Period
to 25 May 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 25 May 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
25 May 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 24 17 14
Rank change year-on-year -7 -3 +6
Contract jobs citing CSS 6,282 7,914 7,619
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 6.86% 7.80% 8.43%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 20.96% 23.75% 26.38%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,510 5,734 5,334
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +3.90%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £270
90th Percentile £594 £575 £550
UK excluding London median daily rate £419 £400 £368
% change year-on-year +4.69% +8.84% +5.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 59 43 52
UK median hourly rate £41.40 £42.50 £39.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -2.59% +8.97% +14.71%
10th Percentile £13.50 £11.52 £14.75
90th Percentile £58.40 £48.75 £46.90
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.50 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year -2.35% +6.25% +29.03%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 29,971 33,324 28,885
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 32.71% 32.83% 31.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 20,968 23,466 19,999
UK median daily rate £490 £475 £438
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.16% +8.57% +2.94%
10th Percentile £331 £313 £300
90th Percentile £644 £625 £607
UK excluding London median daily rate £443 £413 £400
% change year-on-year +7.27% +3.13% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 308 338 353
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £42.13 £40.26
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +0.89% +4.63% +5.95%
10th Percentile £17.48 £16.25 £16.19
90th Percentile £60.00 £63.25 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £40.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year +4.94% +1.25% +5.96%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 May 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 May 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 25 May 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 5,779 £450 +5.88% 1,085
UK excluding London -8 3,317 £419 +4.69% 769
London -5 2,858 £488 +2.63% 368
South East -9 1,021 £425 - 182
North of England -11 784 £400 +6.67% 231
Midlands -4 508 £400 +6.67% 161
South West -5 424 £425 +13.33% 82
Yorkshire -6 361 £400 +6.67% 69
North West -11 337 £388 +3.47% 148
West Midlands -10 311 £400 +6.67% 68
Scotland +1 265 £400 - 19
East Midlands +2 187 £400 +8.11% 91
East of England -20 165 £400 - 62
Wales +17 124 £408 +6.19% 23
North East +6 86 £400 +10.73% 14
Northern Ireland +13 37 £411 -4.64% 8

For the 6 months to 25 May 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 5,707 (90.85%) HTML
2 5,027 (80.02%) JavaScript
3 2,984 (47.50%) Agile Software Development
4 2,221 (35.35%) HTML5
5 2,104 (33.49%) AngularJS
6 1,794 (28.56%) Front End Development
7 1,687 (26.85%) Git (software)
8 1,606 (25.57%) React
9 1,540 (24.51%) .NET
10 1,538 (24.48%) CSS3
11 1,496 (23.81%) C#
12 1,437 (22.87%) jQuery
13 1,356 (21.59%) TDD
14 1,265 (20.14%) Node.js
15 1,249 (19.88%) Java
16 1,185 (18.86%) MVC
17 1,096 (17.45%) SQL
18 1,028 (16.36%) Sass
19 994 (15.82%) Web Development
20 989 (15.74%) User Experience
21 960 (15.28%) Scrum
22 882 (14.04%) SQL Server
23 868 (13.82%) ASP.NET
24 840 (13.37%) Finance
25 813 (12.94%) REST
26 742 (11.81%) Test Automation
27 730 (11.62%) TypeScript
28 729 (11.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
29 698 (11.11%) Microsoft Azure
30 689 (10.97%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 426 (6.78%) CMS
2 192 (3.06%) Confluence
3 185 (2.94%) SharePoint
4 178 (2.83%) WordPress
5 174 (2.77%) Apache
6 139 (2.21%) Drupal
7 116 (1.85%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 110 (1.75%) JBoss
9 96 (1.53%) Elasticsearch
10 87 (1.38%) Tomcat
11 83 (1.32%) Umbraco
12 78 (1.24%) WebSphere
13 58 (0.92%) IIS
13 58 (0.92%) WebLogic
14 57 (0.91%) SharePoint 2013
15 49 (0.78%) nginx
16 43 (0.68%) Sitecore CMS
17 39 (0.62%) SharePoint 2010
18 38 (0.60%) Apache Solr
19 30 (0.48%) EPiServer
Applications
1 180 (2.87%) Photoshop
2 102 (1.62%) Sketch
3 96 (1.53%) Adobe Illustrator
4 60 (0.96%) InVision
5 45 (0.72%) Microsoft Excel
6 41 (0.65%) Microsoft Office
7 30 (0.48%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 21 (0.33%) Adobe XD
9 19 (0.30%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 16 (0.25%) Zeplin
11 14 (0.22%) InfoPath
12 13 (0.21%) Fireworks
13 12 (0.19%) UXPin
14 11 (0.18%) Camtasia
14 11 (0.18%) MS Visio
14 11 (0.18%) XMetaL
15 10 (0.16%) Adobe After Effects
15 10 (0.16%) Chatbot
16 9 (0.14%) InDesign
16 9 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 103 (1.64%) Magento
2 91 (1.45%) Dynamics CRM
3 11 (0.18%) Adobe Campaign
3 11 (0.18%) Shopify
4 10 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
5 9 (0.14%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 5 (0.080%) NetSuite
7 4 (0.064%) Distributed Ledger
7 4 (0.064%) R3 Corda
7 4 (0.064%) Remedy ITSM
7 4 (0.064%) Revive Adserver
7 4 (0.064%) SDL Web 8
8 3 (0.048%) Eloqua
8 3 (0.048%) WebTrends
9 2 (0.032%) Dynamics AX
9 2 (0.032%) Dynamics NAV
9 2 (0.032%) Endur
9 2 (0.032%) Oracle BPM
9 2 (0.032%) Scribe Insight
10 1 (0.016%) Primavera
Cloud Services
1 698 (11.11%) Microsoft Azure
2 531 (8.45%) Amazon AWS
3 252 (4.01%) GitHub
4 212 (3.37%) npm
5 113 (1.80%) Serverless
6 105 (1.67%) PaaS
7 97 (1.54%) Office 365
8 91 (1.45%) SaaS
9 81 (1.29%) Google Analytics
10 69 (1.10%) Google Cloud Platform
11 65 (1.03%) AWS Lambda
11 65 (1.03%) Power Platform
12 47 (0.75%) Dynamics 365
13 43 (0.68%) Adobe Analytics
14 42 (0.67%) Yarn
15 39 (0.62%) Amazon EC2
15 39 (0.62%) Amazon SQS
16 35 (0.56%) Azure Active Directory
17 29 (0.46%) Heroku
18 28 (0.45%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 142 (2.26%) HTTP
2 59 (0.94%) TCP/IP
3 57 (0.91%) SSL
4 51 (0.81%) Internet
5 34 (0.54%) DNS
6 28 (0.45%) FTP
7 26 (0.41%) Intranet
8 15 (0.24%) SSH
9 11 (0.18%) DHCP
10 10 (0.16%) MQTT
11 9 (0.14%) HTTPS
12 8 (0.13%) Firewall
12 8 (0.13%) Network Security
12 8 (0.13%) Skype
13 5 (0.080%) AMQP
13 5 (0.080%) SMS
13 5 (0.080%) SNMP
14 4 (0.064%) RTMP
14 4 (0.064%) SMTP
15 3 (0.048%) NFC
Database & Business Intelligence
1 882 (14.04%) SQL Server
2 490 (7.80%) MySQL
3 295 (4.70%) NoSQL
4 275 (4.38%) Relational Database
5 259 (4.12%) MongoDB
6 200 (3.18%) PostgreSQL
7 74 (1.18%) Redis
8 71 (1.13%) RDBMS
9 69 (1.10%) Big Data
10 63 (1.00%) Apache Cassandra
11 61 (0.97%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 45 (0.72%) DB2
13 43 (0.68%) Power BI
14 40 (0.64%) Oracle Database
15 38 (0.60%) SQL Server 2012
16 36 (0.57%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 35 (0.56%) Azure SQL Database
18 32 (0.51%) Hadoop
19 31 (0.49%) Amazon RDS
19 31 (0.49%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 1,687 (26.85%) Git (software)
2 504 (8.02%) Jenkins
3 417 (6.64%) JIRA
4 382 (6.08%) gulp
5 347 (5.52%) webpack
6 322 (5.13%) Grunt
7 319 (5.08%) Visual Studio
8 277 (4.41%) Jasmine
9 258 (4.11%) Selenium
10 225 (3.58%) Subversion
11 207 (3.30%) Team Foundation Server
12 204 (3.25%) Maven
13 190 (3.02%) Karma Test Runner
14 186 (2.96%) JUnit
15 173 (2.75%) Cucumber
16 166 (2.64%) Mocha
17 144 (2.29%) Visual Studio Team System
18 137 (2.18%) Bitbucket
19 96 (1.53%) Protractor
20 94 (1.50%) GitLab
General
1 840 (13.37%) Finance
2 302 (4.81%) Banking
3 296 (4.71%) Marketing
4 185 (2.94%) Retail
5 104 (1.66%) Front Office
6 76 (1.21%) Investment Banking
7 75 (1.19%) Telecoms
8 66 (1.05%) Legal
9 63 (1.00%) Games
9 63 (1.00%) Law
10 59 (0.94%) Publishing
11 48 (0.76%) Manufacturing
12 39 (0.62%) Advertising
13 30 (0.48%) Electronics
14 20 (0.32%) Pharmaceutical
15 18 (0.29%) Automotive
16 16 (0.25%) French Language
17 15 (0.24%) Back Office
18 13 (0.21%) Financial Institution
19 9 (0.14%) German Language
Job Titles
1 5,224 (83.16%) Developer
2 1,315 (20.93%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 795 (12.66%) JavaScript Developer
4 743 (11.83%) React Developer
5 692 (11.02%) .NET Developer
6 661 (10.52%) Full Stack Developer
7 507 (8.07%) Angular Developer
8 453 (7.21%) Senior Developer
9 433 (6.89%) Java Developer
10 378 (6.02%) C# Developer
11 310 (4.93%) Web Developer
12 302 (4.81%) Designer
13 269 (4.28%) PHP Developer
14 263 (4.19%) HTML Developer
15 257 (4.09%) UI Developer
16 250 (3.98%) C# .NET Developer
17 200 (3.18%) HTML CSS Developer
18 185 (2.94%) UX Designer
19 176 (2.80%) Node.js Developer
20 161 (2.56%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,707 (90.85%) HTML
2 2,221 (35.35%) HTML5
3 2,104 (33.49%) AngularJS
4 1,606 (25.57%) React
5 1,540 (24.51%) .NET
6 1,538 (24.48%) CSS3
7 1,437 (22.87%) jQuery
8 1,265 (20.14%) Node.js
9 1,028 (16.36%) Sass
10 868 (13.82%) ASP.NET
11 813 (12.94%) REST
12 729 (11.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 689 (10.97%) Web Services
14 642 (10.22%) RESTful
15 600 (9.55%) JSON
16 574 (9.14%) XML
17 573 (9.12%) Spring
18 550 (8.76%) Redux
19 512 (8.15%) .NET Framework
20 462 (7.35%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 989 (15.74%) User Experience
2 336 (5.35%) Greenfield Project
3 307 (4.89%) Mobile App
4 281 (4.47%) Analytical Skills
5 158 (2.52%) Fintech
6 91 (1.45%) Self-Motivation
7 89 (1.42%) Enterprise Software
8 75 (1.19%) W3C
9 70 (1.11%) Data Structures
10 67 (1.07%) Virtual Team
11 65 (1.03%) Hedge funds
12 61 (0.97%) Algorithms
12 61 (0.97%) Social Media
13 57 (0.91%) Linux Command Line
14 46 (0.73%) Graphic Design
15 36 (0.57%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 30 (0.48%) Fixed Income
17 29 (0.46%) Equities
18 28 (0.45%) Management Information System
19 27 (0.43%) Robotics
Operating Systems
1 480 (7.64%) Linux
2 233 (3.71%) Unix
3 201 (3.20%) Windows
4 122 (1.94%) Apple iOS
5 103 (1.64%) Android
6 52 (0.83%) Mac OS X
7 39 (0.62%) Ubuntu
8 25 (0.40%) Windows Server
9 17 (0.27%) Mac OS
9 17 (0.27%) VMS
10 12 (0.19%) CentOS
11 11 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
12 10 (0.16%) Windows Server 2003
12 10 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
13 8 (0.13%) Fedora
14 6 (0.096%) Debian
14 6 (0.096%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 5 (0.080%) Windows 10
16 4 (0.064%) Solaris
17 2 (0.032%) HPUX
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,984 (47.50%) Agile Software Development
2 1,794 (28.56%) Front End Development
3 1,356 (21.59%) TDD
4 1,185 (18.86%) MVC
5 994 (15.82%) Web Development
6 960 (15.28%) Scrum
7 742 (11.81%) Test Automation
8 618 (9.84%) DevOps
9 608 (9.68%) BDD
10 576 (9.17%) Continuous Integration
11 556 (8.85%) OO
12 513 (8.17%) Microservices
13 479 (7.62%) Responsive Web Design
14 454 (7.23%) Unit Testing
15 430 (6.84%) Problem-Solving
16 400 (6.37%) Software Engineering
17 396 (6.30%) E-Commerce
18 314 (5.00%) Analytics
19 307 (4.89%) Open Source
20 305 (4.86%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 5,027 (80.02%) JavaScript
2 1,496 (23.81%) C#
3 1,249 (19.88%) Java
4 1,096 (17.45%) SQL
5 730 (11.62%) TypeScript
6 681 (10.84%) PHP
7 626 (9.96%) ES6
8 375 (5.97%) Python
9 225 (3.58%) Ruby
10 223 (3.55%) Java 8
11 196 (3.12%) T-SQL
12 153 (2.44%) Scala
13 100 (1.59%) PowerShell
14 75 (1.19%) ES7
15 74 (1.18%) Groovy
16 67 (1.07%) PL/SQL
17 64 (1.02%) Perl
18 61 (0.97%) VB.NET
19 60 (0.96%) Bash Shell
20 50 (0.80%) Go
Qualifications
1 294 (4.68%) Security Cleared
2 286 (4.55%) Degree
3 203 (3.23%) SC Cleared
4 79 (1.26%) Computer Science Degree
5 73 (1.16%) BPSS Clearance
6 42 (0.67%) DBS Check
7 22 (0.35%) Master's Degree
8 21 (0.33%) Numerate Degree
9 16 (0.25%) Microsoft Certification
10 15 (0.24%) DV Cleared
11 10 (0.16%) MCSE
12 9 (0.14%) ISTQB
13 8 (0.13%) ITIL Certification
14 7 (0.11%) BC Cleared
15 5 (0.080%) CISSP
15 5 (0.080%) SSCP
16 4 (0.064%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
16 4 (0.064%) MCSD
17 3 (0.048%) ISEB
17 3 (0.048%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 238 (3.79%) QA
2 70 (1.11%) WCAG
3 25 (0.40%) GDPR
4 17 (0.27%) Disclosure Scotland
5 14 (0.22%) Data Quality
6 11 (0.18%) SLA
7 9 (0.14%) WAI
8 4 (0.064%) ISO 15022
8 4 (0.064%) ISO 20022
9 3 (0.048%) Dublin Core
9 3 (0.048%) GxP
9 3 (0.048%) PCI DSS
10 2 (0.032%) HL7
10 2 (0.032%) PMO
10 2 (0.032%) PSD2
11 1 (0.016%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.016%) ISO/IEC 27001
System Software
1 462 (7.35%) Docker
2 45 (0.72%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.21%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.080%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.064%) VirtualBox
6 3 (0.048%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
6 3 (0.048%) Shibboleth
7 2 (0.032%) vCloud
8 1 (0.016%) Apache Flume
8 1 (0.016%) KVM
8 1 (0.016%) LXC
8 1 (0.016%) Postfix
8 1 (0.016%) Varnish
8 1 (0.016%) Xen
8 1 (0.016%) zsh
Systems Management
1 153 (2.44%) Kubernetes
2 79 (1.26%) Puppet
3 65 (1.03%) Ansible
4 55 (0.88%) Kibana
5 45 (0.72%) Terraform
6 38 (0.60%) Grafana
7 30 (0.48%) Opscode Chef
8 18 (0.29%) Docker Swarm
9 11 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
10 8 (0.13%) logstash
11 5 (0.080%) cPanel
11 5 (0.080%) ZABBIX
12 4 (0.064%) HAProxy
12 4 (0.064%) MIIS
13 3 (0.048%) Control-M
13 3 (0.048%) Graphite
13 3 (0.048%) Packer
13 3 (0.048%) Prometheus
13 3 (0.048%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
13 3 (0.048%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 565 (8.99%) Microsoft
2 319 (5.08%) Oracle
3 292 (4.65%) Adobe
4 191 (3.04%) Google
5 100 (1.59%) Salesforce.com
6 81 (1.29%) ServiceNow
7 67 (1.07%) Sitecore
7 67 (1.07%) Zend
8 66 (1.05%) Atlassian
9 49 (0.78%) hybris
10 44 (0.70%) IBM
11 41 (0.65%) Splunk
12 40 (0.64%) Cypress Semiconductor
13 39 (0.62%) MuleSoft
14 36 (0.57%) webMethods
15 33 (0.53%) SAP
16 28 (0.45%) Xamarin
17 26 (0.41%) Nintex
18 25 (0.40%) Telerik
19 24 (0.38%) Informatica