (4.08%) Jasmine
7 110 (3.27%) Cypress.io
8 102 (3.04%) gulp
9 93 (2.77%) Mocha
10 89 (2.65%) JUnit
11 85 (2.53%) Selenium
12 83 (2.47%) Cucumber
13 77 (2.29%) Bitbucket
13 77 (2.29%) Karma Test Runner
14 74 (2.20%) Grunt
15 67 (1.99%) Subversion
16 62 (1.85%) Storybook
17 58 (1.73%) GitLab
18 55 (1.64%) Visual Studio
19 54 (1.61%) TeamCity
General
1 638 (18.99%) Social Skills
2 417 (12.41%) Finance
3 212 (6.31%) Public Sector
4 188 (5.60%) Analytical Skills
5 180 (5.36%) Marketing
6 162 (4.82%) Banking
7 101 (3.01%) Retail
8 80 (2.38%) Presentation Skills
9 48 (1.43%) Front Office
9 48 (1.43%) Telecoms
10 47 (1.40%) Investment Banking
11 40 (1.19%) Manufacturing
11 40 (1.19%) Publishing
12 34 (1.01%) Games
13 32 (0.95%) Documentation Skills
14 30 (0.89%) Influencing Skills
15 27 (0.80%) Organisational Skills
16 25 (0.74%) Electronics
17 23 (0.68%) Law
17 23 (0.68%) Legal
Job Titles
1 2,456 (73.10%) Developer
2 600 (17.86%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 424 (12.62%) React Developer
4 366 (10.89%) Full Stack Developer
5 356 (10.60%) Senior Developer
6 261 (7.77%) .NET Developer
7 231 (6.88%) Angular Developer
7 231 (6.88%) JavaScript Developer
8 202 (6.01%) Designer
9 193 (5.74%) Java Developer
10 129 (3.84%) HTML Developer
11 128 (3.81%) C# Developer
12 126 (3.75%) UI Developer
13 108 (3.21%) Software Engineer
14 100 (2.98%) Software Developer
15 95 (2.83%) PHP Developer
16 93 (2.77%) Architect
17 88 (2.62%) Senior Front-End Developer
18 83 (2.47%) Python Developer
18 83 (2.47%) Web Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,965 (88.24%) HTML
2 1,398 (41.61%) React
3 982 (29.23%) AngularJS
4 849 (25.27%) HTML5
5 722 (21.49%) Node.js
6 629 (18.72%) .NET
7 581 (17.29%) CSS3
8 493 (14.67%) REST
9 491 (14.61%) Sass
10 471 (14.02%) jQuery
11 371 (11.04%) Redux
12 358 (10.65%) RESTful
13 345 (10.27%) Web Services
14 290 (8.63%) Vue.js
15 288 (8.57%) Spring
16 277 (8.24%) ASP.NET
17 247 (7.35%) JSON
18 233 (6.93%) Jest
19 231 (6.88%) XML
20 227 (6.76%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 556 (16.55%) User Experience
2 166 (4.94%) Mobile App
3 122 (3.63%) Greenfield Project
4 72 (2.14%) Data Protection Act
5 69 (2.05%) Data Structures
6 58 (1.73%) Enterprise Software
7 51 (1.52%) Algorithms
8 50 (1.49%) Self-Motivation
9 39 (1.16%) Social Media
10 38 (1.13%) W3C
11 35 (1.04%) Cloud Native
12 30 (0.89%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 27 (0.80%) N-Tier
14 26 (0.77%) Virtual Team
15 24 (0.71%) Legacy Systems
16 17 (0.51%) Blog
16 17 (0.51%) Management Information System
16 17 (0.51%) NHS
16 17 (0.51%) Public Cloud
17 16 (0.48%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 136 (4.05%) Linux
2 106 (3.15%) Windows
3 99 (2.95%) Unix
4 51 (1.52%) Android
4 51 (1.52%) Apple iOS
5 22 (0.65%) Windows Server
6 8 (0.24%) Windows Server 2012
6 8 (0.24%) Windows Server 2016
7 7 (0.21%) Mac OS
8 5 (0.15%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 5 (0.15%) Windows 10
9 3 (0.089%) Ubuntu
9 3 (0.089%) VMS
9 3 (0.089%) Windows Server 2003
9 3 (0.089%) Windows Server 2008
10 2 (0.060%) Solaris
10 2 (0.060%) Windows Server 2019
11 1 (0.030%) DC/OS
11 1 (0.030%) Mac OS X
11 1 (0.030%) Mesosphere
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,451 (43.18%) Agile Software Development
2 848 (25.24%) Front End Development
3 656 (19.52%) Full Stack Development
4 579 (17.23%) DevOps
5 527 (15.68%) TDD
6 410 (12.20%) Microservices
7 397 (11.82%) Scrum
8 382 (11.37%) Problem-Solving
9 380 (11.31%) Web Development
10 369 (10.98%) MVC
11 355 (10.57%) Test Automation
12 342 (10.18%) Software Engineering
13 309 (9.20%) Continuous Integration
14 289 (8.60%) Unit Testing
15 223 (6.64%) BDD
16 210 (6.25%) OO
17 209 (6.22%) E-Commerce
18 204 (6.07%) Analytics
19 202 (6.01%) SDLC
20 192 (5.71%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 2,661 (79.20%) JavaScript
2 770 (22.92%) TypeScript
3 666 (19.82%) Java
4 628 (18.69%) C#
5 559 (16.64%) SQL
6 332 (9.88%) Python
7 286 (8.51%) ES6
8 280 (8.33%) PHP
9 100 (2.98%) Java 8
9 100 (2.98%) PowerShell
10 90 (2.68%) Scala
11 75 (2.23%) Ruby
12 55 (1.64%) T-SQL
13 50 (1.49%) Kotlin
14 49 (1.46%) Bash Shell
15 45 (1.34%) VB.NET
16 43 (1.28%) PL/SQL
17 36 (1.07%) Apex Code
18 33 (0.98%) Java 11
19 32 (0.95%) Go
Qualifications
1 240 (7.14%) Degree
2 212 (6.31%) Security Cleared
3 155 (4.61%) SC Cleared
4 72 (2.14%) Computer Science Degree
5 40 (1.19%) BPSS Clearance
6 23 (0.68%) Master's Degree
7 15 (0.45%) DV Cleared
8 12 (0.36%) AWS Certification
8 12 (0.36%) Microsoft Certification
9 10 (0.30%) ITIL Certification
10 9 (0.27%) Numerate Degree
11 7 (0.21%) ISTQB
12 5 (0.15%) ISEB
13 4 (0.12%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 3 (0.089%) CCA
14 3 (0.089%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
15 2 (0.060%) DBS Check
15 2 (0.060%) MCSE
15 2 (0.060%) PhD
15 2 (0.060%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 419 (12.47%) Accessibility
2 131 (3.90%) QA
3 80 (2.38%) WCAG
4 32 (0.95%) Data Quality
5 20 (0.60%) GDPR
6 10 (0.30%) WAI
7 8 (0.24%) SLA
8 5 (0.15%) Disclosure Scotland
9 3 (0.089%) PMO
10 2 (0.060%) HL7
10 2 (0.060%) NCSC
11 1 (0.030%) GxP
11 1 (0.030%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 1 (0.030%) PCI DSS
11 1 (0.030%) Section 508
System Software
1 423 (12.59%) Docker
2 59 (1.76%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.27%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.030%) Apache Flume
4 1 (0.030%) HDFS
4 1 (0.030%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.030%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.030%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 246 (7.32%) Kubernetes
2 80 (2.38%) Terraform
3 50 (1.49%) Grafana
4 35 (1.04%) Ansible
5 31 (0.92%) Kibana
6 28 (0.83%) Puppet
7 15 (0.45%) Opscode Chef
7 15 (0.45%) Single Sign-On
8 14 (0.42%) logstash
9 12 (0.36%) Prometheus
10 10 (0.30%) Rancher
11 9 (0.27%) Active Directory Federation Services
11 9 (0.27%) Graphite
12 5 (0.15%) Netcool
13 4 (0.12%) HP ALM
13 4 (0.12%) HP Fortify
14 3 (0.089%) Data Guard
14 3 (0.089%) Kubeflow
15 2 (0.060%) HP Quality Center
15 2 (0.060%) Nagios
Vendors
1 282 (8.39%) Microsoft
2 210 (6.25%) Adobe
3 204 (6.07%) Oracle
4 121 (3.60%) Salesforce.com
5 119 (3.54%) Google
6 53 (1.58%) SAP
7 38 (1.13%) ServiceNow
8 30 (0.89%) Telerik
9 27 (0.80%) Splunk
10 24 (0.71%) Nintex
11 23 (0.68%) hybris
11 23 (0.68%) Sitecore
12 22 (0.65%) Atlassian
13 17 (0.51%) Marketo
14 16 (0.48%) Apple
14 16 (0.48%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 16 (0.48%) Xamarin
15 14 (0.42%) Xerox
16 13 (0.39%) CA
17 12 (0.36%) ESRI