Period
to 30 September 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 30 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
30 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 46 29 20
Rank change year-on-year -17 -9 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,434 5,358 7,889
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.81% 6.16% 7.81%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 15.55% 19.69% 22.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,128 3,852 5,858
Median daily rate £425 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -5.56% +5.88% +3.03%
10th Percentile £288 £313 £306
90th Percentile £600 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £410 £405 £400
% change year-on-year +1.23% +1.25% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 32 60 55
Median hourly rate £35.00 £46.25 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -24.32% +8.82% +6.25%
10th Percentile £29.25 £24.50 £13.70
90th Percentile £54.88 £60.00 £56.90
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £44.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year -21.35% +4.71% -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 9,223 27,210 35,402
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.94% 31.28% 35.07%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,129 18,890 24,996
Median daily rate £495 £495 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +4.21% +5.56%
10th Percentile £313 £335 £325
90th Percentile £688 £650 £631
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £440 £425
% change year-on-year +2.27% +3.53% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 142 304 330
Median hourly rate £35.00 £44.01 £41.69
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -20.47% +5.57% +4.22%
10th Percentile £23.65 £20.26 £15.21
90th Percentile £55.00 £63.75 £58.88
Median hourly rate £35.00 £43.50 £41.00
% change year-on-year -19.54% +6.10% +2.50%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 30 September 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 30 September 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 30 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -16 1,269 £438 -2.78% 1,474
UK excluding London -6 659 £410 +1.23% 1,227
London -27 651 £475 -2.56% 336
Work from Home -12 259 £413 -2.94% 253
North of England +7 199 £413 +3.45% 368
South East -18 131 £450 +5.88% 234
Midlands +6 127 £363 -9.38% 272
North West 0 114 £425 +9.68% 208
South West -7 90 £400 - 164
West Midlands +5 88 £413 - 149
Scotland -12 66 £400 -5.88% 53
Yorkshire +3 58 £410 +2.50% 104
East Midlands +7 39 £318 -16.32% 122
East of England -18 31 £400 -5.88% 98
North East +12 27 £394 -1.50% 56
Wales -16 11 £400 -1.23% 32
Northern Ireland -9 4 £441 +6.59% 7

For the 6 months to 30 September 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,297 (90.45%) HTML
2 1,082 (75.45%) JavaScript
3 637 (44.42%) Agile Software Development
4 413 (28.80%) HTML5
5 405 (28.24%) Front End Development
6 402 (28.03%) AngularJS
7 354 (24.69%) Git (software)
8 340 (23.71%) User Experience
9 321 (22.38%) React
10 296 (20.64%) Node.js
10 296 (20.64%) Java
11 272 (18.97%) .NET
12 263 (18.34%) CSS3
13 257 (17.92%) SQL
14 255 (17.78%) C#
15 238 (16.60%) jQuery
16 218 (15.20%) Web Development
17 215 (14.99%) TDD
18 211 (14.71%) Sass
19 206 (14.37%) Security Cleared
20 204 (14.23%) DevOps
21 192 (13.39%) Azure
22 184 (12.83%) REST
23 178 (12.41%) Finance
24 172 (11.99%) SQL Server
25 165 (11.51%) Scrum
26 159 (11.09%) TypeScript
27 157 (10.95%) Test Automation
28 149 (10.39%) SC Cleared
29 142 (9.90%) MVC

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 65 (4.53%) CMS
2 59 (4.11%) SharePoint
3 47 (3.28%) Apache
4 41 (2.86%) Elasticsearch
5 35 (2.44%) Tomcat
6 34 (2.37%) WordPress
7 33 (2.30%) Confluence
8 32 (2.23%) IIS
9 23 (1.60%) Drupal
10 20 (1.39%) WebLogic
10 20 (1.39%) WebSphere
11 18 (1.26%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 16 (1.12%) Apache Solr
13 14 (0.98%) nginx
14 12 (0.84%) Umbraco
15 11 (0.77%) JBoss
16 9 (0.63%) Apache Spark
16 9 (0.63%) Sitecore CMS
17 8 (0.56%) WebSphere Application Server
18 6 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 46 (3.21%) Sketch
2 30 (2.09%) Photoshop
3 22 (1.53%) Microsoft Office
4 19 (1.32%) Adobe Illustrator
4 19 (1.32%) Microsoft Excel
5 17 (1.19%) InVision
6 14 (0.98%) Figma
6 14 (0.98%) InfoPath
7 12 (0.84%) MS Visio
8 11 (0.77%) Zeplin
9 9 (0.63%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 9 (0.63%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 8 (0.56%) Chatbot
11 5 (0.35%) Adobe Premiere
12 4 (0.28%) InDesign
13 3 (0.21%) Adobe After Effects
13 3 (0.21%) Adobe XD
14 2 (0.14%) Flinto
14 2 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
15 1 (0.070%) GIMP
Business Applications
1 30 (2.09%) Magento
2 23 (1.60%) Dynamics CRM
3 13 (0.91%) Shopify
4 9 (0.63%) Oracle ERP
5 5 (0.35%) Visualfiles
6 3 (0.21%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.070%) NetSuite
7 1 (0.070%) OpenCart
7 1 (0.070%) Oracle Applications
7 1 (0.070%) SAP Hybris
7 1 (0.070%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 192 (13.39%) Azure
2 130 (9.07%) AWS
3 52 (3.63%) GCP
4 44 (3.07%) GitHub
5 41 (2.86%) npm
6 32 (2.23%) Serverless
7 26 (1.81%) SaaS
8 23 (1.60%) Power Platform
9 22 (1.53%) Office 365
9 22 (1.53%) PaaS
10 16 (1.12%) Google Analytics
11 15 (1.05%) Cloud Computing
12 11 (0.77%) AWS Lambda
12 11 (0.77%) Azure Functions
13 10 (0.70%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 10 (0.70%) Amazon S3
14 8 (0.56%) Logic Apps
15 7 (0.49%) BrowserStack
15 7 (0.49%) Dynamics 365
15 7 (0.49%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 38 (2.65%) HTTP
2 15 (1.05%) Internet
3 14 (0.98%) Intranet
4 10 (0.70%) DNS
5 7 (0.49%) SSL
5 7 (0.49%) TCP/IP
6 6 (0.42%) Remote Desktop
6 6 (0.42%) Skype
7 5 (0.35%) DKIM
8 4 (0.28%) Kerberos
9 3 (0.21%) DSL
10 2 (0.14%) Firewall
10 2 (0.14%) Tactical Data Link
10 2 (0.14%) WebEx
11 1 (0.070%) HbbTV
11 1 (0.070%) HTTPS
11 1 (0.070%) Network Security
11 1 (0.070%) RTMP
11 1 (0.070%) SMS
11 1 (0.070%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 172 (11.99%) SQL Server
2 92 (6.42%) MySQL
3 65 (4.53%) PostgreSQL
4 59 (4.11%) Relational Database
5 55 (3.84%) MongoDB
6 51 (3.56%) NoSQL
7 36 (2.51%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 28 (1.95%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 27 (1.88%) Oracle Database
10 18 (1.26%) Redis
11 17 (1.19%) Big Data
12 13 (0.91%) Cosmos DB
13 12 (0.84%) Power BI
14 11 (0.77%) Data Warehouse
15 10 (0.70%) DB2
16 8 (0.56%) Azure SQL Database
16 8 (0.56%) Oracle Reports
17 7 (0.49%) Oracle Database 11g
17 7 (0.49%) SQL Server 2016
18 6 (0.42%) Oracle8/8i Database
Development Applications
1 354 (24.69%) Git (software)
2 132 (9.21%) Jenkins
3 80 (5.58%) JIRA
4 77 (5.37%) gulp
5 76 (5.30%) Subversion
6 71 (4.95%) Jasmine
7 70 (4.88%) Grunt
8 56 (3.91%) Visual Studio
8 56 (3.91%) webpack
9 53 (3.70%) Selenium
10 45 (3.14%) Mocha
11 43 (3.00%) Maven
12 32 (2.23%) JUnit
13 29 (2.02%) Cypress.io
14 28 (1.95%) Cucumber
14 28 (1.95%) Team Foundation Server
15 24 (1.67%) TeamCity
16 23 (1.60%) GitLab
17 22 (1.53%) git-flow
17 22 (1.53%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 178 (12.41%) Finance
2 141 (9.83%) Public Sector
3 92 (6.42%) Banking
4 61 (4.25%) Marketing
5 31 (2.16%) Investment Banking
6 28 (1.95%) Retail
7 27 (1.88%) Front Office
8 22 (1.53%) Law
9 14 (0.98%) Games
9 14 (0.98%) Telecoms
10 13 (0.91%) Manufacturing
11 11 (0.77%) Financial Institution
11 11 (0.77%) Publishing
12 10 (0.70%) Pharmaceutical
13 9 (0.63%) Back Office
14 8 (0.56%) Advertising
14 8 (0.56%) Legal
15 7 (0.49%) Electronics
16 6 (0.42%) Retail Banking
17 5 (0.35%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 1,048 (73.08%) Developer
2 294 (20.50%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 147 (10.25%) React Developer
4 132 (9.21%) Full Stack Developer
5 130 (9.07%) Designer
6 103 (7.18%) JavaScript Developer
7 95 (6.62%) Angular Developer
8 85 (5.93%) Senior Developer
9 78 (5.44%) UI Developer
10 77 (5.37%) .NET Developer
11 65 (4.53%) Java Developer
11 65 (4.53%) Web Developer
12 59 (4.11%) PHP Developer
12 59 (4.11%) UX Designer
13 53 (3.70%) HTML Developer
14 51 (3.56%) C# Developer
15 41 (2.86%) Interaction Designer
16 38 (2.65%) Applications Developer
17 37 (2.58%) Architect
18 34 (2.37%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,297 (90.45%) HTML
2 413 (28.80%) HTML5
3 402 (28.03%) AngularJS
4 321 (22.38%) React
5 296 (20.64%) Node.js
6 272 (18.97%) .NET
7 263 (18.34%) CSS3
8 238 (16.60%) jQuery
9 211 (14.71%) Sass
10 184 (12.83%) REST
11 142 (9.90%) Web Services
12 139 (9.69%) Redux
13 138 (9.62%) RESTful
14 127 (8.86%) XML
15 124 (8.65%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 118 (8.23%) JSON
17 116 (8.09%) ASP.NET
18 100 (6.97%) Spring
19 73 (5.09%) .NET Framework
20 69 (4.81%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 340 (23.71%) User Experience
2 82 (5.72%) Mobile App
3 53 (3.70%) Analytical Skills
4 37 (2.58%) Greenfield Project
5 23 (1.60%) Enterprise Software
6 20 (1.39%) Cloud Native
7 18 (1.26%) Self-Motivation
8 17 (1.19%) Management Information System
9 15 (1.05%) Data Structures
9 15 (1.05%) Public Cloud
10 12 (0.84%) CMDB
11 11 (0.77%) Algorithms
11 11 (0.77%) Client/Server
11 11 (0.77%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 10 (0.70%) Graphic Design
12 10 (0.70%) Robotics
12 10 (0.70%) W3C
13 9 (0.63%) Blog
13 9 (0.63%) Fixed Income
13 9 (0.63%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 104 (7.25%) Linux
2 71 (4.95%) Windows
3 48 (3.35%) Unix
4 47 (3.28%) Android
5 44 (3.07%) Apple iOS
6 31 (2.16%) Mac OS X
7 19 (1.32%) Windows Server
8 15 (1.05%) Windows Server 2012
9 12 (0.84%) Windows Server 2016
10 7 (0.49%) Windows 10
11 4 (0.28%) CentOS
11 4 (0.28%) Mac OS
12 3 (0.21%) tvOS
13 2 (0.14%) AIX
14 1 (0.070%) Debian
14 1 (0.070%) MVS
14 1 (0.070%) Ubuntu
14 1 (0.070%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 637 (44.42%) Agile Software Development
2 405 (28.24%) Front End Development
3 218 (15.20%) Web Development
4 215 (14.99%) TDD
5 204 (14.23%) DevOps
6 165 (11.51%) Scrum
7 157 (10.95%) Test Automation
8 142 (9.90%) MVC
9 122 (8.51%) OO
9 122 (8.51%) Unit Testing
10 120 (8.37%) Software Engineering
11 118 (8.23%) Continuous Integration
11 118 (8.23%) Problem-Solving
12 110 (7.67%) Microservices
13 93 (6.49%) SDLC
14 90 (6.28%) Web Design
15 87 (6.07%) Responsive Web Design
16 86 (6.00%) BDD
17 84 (5.86%) Prototyping
18 82 (5.72%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 1,082 (75.45%) JavaScript
2 296 (20.64%) Java
3 257 (17.92%) SQL
4 255 (17.78%) C#
5 159 (11.09%) TypeScript
6 137 (9.55%) Python
7 136 (9.48%) PHP
8 77 (5.37%) ES6
9 52 (3.63%) PL/SQL
10 47 (3.28%) PowerShell
10 47 (3.28%) T-SQL
11 32 (2.23%) Scala
12 27 (1.88%) VB
13 25 (1.74%) Java 8
14 24 (1.67%) C
15 20 (1.39%) VB.NET
16 17 (1.19%) Bash Shell
16 17 (1.19%) Go
16 17 (1.19%) Ruby
17 16 (1.12%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 206 (14.37%) Security Cleared
2 149 (10.39%) SC Cleared
3 123 (8.58%) Degree
4 47 (3.28%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (1.81%) DV Cleared
6 24 (1.67%) BPSS Clearance
7 14 (0.98%) DBS Check
8 8 (0.56%) Master's Degree
9 7 (0.49%) Microsoft Certification
10 6 (0.42%) ISTQB
10 6 (0.42%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 4 (0.28%) MCSD
12 3 (0.21%) MCPD
12 3 (0.21%) Numerate Degree
12 3 (0.21%) TOGAF Certification
13 2 (0.14%) MCAD
13 2 (0.14%) MCITP
14 1 (0.070%) BC Cleared
14 1 (0.070%) HNC
14 1 (0.070%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 81 (5.65%) WCAG
2 49 (3.42%) QA
3 12 (0.84%) GDPR
4 5 (0.35%) Disclosure Scotland
4 5 (0.35%) NCSC
4 5 (0.35%) WAI
5 4 (0.28%) Government Security Classifications
6 2 (0.14%) Section 508
6 2 (0.14%) SLA
7 1 (0.070%) HL7
System Software
1 116 (8.09%) Docker
2 17 (1.19%) Active Directory
3 5 (0.35%) Virtual Machines
3 5 (0.35%) VMware Infrastructure
4 3 (0.21%) VMware NSX
5 1 (0.070%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.070%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 54 (3.77%) Kubernetes
2 43 (3.00%) Terraform
3 28 (1.95%) Ansible
4 21 (1.46%) Kibana
5 16 (1.12%) Opscode Chef
6 14 (0.98%) Puppet
7 13 (0.91%) Grafana
8 4 (0.28%) PowerCLI
9 3 (0.21%) Capistrano
9 3 (0.21%) Prometheus
10 2 (0.14%) logstash
11 1 (0.070%) CFEngine
11 1 (0.070%) HP Quality Center
11 1 (0.070%) Rancher
11 1 (0.070%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 119 (8.30%) Microsoft
2 103 (7.18%) Oracle
3 60 (4.18%) Google
4 49 (3.42%) Adobe
5 31 (2.16%) Salesforce.com
6 25 (1.74%) SAP
7 18 (1.26%) ServiceNow
8 17 (1.19%) Splunk
9 16 (1.12%) Sitecore
10 14 (0.98%) Red Hat
11 12 (0.84%) Xamarin
12 11 (0.77%) Atlassian
13 10 (0.70%) IBM
13 10 (0.70%) IFS
13 10 (0.70%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 9 (0.63%) Cloudera
15 7 (0.49%) Bloomberg
15 7 (0.49%) hybris
15 7 (0.49%) MuleSoft
15 7 (0.49%) Pardot