Period
to 19 November 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Nov 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 20 13 13
Rank change year-on-year -7 0 +7
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,703 8,002 8,980
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.46% 7.89% 8.56%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.40% 24.45% 27.86%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,537 5,861 6,370
UK median daily rate £425 £420 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.19% +5.00% +6.67%
10th Percentile £308 £288 £263
90th Percentile £575 £575 £556
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £365
% change year-on-year +6.67% +2.74% +4.29%
Number of hourly rates quoted 59 72 89
UK median hourly rate £42.00 £42.50 £35.69
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -1.18% +19.10% +11.52%
10th Percentile £18.90 £15.63 £17.85
90th Percentile £58.40 £48.75 £49.60
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £43.39 £32.00
% change year-on-year -3.20% +35.59% -4.62%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 35,987 32,733 32,231
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 34.85% 32.27% 30.74%
Number of daily rates quoted 25,384 23,100 22,314
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +3.66%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £638 £625 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £388
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +3.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 316 374 373
UK median hourly rate £41.50 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.75% +6.67% -
10th Percentile £17.00 £18.15 £14.36
90th Percentile £60.00 £52.50 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.50 £40.75 £37.50
% change year-on-year +1.84% +8.67% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 November 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 7,088 £435 +2.35% 3,699
UK excluding London -8 4,035 £400 +6.67% 2,765
London -5 3,535 £475 - 1,143
South East +1 1,280 £415 +3.75% 611
North of England -3 993 £381 +1.51% 821
Midlands -10 585 £400 +14.29% 522
North West -4 474 £380 +4.83% 440
South West -8 422 £395 +12.86% 330
Yorkshire -2 417 £378 -0.66% 291
Scotland 0 371 £400 +6.67% 126
West Midlands -9 366 £413 +17.86% 299
East of England -9 257 £389 +4.71% 274
East Midlands -3 217 £375 +10.29% 222
Wales -14 104 £400 - 66
North East -5 103 £393 -7.65% 90
Northern Ireland +8 36 £412 -0.42% 18
Isle of Man - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 19 November 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,034 (91.32%) HTML
2 6,202 (80.51%) JavaScript
3 3,569 (46.33%) Agile Software Development
4 3,013 (39.11%) HTML5
5 2,796 (36.30%) AngularJS
6 2,260 (29.34%) CSS3
7 2,178 (28.27%) Front End Development
8 2,098 (27.24%) React
9 1,880 (24.41%) jQuery
10 1,804 (23.42%) Git (software)
11 1,726 (22.41%) .NET
12 1,698 (22.04%) TDD
13 1,651 (21.43%) C#
14 1,613 (20.94%) Node.js
15 1,544 (20.04%) Java
16 1,352 (17.55%) MVC
17 1,304 (16.93%) Sass
18 1,282 (16.64%) User Experience
19 1,225 (15.90%) SQL
20 1,141 (14.81%) Web Development
21 1,081 (14.03%) Scrum
22 1,030 (13.37%) ASP.NET
23 1,024 (13.29%) Test Automation
24 982 (12.75%) Finance
25 972 (12.62%) REST
26 967 (12.55%) SQL Server
27 903 (11.72%) Continuous Integration
28 864 (11.22%) BDD
29 839 (10.89%) Web Services
30 822 (10.67%) PHP

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 462 (6.00%) CMS
2 240 (3.12%) SharePoint
3 218 (2.83%) WordPress
4 205 (2.66%) Confluence
5 168 (2.18%) Drupal
6 158 (2.05%) Apache
7 126 (1.64%) Elasticsearch
8 125 (1.62%) Tomcat
9 105 (1.36%) IIS
10 90 (1.17%) Umbraco
11 86 (1.12%) WebSphere
12 76 (0.99%) JBoss
13 74 (0.96%) Adobe Experience Manager
13 74 (0.96%) SharePoint 2013
14 72 (0.93%) WebLogic
15 66 (0.86%) nginx
16 53 (0.69%) Sitecore CMS
17 46 (0.60%) Cloud Foundry
17 46 (0.60%) SharePoint 2010
18 28 (0.36%) EPiServer
Applications
1 238 (3.09%) Photoshop
2 88 (1.14%) InVision
3 76 (0.99%) Adobe Illustrator
4 58 (0.75%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 36 (0.47%) Fireworks
6 33 (0.43%) InfoPath
7 28 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
8 25 (0.32%) Microsoft Excel
9 21 (0.27%) InDesign
10 15 (0.19%) Adobe After Effects
11 13 (0.17%) GIMP
11 13 (0.17%) OmniGraffle
12 12 (0.16%) Chatbot
13 8 (0.10%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 7 (0.091%) Acrobat
15 5 (0.065%) Adobe Premiere
16 4 (0.052%) MS Visio
16 4 (0.052%) UXPin
17 3 (0.039%) HipChat
17 3 (0.039%) Pixate
Business Applications
1 106 (1.38%) Magento
2 97 (1.26%) Dynamics CRM
3 17 (0.22%) SAP Hybris
4 16 (0.21%) Shopify
5 14 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
6 12 (0.16%) Remedy ITSM
7 9 (0.12%) Adobe Campaign
7 9 (0.12%) Dynamics AX
8 8 (0.10%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 5 (0.065%) Distributed Ledger
10 4 (0.052%) ION MarketView
10 4 (0.052%) NetSuite
10 4 (0.052%) OpenCart
10 4 (0.052%) SDL Web 8
11 3 (0.039%) Dynamics NAV
11 3 (0.039%) Eloqua
11 3 (0.039%) SAP ERP
11 3 (0.039%) Unica
12 2 (0.026%) nopCommerce
12 2 (0.026%) Oracle EBS
Cloud Services
1 691 (8.97%) Microsoft Azure
2 625 (8.11%) Amazon AWS
3 296 (3.84%) GitHub
4 231 (3.00%) npm
5 159 (2.06%) Serverless
6 107 (1.39%) Google Analytics
7 106 (1.38%) Office 365
8 103 (1.34%) AWS Lambda
9 94 (1.22%) SaaS
10 85 (1.10%) Google Cloud Platform
11 58 (0.75%) Heroku
12 53 (0.69%) Dynamics 365
13 42 (0.55%) BrowserStack
13 42 (0.55%) PaaS
14 40 (0.52%) Adobe Creative Cloud
15 29 (0.38%) Amazon EC2
15 29 (0.38%) Yarn
16 24 (0.31%) OpenShift
17 23 (0.30%) Adobe Analytics
17 23 (0.30%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
Communications & Networking
1 292 (3.79%) HTTP
2 134 (1.74%) Internet
3 90 (1.17%) SSL
4 89 (1.16%) TCP/IP
5 49 (0.64%) Intranet
6 46 (0.60%) DNS
7 42 (0.55%) FTP
8 31 (0.40%) SMS
9 24 (0.31%) Firewall
10 20 (0.26%) SMTP
11 16 (0.21%) Skype
12 15 (0.19%) HTTPS
13 14 (0.18%) LAN
13 14 (0.18%) SSH
14 12 (0.16%) Kerberos
15 11 (0.14%) BIG-IP
16 10 (0.13%) IMAP
17 8 (0.10%) BGP
17 8 (0.10%) Cisco ASA
17 8 (0.10%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 967 (12.55%) SQL Server
2 757 (9.83%) MySQL
3 451 (5.85%) Relational Database
4 417 (5.41%) MongoDB
5 365 (4.74%) NoSQL
6 336 (4.36%) PostgreSQL
7 173 (2.25%) RDBMS
8 115 (1.49%) Apache Cassandra
9 92 (1.19%) Redis
10 68 (0.88%) Big Data
11 64 (0.83%) Oracle Database
12 57 (0.74%) SQL Server 2012
13 54 (0.70%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 50 (0.65%) SQL Server 2008
15 42 (0.55%) DB2
16 38 (0.49%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 37 (0.48%) Couchbase
18 36 (0.47%) Amazon DynamoDB
19 35 (0.45%) Azure SQL Database
19 35 (0.45%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 1,804 (23.42%) Git (software)
2 658 (8.54%) Jenkins
3 565 (7.33%) Selenium
4 534 (6.93%) JIRA
5 515 (6.69%) gulp
6 435 (5.65%) webpack
7 342 (4.44%) Grunt
8 340 (4.41%) Jasmine
9 328 (4.26%) Visual Studio
10 292 (3.79%) Cucumber
11 258 (3.35%) JUnit
12 253 (3.28%) Subversion
13 247 (3.21%) Maven
14 246 (3.19%) Team Foundation Server
15 215 (2.79%) Mocha
16 196 (2.54%) Karma Test Runner
17 157 (2.04%) Protractor
18 151 (1.96%) Visual Studio Team System
19 146 (1.90%) Eclipse
20 136 (1.77%) Gradle
General
1 982 (12.75%) Finance
2 375 (4.87%) Banking
3 356 (4.62%) Retail
4 272 (3.53%) Marketing
5 110 (1.43%) Telecoms
6 106 (1.38%) Games
7 99 (1.29%) Front Office
8 94 (1.22%) Advertising
9 77 (1.00%) Investment Banking
10 63 (0.82%) Publishing
11 62 (0.80%) Legal
12 55 (0.71%) Back Office
13 52 (0.68%) Manufacturing
14 44 (0.57%) Law
15 30 (0.39%) Electronics
16 29 (0.38%) Financial Institution
17 28 (0.36%) Automotive
18 15 (0.19%) Pharmaceutical
19 12 (0.16%) Multimedia
20 10 (0.13%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 6,474 (84.05%) Developer
2 1,710 (22.20%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,036 (13.45%) JavaScript Developer
4 960 (12.46%) React Developer
5 823 (10.68%) .NET Developer
6 692 (8.98%) Full Stack Developer
7 653 (8.48%) Java Developer
8 642 (8.33%) Angular Developer
9 557 (7.23%) Senior Developer
10 482 (6.26%) C# Developer
11 440 (5.71%) HTML Developer
12 404 (5.24%) Web Developer
13 389 (5.05%) UI Developer
14 388 (5.04%) PHP Developer
15 364 (4.73%) HTML CSS Developer
16 349 (4.53%) Designer
17 305 (3.96%) C# .NET Developer
18 226 (2.93%) Node.js Developer
19 198 (2.57%) UX Designer
20 178 (2.31%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,034 (91.32%) HTML
2 3,013 (39.11%) HTML5
3 2,796 (36.30%) AngularJS
4 2,260 (29.34%) CSS3
5 2,098 (27.24%) React
6 1,880 (24.41%) jQuery
7 1,726 (22.41%) .NET
8 1,613 (20.94%) Node.js
9 1,304 (16.93%) Sass
10 1,030 (13.37%) ASP.NET
11 972 (12.62%) REST
12 839 (10.89%) Web Services
13 789 (10.24%) Redux
14 776 (10.07%) XML
15 696 (9.04%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 670 (8.70%) RESTful
17 653 (8.48%) Spring
18 642 (8.33%) JSON
19 576 (7.48%) Ajax
20 562 (7.30%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 1,282 (16.64%) User Experience
2 438 (5.69%) Greenfield Project
3 359 (4.66%) Mobile App
4 328 (4.26%) Analytical Skills
5 250 (3.25%) Fintech
6 231 (3.00%) Computer Science
7 138 (1.79%) Self-Motivation
8 126 (1.64%) Enterprise Software
9 109 (1.42%) Algorithms
10 107 (1.39%) Data Structures
11 77 (1.00%) W3C
12 61 (0.79%) Linux Command Line
13 53 (0.69%) Fixed Income
14 50 (0.65%) Social Media
15 38 (0.49%) Graphic Design
16 37 (0.48%) Video on Demand
17 36 (0.47%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
18 33 (0.43%) NHS
19 32 (0.42%) Derivative
20 31 (0.40%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 491 (6.37%) Linux
2 284 (3.69%) Windows
3 218 (2.83%) Unix
4 204 (2.65%) Android
5 194 (2.52%) Apple iOS
6 57 (0.74%) Ubuntu
7 54 (0.70%) Windows Server
8 26 (0.34%) Windows Server 2012
9 23 (0.30%) Mac OS X
10 22 (0.29%) VMS
11 21 (0.27%) Windows Server 2008
12 16 (0.21%) Mac OS
12 16 (0.21%) Windows Server 2003
13 14 (0.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 11 (0.14%) CentOS
15 10 (0.13%) Solaris
16 5 (0.065%) Debian
17 4 (0.052%) Windows Phone
18 2 (0.026%) Windows 10
18 2 (0.026%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,569 (46.33%) Agile Software Development
2 2,178 (28.27%) Front End Development
3 1,698 (22.04%) TDD
4 1,352 (17.55%) MVC
5 1,141 (14.81%) Web Development
6 1,081 (14.03%) Scrum
7 1,024 (13.29%) Test Automation
8 903 (11.72%) Continuous Integration
9 864 (11.22%) BDD
10 718 (9.32%) OO
11 702 (9.11%) Microservices
12 600 (7.79%) DevOps
13 596 (7.74%) Responsive Web Design
14 586 (7.61%) Unit Testing
15 549 (7.13%) E-Commerce
16 517 (6.71%) Software Engineering
17 506 (6.57%) Problem-Solving
18 350 (4.54%) Analytics
19 340 (4.41%) Kanban
20 318 (4.13%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 6,202 (80.51%) JavaScript
2 1,651 (21.43%) C#
3 1,544 (20.04%) Java
4 1,225 (15.90%) SQL
5 822 (10.67%) PHP
6 746 (9.68%) ES6
7 721 (9.36%) TypeScript
8 467 (6.06%) Python
9 242 (3.14%) Java 8
10 233 (3.02%) Ruby
11 199 (2.58%) Scala
12 167 (2.17%) T-SQL
13 137 (1.78%) Go
14 100 (1.30%) PowerShell
15 97 (1.26%) PL/SQL
16 94 (1.22%) Perl
17 87 (1.13%) Groovy
18 78 (1.01%) C++
18 78 (1.01%) ES7
19 70 (0.91%) C
Qualifications
1 424 (5.50%) Degree
2 303 (3.93%) Security Cleared
3 237 (3.08%) SC Cleared
4 130 (1.69%) Computer Science Degree
5 32 (0.42%) Microsoft Certification
6 27 (0.35%) BPSS Clearance
7 15 (0.19%) DBS Check
8 11 (0.14%) DV Cleared
9 10 (0.13%) ITIL Certification
9 10 (0.13%) MCSE
10 8 (0.10%) Master's Degree
10 8 (0.10%) Postgraduate
11 7 (0.091%) APMP
11 7 (0.091%) CCNP
11 7 (0.091%) Cisco Certification
11 7 (0.091%) CTC Cleared
12 6 (0.078%) ISEB
13 5 (0.065%) CCNA
13 5 (0.065%) CISSP
13 5 (0.065%) SSCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 284 (3.69%) QA
2 73 (0.95%) WCAG
3 21 (0.27%) WAI
4 20 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
5 16 (0.21%) PMO
6 13 (0.17%) SLA
7 11 (0.14%) Data Quality
8 10 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 8 (0.10%) GDPR
10 7 (0.091%) MiFID
11 5 (0.065%) GxP
12 3 (0.039%) Government Security Classifications
12 3 (0.039%) Section 508
13 2 (0.026%) ISO 9001
14 1 (0.013%) GMP
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA
14 1 (0.013%) MISRA C
14 1 (0.013%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 566 (7.35%) Docker
2 41 (0.53%) Active Directory
3 19 (0.25%) Virtual Machines
4 13 (0.17%) VirtualBox
5 10 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
6 7 (0.091%) LXC
7 6 (0.078%) HDFS
7 6 (0.078%) vCloud
8 5 (0.065%) Hyper-V
8 5 (0.065%) KVM
9 3 (0.039%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 2 (0.026%) Postfix
11 1 (0.013%) Gluster
11 1 (0.013%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
11 1 (0.013%) Varnish
11 1 (0.013%) Xen
Systems Management
1 156 (2.03%) Kubernetes
2 129 (1.67%) Puppet
3 96 (1.25%) Ansible
4 90 (1.17%) Kibana
5 66 (0.86%) Terraform
6 65 (0.84%) Grafana
7 58 (0.75%) Opscode Chef
8 34 (0.44%) Docker Swarm
9 26 (0.34%) logstash
10 21 (0.27%) Graphite
11 14 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
12 11 (0.14%) HockeyApp
13 10 (0.13%) HAProxy
14 9 (0.12%) Mesos
15 8 (0.10%) SCCM
16 7 (0.091%) Capistrano
16 7 (0.091%) Cisco Prime
17 6 (0.078%) Consul
18 5 (0.065%) Packer
18 5 (0.065%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 592 (7.69%) Microsoft
2 476 (6.18%) Oracle
3 325 (4.22%) Adobe
4 286 (3.71%) Google
5 90 (1.17%) ServiceNow
6 84 (1.09%) Sitecore
7 82 (1.06%) IBM
8 80 (1.04%) Salesforce.com
9 73 (0.95%) SAP
10 70 (0.91%) hybris
11 62 (0.80%) Splunk
12 49 (0.64%) Twitter
13 41 (0.53%) Atlassian
14 40 (0.52%) Zend
15 36 (0.47%) Nintex
15 36 (0.47%) Xamarin
16 35 (0.45%) Apple
17 26 (0.34%) webMethods
18 22 (0.29%) Citrix
18 22 (0.29%) VMware