Period
to 19 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 55 49 33
Rank change year-on-year -6 -16 -9
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,640 1,858 4,093
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.15% 4.52% 5.71%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.49% 14.90% 19.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,689 1,293 2,861
10th Percentile £360 £288 £310
25th Percentile £420 £351 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £448 £450
Median % change year-on-year +11.73% -0.56% +2.86%
75th Percentile £600 £538 £538
90th Percentile £700 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £460 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +14.88% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 35 30 39
10th Percentile £28.55 £24.71 £21.90
25th Percentile £41.46 £26.94 £25.68
Median hourly rate £55.00 £42.50 £36.70
Median % change year-on-year +29.41% +15.80% -10.49%
75th Percentile £67.80 £54.75 £52.50
90th Percentile £70.06 £58.71 £53.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £53.75 £39.00 £43.00
% change year-on-year +37.82% -9.30% +3.61%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 25,119 12,468 21,372
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 28.66% 30.35% 29.80%
Number of daily rates quoted 18,306 8,854 15,047
10th Percentile £383 £313 £330
25th Percentile £450 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £478 £492
Median % change year-on-year +15.00% -2.79% +3.58%
75th Percentile £650 £575 £575
90th Percentile £728 £656 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £480 £425 £440
% change year-on-year +12.94% -3.41% +3.53%
Number of hourly rates quoted 246 145 196
10th Percentile £20.89 £25.48 £17.21
25th Percentile £36.35 £35.00 £32.00
Median hourly rate £50.88 £45.00 £46.00
Median % change year-on-year +13.06% -2.17% +9.73%
75th Percentile £65.50 £57.50 £53.00
90th Percentile £76.72 £63.25 £78.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £50.50 £46.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +9.78% +2.22% +7.34%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 January 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -5 2,860 £513 +13.89% 1,693
London -3 1,678 £550 +15.79% 587
UK excluding London -12 1,168 £460 +14.88% 1,207
Work from Home -5 1,100 £500 +11.11% 383
North of England -22 275 £475 +11.76% 393
South East -29 239 £450 +5.88% 240
Midlands -12 237 £450 +28.39% 218
Scotland -2 167 £475 +18.75% 85
Yorkshire +10 142 £500 +17.65% 144
South West -19 134 £450 +12.50% 118
West Midlands -20 132 £500 +36.99% 139
North West -43 111 £445 +4.71% 199
East Midlands -5 100 £450 +28.57% 78
East of England -12 69 £475 +2.70% 115
Wales -1 39 £425 +17.24% 31
North East -15 24 £475 +2.43% 50
Northern Ireland -3 11 £459 +6.50% 8

For the 6 months to 19 January 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,191 (87.66%) HTML
2 2,817 (77.39%) JavaScript
3 1,730 (47.53%) Agile Software Development
4 1,503 (41.29%) React
5 990 (27.20%) Front End Development
6 969 (26.62%) AngularJS
7 937 (25.74%) HTML5
8 927 (25.47%) TypeScript
9 824 (22.64%) Git (software)
10 801 (22.01%) .NET
11 770 (21.15%) C#
12 704 (19.34%) Azure
13 702 (19.29%) DevOps
14 692 (19.01%) Node.js
15 673 (18.49%) User Experience
16 666 (18.30%) CSS3
17 654 (17.97%) Full Stack Development
18 645 (17.72%) SQL
19 637 (17.50%) Java
20 604 (16.59%) Social Skills
21 572 (15.71%) CI/CD
22 553 (15.19%) TDD
23 544 (14.95%) Sass
24 502 (13.79%) REST
25 501 (13.76%) Finance
26 483 (13.27%) Scrum
27 469 (12.88%) jQuery
28 461 (12.66%) Web Development
29 448 (12.31%) AWS
29 448 (12.31%) SQL Server

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 214 (5.88%) CMS
2 142 (3.90%) SharePoint
3 87 (2.39%) Confluence
4 67 (1.84%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 66 (1.81%) Elasticsearch
6 64 (1.76%) IIS
7 61 (1.68%) Tomcat
8 55 (1.51%) WordPress
9 43 (1.18%) Apache
10 36 (0.99%) Drupal
11 35 (0.96%) SharePoint 2010
12 33 (0.91%) Headless CMS
13 29 (0.80%) nginx
14 28 (0.77%) Umbraco
15 25 (0.69%) SharePoint 2013
16 23 (0.63%) Sitecore CMS
17 20 (0.55%) WebSphere
18 18 (0.49%) WebLogic
19 17 (0.47%) Moodle
20 16 (0.44%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 69 (1.90%) Sketch
2 40 (1.10%) InVision
2 40 (1.10%) Photoshop
3 32 (0.88%) Adobe XD
4 28 (0.77%) Adobe Illustrator
5 27 (0.74%) Microsoft Office
6 26 (0.71%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 15 (0.41%) Zeplin
8 10 (0.27%) Microsoft Excel
8 10 (0.27%) MS Visio
9 7 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 6 (0.16%) Chatbot
10 6 (0.16%) InDesign
10 6 (0.16%) OmniGraffle
11 4 (0.11%) InfoPath
11 4 (0.11%) Pixate
12 3 (0.082%) Adobe Premiere
12 3 (0.082%) Microsoft Project
13 2 (0.055%) Adobe After Effects
13 2 (0.055%) GIMP
Business Applications
1 37 (1.02%) Magento
2 36 (0.99%) Shopify
3 18 (0.49%) Payment Gateway
4 17 (0.47%) Dynamics CRM
5 9 (0.25%) Social Studio
6 6 (0.16%) SAP Hybris
7 5 (0.14%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 4 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
8 4 (0.11%) Dynamics AX
8 4 (0.11%) Oracle ERP
8 4 (0.11%) WebTrends
9 3 (0.082%) Temenos T24
10 2 (0.055%) NetSuite
10 2 (0.055%) SAP CRM
10 2 (0.055%) SAP MII
11 1 (0.027%) Eloqua
11 1 (0.027%) Oracle Applications
11 1 (0.027%) Oracle BPM
11 1 (0.027%) Oracle EBS
11 1 (0.027%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 704 (19.34%) Azure
2 448 (12.31%) AWS
3 204 (5.60%) GitHub
4 156 (4.29%) Serverless
5 139 (3.82%) npm
6 118 (3.24%) SaaS
7 87 (2.39%) Power Platform
8 85 (2.34%) GCP
9 77 (2.12%) PaaS
10 76 (2.09%) AWS Lambda
11 74 (2.03%) Google Analytics
12 64 (1.76%) Microsoft 365
13 57 (1.57%) Yarn
14 53 (1.46%) Amazon S3
14 53 (1.46%) AWS CloudFormation
15 51 (1.40%) Azure Functions
16 50 (1.37%) OpenShift
17 46 (1.26%) Azure Active Directory
18 45 (1.24%) PowerApps
19 40 (1.10%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 84 (2.31%) HTTP
2 81 (2.23%) Internet
3 28 (0.77%) Intranet
4 26 (0.71%) RTMP
5 23 (0.63%) DNS
6 18 (0.49%) HTTPS
7 13 (0.36%) TCP/IP
8 12 (0.33%) SSL
9 11 (0.30%) VPN
10 10 (0.27%) Broadband
10 10 (0.27%) Firewall
11 6 (0.16%) Extranet
12 5 (0.14%) Network Security
13 4 (0.11%) DMZ
13 4 (0.11%) FTP
14 3 (0.082%) AMQP
14 3 (0.082%) Kerberos
15 2 (0.055%) MQTT
15 2 (0.055%) SSH
16 1 (0.027%) PuTTY
Database & Business Intelligence
1 448 (12.31%) SQL Server
2 218 (5.99%) Relational Database
3 206 (5.66%) MySQL
4 163 (4.48%) PostgreSQL
5 162 (4.45%) MongoDB
6 156 (4.29%) NoSQL
7 66 (1.81%) RDBMS
8 52 (1.43%) Redis
9 48 (1.32%) Oracle Database
10 42 (1.15%) Power BI
11 33 (0.91%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 27 (0.74%) Amazon Aurora
13 26 (0.71%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 26 (0.71%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 22 (0.60%) GIS
15 21 (0.58%) SQL Server 2016
16 20 (0.55%) Apache Cassandra
16 20 (0.55%) Big Data
16 20 (0.55%) Data Warehouse
17 19 (0.52%) InterSystems Cache
Development Applications
1 824 (22.64%) Git (software)
2 281 (7.72%) Jenkins
3 242 (6.65%) JIRA
4 233 (6.40%) webpack
5 125 (3.43%) Maven
6 119 (3.27%) Jasmine
7 106 (2.91%) Selenium
8 103 (2.83%) Cypress.io
9 99 (2.72%) gulp
10 93 (2.55%) GitLab
11 84 (2.31%) Bitbucket
11 84 (2.31%) Cucumber
12 78 (2.14%) Mocha
13 77 (2.12%) Grunt
14 76 (2.09%) JUnit
15 73 (2.01%) Karma Test Runner
16 66 (1.81%) Visual Studio
17 65 (1.79%) TeamCity
18 56 (1.54%) Storybook
19 55 (1.51%) SonarQube
General
1 604 (16.59%) Social Skills
2 501 (13.76%) Finance
3 324 (8.90%) Public Sector
4 227 (6.24%) Banking
5 198 (5.44%) Analytical Skills
6 166 (4.56%) Marketing
7 111 (3.05%) Front Office
8 106 (2.91%) Investment Banking
9 102 (2.80%) Retail
10 65 (1.79%) Presentation Skills
11 60 (1.65%) Telecoms
12 49 (1.35%) Publishing
13 41 (1.13%) Games
14 38 (1.04%) Manufacturing
15 32 (0.88%) Electronics
16 29 (0.80%) Pharmaceutical
17 24 (0.66%) Financial Institution
17 24 (0.66%) Organisational Skills
18 22 (0.60%) Documentation Skills
19 19 (0.52%) Law
Job Titles
1 2,644 (72.64%) Developer
2 670 (18.41%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 456 (12.53%) React Developer
4 360 (9.89%) Full Stack Developer
5 331 (9.09%) Senior Developer
6 307 (8.43%) .NET Developer
7 260 (7.14%) Designer
7 260 (7.14%) JavaScript Developer
8 227 (6.24%) Angular Developer
9 172 (4.73%) Java Developer
10 137 (3.76%) C# Developer
11 134 (3.68%) UI Developer
12 124 (3.41%) HTML Developer
13 120 (3.30%) Lead Developer
14 119 (3.27%) Interaction Designer
15 101 (2.77%) Software Developer
16 96 (2.64%) Architect
16 96 (2.64%) Software Engineer
17 88 (2.42%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 88 (2.42%) Web Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,191 (87.66%) HTML
2 1,503 (41.29%) React
3 969 (26.62%) AngularJS
4 937 (25.74%) HTML5
5 801 (22.01%) .NET
6 692 (19.01%) Node.js
7 666 (18.30%) CSS3
8 544 (14.95%) Sass
9 502 (13.79%) REST
10 469 (12.88%) jQuery
11 400 (10.99%) Redux
12 381 (10.47%) Web Services
13 341 (9.37%) RESTful
14 331 (9.09%) ASP.NET
15 305 (8.38%) Vue.js
16 284 (7.80%) JSON
17 279 (7.66%) .NET Core
18 273 (7.50%) XML
19 269 (7.39%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 257 (7.06%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 673 (18.49%) User Experience
2 157 (4.31%) Mobile App
3 119 (3.27%) Greenfield Project
4 74 (2.03%) Enterprise Software
5 63 (1.73%) Self-Motivation
6 61 (1.68%) Data Protection Act
6 61 (1.68%) Virtual Team
7 60 (1.65%) Cloud Native
8 58 (1.59%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 47 (1.29%) Data Structures
10 41 (1.13%) Algorithms
11 38 (1.04%) Management Information System
12 33 (0.91%) N-Tier
13 32 (0.88%) Public Cloud
14 29 (0.80%) Equities
14 29 (0.80%) W3C
15 28 (0.77%) Legacy Systems
16 27 (0.74%) Social Media
17 23 (0.63%) e-Learning
18 20 (0.55%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 178 (4.89%) Linux
2 109 (2.99%) Windows
3 104 (2.86%) Unix
4 50 (1.37%) Android
5 45 (1.24%) Apple iOS
6 25 (0.69%) Windows Server
7 19 (0.52%) Mac OS
8 11 (0.30%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 6 (0.16%) Mac OS X
9 6 (0.16%) Solaris
10 5 (0.14%) Ubuntu
11 4 (0.11%) VMS
12 3 (0.082%) Windows Server 2008
12 3 (0.082%) Windows Server 2012
12 3 (0.082%) Windows Server 2016
13 2 (0.055%) AIX
13 2 (0.055%) Fedora
14 1 (0.027%) DC/OS
14 1 (0.027%) Mesosphere
14 1 (0.027%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,730 (47.53%) Agile Software Development
2 990 (27.20%) Front End Development
3 702 (19.29%) DevOps
4 654 (17.97%) Full Stack Development
5 572 (15.71%) CI/CD
6 553 (15.19%) TDD
7 483 (13.27%) Scrum
8 461 (12.66%) Web Development
9 414 (11.37%) Problem-Solving
10 398 (10.93%) Microservices
11 392 (10.77%) MVC
12 379 (10.41%) Software Engineering
13 375 (10.30%) Test Automation
14 355 (9.75%) UX Design
15 304 (8.35%) Unit Testing
16 303 (8.32%) Continuous Integration
17 258 (7.09%) SDLC
18 255 (7.01%) Prototyping
19 244 (6.70%) OO
20 242 (6.65%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 2,817 (77.39%) JavaScript
2 927 (25.47%) TypeScript
3 770 (21.15%) C#
4 645 (17.72%) SQL
5 637 (17.50%) Java
6 391 (10.74%) Python
7 277 (7.61%) ES6
8 272 (7.47%) PHP
9 145 (3.98%) PowerShell
10 91 (2.50%) Ruby
11 87 (2.39%) Java 8
12 80 (2.20%) T-SQL
13 48 (1.32%) Scala
14 46 (1.26%) Bash
15 36 (0.99%) Java 11
16 33 (0.91%) C
17 31 (0.85%) PL/SQL
17 31 (0.85%) VB.NET
18 28 (0.77%) Go
18 28 (0.77%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 278 (7.64%) Security Cleared
2 249 (6.84%) Degree
3 193 (5.30%) SC Cleared
4 76 (2.09%) BPSS Clearance
5 63 (1.73%) Computer Science Degree
6 29 (0.80%) DV Cleared
7 25 (0.69%) Master's Degree
8 14 (0.38%) ISTQB
9 9 (0.25%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
10 7 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
11 6 (0.16%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
11 6 (0.16%) ITIL Certification
12 5 (0.14%) Sun Certification
13 4 (0.11%) AWS Certification
13 4 (0.11%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 4 (0.11%) Numerate Degree
14 3 (0.082%) ISEB
15 2 (0.055%) MCSE
15 2 (0.055%) Tableau Certification
15 2 (0.055%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 414 (11.37%) Accessibility
2 162 (4.45%) QA
3 88 (2.42%) WCAG
4 13 (0.36%) GDPR
5 12 (0.33%) Disclosure Scotland
5 12 (0.33%) SLA
6 10 (0.27%) Data Quality
7 5 (0.14%) WAI
8 4 (0.11%) PCI DSS
9 2 (0.055%) NCSC
9 2 (0.055%) PMBOK
9 2 (0.055%) PMO
10 1 (0.027%) GxP
10 1 (0.027%) ISO 9001
10 1 (0.027%) ISO/IEC 27001
System Software
1 369 (10.14%) Docker
2 76 (2.09%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.11%) Slurm Workload Manager
4 3 (0.082%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.027%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.027%) HDFS
5 1 (0.027%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.027%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 297 (8.16%) Kubernetes
2 144 (3.96%) Terraform
3 51 (1.40%) Ansible
4 34 (0.93%) Puppet
5 33 (0.91%) Grafana
6 24 (0.66%) Kibana
7 23 (0.63%) Netcool
8 19 (0.52%) logstash
9 16 (0.44%) Single Sign-On
10 14 (0.38%) Opscode Chef
10 14 (0.38%) Prometheus
11 12 (0.33%) Rancher
12 11 (0.30%) Graphite
13 9 (0.25%) Active Directory Federation Services
14 6 (0.16%) Data Guard
15 3 (0.082%) HP ALM
15 3 (0.082%) Kubeflow
15 3 (0.082%) Matomo
15 3 (0.082%) MIIS
15 3 (0.082%) Nagios
Vendors
1 359 (9.86%) Microsoft
2 215 (5.91%) Oracle
3 182 (5.00%) Adobe
4 135 (3.71%) Google
5 97 (2.66%) Salesforce.com
6 67 (1.84%) SAP
7 60 (1.65%) ServiceNow
8 42 (1.15%) Splunk
9 36 (0.99%) Sitecore
10 33 (0.91%) Nintex
11 29 (0.80%) Mercator
12 28 (0.77%) AppDynamics
13 25 (0.69%) hybris
14 24 (0.66%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
15 22 (0.60%) New Relic
16 17 (0.47%) IBM
17 16 (0.44%) OutSystems
18 15 (0.41%) MuleSoft
19 14 (0.38%) Apple
20 13 (0.36%) ESRI