Period
to 23 September 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
23 Sep 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 28 19 13
Rank change year-on-year -9 -6 +3
Contract jobs citing CSS 5,438 7,965 8,052
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 6.18% 7.88% 8.22%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.82% 22.51% 25.43%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,786 5,752 5,782
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £413
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +3.03% +3.13%
10th Percentile £313 £306 £281
90th Percentile £600 £575 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £405 £400 £375
% change year-on-year +1.25% +6.67% +3.45%
Number of hourly rates quoted 60 53 63
UK median hourly rate £47.00 £42.50 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +10.59% +6.25% +25.00%
10th Percentile £24.50 £13.27 £13.85
90th Percentile £60.00 £57.20 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.25 £42.50 £42.50
% change year-on-year +6.47% - +54.55%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 27,435 35,392 31,662
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 31.20% 35.00% 32.32%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,035 24,968 22,006
UK median daily rate £490 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.16% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £336 £325 £310
90th Percentile £650 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +3.53% +6.25% +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 311 333 387
UK median hourly rate £44.02 £41.77 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +5.40% +4.41% +10.34%
10th Percentile £20.26 £15.24 £16.40
90th Percentile £63.75 £59.75 £53.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.00 £41.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +4.88% +2.50% +11.11%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 September 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 23 September 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 4,994 £450 +5.88% 3,009
UK excluding London -14 2,702 £405 +1.25% 2,328
London -4 2,618 £488 +2.63% 881
South East -13 811 £425 +3.03% 546
North of England -22 557 £388 +0.13% 679
Midlands -8 414 £400 +3.23% 404
South West -11 368 £400 +3.56% 270
North West -17 294 £388 +3.33% 411
West Midlands -5 271 £418 +4.38% 193
Scotland -8 239 £420 +5.00% 136
Yorkshire -26 203 £400 +1.91% 202
East of England -9 202 £425 +6.25% 229
East Midlands -13 135 £363 -3.33% 210
Wales +8 91 £406 +1.56% 53
North East 0 60 £400 +3.90% 66
Northern Ireland -3 24 £414 -8.06% 12

For the 6 months to 23 September 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,941 (90.86%) HTML
2 4,333 (79.68%) JavaScript
3 2,547 (46.84%) Agile Software Development
4 1,820 (33.47%) AngularJS
5 1,795 (33.01%) HTML5
6 1,595 (29.33%) Front End Development
7 1,544 (28.39%) React
8 1,304 (23.98%) C#
9 1,297 (23.85%) CSS3
10 1,288 (23.69%) .NET
11 1,272 (23.39%) Git (software)
12 1,107 (20.36%) TDD
13 1,063 (19.55%) jQuery
14 1,011 (18.59%) Node.js
15 967 (17.78%) Java
16 954 (17.54%) User Experience
17 944 (17.36%) Sass
18 919 (16.90%) SQL
19 889 (16.35%) MVC
20 768 (14.12%) Scrum
20 768 (14.12%) Web Development
21 741 (13.63%) TypeScript
22 711 (13.07%) SQL Server
23 683 (12.56%) ASP.NET
24 655 (12.04%) Finance
25 653 (12.01%) Azure
26 625 (11.49%) Twitter Bootstrap
27 609 (11.20%) Redux
28 572 (10.52%) PHP
29 571 (10.50%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 387 (7.12%) CMS
2 173 (3.18%) WordPress
3 167 (3.07%) SharePoint
4 153 (2.81%) Confluence
5 125 (2.30%) Apache
6 110 (2.02%) Drupal
7 108 (1.99%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 75 (1.38%) Elasticsearch
8 75 (1.38%) WebSphere
9 72 (1.32%) Umbraco
10 61 (1.12%) JBoss
11 60 (1.10%) Tomcat
12 57 (1.05%) IIS
13 48 (0.88%) Sitecore CMS
14 36 (0.66%) SharePoint 2013
15 35 (0.64%) Apache Solr
16 32 (0.59%) nginx
16 32 (0.59%) WebLogic
17 26 (0.48%) SharePoint 2010
18 24 (0.44%) Magnolia
Applications
1 183 (3.37%) Photoshop
2 120 (2.21%) Sketch
3 82 (1.51%) Adobe Illustrator
4 66 (1.21%) InVision
5 59 (1.08%) Microsoft Office
6 41 (0.75%) Zeplin
7 35 (0.64%) Microsoft Excel
8 32 (0.59%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 31 (0.57%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 23 (0.42%) GIMP
11 22 (0.40%) Adobe XD
12 16 (0.29%) MS Visio
13 15 (0.28%) Marvel
14 11 (0.20%) Chatbot
15 9 (0.17%) UXPin
16 8 (0.15%) Adobe After Effects
16 8 (0.15%) Figma
17 7 (0.13%) InfoPath
18 5 (0.092%) Camtasia
18 5 (0.092%) XMetaL
Business Applications
1 112 (2.06%) Magento
2 63 (1.16%) Dynamics CRM
3 24 (0.44%) Adobe Campaign
4 19 (0.35%) Shopify
5 10 (0.18%) Eloqua
6 8 (0.15%) Distributed Ledger
6 8 (0.15%) R3 Corda
7 7 (0.13%) NetSuite
7 7 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
8 4 (0.074%) Oracle EBS
8 4 (0.074%) Revive Adserver
8 4 (0.074%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 3 (0.055%) Remedy ITSM
9 3 (0.055%) WebTrends
10 2 (0.037%) Oracle BPM
10 2 (0.037%) Primavera
10 2 (0.037%) SDL Web 8
10 2 (0.037%) Visualfiles
11 1 (0.018%) Oracle EBS R12
11 1 (0.018%) Oracle Financials
Cloud Services
1 653 (12.01%) Azure
2 419 (7.71%) AWS
3 222 (4.08%) npm
4 156 (2.87%) GitHub
5 106 (1.95%) Serverless
6 85 (1.56%) GCP
6 85 (1.56%) SaaS
7 78 (1.43%) Google Analytics
8 72 (1.32%) Office 365
9 70 (1.29%) AWS Lambda
10 64 (1.18%) Power Platform
11 59 (1.08%) PaaS
12 44 (0.81%) Amazon S3
13 40 (0.74%) Amazon SQS
14 39 (0.72%) Yarn
15 36 (0.66%) Adobe Analytics
16 35 (0.64%) Amazon EC2
17 34 (0.63%) Dynamics 365
18 31 (0.57%) Azure Active Directory
19 28 (0.51%) Adobe Creative Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 115 (2.11%) HTTP
2 42 (0.77%) SSL
3 40 (0.74%) TCP/IP
4 26 (0.48%) Internet
5 20 (0.37%) Intranet
6 16 (0.29%) FTP
7 15 (0.28%) SSH
8 12 (0.22%) DNS
8 12 (0.22%) Network Security
9 9 (0.17%) Reverse Proxy
10 8 (0.15%) HTTPS
10 8 (0.15%) SMS
11 7 (0.13%) DSL
12 6 (0.11%) Skype
12 6 (0.11%) VPN
13 5 (0.092%) MQTT
14 4 (0.074%) Firewall
15 3 (0.055%) Intrusion Detection
15 3 (0.055%) NFC
15 3 (0.055%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 711 (13.07%) SQL Server
2 421 (7.74%) MySQL
3 241 (4.43%) Relational Database
4 207 (3.81%) NoSQL
5 164 (3.02%) PostgreSQL
6 147 (2.70%) MongoDB
7 59 (1.08%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 57 (1.05%) Big Data
9 48 (0.88%) RDBMS
10 47 (0.86%) Power BI
11 41 (0.75%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 39 (0.72%) Redis
13 37 (0.68%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 35 (0.64%) DB2
15 33 (0.61%) Oracle Database
15 33 (0.61%) SQL Server 2012
16 32 (0.59%) Amazon RDS
17 31 (0.57%) Azure SQL Database
18 30 (0.55%) Apache Cassandra
19 27 (0.50%) Blockchain
Development Applications
1 1,272 (23.39%) Git (software)
2 411 (7.56%) Jenkins
3 384 (7.06%) JIRA
4 349 (6.42%) webpack
5 300 (5.52%) gulp
6 258 (4.74%) Grunt
7 244 (4.49%) Jasmine
8 239 (4.39%) Selenium
9 216 (3.97%) Visual Studio
10 176 (3.24%) Subversion
11 163 (3.00%) Karma Test Runner
12 148 (2.72%) Cucumber
13 144 (2.65%) Maven
14 140 (2.57%) Team Foundation Server
15 136 (2.50%) Visual Studio Team System
16 130 (2.39%) TeamCity
17 126 (2.32%) Bitbucket
18 125 (2.30%) JUnit
19 109 (2.00%) Mocha
20 73 (1.34%) Babel
General
1 655 (12.04%) Finance
2 283 (5.20%) Marketing
3 257 (4.73%) Retail
4 237 (4.36%) Public Sector
5 222 (4.08%) Banking
6 105 (1.93%) Games
7 92 (1.69%) Front Office
8 73 (1.34%) Telecoms
9 64 (1.18%) Investment Banking
9 64 (1.18%) Law
10 59 (1.08%) Advertising
11 51 (0.94%) Manufacturing
12 42 (0.77%) Publishing
13 27 (0.50%) Electronics
13 27 (0.50%) Legal
13 27 (0.50%) Pharmaceutical
14 20 (0.37%) Financial Institution
15 19 (0.35%) Automotive
16 9 (0.17%) Aerospace
16 9 (0.17%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 4,477 (82.33%) Developer
2 1,180 (21.70%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 720 (13.24%) React Developer
4 618 (11.36%) JavaScript Developer
5 540 (9.93%) Full Stack Developer
6 539 (9.91%) .NET Developer
7 486 (8.94%) Angular Developer
8 383 (7.04%) Senior Developer
9 331 (6.09%) C# Developer
10 317 (5.83%) Java Developer
11 289 (5.31%) Designer
12 263 (4.84%) Web Developer
13 239 (4.39%) UI Developer
14 225 (4.14%) HTML Developer
15 201 (3.70%) PHP Developer
16 187 (3.44%) C# .NET Developer
17 168 (3.09%) UX Designer
18 161 (2.96%) HTML CSS Developer
19 150 (2.76%) Software Developer
20 143 (2.63%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,941 (90.86%) HTML
2 1,820 (33.47%) AngularJS
3 1,795 (33.01%) HTML5
4 1,544 (28.39%) React
5 1,297 (23.85%) CSS3
6 1,288 (23.69%) .NET
7 1,063 (19.55%) jQuery
8 1,011 (18.59%) Node.js
9 944 (17.36%) Sass
10 683 (12.56%) ASP.NET
11 625 (11.49%) Twitter Bootstrap
12 609 (11.20%) Redux
13 571 (10.50%) REST
14 542 (9.97%) Web Services
15 474 (8.72%) JSON
16 450 (8.28%) RESTful
17 409 (7.52%) Spring
17 409 (7.52%) XML
18 388 (7.13%) .NET Framework
19 375 (6.90%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 954 (17.54%) User Experience
2 331 (6.09%) Greenfield Project
3 263 (4.84%) Mobile App
4 237 (4.36%) Analytical Skills
5 118 (2.17%) Enterprise Software
6 84 (1.54%) Hedge funds
7 69 (1.27%) W3C
8 50 (0.92%) Data Structures
8 50 (0.92%) Self-Motivation
9 49 (0.90%) Graphic Design
10 48 (0.88%) Virtual Team
11 46 (0.85%) Linux Command Line
12 44 (0.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 43 (0.79%) Social Media
14 34 (0.63%) Digital Media
15 33 (0.61%) Vector Graphics
16 32 (0.59%) Algorithms
17 31 (0.57%) Equities
18 30 (0.55%) Management Information System
19 24 (0.44%) Fixed Income
Operating Systems
1 346 (6.36%) Linux
2 175 (3.22%) Windows
3 129 (2.37%) Unix
4 107 (1.97%) Apple iOS
5 89 (1.64%) Android
6 34 (0.63%) Mac OS X
7 25 (0.46%) Ubuntu
8 21 (0.39%) Mac OS
9 16 (0.29%) Windows Server
10 12 (0.22%) Windows 10
11 8 (0.15%) VMS
12 5 (0.092%) Windows Server 2012
13 4 (0.074%) Solaris
13 4 (0.074%) Windows Server 2008
14 3 (0.055%) CentOS
14 3 (0.055%) tvOS
15 2 (0.037%) Windows 2000
15 2 (0.037%) Windows 7
15 2 (0.037%) Windows Server 2003
15 2 (0.037%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,547 (46.84%) Agile Software Development
2 1,595 (29.33%) Front End Development
3 1,107 (20.36%) TDD
4 889 (16.35%) MVC
5 768 (14.12%) Scrum
5 768 (14.12%) Web Development
6 564 (10.37%) Test Automation
7 531 (9.76%) Continuous Integration
8 501 (9.21%) DevOps
9 486 (8.94%) BDD
10 450 (8.28%) OO
11 437 (8.04%) Microservices
12 382 (7.02%) E-Commerce
13 365 (6.71%) Responsive Web Design
14 357 (6.56%) Problem-Solving
14 357 (6.56%) Unit Testing
15 301 (5.54%) Software Engineering
16 277 (5.09%) Analytics
17 259 (4.76%) Web Design
18 238 (4.38%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 4,333 (79.68%) JavaScript
2 1,304 (23.98%) C#
3 967 (17.78%) Java
4 919 (16.90%) SQL
5 741 (13.63%) TypeScript
6 572 (10.52%) PHP
7 479 (8.81%) ES6
8 346 (6.36%) Python
9 204 (3.75%) Ruby
10 136 (2.50%) Java 8
11 132 (2.43%) T-SQL
12 119 (2.19%) Scala
13 110 (2.02%) PowerShell
14 51 (0.94%) PL/SQL
15 49 (0.90%) ES7
16 45 (0.83%) Perl
17 41 (0.75%) Groovy
17 41 (0.75%) VB.NET
18 39 (0.72%) Go
19 33 (0.61%) C
Qualifications
1 283 (5.20%) Security Cleared
2 250 (4.60%) Degree
3 196 (3.60%) SC Cleared
4 71 (1.31%) Computer Science Degree
5 45 (0.83%) BPSS Clearance
6 17 (0.31%) ISEB
7 15 (0.28%) ISTQB
8 14 (0.26%) Master's Degree
9 13 (0.24%) DBS Check
10 10 (0.18%) BC Cleared
11 9 (0.17%) DV Cleared
12 8 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
13 7 (0.13%) AWS Certification
13 7 (0.13%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 6 (0.11%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
15 3 (0.055%) MCSD
15 3 (0.055%) MCSE
16 2 (0.037%) HNC
16 2 (0.037%) HND
16 2 (0.037%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 185 (3.40%) QA
2 71 (1.31%) WCAG
3 18 (0.33%) GDPR
4 9 (0.17%) PMO
4 9 (0.17%) WAI
5 8 (0.15%) SLA
6 6 (0.11%) Disclosure Scotland
7 4 (0.074%) Data Quality
8 3 (0.055%) Dublin Core
8 3 (0.055%) PSD2
9 2 (0.037%) HL7
9 2 (0.037%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 2 (0.037%) MiFID
9 2 (0.037%) PCI DSS
10 1 (0.018%) COBIT
10 1 (0.018%) ISO 9001
System Software
1 386 (7.10%) Docker
2 42 (0.77%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
4 2 (0.037%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
4 2 (0.037%) HDFS
4 2 (0.037%) VirtualBox
5 1 (0.018%) GridGain
5 1 (0.018%) Postfix
5 1 (0.018%) vCloud
5 1 (0.018%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 125 (2.30%) Kubernetes
2 54 (0.99%) Ansible
3 37 (0.68%) Kibana
4 36 (0.66%) Terraform
5 34 (0.63%) Puppet
6 24 (0.44%) Grafana
7 16 (0.29%) Opscode Chef
8 13 (0.24%) HP Quality Center
8 13 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
9 11 (0.20%) Docker Swarm
10 7 (0.13%) MIIS
11 5 (0.092%) Hadoop YARN
11 5 (0.092%) logstash
11 5 (0.092%) TeamSite
12 3 (0.055%) HAProxy
12 3 (0.055%) Rancher
12 3 (0.055%) ZABBIX
13 2 (0.037%) MOM
13 2 (0.037%) SCCM
13 2 (0.037%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 479 (8.81%) Microsoft
2 264 (4.85%) Adobe
3 254 (4.67%) Oracle
4 178 (3.27%) Google
5 86 (1.58%) Atlassian
6 84 (1.54%) Salesforce.com
7 78 (1.43%) Sitecore
8 59 (1.08%) ServiceNow
9 52 (0.96%) IBM
10 40 (0.74%) hybris
11 37 (0.68%) Cypress Semiconductor
12 33 (0.61%) MuleSoft
13 29 (0.53%) Zend
14 25 (0.46%) SAP
14 25 (0.46%) webMethods
15 21 (0.39%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 19 (0.35%) Splunk
16 19 (0.35%) Telerik
16 19 (0.35%) Xamarin
17 18 (0.33%) Tableau