Period
to 23 September 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
23 Sep 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 19 13 16
Rank change year-on-year -6 +3 +4
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,965 8,052 8,799
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.88% 8.22% 8.19%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 22.49% 25.39% 27.34%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,752 5,782 6,370
UK median daily rate £425 £413 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.03% +3.13% +10.34%
10th Percentile £306 £281 £263
90th Percentile £575 £575 £550
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £363
% change year-on-year +6.67% +3.45% +8.21%
Number of hourly rates quoted 53 63 79
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £32.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +25.00% +2.50%
10th Percentile £13.27 £13.85 £14.83
90th Percentile £57.20 £48.75 £50.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £42.50 £27.50
% change year-on-year - +54.55% -18.03%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 35,410 31,713 32,179
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 35.02% 32.37% 29.94%
Number of daily rates quoted 24,991 22,024 22,448
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £325 £310 £294
90th Percentile £625 £625 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £388
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +3.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 333 387 384
UK median hourly rate £41.77 £40.00 £36.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +4.41% +10.34% -2.08%
10th Percentile £15.24 £16.40 £13.50
90th Percentile £59.75 £53.75 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £40.00 £36.00
% change year-on-year +2.50% +11.11% -3.87%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 23 September 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 7,352 £425 +3.03% 3,454
UK excluding London -3 4,176 £400 +6.67% 2,589
London -5 3,678 £475 +5.56% 1,054
South East -4 1,264 £413 +10.00% 642
North of England -2 1,059 £388 +3.33% 748
Midlands -7 643 £388 +10.71% 455
North West +2 514 £375 +3.73% 409
Yorkshire -3 443 £393 +1.95% 277
South West -5 424 £386 +10.36% 351
West Midlands -9 397 £400 +11.11% 231
Scotland -3 385 £400 +6.67% 112
East of England -3 280 £400 +14.29% 205
East Midlands -1 246 £375 +8.70% 223
Wales -13 107 £400 - 52
North East -7 103 £385 -13.97% 62
Northern Ireland +4 28 £450 +9.09% 25
Isle of Man - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 23 September 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,326 (91.98%) HTML
2 6,445 (80.92%) JavaScript
3 3,588 (45.05%) Agile Software Development
4 3,135 (39.36%) HTML5
5 2,714 (34.07%) AngularJS
6 2,436 (30.58%) CSS3
7 2,183 (27.41%) Front End Development
8 2,033 (25.52%) React
9 1,963 (24.65%) jQuery
10 1,892 (23.75%) Git (software)
11 1,694 (21.27%) .NET
12 1,666 (20.92%) C#
13 1,637 (20.55%) TDD
14 1,580 (19.84%) Node.js
15 1,456 (18.28%) Java
16 1,436 (18.03%) User Experience
17 1,432 (17.98%) MVC
18 1,348 (16.92%) Sass
19 1,279 (16.06%) Web Development
20 1,206 (15.14%) SQL
21 1,118 (14.04%) Scrum
22 1,032 (12.96%) REST
23 1,001 (12.57%) Finance
24 996 (12.50%) ASP.NET
25 979 (12.29%) SQL Server
26 900 (11.30%) PHP
27 898 (11.27%) Web Services
28 890 (11.17%) Continuous Integration
29 881 (11.06%) Test Automation
30 808 (10.14%) Redux

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 434 (5.45%) CMS
2 235 (2.95%) SharePoint
3 228 (2.86%) WordPress
4 202 (2.54%) Confluence
5 160 (2.01%) Apache
6 149 (1.87%) Drupal
7 125 (1.57%) IIS
8 115 (1.44%) Tomcat
9 114 (1.43%) Elasticsearch
10 100 (1.26%) Umbraco
11 94 (1.18%) WebSphere
12 84 (1.05%) SharePoint 2013
13 77 (0.97%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 74 (0.93%) JBoss
15 72 (0.90%) nginx
16 67 (0.84%) SharePoint 2010
17 59 (0.74%) Sitecore CMS
18 52 (0.65%) WebLogic
19 42 (0.53%) Apache Spark
20 37 (0.46%) EPiServer
Applications
1 260 (3.26%) Photoshop
2 104 (1.31%) InVision
3 94 (1.18%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 90 (1.13%) Adobe Illustrator
5 57 (0.72%) InfoPath
6 30 (0.38%) Fireworks
6 30 (0.38%) Microsoft Office
7 24 (0.30%) OmniGraffle
8 22 (0.28%) InDesign
9 21 (0.26%) Microsoft Excel
10 20 (0.25%) GIMP
11 15 (0.19%) Chatbot
12 13 (0.16%) Adobe After Effects
13 12 (0.15%) MS Visio
14 8 (0.10%) UserZoom
15 7 (0.088%) Microsoft PowerPoint
16 6 (0.075%) Acrobat
17 5 (0.063%) Adobe Premiere
18 4 (0.050%) UXPin
19 3 (0.038%) HipChat
Business Applications
1 139 (1.75%) Magento
2 89 (1.12%) Dynamics CRM
3 17 (0.21%) ION MarketView
3 17 (0.21%) Payment Gateway
4 15 (0.19%) Shopify
5 12 (0.15%) Remedy ITSM
6 11 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
7 9 (0.11%) Dynamics AX
8 8 (0.10%) Adobe Campaign
8 8 (0.10%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 7 (0.088%) Eloqua
10 6 (0.075%) SDL Web 8
11 5 (0.063%) Distributed Ledger
11 5 (0.063%) Dynamics NAV
12 4 (0.050%) Endur
12 4 (0.050%) NetSuite
12 4 (0.050%) Oracle EBS
13 3 (0.038%) Maximo
13 3 (0.038%) Oracle Applications
13 3 (0.038%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 644 (8.09%) Microsoft Azure
2 580 (7.28%) Amazon AWS
3 281 (3.53%) GitHub
4 271 (3.40%) npm
5 147 (1.85%) Serverless
6 123 (1.54%) Office 365
7 106 (1.33%) Google Analytics
8 102 (1.28%) SaaS
9 72 (0.90%) AWS Lambda
10 70 (0.88%) Google Cloud Platform
11 68 (0.85%) Heroku
12 52 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 48 (0.60%) PaaS
14 44 (0.55%) Dynamics 365
15 31 (0.39%) BrowserStack
16 30 (0.38%) Amazon EC2
17 29 (0.36%) Yarn
18 25 (0.31%) IaaS
19 22 (0.28%) Amazon SQS
20 21 (0.26%) NuGet
Communications & Networking
1 345 (4.33%) HTTP
2 126 (1.58%) Internet
3 97 (1.22%) SSL
4 93 (1.17%) TCP/IP
5 56 (0.70%) Intranet
6 55 (0.69%) DNS
7 48 (0.60%) FTP
8 41 (0.51%) SMS
9 26 (0.33%) Firewall
10 14 (0.18%) HTTPS
10 14 (0.18%) LAN
11 11 (0.14%) BIG-IP
11 11 (0.14%) Reverse Proxy
11 11 (0.14%) Skype
12 10 (0.13%) IMAP
12 10 (0.13%) Kerberos
12 10 (0.13%) Network Security
12 10 (0.13%) SMTP
13 9 (0.11%) Broadband
14 8 (0.10%) Cisco ASA
Database & Business Intelligence
1 979 (12.29%) SQL Server
2 771 (9.68%) MySQL
3 495 (6.21%) Relational Database
4 417 (5.24%) MongoDB
5 342 (4.29%) PostgreSQL
6 308 (3.87%) NoSQL
7 134 (1.68%) Redis
8 130 (1.63%) RDBMS
9 94 (1.18%) Apache Cassandra
10 86 (1.08%) SQL Server 2012
11 83 (1.04%) Big Data
12 70 (0.88%) SQL Server 2008
13 63 (0.79%) Oracle Database
13 63 (0.79%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 54 (0.68%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 40 (0.50%) Blockchain
16 39 (0.49%) Data Warehouse
17 38 (0.48%) DB2
17 38 (0.48%) SQL Server 2014
18 37 (0.46%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 1,892 (23.75%) Git (software)
2 627 (7.87%) Jenkins
3 549 (6.89%) gulp
4 504 (6.33%) webpack
5 494 (6.20%) JIRA
6 433 (5.44%) Selenium
7 386 (4.85%) Grunt
8 369 (4.63%) Jasmine
9 317 (3.98%) Visual Studio
10 270 (3.39%) Team Foundation Server
11 232 (2.91%) Subversion
12 222 (2.79%) Karma Test Runner
13 220 (2.76%) Cucumber
13 220 (2.76%) Maven
14 214 (2.69%) JUnit
15 203 (2.55%) Mocha
16 165 (2.07%) Babel
17 162 (2.03%) Axure RP
18 136 (1.71%) TeamCity
19 116 (1.46%) Protractor
General
1 1,001 (12.57%) Finance
2 445 (5.59%) Banking
3 380 (4.77%) Retail
4 282 (3.54%) Marketing
5 104 (1.31%) Investment Banking
6 101 (1.27%) Games
7 100 (1.26%) Front Office
7 100 (1.26%) Telecoms
8 89 (1.12%) Advertising
9 66 (0.83%) Legal
10 60 (0.75%) Publishing
11 57 (0.72%) Law
11 57 (0.72%) Manufacturing
12 51 (0.64%) Back Office
13 37 (0.46%) Electronics
14 33 (0.41%) Financial Institution
15 23 (0.29%) Automotive
16 20 (0.25%) Pharmaceutical
17 15 (0.19%) Multimedia
18 11 (0.14%) Interactive Media
Job Titles
1 6,630 (83.24%) Developer
2 1,746 (21.92%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,134 (14.24%) JavaScript Developer
4 930 (11.68%) React Developer
5 818 (10.27%) .NET Developer
6 670 (8.41%) Full Stack Developer
7 659 (8.27%) Angular Developer
8 581 (7.29%) Java Developer
9 505 (6.34%) Senior Developer
10 488 (6.13%) HTML Developer
11 470 (5.90%) C# Developer
12 463 (5.81%) UI Developer
12 463 (5.81%) Web Developer
13 420 (5.27%) PHP Developer
14 411 (5.16%) Designer
15 408 (5.12%) HTML CSS Developer
16 314 (3.94%) C# .NET Developer
17 244 (3.06%) Node.js Developer
18 243 (3.05%) UX Designer
19 170 (2.13%) ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,326 (91.98%) HTML
2 3,135 (39.36%) HTML5
3 2,714 (34.07%) AngularJS
4 2,436 (30.58%) CSS3
5 2,033 (25.52%) React
6 1,963 (24.65%) jQuery
7 1,694 (21.27%) .NET
8 1,580 (19.84%) Node.js
9 1,348 (16.92%) Sass
10 1,032 (12.96%) REST
11 996 (12.50%) ASP.NET
12 898 (11.27%) Web Services
13 808 (10.14%) Redux
14 786 (9.87%) XML
15 737 (9.25%) RESTful
16 684 (8.59%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 677 (8.50%) JSON
18 623 (7.82%) Ajax
19 583 (7.32%) Spring
20 573 (7.19%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 1,436 (18.03%) User Experience
2 479 (6.01%) Greenfield Project
3 410 (5.15%) Mobile App
4 325 (4.08%) Analytical Skills
5 249 (3.13%) Fintech
6 237 (2.98%) Computer Science
7 133 (1.67%) Enterprise Software
8 129 (1.62%) Self-Motivation
9 113 (1.42%) Data Structures
10 105 (1.32%) Algorithms
11 83 (1.04%) W3C
12 59 (0.74%) Linux Command Line
13 58 (0.73%) Fixed Income
14 55 (0.69%) Social Media
15 36 (0.45%) Graphic Design
16 35 (0.44%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
17 31 (0.39%) Video on Demand
18 30 (0.38%) Derivative
18 30 (0.38%) Management Information System
19 29 (0.36%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 574 (7.21%) Linux
2 303 (3.80%) Windows
3 240 (3.01%) Apple iOS
4 235 (2.95%) Android
5 208 (2.61%) Unix
6 80 (1.00%) Windows Server
7 58 (0.73%) Ubuntu
8 41 (0.51%) Windows Server 2003
9 38 (0.48%) Windows Server 2008
10 36 (0.45%) Windows Server 2012
11 20 (0.25%) Mac OS
12 19 (0.24%) Mac OS X
13 14 (0.18%) VMS
14 13 (0.16%) CentOS
14 13 (0.16%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 8 (0.10%) Oracle Linux
15 8 (0.10%) Solaris
16 5 (0.063%) Windows 10
16 5 (0.063%) Windows 7
17 4 (0.050%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,588 (45.05%) Agile Software Development
2 2,183 (27.41%) Front End Development
3 1,637 (20.55%) TDD
4 1,432 (17.98%) MVC
5 1,279 (16.06%) Web Development
6 1,118 (14.04%) Scrum
7 890 (11.17%) Continuous Integration
8 881 (11.06%) Test Automation
9 769 (9.65%) BDD
10 714 (8.96%) OO
11 633 (7.95%) Unit Testing
12 620 (7.78%) Microservices
13 589 (7.39%) Responsive Web Design
14 580 (7.28%) E-Commerce
15 556 (6.98%) DevOps
16 527 (6.62%) Problem-Solving
17 490 (6.15%) Software Engineering
18 384 (4.82%) Wireframes
19 380 (4.77%) Open Source
20 369 (4.63%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 6,445 (80.92%) JavaScript
2 1,666 (20.92%) C#
3 1,456 (18.28%) Java
4 1,206 (15.14%) SQL
5 900 (11.30%) PHP
6 767 (9.63%) ES6
7 734 (9.22%) TypeScript
8 491 (6.16%) Python
9 231 (2.90%) Ruby
10 230 (2.89%) Java 8
11 184 (2.31%) Scala
12 165 (2.07%) T-SQL
13 120 (1.51%) PowerShell
14 108 (1.36%) Go
15 91 (1.14%) PL/SQL
16 87 (1.09%) Groovy
17 84 (1.05%) ES7
18 83 (1.04%) C++
18 83 (1.04%) Perl
19 60 (0.75%) C
Qualifications
1 428 (5.37%) Degree
2 334 (4.19%) Security Cleared
3 266 (3.34%) SC Cleared
4 158 (1.98%) Computer Science Degree
5 49 (0.62%) Microsoft Certification
6 25 (0.31%) BPSS Clearance
7 24 (0.30%) MCSE
8 17 (0.21%) ITIL Certification
9 11 (0.14%) DBS Check
10 8 (0.10%) ISTQB
10 8 (0.10%) Postgraduate
11 7 (0.088%) CCNP
11 7 (0.088%) Cisco Certification
11 7 (0.088%) CTC Cleared
11 7 (0.088%) Master's Degree
12 6 (0.075%) APMP
12 6 (0.075%) ISEB
13 5 (0.063%) CCNA
13 5 (0.063%) DV Cleared
14 4 (0.050%) BC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 280 (3.52%) QA
2 55 (0.69%) WCAG
3 25 (0.31%) WAI
4 24 (0.30%) GDPR
5 21 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
6 17 (0.21%) SLA
7 16 (0.20%) Data Quality
8 14 (0.18%) PMO
9 12 (0.15%) MiFID
10 10 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
11 5 (0.063%) GxP
12 3 (0.038%) Government Security Classifications
12 3 (0.038%) PMBOK
13 2 (0.025%) PCI DSS
14 1 (0.013%) ISO 9001
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA C
14 1 (0.013%) Section 508
System Software
1 544 (6.83%) Docker
2 28 (0.35%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.20%) Virtual Machines
4 13 (0.16%) VirtualBox
5 10 (0.13%) LXC
6 9 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
7 8 (0.10%) HDFS
8 6 (0.075%) vCloud
9 5 (0.063%) Hyper-V
10 4 (0.050%) etcd
10 4 (0.050%) flannel
10 4 (0.050%) KVM
11 2 (0.025%) Microsoft App-V
11 2 (0.025%) Postfix
11 2 (0.025%) VMware ESXi
12 1 (0.013%) Gluster
12 1 (0.013%) Oracle RAC
12 1 (0.013%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
Systems Management
1 125 (1.57%) Kubernetes
2 119 (1.49%) Puppet
3 96 (1.21%) Ansible
4 65 (0.82%) Kibana
5 54 (0.68%) Opscode Chef
6 51 (0.64%) Terraform
7 50 (0.63%) Grafana
8 35 (0.44%) Docker Swarm
9 18 (0.23%) Mesos
10 15 (0.19%) Single Sign-On
11 13 (0.16%) Graphite
11 13 (0.16%) HAProxy
12 12 (0.15%) logstash
12 12 (0.15%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
13 10 (0.13%) Marathon
14 9 (0.11%) HockeyApp
15 7 (0.088%) Cisco Prime
16 6 (0.075%) Capistrano
16 6 (0.075%) Matomo
17 4 (0.050%) rkt
Vendors
1 584 (7.33%) Microsoft
2 494 (6.20%) Oracle
3 382 (4.80%) Adobe
4 259 (3.25%) Google
5 98 (1.23%) Salesforce.com
6 94 (1.18%) Sitecore
7 89 (1.12%) ServiceNow
8 85 (1.07%) SAP
9 77 (0.97%) IBM
10 71 (0.89%) hybris
11 58 (0.73%) Zend
12 56 (0.70%) Splunk
13 51 (0.64%) Twitter
14 46 (0.58%) Nintex
15 42 (0.53%) Xamarin
16 39 (0.49%) Apple
16 39 (0.49%) Atlassian
17 23 (0.29%) webMethods
18 20 (0.25%) VMware
19 19 (0.24%) Citrix