Period
to 19 January 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Jan 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 19 13 20
Rank change year-on-year -6 +7 -1
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,541 8,248 8,430
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.52% 8.51% 7.79%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.45% 27.07% 26.93%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,568 5,768 6,170
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +6.67% -
10th Percentile £285 £274 £256
90th Percentile £575 £560 £525
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £375 £350
% change year-on-year - +7.14% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 48 72 148
UK median hourly rate £41.25 £33.75 £31.76
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +22.22% +6.27% -6.59%
10th Percentile £14.28 £16.58 £11.25
90th Percentile £49.13 £49.43 £50.38
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £31.45 £32.00
% change year-on-year +43.08% -1.72% -4.48%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 32,164 30,464 31,306
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 32.09% 31.44% 28.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,939 20,984 21,607
UK median daily rate £460 £425 £413
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +8.24% +3.03% +3.13%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £278
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £393 £375
% change year-on-year +1.85% +4.73% +5.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 331 344 584
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +6.67% +7.14%
10th Percentile £18.50 £15.08 £15.10
90th Percentile £53.75 £52.00 £55.39
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £38.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year +5.26% +1.33% +7.14%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 January 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -4 7,019 £425 +6.25% 3,705
UK excluding London +2 3,875 £375 - 2,633
London -7 3,563 £463 +8.82% 1,244
South East -4 1,180 £400 +6.67% 670
North of England +6 976 £375 - 747
Midlands -10 605 £350 -6.67% 506
North West +8 547 £363 -3.33% 440
South West +3 422 £350 - 281
West Midlands -6 358 £350 -9.68% 269
Yorkshire -2 339 £375 - 266
Scotland -7 276 £375 +4.17% 92
East of England +8 262 £375 +10.29% 256
East Midlands -8 240 £340 -6.21% 235
Wales +4 110 £425 +6.25% 59
North East 0 89 £425 - 41
Northern Ireland +15 56 £420 +5.00% 20
Isle of Man -1 1 £400 -30.43% 2

For the 6 months to 19 January 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,966 (92.38%) HTML
2 5,969 (79.15%) JavaScript
3 3,495 (46.35%) Agile Software Development
4 3,054 (40.50%) HTML5
5 2,638 (34.98%) AngularJS
6 2,387 (31.65%) CSS3
7 2,001 (26.53%) Front End Development
8 1,944 (25.78%) jQuery
9 1,784 (23.66%) TDD
10 1,776 (23.55%) Git (software)
11 1,703 (22.58%) .NET
12 1,673 (22.19%) React
13 1,601 (21.23%) C#
14 1,570 (20.82%) Java
15 1,493 (19.80%) MVC
16 1,462 (19.39%) Node.js
17 1,312 (17.40%) Web Development
18 1,211 (16.06%) SQL
19 1,210 (16.05%) Sass
20 1,205 (15.98%) User Experience
21 1,142 (15.14%) Web Services
22 1,084 (14.37%) Scrum
23 1,007 (13.35%) SQL Server
24 1,004 (13.31%) Finance
25 967 (12.82%) ASP.NET
26 879 (11.66%) PHP
27 866 (11.48%) Continuous Integration
28 837 (11.10%) REST
29 804 (10.66%) RESTful
29 804 (10.66%) Twitter Bootstrap

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 508 (6.74%) CMS
2 216 (2.86%) Drupal
3 210 (2.78%) Apache
4 196 (2.60%) SharePoint
5 195 (2.59%) WordPress
6 151 (2.00%) Confluence
7 132 (1.75%) IIS
8 122 (1.62%) Tomcat
8 122 (1.62%) Umbraco
9 118 (1.56%) Elasticsearch
10 112 (1.49%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 107 (1.42%) WebLogic
12 101 (1.34%) JBoss
13 98 (1.30%) WebSphere
14 81 (1.07%) Sitecore CMS
15 71 (0.94%) nginx
16 60 (0.80%) SharePoint 2013
17 52 (0.69%) EPiServer
18 48 (0.64%) SharePoint 2010
19 47 (0.62%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 282 (3.74%) Photoshop
2 161 (2.13%) Adobe Illustrator
3 144 (1.91%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 82 (1.09%) InVision
5 70 (0.93%) Microsoft Excel
6 54 (0.72%) OmniGraffle
7 39 (0.52%) Microsoft Office
8 18 (0.24%) InDesign
9 16 (0.21%) MS Visio
10 15 (0.20%) Adobe After Effects
10 15 (0.20%) Adobe Premiere
11 13 (0.17%) GIMP
11 13 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 11 (0.15%) Fireworks
12 11 (0.15%) Microsoft Project
13 10 (0.13%) UXPin
14 9 (0.12%) InfoPath
15 7 (0.093%) Flinto
16 6 (0.080%) Acrobat
17 4 (0.053%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 179 (2.37%) Magento
2 48 (0.64%) Dynamics CRM
3 14 (0.19%) Adobe Campaign
3 14 (0.19%) Payment Gateway
4 13 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
5 12 (0.16%) Eloqua
6 11 (0.15%) Shopify
7 9 (0.12%) Dynamics NAV
7 9 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 8 (0.11%) KANA IQ
8 8 (0.11%) WebTrends
9 7 (0.093%) Dynamics AX
10 5 (0.066%) Oracle BPM
11 4 (0.053%) Social Studio
11 4 (0.053%) Unica
12 3 (0.040%) SDL Web 8
13 2 (0.027%) Distributed Ledger
13 2 (0.027%) Infor M3
13 2 (0.027%) Maximo
13 2 (0.027%) Movex
Cloud Services
1 500 (6.63%) Amazon AWS
2 407 (5.40%) Microsoft Azure
3 277 (3.67%) npm
4 182 (2.41%) GitHub
5 109 (1.45%) SaaS
5 109 (1.45%) Serverless
6 99 (1.31%) PaaS
7 79 (1.05%) Google Analytics
8 64 (0.85%) Office 365
9 48 (0.64%) Google Cloud Platform
9 48 (0.64%) IaaS
10 37 (0.49%) Heroku
11 35 (0.46%) Amazon EC2
12 34 (0.45%) OpenShift
13 32 (0.42%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 29 (0.38%) AWS Lambda
15 25 (0.33%) Amazon S3
16 19 (0.25%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
16 19 (0.25%) Trello
17 16 (0.21%) Salesforce Service Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 184 (2.44%) HTTP
2 108 (1.43%) Internet
3 56 (0.74%) SMS
4 54 (0.72%) SSL
5 46 (0.61%) TCP/IP
6 36 (0.48%) FTP
7 33 (0.44%) DNS
7 33 (0.44%) Intranet
8 14 (0.19%) Firewall
8 14 (0.19%) SMTP
9 8 (0.11%) HTTPS
10 7 (0.093%) Reverse Proxy
10 7 (0.093%) Skype
11 6 (0.080%) CTI
12 5 (0.066%) MQTT
12 5 (0.066%) SSH
13 4 (0.053%) Broadband
13 4 (0.053%) Ethernet
13 4 (0.053%) IMAP
13 4 (0.053%) Kerberos
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,007 (13.35%) SQL Server
2 697 (9.24%) MySQL
3 398 (5.28%) MongoDB
4 362 (4.80%) Relational Database
5 309 (4.10%) NoSQL
6 205 (2.72%) PostgreSQL
7 107 (1.42%) SQL Server 2012
8 102 (1.35%) RDBMS
9 92 (1.22%) SQL Server 2008
10 86 (1.14%) Big Data
11 69 (0.91%) DB2
11 69 (0.91%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 63 (0.84%) Oracle Database
13 60 (0.80%) Apache Cassandra
14 51 (0.68%) Redis
15 50 (0.66%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 44 (0.58%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 39 (0.52%) SQL Server 2014
18 38 (0.50%) SQL Server 2005
19 37 (0.49%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 1,776 (23.55%) Git (software)
2 600 (7.96%) Jenkins
3 507 (6.72%) gulp
4 450 (5.97%) Grunt
5 425 (5.64%) JIRA
6 385 (5.11%) webpack
7 353 (4.68%) Jasmine
8 349 (4.63%) Selenium
9 291 (3.86%) Subversion
10 287 (3.81%) Visual Studio
11 233 (3.09%) JUnit
12 210 (2.78%) Karma Test Runner
13 193 (2.56%) Maven
14 188 (2.49%) Cucumber
15 184 (2.44%) Mocha
16 177 (2.35%) Team Foundation Server
17 157 (2.08%) Axure RP
18 136 (1.80%) NUnit
19 132 (1.75%) Eclipse
20 127 (1.68%) Babel
General
1 1,004 (13.31%) Finance
2 403 (5.34%) Marketing
3 382 (5.07%) Banking
4 302 (4.00%) Retail
5 152 (2.02%) Telecoms
6 103 (1.37%) Games
7 82 (1.09%) Advertising
8 81 (1.07%) Front Office
9 74 (0.98%) Publishing
10 61 (0.81%) Manufacturing
11 52 (0.69%) Investment Banking
12 51 (0.68%) Law
13 50 (0.66%) Electronics
14 29 (0.38%) Financial Institution
15 28 (0.37%) Automotive
16 26 (0.34%) Multimedia
17 24 (0.32%) Back Office
17 24 (0.32%) Legal
18 23 (0.30%) Retail Banking
19 14 (0.19%) Japanese Language
Job Titles
1 6,210 (82.35%) Developer
2 1,555 (20.62%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,229 (16.30%) JavaScript Developer
4 807 (10.70%) .NET Developer
5 709 (9.40%) Java Developer
6 692 (9.18%) React Developer
7 646 (8.57%) HTML Developer
8 580 (7.69%) Angular Developer
9 550 (7.29%) Senior Developer
10 542 (7.19%) Full Stack Developer
11 505 (6.70%) C# Developer
12 479 (6.35%) Designer
12 479 (6.35%) HTML CSS Developer
13 450 (5.97%) Web Developer
14 390 (5.17%) UI Developer
15 360 (4.77%) PHP Developer
16 339 (4.50%) C# .NET Developer
17 285 (3.78%) UX Designer
18 268 (3.55%) Node.js Developer
19 199 (2.64%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,966 (92.38%) HTML
2 3,054 (40.50%) HTML5
3 2,638 (34.98%) AngularJS
4 2,387 (31.65%) CSS3
5 1,944 (25.78%) jQuery
6 1,703 (22.58%) .NET
7 1,673 (22.19%) React
8 1,462 (19.39%) Node.js
9 1,210 (16.05%) Sass
10 1,142 (15.14%) Web Services
11 967 (12.82%) ASP.NET
12 837 (11.10%) REST
13 804 (10.66%) RESTful
13 804 (10.66%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 731 (9.69%) XML
15 678 (8.99%) JSON
16 666 (8.83%) Ajax
17 564 (7.48%) Spring
18 510 (6.76%) .NET Framework
19 496 (6.58%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 1,205 (15.98%) User Experience
2 399 (5.29%) Greenfield Project
3 376 (4.99%) Mobile App
4 257 (3.41%) Analytical Skills
5 188 (2.49%) Computer Science
6 186 (2.47%) Fintech
7 126 (1.67%) Enterprise Software
8 93 (1.23%) Virtual Team
9 68 (0.90%) W3C
10 60 (0.80%) Social Media
11 53 (0.70%) Data Structures
12 51 (0.68%) N-Tier
13 49 (0.65%) Derivative
14 46 (0.61%) Digital Media
14 46 (0.61%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 45 (0.60%) Algorithms
16 42 (0.56%) Management Information System
17 39 (0.52%) Linux Command Line
18 37 (0.49%) Video on Demand
19 36 (0.48%) Graphic Design
Operating Systems
1 585 (7.76%) Linux
2 258 (3.42%) Windows
3 206 (2.73%) Unix
4 153 (2.03%) Android
5 151 (2.00%) Apple iOS
6 64 (0.85%) Windows Server
7 56 (0.74%) Mac OS X
8 26 (0.34%) Mac OS
9 19 (0.25%) Ubuntu
10 17 (0.23%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 15 (0.20%) Windows Server 2003
12 12 (0.16%) Oracle Linux
12 12 (0.16%) Windows Server 2008
13 11 (0.15%) Windows 10
13 11 (0.15%) Windows Server 2012
14 8 (0.11%) Solaris
15 7 (0.093%) Windows 2000
16 6 (0.080%) Debian
17 5 (0.066%) CentOS
18 3 (0.040%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,495 (46.35%) Agile Software Development
2 2,001 (26.53%) Front End Development
3 1,784 (23.66%) TDD
4 1,493 (19.80%) MVC
5 1,312 (17.40%) Web Development
6 1,084 (14.37%) Scrum
7 866 (11.48%) Continuous Integration
8 783 (10.38%) Test Automation
9 780 (10.34%) BDD
10 714 (9.47%) OO
11 634 (8.41%) Responsive Web Design
12 564 (7.48%) E-Commerce
13 495 (6.56%) Unit Testing
14 453 (6.01%) Software Engineering
15 407 (5.40%) DevOps
16 389 (5.16%) Microservices
17 353 (4.68%) Web Design
18 348 (4.61%) Prototyping
19 345 (4.57%) Kanban
20 344 (4.56%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 5,969 (79.15%) JavaScript
2 1,601 (21.23%) C#
3 1,570 (20.82%) Java
4 1,211 (16.06%) SQL
5 879 (11.66%) PHP
6 571 (7.57%) ES6
7 488 (6.47%) TypeScript
8 469 (6.22%) Python
9 309 (4.10%) Scala
10 283 (3.75%) Ruby
11 196 (2.60%) T-SQL
12 114 (1.51%) VB.NET
13 105 (1.39%) Groovy
14 100 (1.33%) C++
15 89 (1.18%) PL/SQL
16 87 (1.15%) ES7
17 84 (1.11%) PowerShell
18 71 (0.94%) C
19 62 (0.82%) Perl
20 46 (0.61%) Go
Qualifications
1 398 (5.28%) Degree
2 237 (3.14%) Security Cleared
3 155 (2.06%) SC Cleared
4 116 (1.54%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (0.34%) BPSS Clearance
6 17 (0.23%) Microsoft Certification
7 14 (0.19%) DBS Check
8 12 (0.16%) DV Cleared
9 11 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
10 9 (0.12%) BC Cleared
11 7 (0.093%) MCSE
12 5 (0.066%) ISTQB
12 5 (0.066%) ITIL Certification
12 5 (0.066%) Master's Degree
13 4 (0.053%) HND
13 4 (0.053%) ISEB
13 4 (0.053%) MCSD
14 3 (0.040%) CTC Cleared
14 3 (0.040%) IBM Certification
14 3 (0.040%) OCPJP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 231 (3.06%) QA
2 62 (0.82%) WCAG
3 30 (0.40%) Disclosure Scotland
4 22 (0.29%) WAI
5 12 (0.16%) GCP
6 9 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 8 (0.11%) HL7
8 7 (0.093%) SLA
9 5 (0.066%) GDPR
10 4 (0.053%) PMO
11 2 (0.027%) RosettaNet
12 1 (0.013%) CESG Infosec
12 1 (0.013%) HMG Security Policy Framework
12 1 (0.013%) ISO 9001
12 1 (0.013%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 1 (0.013%) PCI DSS
12 1 (0.013%) PSD2
System Software
1 479 (6.35%) Docker
2 36 (0.48%) Active Directory
3 17 (0.23%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (0.17%) Virtual Machines
5 7 (0.093%) Hyper-V
6 6 (0.080%) VirtualBox
6 6 (0.080%) VMware ESXi
7 5 (0.066%) ISA Server
8 4 (0.053%) LXC
8 4 (0.053%) Varnish
9 3 (0.040%) GeoWebCache
9 3 (0.040%) Microsoft App-V
10 2 (0.027%) Oracle RAC
11 1 (0.013%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 1 (0.013%) HDFS
11 1 (0.013%) KVM
11 1 (0.013%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
11 1 (0.013%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 104 (1.38%) Puppet
2 92 (1.22%) Ansible
3 67 (0.89%) Kubernetes
4 65 (0.86%) Opscode Chef
5 39 (0.52%) Terraform
6 28 (0.37%) Kibana
7 27 (0.36%) Grafana
8 15 (0.20%) Business Desktop Deployment
8 15 (0.20%) Sysdig
9 9 (0.12%) Docker Swarm
10 8 (0.11%) CA Service Virtualization
11 7 (0.093%) Rancher
12 6 (0.080%) HP Quality Center
13 5 (0.066%) Galera Cluster
13 5 (0.066%) ITRS Geneos
13 5 (0.066%) OpenNebula
13 5 (0.066%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
14 4 (0.053%) Nagios
14 4 (0.053%) SCCM
14 4 (0.053%) TeamSite
Vendors
1 567 (7.52%) Microsoft
2 453 (6.01%) Oracle
3 407 (5.40%) Adobe
4 208 (2.76%) Google
5 117 (1.55%) Sitecore
6 108 (1.43%) ServiceNow
7 107 (1.42%) Salesforce.com
8 77 (1.02%) SAP
9 72 (0.95%) Zend
10 67 (0.89%) hybris
11 64 (0.85%) Twitter
12 48 (0.64%) IBM
13 40 (0.53%) New Relic
13 40 (0.53%) Splunk
14 38 (0.50%) Atlassian
14 38 (0.50%) Nintex
14 38 (0.50%) Xamarin
15 37 (0.49%) PayPal
16 35 (0.46%) VMware
17 28 (0.37%) Demandware