Period
to 11 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 11 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
11 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 49 35 24
Rank change year-on-year -14 -11 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,344 3,196 6,707
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.46% 5.36% 6.95%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.73% 17.82% 21.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,636 2,222 4,931
10th Percentile £300 £310 £313
25th Percentile £363 £363 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £450 £450 £450
75th Percentile £530 £538 £525
90th Percentile £600 £615 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £422
% change year-on-year - -5.21% +8.90%
Number of hourly rates quoted 44 30 63
10th Percentile £22.97 £21.40 £13.60
25th Percentile £27.50 £26.76 £23.98
Median hourly rate £41.00 £47.12 £42.50
Median % change year-on-year -12.98% +10.86% +16.44%
75th Percentile £55.00 £52.50 £52.50
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.88 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £38.69 £47.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -18.55% +11.76% -5.56%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 15,908 17,934 31,790
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.26% 30.07% 32.93%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,361 12,627 22,749
10th Percentile £325 £331 £325
25th Percentile £405 £410 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £488
Median % change year-on-year - +2.56% +2.63%
75th Percentile £588 £579 £575
90th Percentile £675 £663 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -5.56% +2.86% +6.06%
Number of hourly rates quoted 185 168 280
10th Percentile £23.70 £18.79 £17.95
25th Percentile £33.75 £29.74 £27.50
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £43.00
Median % change year-on-year -2.17% +6.98% +6.83%
75th Percentile £57.50 £54.06 £52.50
90th Percentile £65.60 £71.13 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £43.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year +3.45% +2.35% +3.66%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 11 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 11 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 11 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -12 1,886 £450 - 1,823
London -17 1,057 £490 -2.00% 542
UK excluding London -7 906 £400 - 1,420
Work from Home -24 783 £450 +12.50% 451
North of England +11 231 £400 - 441
South East +3 223 £400 -5.88% 262
Scotland -4 160 £410 +2.50% 71
North West +11 147 £388 -3.13% 242
Midlands -8 146 £365 -5.81% 298
South West -17 80 £430 +7.50% 181
East Midlands +13 74 £350 -4.11% 124
West Midlands -25 68 £375 -6.25% 174
Yorkshire -18 64 £425 - 154
East of England -18 41 £434 +8.44% 99
North East +24 20 £425 +6.25% 45
Wales -6 17 £363 -14.71% 53
Northern Ireland -1 8 £432 +0.12% 17

For the 6 months to 11 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,084 (88.91%) HTML
2 1,802 (76.88%) JavaScript
3 934 (39.85%) Agile Software Development
4 708 (30.20%) React
5 674 (28.75%) Front End Development
6 633 (27.01%) HTML5
7 617 (26.32%) AngularJS
8 541 (23.08%) Node.js
9 501 (21.37%) Git (software)
10 472 (20.14%) User Experience
11 457 (19.50%) CSS3
12 451 (19.24%) Azure
13 437 (18.64%) .NET
14 408 (17.41%) TypeScript
15 382 (16.30%) SQL
16 370 (15.78%) jQuery
17 361 (15.40%) TDD
18 357 (15.23%) Java
19 353 (15.06%) C#
20 345 (14.72%) DevOps
21 316 (13.48%) Sass
22 315 (13.44%) REST
23 299 (12.76%) Web Development
24 292 (12.46%) Redux
25 275 (11.73%) AWS
26 273 (11.65%) MVC
27 257 (10.96%) PHP
28 254 (10.84%) Web Services
29 245 (10.45%) Finance
30 241 (10.28%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 122 (5.20%) CMS
2 83 (3.54%) WordPress
3 67 (2.86%) SharePoint
4 53 (2.26%) Confluence
5 38 (1.62%) Apache
6 36 (1.54%) Drupal
7 33 (1.41%) IIS
8 26 (1.11%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 22 (0.94%) Elasticsearch
10 21 (0.90%) Tomcat
10 21 (0.90%) Umbraco
11 15 (0.64%) Jadu
11 15 (0.64%) WebSphere
12 13 (0.55%) Cloud Foundry
12 13 (0.55%) Headless CMS
12 13 (0.55%) nginx
13 11 (0.47%) WebLogic
14 10 (0.43%) Apache Solr
14 10 (0.43%) JBoss
15 8 (0.34%) SharePoint 2010
Applications
1 38 (1.62%) Photoshop
1 38 (1.62%) Sketch
2 22 (0.94%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 21 (0.90%) InVision
4 20 (0.85%) Figma
5 19 (0.81%) Adobe Illustrator
6 16 (0.68%) Adobe XD
7 15 (0.64%) Chatbot
8 14 (0.60%) Microsoft Office
9 11 (0.47%) Adobe After Effects
10 10 (0.43%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 9 (0.38%) Adobe Premiere
11 9 (0.38%) InfoPath
12 7 (0.30%) CINEMA 4D
12 7 (0.30%) Zeplin
13 4 (0.17%) Microsoft Excel
13 4 (0.17%) OmniGraffle
13 4 (0.17%) UserZoom
14 1 (0.043%) Final Cut Pro
14 1 (0.043%) GIMP
Business Applications
1 49 (2.09%) Magento
2 32 (1.37%) Shopify
3 26 (1.11%) Dynamics CRM
4 4 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.13%) Distributed Ledger
5 3 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 2 (0.085%) Dynamics NAV
7 1 (0.043%) Adobe Campaign
7 1 (0.043%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.043%) Dynamics GP
7 1 (0.043%) Exstream
7 1 (0.043%) Radian6
7 1 (0.043%) Sentinel
7 1 (0.043%) Siebel CRM
7 1 (0.043%) Tesseract
7 1 (0.043%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 451 (19.24%) Azure
2 275 (11.73%) AWS
3 116 (4.95%) Serverless
4 102 (4.35%) GitHub
5 66 (2.82%) AWS Lambda
5 66 (2.82%) PaaS
6 62 (2.65%) npm
7 56 (2.39%) Amazon S3
7 56 (2.39%) Microsoft 365
8 52 (2.22%) GCP
9 47 (2.01%) AWS CloudFormation
10 46 (1.96%) Power Platform
11 38 (1.62%) SaaS
12 34 (1.45%) Google Analytics
13 32 (1.37%) PowerApps
14 31 (1.32%) Azure Functions
15 25 (1.07%) Dynamics 365
16 24 (1.02%) Heroku
17 23 (0.98%) Logic Apps
17 23 (0.98%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 45 (1.92%) HTTP
2 20 (0.85%) SSL
3 18 (0.77%) Internet
4 13 (0.55%) DNS
4 13 (0.55%) VPN
5 11 (0.47%) Intranet
6 10 (0.43%) HTTPS
7 6 (0.26%) TCP/IP
8 3 (0.13%) DHCP
8 3 (0.13%) IPFS
9 2 (0.085%) Broadband
9 2 (0.085%) Firewall
9 2 (0.085%) Intrusion Detection
9 2 (0.085%) Skype
9 2 (0.085%) UPnP
9 2 (0.085%) ZigBee
10 1 (0.043%) Extranet
10 1 (0.043%) SSH
10 1 (0.043%) Wi-Fi
10 1 (0.043%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 202 (8.62%) SQL Server
2 166 (7.08%) MySQL
3 107 (4.56%) MongoDB
4 104 (4.44%) NoSQL
5 94 (4.01%) PostgreSQL
6 73 (3.11%) Relational Database
7 35 (1.49%) Azure SQL Database
8 28 (1.19%) Redis
9 26 (1.11%) Amazon Aurora
10 25 (1.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 23 (0.98%) Cosmos DB
12 22 (0.94%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 21 (0.90%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 19 (0.81%) Oracle Database
15 18 (0.77%) Big Data
15 18 (0.77%) Power BI
16 16 (0.68%) Apache Cassandra
17 15 (0.64%) RDBMS
18 12 (0.51%) Amazon RDS
19 11 (0.47%) Couchbase
Development Applications
1 501 (21.37%) Git (software)
2 184 (7.85%) webpack
3 172 (7.34%) Jenkins
4 147 (6.27%) JIRA
5 87 (3.71%) Jasmine
6 82 (3.50%) gulp
7 70 (2.99%) Cypress.io
8 66 (2.82%) Maven
9 60 (2.56%) Mocha
10 59 (2.52%) Visual Studio
11 56 (2.39%) Grunt
12 52 (2.22%) SonarQube
13 48 (2.05%) Selenium
14 46 (1.96%) JUnit
15 39 (1.66%) Team Foundation Server
16 36 (1.54%) Karma Test Runner
17 34 (1.45%) GitLab
17 34 (1.45%) Subversion
18 29 (1.24%) Cucumber
19 27 (1.15%) Gradle
General
1 245 (10.45%) Finance
2 151 (6.44%) Public Sector
3 121 (5.16%) Marketing
4 105 (4.48%) Banking
5 68 (2.90%) Retail
6 44 (1.88%) Law
7 38 (1.62%) Telecoms
8 30 (1.28%) Games
9 27 (1.15%) Investment Banking
10 24 (1.02%) Front Office
11 22 (0.94%) Manufacturing
12 18 (0.77%) Publishing
13 16 (0.68%) Legal
14 15 (0.64%) Local Government
15 13 (0.55%) Advertising
16 12 (0.51%) Electronics
16 12 (0.51%) Retail Banking
17 9 (0.38%) Back Office
17 9 (0.38%) French Language
18 8 (0.34%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 1,818 (77.56%) Developer
2 491 (20.95%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 333 (14.21%) React Developer
4 271 (11.56%) Full Stack Developer
5 189 (8.06%) JavaScript Developer
6 184 (7.85%) Senior Developer
7 175 (7.47%) .NET Developer
8 165 (7.04%) Angular Developer
9 149 (6.36%) Designer
10 102 (4.35%) PHP Developer
11 94 (4.01%) Java Developer
12 93 (3.97%) UI Developer
13 85 (3.63%) HTML Developer
14 83 (3.54%) Web Developer
15 82 (3.50%) Node.js Developer
16 77 (3.28%) C# Developer
17 67 (2.86%) HTML CSS Developer
18 66 (2.82%) ServiceNow Developer
19 63 (2.69%) Lead Developer
20 61 (2.60%) UX Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,084 (88.91%) HTML
2 708 (30.20%) React
3 633 (27.01%) HTML5
4 617 (26.32%) AngularJS
5 541 (23.08%) Node.js
6 457 (19.50%) CSS3
7 437 (18.64%) .NET
8 370 (15.78%) jQuery
9 316 (13.48%) Sass
10 315 (13.44%) REST
11 292 (12.46%) Redux
12 254 (10.84%) Web Services
13 226 (9.64%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 222 (9.47%) RESTful
15 183 (7.81%) Vue.js
16 178 (7.59%) JSON
17 175 (7.47%) XML
18 173 (7.38%) Spring
19 170 (7.25%) ASP.NET
20 152 (6.48%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 472 (20.14%) User Experience
2 156 (6.66%) Greenfield Project
3 125 (5.33%) Mobile App
4 98 (4.18%) Analytical Skills
5 50 (2.13%) Self-Motivation
6 49 (2.09%) Social Media
7 44 (1.88%) Data Structures
8 38 (1.62%) Enterprise Software
9 27 (1.15%) Cloud Native
10 26 (1.11%) Algorithms
11 25 (1.07%) Public Cloud
12 22 (0.94%) N-Tier
13 20 (0.85%) Virtual Team
14 19 (0.81%) Hedge funds
15 18 (0.77%) Graphic Design
16 17 (0.73%) PKI
17 16 (0.68%) NHS
17 16 (0.68%) W3C
18 15 (0.64%) Management Information System
19 13 (0.55%) Animation
Operating Systems
1 100 (4.27%) Linux
2 56 (2.39%) Android
3 52 (2.22%) Windows
4 47 (2.01%) Unix
5 44 (1.88%) Apple iOS
6 17 (0.73%) Windows Server
7 16 (0.68%) Mac OS
7 16 (0.68%) Ubuntu
7 16 (0.68%) Windows Server 2012
8 13 (0.55%) Windows Server 2016
9 9 (0.38%) CentOS
10 8 (0.34%) Mac OS X
11 6 (0.26%) Windows 10
12 4 (0.17%) VMS
13 3 (0.13%) Windows Server 2003
13 3 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
13 3 (0.13%) Windows Server 2019
14 2 (0.085%) Alpine Linux
15 1 (0.043%) webOS
15 1 (0.043%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 934 (39.85%) Agile Software Development
2 674 (28.75%) Front End Development
3 361 (15.40%) TDD
4 345 (14.72%) DevOps
5 299 (12.76%) Web Development
6 273 (11.65%) MVC
7 241 (10.28%) Software Engineering
8 228 (9.73%) Microservices
9 218 (9.30%) Scrum
10 216 (9.22%) Test Automation
11 182 (7.76%) Continuous Integration
12 180 (7.68%) Unit Testing
13 171 (7.30%) OO
14 135 (5.76%) Problem-Solving
15 134 (5.72%) E-Commerce
16 127 (5.42%) SDLC
17 125 (5.33%) Web Design
18 123 (5.25%) BDD
19 115 (4.91%) Wireframes
20 112 (4.78%) Prototyping
Programming Languages
1 1,802 (76.88%) JavaScript
2 408 (17.41%) TypeScript
3 382 (16.30%) SQL
4 357 (15.23%) Java
5 353 (15.06%) C#
6 257 (10.96%) PHP
7 182 (7.76%) ES6
8 170 (7.25%) Python
9 67 (2.86%) PowerShell
10 57 (2.43%) PL/SQL
11 51 (2.18%) Java 8
12 49 (2.09%) Ruby
13 32 (1.37%) Scala
14 31 (1.32%) Kotlin
15 27 (1.15%) Go
16 26 (1.11%) Bash Shell
17 25 (1.07%) T-SQL
18 18 (0.77%) Apex Code
19 16 (0.68%) C++
20 15 (0.64%) C
Qualifications
1 163 (6.95%) Security Cleared
2 145 (6.19%) SC Cleared
3 111 (4.74%) Degree
4 49 (2.09%) Computer Science Degree
5 17 (0.73%) BPSS Clearance
6 7 (0.30%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.17%) Master's Degree
8 3 (0.13%) AWS Certification
8 3 (0.13%) DBS Check
8 3 (0.13%) Microsoft Certification
9 2 (0.085%) ISTQB
9 2 (0.085%) MCSE
9 2 (0.085%) Postgraduate
10 1 (0.043%) HNC
10 1 (0.043%) HND
10 1 (0.043%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 1 (0.043%) ITIL Certification
10 1 (0.043%) Numerate Degree
10 1 (0.043%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 81 (3.46%) QA
2 66 (2.82%) WCAG
3 18 (0.77%) GDPR
4 10 (0.43%) SLA
5 7 (0.30%) WAI
6 3 (0.13%) Data Quality
6 3 (0.13%) Disclosure Scotland
6 3 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 2 (0.085%) Cyber Essentials
7 2 (0.085%) NCSC
7 2 (0.085%) NIST
7 2 (0.085%) PCI DSS
7 2 (0.085%) Section 508
8 1 (0.043%) Actionable Recommendations
8 1 (0.043%) Government Security Classifications
8 1 (0.043%) GRC
8 1 (0.043%) HL7
System Software
1 219 (9.34%) Docker
2 34 (1.45%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.17%) Virtual Machines
4 2 (0.085%) VMware NSX
5 1 (0.043%) OpenAM
5 1 (0.043%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 120 (5.12%) Kubernetes
2 48 (2.05%) Terraform
3 23 (0.98%) Ansible
4 21 (0.90%) Single Sign-On
5 20 (0.85%) Grafana
6 12 (0.51%) Kibana
7 7 (0.30%) Puppet
8 5 (0.21%) Icinga
8 5 (0.21%) Opscode Chef
8 5 (0.21%) Prometheus
9 2 (0.085%) MIIS
9 2 (0.085%) PowerCLI
9 2 (0.085%) Rancher
10 1 (0.043%) cPanel
10 1 (0.043%) Hadoop YARN
10 1 (0.043%) HP ALM
10 1 (0.043%) Istio
10 1 (0.043%) Plesk
10 1 (0.043%) vCenter Server
10 1 (0.043%) WebSphere Cast Iron
Vendors
1 186 (7.94%) Microsoft
2 119 (5.08%) Oracle
3 85 (3.63%) Adobe
4 77 (3.28%) Google
5 71 (3.03%) ServiceNow
6 51 (2.18%) Salesforce.com
7 30 (1.28%) SAP
8 22 (0.94%) Sitecore
9 20 (0.85%) Optimizely
10 17 (0.73%) hybris
10 17 (0.73%) Nintex
10 17 (0.73%) VMware
11 15 (0.64%) Zend
12 13 (0.55%) Apple
13 12 (0.51%) DevExpress
13 12 (0.51%) WooCommerce
14 11 (0.47%) Splunk
15 10 (0.43%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 9 (0.38%) Atlassian
16 9 (0.38%) CA Agile Central