Period
to 19 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 46 32 23
Rank change year-on-year -14 -9 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,876 4,093 7,094
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.52% 5.71% 7.18%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.86% 19.01% 20.99%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,658 2,995 5,320
Median daily rate £450 £450 £438
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.86% +4.04%
10th Percentile £287 £306 £306
90th Percentile £600 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £405 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +1.25% - +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 32 39 55
Median hourly rate £42.50 £36.70 £41.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +15.80% -10.49% -6.29%
10th Percentile £25.05 £21.90 £13.50
90th Percentile £58.34 £53.15 £57.80
UK excluding London median hourly rate £39.00 £43.00 £41.75
% change year-on-year -9.30% +2.99% -7.22%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,628 21,529 33,790
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.45% 30.02% 34.21%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,874 15,111 24,068
Median daily rate £482 £495 £480
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.58% +3.13% +3.84%
10th Percentile £313 £330 £325
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £445 £425
% change year-on-year -4.49% +4.71% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 149 200 267
Median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £41.85
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +7.54% +4.61%
10th Percentile £25.00 £17.11 £17.50
90th Percentile £63.35 £78.75 £60.00
Median hourly rate £46.00 £45.00 £41.92
% change year-on-year +2.22% +7.34% +4.81%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -12 1,621 £450 - 1,606
London -25 862 £500 - 440
UK excluding London -4 803 £405 +1.25% 1,289
Work from Home -30 514 £450 +8.43% 374
North of England +2 229 £425 +6.25% 408
South East -3 177 £425 +3.03% 255
Midlands +3 153 £351 -9.42% 230
North West +7 125 £425 +9.68% 236
South West -1 99 £400 +0.63% 161
West Midlands 0 91 £365 -11.52% 131
Scotland -16 81 £400 -5.88% 74
Yorkshire -12 64 £425 - 132
East Midlands +4 61 £350 - 98
North East +24 40 £464 +23.67% 40
East of England -14 35 £471 +14.94% 101
Wales -12 16 £356 -20.83% 39
Northern Ireland +5 13 £431 +1.41% 20

For the 6 months to 19 January 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,679 (89.50%) HTML
2 1,424 (75.91%) JavaScript
3 733 (39.07%) Agile Software Development
4 545 (29.05%) HTML5
5 513 (27.35%) Front End Development
6 465 (24.79%) AngularJS
7 456 (24.31%) React
8 429 (22.87%) Git (software)
9 421 (22.44%) Node.js
10 388 (20.68%) CSS3
11 382 (20.36%) .NET
12 357 (19.03%) User Experience
13 350 (18.66%) Java
14 325 (17.32%) Azure
15 320 (17.06%) SQL
16 303 (16.15%) C#
16 303 (16.15%) jQuery
17 280 (14.93%) Web Development
18 272 (14.50%) REST
19 269 (14.34%) DevOps
20 258 (13.75%) TDD
21 238 (12.69%) Sass
22 235 (12.53%) TypeScript
23 232 (12.37%) PHP
24 219 (11.67%) MVC
25 206 (10.98%) Finance
26 202 (10.77%) Redux
27 200 (10.66%) Web Services
28 193 (10.29%) AWS
29 189 (10.07%) Docker

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 98 (5.22%) CMS
2 71 (3.78%) WordPress
3 63 (3.36%) SharePoint
4 43 (2.29%) Apache
4 43 (2.29%) Confluence
5 39 (2.08%) IIS
6 36 (1.92%) Drupal
7 27 (1.44%) WebSphere
8 26 (1.39%) Elasticsearch
9 17 (0.91%) Umbraco
10 15 (0.80%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 15 (0.80%) JBoss
11 14 (0.75%) nginx
11 14 (0.75%) Tomcat
11 14 (0.75%) WebLogic
12 12 (0.64%) Jadu
13 11 (0.59%) Appian
13 11 (0.59%) Oracle Workflow
14 10 (0.53%) Sitecore CMS
14 10 (0.53%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 35 (1.87%) Photoshop
2 33 (1.76%) Sketch
3 28 (1.49%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 24 (1.28%) InVision
5 22 (1.17%) Adobe Illustrator
6 18 (0.96%) Microsoft Office
7 16 (0.85%) Adobe After Effects
7 16 (0.85%) Adobe Premiere
8 13 (0.69%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 11 (0.59%) Figma
10 10 (0.53%) Chatbot
10 10 (0.53%) CINEMA 4D
10 10 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
10 10 (0.53%) MS Visio
11 9 (0.48%) Adobe XD
11 9 (0.48%) Zeplin
12 8 (0.43%) InfoPath
13 4 (0.21%) UserZoom
14 2 (0.11%) Flinto
14 2 (0.11%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 45 (2.40%) Magento
2 27 (1.44%) Dynamics CRM
3 23 (1.23%) Shopify
4 5 (0.27%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.16%) SAP ERP
6 2 (0.11%) Dynamics NAV
6 2 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.053%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.053%) Exstream
7 1 (0.053%) OpenCart
7 1 (0.053%) Oracle Applications
7 1 (0.053%) Radian6
7 1 (0.053%) Siebel CRM
7 1 (0.053%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 325 (17.32%) Azure
2 193 (10.29%) AWS
3 86 (4.58%) GitHub
4 55 (2.93%) Serverless
5 51 (2.72%) GCP
6 46 (2.45%) npm
7 45 (2.40%) Office 365
8 41 (2.19%) PaaS
9 34 (1.81%) Power Platform
10 29 (1.55%) Google Analytics
11 28 (1.49%) Logic Apps
12 24 (1.28%) PowerApps
13 23 (1.23%) Amazon S3
13 23 (1.23%) Azure Functions
14 22 (1.17%) AWS Lambda
15 19 (1.01%) SaaS
16 16 (0.85%) Amazon EC2
17 15 (0.80%) Dynamics 365
17 15 (0.80%) Yarn
18 14 (0.75%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 49 (2.61%) HTTP
2 18 (0.96%) Intranet
3 13 (0.69%) SSL
4 12 (0.64%) Internet
5 9 (0.48%) TCP/IP
6 6 (0.32%) DNS
7 5 (0.27%) Remote Desktop
7 5 (0.27%) Skype
8 4 (0.21%) DSL
9 3 (0.16%) Intrusion Detection
9 3 (0.16%) VPN
10 2 (0.11%) Tactical Data Link
11 1 (0.053%) AMQP
11 1 (0.053%) Extranet
11 1 (0.053%) Firewall
11 1 (0.053%) Network Security
11 1 (0.053%) SMS
11 1 (0.053%) SSH
11 1 (0.053%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 178 (9.49%) SQL Server
2 141 (7.52%) MySQL
3 69 (3.68%) MongoDB
3 69 (3.68%) Relational Database
4 66 (3.52%) NoSQL
5 55 (2.93%) PostgreSQL
6 29 (1.55%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 27 (1.44%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 25 (1.33%) Azure SQL Database
9 24 (1.28%) Cosmos DB
10 23 (1.23%) Big Data
11 19 (1.01%) Oracle Database
12 14 (0.75%) Power BI
13 12 (0.64%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 12 (0.64%) RDBMS
13 12 (0.64%) Redis
14 11 (0.59%) Amazon RDS
15 10 (0.53%) Apache Cassandra
15 10 (0.53%) SQL Server 2012
16 9 (0.48%) SQL Server 2008
Development Applications
1 429 (22.87%) Git (software)
2 170 (9.06%) Jenkins
3 119 (6.34%) webpack
4 111 (5.92%) JIRA
5 86 (4.58%) Jasmine
6 79 (4.21%) gulp
7 67 (3.57%) Selenium
8 64 (3.41%) Grunt
9 60 (3.20%) Maven
10 56 (2.99%) Visual Studio
11 50 (2.67%) JUnit
11 50 (2.67%) Karma Test Runner
12 47 (2.51%) Mocha
13 46 (2.45%) Cypress.io
14 44 (2.35%) Subversion
15 42 (2.24%) GitLab
16 41 (2.19%) SonarQube
17 33 (1.76%) Cucumber
18 29 (1.55%) git-flow
18 29 (1.55%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 206 (10.98%) Finance
2 163 (8.69%) Public Sector
3 104 (5.54%) Marketing
4 87 (4.64%) Banking
5 43 (2.29%) Retail
6 30 (1.60%) Games
6 30 (1.60%) Investment Banking
6 30 (1.60%) Law
7 26 (1.39%) Front Office
8 24 (1.28%) Telecoms
9 21 (1.12%) Manufacturing
10 16 (0.85%) Local Government
11 13 (0.69%) Advertising
11 13 (0.69%) Back Office
12 12 (0.64%) Legal
13 11 (0.59%) Electronics
14 10 (0.53%) Pharmaceutical
15 9 (0.48%) Financial Institution
16 8 (0.43%) Publishing
17 6 (0.32%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,422 (75.80%) Developer
2 358 (19.08%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 230 (12.26%) Full Stack Developer
4 219 (11.67%) React Developer
5 146 (7.78%) .NET Developer
6 141 (7.52%) Designer
7 138 (7.36%) Angular Developer
8 131 (6.98%) JavaScript Developer
8 131 (6.98%) Senior Developer
9 97 (5.17%) Java Developer
10 87 (4.64%) Web Developer
11 78 (4.16%) PHP Developer
12 73 (3.89%) HTML Developer
13 70 (3.73%) UI Developer
14 69 (3.68%) Node.js Developer
15 61 (3.25%) UX Designer
16 57 (3.04%) C# Developer
17 54 (2.88%) HTML CSS Developer
18 52 (2.77%) Architect
19 48 (2.56%) Interaction Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,679 (89.50%) HTML
2 545 (29.05%) HTML5
3 465 (24.79%) AngularJS
4 456 (24.31%) React
5 421 (22.44%) Node.js
6 388 (20.68%) CSS3
7 382 (20.36%) .NET
8 303 (16.15%) jQuery
9 272 (14.50%) REST
10 238 (12.69%) Sass
11 202 (10.77%) Redux
12 200 (10.66%) Web Services
13 181 (9.65%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 172 (9.17%) RESTful
15 155 (8.26%) Spring
16 149 (7.94%) JSON
17 144 (7.68%) XML
18 142 (7.57%) ASP.NET
19 131 (6.98%) Vue.js
20 120 (6.40%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 357 (19.03%) User Experience
2 112 (5.97%) Mobile App
3 88 (4.69%) Greenfield Project
4 66 (3.52%) Analytical Skills
5 39 (2.08%) Enterprise Software
6 32 (1.71%) Social Media
7 27 (1.44%) Cloud Native
8 26 (1.39%) Self-Motivation
9 20 (1.07%) Public Cloud
10 18 (0.96%) Data Structures
10 18 (0.96%) N-Tier
11 16 (0.85%) Animation
12 13 (0.69%) Management Information System
12 13 (0.69%) Mobile Payment
12 13 (0.69%) NHS
12 13 (0.69%) Virtual Team
13 11 (0.59%) Hedge funds
14 10 (0.53%) Over-the-Top Content
14 10 (0.53%) W3C
15 9 (0.48%) Video Editing
Operating Systems
1 86 (4.58%) Linux
2 71 (3.78%) Windows
3 52 (2.77%) Android
4 48 (2.56%) Apple iOS
5 32 (1.71%) Unix
6 18 (0.96%) Windows Server 2012
7 17 (0.91%) Windows Server
8 13 (0.69%) Windows 10
9 12 (0.64%) Mac OS X
9 12 (0.64%) Windows Server 2016
10 5 (0.27%) Mac OS
10 5 (0.27%) Ubuntu
11 2 (0.11%) AIX
11 2 (0.11%) CentOS
11 2 (0.11%) VMS
12 1 (0.053%) MVS
12 1 (0.053%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 1 (0.053%) Solaris
12 1 (0.053%) Tizen
12 1 (0.053%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 733 (39.07%) Agile Software Development
2 513 (27.35%) Front End Development
3 280 (14.93%) Web Development
4 269 (14.34%) DevOps
5 258 (13.75%) TDD
6 219 (11.67%) MVC
7 179 (9.54%) Test Automation
8 168 (8.96%) Software Engineering
9 166 (8.85%) Microservices
9 166 (8.85%) Scrum
10 161 (8.58%) OO
11 153 (8.16%) Continuous Integration
12 137 (7.30%) Unit Testing
13 131 (6.98%) Problem-Solving
14 114 (6.08%) E-Commerce
15 111 (5.92%) SDLC
16 110 (5.86%) Prototyping
17 108 (5.76%) BDD
18 104 (5.54%) Web Design
19 103 (5.49%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,424 (75.91%) JavaScript
2 350 (18.66%) Java
3 320 (17.06%) SQL
4 303 (16.15%) C#
5 235 (12.53%) TypeScript
6 232 (12.37%) PHP
7 149 (7.94%) Python
8 108 (5.76%) ES6
9 65 (3.46%) PowerShell
10 40 (2.13%) Java 8
11 37 (1.97%) Scala
12 36 (1.92%) PL/SQL
13 27 (1.44%) T-SQL
14 25 (1.33%) Kotlin
15 24 (1.28%) Go
15 24 (1.28%) Ruby
16 23 (1.23%) C
17 22 (1.17%) VB.NET
18 20 (1.07%) VB
19 17 (0.91%) C++
Qualifications
1 181 (9.65%) Security Cleared
2 151 (8.05%) SC Cleared
3 115 (6.13%) Degree
4 51 (2.72%) Computer Science Degree
5 23 (1.23%) BPSS Clearance
6 14 (0.75%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.21%) DBS Check
7 4 (0.21%) Master's Degree
7 4 (0.21%) Numerate Degree
8 3 (0.16%) Microsoft Certification
9 2 (0.11%) HNC
9 2 (0.11%) HND
9 2 (0.11%) ISTQB
9 2 (0.11%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 2 (0.11%) TOGAF Certification
10 1 (0.053%) BC Cleared
10 1 (0.053%) MCPD
10 1 (0.053%) MCSD
10 1 (0.053%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 75 (4.00%) QA
2 60 (3.20%) WCAG
3 22 (1.17%) GDPR
4 11 (0.59%) WAI
5 7 (0.37%) NCSC
6 5 (0.27%) Disclosure Scotland
6 5 (0.27%) SLA
7 4 (0.21%) Section 508
8 3 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 2 (0.11%) Cyber Essentials
9 2 (0.11%) Data Quality
9 2 (0.11%) NIST
9 2 (0.11%) PCI DSS
10 1 (0.053%) Actionable Recommendations
10 1 (0.053%) Government Security Classifications
10 1 (0.053%) HL7
System Software
1 189 (10.07%) Docker
2 15 (0.80%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.21%) VMware NSX
4 3 (0.16%) VMware Infrastructure
5 2 (0.11%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 91 (4.85%) Kubernetes
2 50 (2.67%) Terraform
3 21 (1.12%) Ansible
4 18 (0.96%) Kibana
5 12 (0.64%) Grafana
6 11 (0.59%) Puppet
7 9 (0.48%) Opscode Chef
8 5 (0.27%) PowerCLI
8 5 (0.27%) Prometheus
8 5 (0.27%) Single Sign-On
9 4 (0.21%) Capistrano
10 3 (0.16%) Icinga
11 1 (0.053%) cPanel
11 1 (0.053%) HP ALM
11 1 (0.053%) HP Quality Center
11 1 (0.053%) logstash
11 1 (0.053%) Plesk
11 1 (0.053%) WebSphere Cast Iron
Vendors
1 149 (7.94%) Microsoft
2 88 (4.69%) Oracle
3 78 (4.16%) Adobe
3 78 (4.16%) Google
4 44 (2.35%) ServiceNow
5 42 (2.24%) Salesforce.com
6 33 (1.76%) SAP
7 22 (1.17%) Sitecore
8 19 (1.01%) Splunk
9 15 (0.80%) hybris
10 13 (0.69%) VMware
11 12 (0.64%) WooCommerce
12 11 (0.59%) Bloomberg
13 10 (0.53%) Apple
13 10 (0.53%) IBM
13 10 (0.53%) Zend
14 8 (0.43%) Atlassian
14 8 (0.43%) MuleSoft
14 8 (0.43%) Optimizely
14 8 (0.43%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud