Period
to 20 August 2017

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 August 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
20 Aug 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 13 17 22
Rank change year-on-year +4 +5 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 8147 8558 8011
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 8.52% 7.89% 7.11%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 26.46% 27.36% 25.90%
Number of daily rates quoted 5768 6229 5632
UK median daily rate £401 £400 £360
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +0.13% +11.11% +2.86%
10th Percentile £275 £263 £231
90th Percentile £563 £550 £500
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £350 £325
% change year-on-year +7.14% +7.69% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 71 79 137
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £29.00 £32.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +37.93% -9.38% -8.57%
10th Percentile £14.25 £9.50 £13.30
90th Percentile £47.50 £47.62 £44.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £25.00 £34.20
% change year-on-year +60.00% -26.90% +8.57%

CSS is in the industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills.

Contract Software Library & Framework Skills
UK
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills 30786 31275 30933
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in the UK 32.19% 28.83% 27.44%
Number of daily rates quoted 21248 21867 20573
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +3.23%
10th Percentile £308 £294 £269
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £385 £375
% change year-on-year +3.90% +2.67% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 382 377 477
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £36.00 £37.04
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +11.11% -2.81% +5.83%
10th Percentile £16.00 £12.25 £15.04
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.00 £52.19
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £36.00 £37.02
% change year-on-year +11.11% -2.76% +9.32%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 August 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 August 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 August 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +3 7534 £413 +3.13% 1699
UK excluding London +11 4352 £375 +7.14% 1217
London -4 3664 £450 +5.88% 555
South East +10 1328 £375 +7.14% 271
North of England +7 1053 £375 - 389
Midlands +8 715 £350 +4.48% 213
North West +9 505 £350 -6.67% 219
Yorkshire +2 438 £388 +3.33% 155
South West +1 429 £350 +1.45% 149
Scotland +24 371 £375 +7.14% 50
West Midlands +4 367 £351 +0.86% 108
East Midlands +18 345 £339 +4.23% 105
East of England +2 310 £350 - 119
North East +36 108 £413 +3.13% 15
Wales -1 94 £325 -16.13% 20
Northern Ireland -3 67 £413 +3.13% 5

For the 6 months to 20 August 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7542 (92.57%) HTML
2 6505 (79.85%) JavaScript
3 3644 (44.73%) Agile Software Development
4 3478 (42.69%) HTML5
5 2970 (36.46%) AngularJS
6 2793 (34.28%) CSS3
7 2326 (28.55%) jQuery
8 2256 (27.69%) Front End Development
9 1875 (23.01%) Git (software)
10 1804 (22.14%) TDD
11 1776 (21.80%) Java
12 1726 (21.19%) .NET
13 1685 (20.68%) MVC
14 1683 (20.66%) C#
15 1590 (19.52%) React
16 1512 (18.56%) Web Development
17 1503 (18.45%) Node.js
18 1471 (18.06%) User Experience
19 1252 (15.37%) SQL
20 1225 (15.04%) Sass
21 1172 (14.39%) Scrum
22 1089 (13.37%) Finance
23 1029 (12.63%) ASP.NET
24 1024 (12.57%) SQL Server
25 1016 (12.47%) Web Services
26 973 (11.94%) Ajax
27 927 (11.38%) JSON
28 920 (11.29%) REST
29 905 (11.11%) XML
30 891 (10.94%) Twitter Bootstrap

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 563 (6.91%) CMS
2 249 (3.06%) Drupal
3 236 (2.90%) Confluence
4 222 (2.72%) SharePoint
5 212 (2.60%) Apache
6 209 (2.57%) WordPress
7 136 (1.67%) IIS
8 134 (1.64%) JBoss
8 134 (1.64%) WebSphere
9 133 (1.63%) Tomcat
10 127 (1.56%) Elasticsearch
11 117 (1.44%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 114 (1.40%) WebLogic
13 107 (1.31%) Umbraco
14 90 (1.10%) Sitecore CMS
15 71 (0.87%) SharePoint 2013
16 70 (0.86%) EPiServer
17 66 (0.81%) nginx
18 65 (0.80%) Apache Solr
19 58 (0.71%) SharePoint 2010
Applications
1 355 (4.36%) Photoshop
2 173 (2.12%) Adobe Illustrator
3 161 (1.98%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 60 (0.74%) InVision
5 58 (0.71%) OmniGraffle
6 44 (0.54%) Microsoft Excel
7 37 (0.45%) MS Visio
8 29 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
9 21 (0.26%) Adobe After Effects
10 19 (0.23%) InDesign
11 16 (0.20%) UXPin
12 15 (0.18%) Fireworks
13 11 (0.14%) InfoPath
14 9 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
15 8 (0.098%) Adobe Premiere
16 7 (0.086%) ImageReady
17 5 (0.061%) Pixate
18 4 (0.049%) Microsoft Project
18 4 (0.049%) Spreadsheet
18 4 (0.049%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 151 (1.85%) Magento
2 88 (1.08%) Dynamics CRM
3 26 (0.32%) SAP Hybris
4 17 (0.21%) Adobe Campaign
5 15 (0.18%) SDL Web 8
6 12 (0.15%) Eloqua
7 10 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
8 7 (0.086%) Dynamics AX
9 6 (0.074%) Oracle BPM
9 6 (0.074%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 6 (0.074%) Shopify
9 6 (0.074%) WebTrends
10 5 (0.061%) Remedy ITSM
10 5 (0.061%) SessionCam
10 5 (0.061%) Unica
11 4 (0.049%) Pega PRPC
11 4 (0.049%) RMDS
12 3 (0.037%) Revive Adserver
13 2 (0.025%) Cognos Business Intelligence
13 2 (0.025%) Endur
Cloud Services
1 396 (4.86%) Amazon AWS
2 306 (3.76%) Microsoft Azure
3 197 (2.42%) GitHub
4 108 (1.33%) SaaS
5 69 (0.85%) Google Analytics
6 57 (0.70%) Office 365
7 47 (0.58%) Cloud Computing
8 34 (0.42%) Adobe Creative Cloud
9 30 (0.37%) Google Cloud Platform
10 28 (0.34%) PaaS
10 28 (0.34%) Salesforce Service Cloud
11 25 (0.31%) IaaS
12 24 (0.29%) Amazon EC2
13 22 (0.27%) AWS Lambda
14 18 (0.22%) OpenShift
15 17 (0.21%) Heroku
16 16 (0.20%) Adobe Analytics
16 16 (0.20%) Amazon S3
16 16 (0.20%) AWS CloudFormation
17 14 (0.17%) Firebase
Communications & Networking
1 295 (3.62%) HTTP
2 122 (1.50%) Internet
3 41 (0.50%) SMS
4 35 (0.43%) Intranet
4 35 (0.43%) SSL
4 35 (0.43%) TCP/IP
5 32 (0.39%) LDAP
6 27 (0.33%) DNS
7 20 (0.25%) Firewall
8 10 (0.12%) Skype
9 8 (0.098%) SMTP
9 8 (0.098%) WebEx
10 7 (0.086%) Network Security
10 7 (0.086%) SSH
10 7 (0.086%) VPN
11 6 (0.074%) ATM
11 6 (0.074%) Extranet
11 6 (0.074%) HTTPS
11 6 (0.074%) Tactical Data Link
11 6 (0.074%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1024 (12.57%) SQL Server
2 683 (8.38%) MySQL
3 458 (5.62%) Relational Database
4 431 (5.29%) MongoDB
5 305 (3.74%) NoSQL
6 171 (2.10%) PostgreSQL
7 122 (1.50%) SQL Server 2008
8 121 (1.49%) SQL Server 2012
9 119 (1.46%) Oracle Database
10 115 (1.41%) Big Data
11 93 (1.14%) RDBMS
12 59 (0.72%) Apache Cassandra
12 59 (0.72%) Hadoop
12 59 (0.72%) SQL Server 2005
13 50 (0.61%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 49 (0.60%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 40 (0.49%) DB2
16 38 (0.47%) Redis
17 35 (0.43%) SQL Server 2014
18 33 (0.41%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 1875 (23.01%) Git (software)
2 595 (7.30%) Jenkins
3 594 (7.29%) Grunt
4 582 (7.14%) gulp
5 448 (5.50%) JIRA
6 445 (5.46%) Subversion
7 379 (4.65%) Jasmine
8 304 (3.73%) Selenium
9 294 (3.61%) Visual Studio
10 290 (3.56%) JUnit
11 287 (3.52%) Team Foundation Server
12 271 (3.33%) webpack
13 230 (2.82%) Maven
14 198 (2.43%) Cucumber
15 195 (2.39%) Mocha
16 185 (2.27%) Karma Test Runner
17 177 (2.17%) Axure RP
18 173 (2.12%) IntelliJ
19 126 (1.55%) TeamCity
20 121 (1.49%) Eclipse
General
1 1089 (13.37%) Finance
2 538 (6.60%) Banking
3 345 (4.23%) Marketing
4 282 (3.46%) Retail
5 153 (1.88%) Front Office
6 147 (1.80%) Telecoms
7 142 (1.74%) Investment Banking
8 103 (1.26%) Advertising
9 94 (1.15%) Publishing
10 87 (1.07%) Games
11 81 (0.99%) Manufacturing
12 63 (0.77%) Electronics
13 51 (0.63%) Financial Institution
14 46 (0.56%) Automotive
15 26 (0.32%) Legal
16 23 (0.28%) Back Office
16 23 (0.28%) Pharmaceutical
17 22 (0.27%) Law
18 18 (0.22%) Retail Banking
19 13 (0.16%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6804 (83.52%) Developer
2 1821 (22.35%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1433 (17.59%) JavaScript Developer
4 828 (10.16%) .NET Developer
5 812 (9.97%) HTML Developer
6 807 (9.91%) Java Developer
7 770 (9.45%) Angular Developer
8 642 (7.88%) HTML CSS Developer
9 595 (7.30%) Senior Developer
10 569 (6.98%) Web Developer
11 549 (6.74%) Full Stack Developer
12 528 (6.48%) C# Developer
12 528 (6.48%) UI Developer
13 506 (6.21%) Designer
14 371 (4.55%) C# .NET Developer
15 342 (4.20%) PHP Developer
16 310 (3.81%) UX Designer
17 287 (3.52%) Node.js Developer
18 234 (2.87%) ASP.NET Developer
19 210 (2.58%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7542 (92.57%) HTML
2 3478 (42.69%) HTML5
3 2970 (36.46%) AngularJS
4 2793 (34.28%) CSS3
5 2326 (28.55%) jQuery
6 1726 (21.19%) .NET
7 1590 (19.52%) React
8 1503 (18.45%) Node.js
9 1225 (15.04%) Sass
10 1029 (12.63%) ASP.NET
11 1016 (12.47%) Web Services
12 973 (11.94%) Ajax
13 927 (11.38%) JSON
14 920 (11.29%) REST
15 905 (11.11%) XML
16 891 (10.94%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 795 (9.76%) RESTful
18 683 (8.38%) Spring
19 552 (6.78%) LESS
20 490 (6.01%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 1471 (18.06%) User Experience
2 448 (5.50%) Greenfield Project
3 304 (3.73%) Mobile App
4 256 (3.14%) Analytical Skills
5 165 (2.03%) Computer Science
6 116 (1.42%) Fintech
7 105 (1.29%) Enterprise Software
8 100 (1.23%) W3C
9 61 (0.75%) Virtual Team
10 58 (0.71%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 55 (0.68%) Linux Command Line
12 51 (0.63%) Graphic Design
13 48 (0.59%) Management Information System
13 48 (0.59%) Social Media
14 46 (0.56%) NHS
15 43 (0.53%) Algorithms
15 43 (0.53%) Fixed Income
16 42 (0.52%) Data Structures
17 41 (0.50%) CMDB
18 40 (0.49%) Derivative
Operating Systems
1 758 (9.30%) Linux
2 341 (4.19%) Unix
3 260 (3.19%) Windows
4 144 (1.77%) Android
5 132 (1.62%) Apple iOS
6 106 (1.30%) Mac OS X
7 66 (0.81%) Windows Server
8 46 (0.56%) Mac OS
9 20 (0.25%) Windows Server 2008
10 16 (0.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 16 (0.20%) Ubuntu
10 16 (0.20%) Windows Server 2012
11 14 (0.17%) Windows Server 2003
12 9 (0.11%) Windows 10
13 6 (0.074%) Debian
13 6 (0.074%) Solaris
14 5 (0.061%) CentOS
15 4 (0.049%) SUSE
16 3 (0.037%) Oracle Linux
17 2 (0.025%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 3644 (44.73%) Agile Software Development
2 2256 (27.69%) Front End Development
3 1804 (22.14%) TDD
4 1685 (20.68%) MVC
5 1512 (18.56%) Web Development
6 1172 (14.39%) Scrum
7 845 (10.37%) Test Automation
8 839 (10.30%) OO
9 823 (10.10%) Continuous Integration
10 778 (9.55%) Responsive Web Design
11 677 (8.31%) BDD
12 586 (7.19%) E-Commerce
13 554 (6.80%) Web Design
14 488 (5.99%) Unit Testing
15 431 (5.29%) Open Source
16 420 (5.16%) Microservices
17 410 (5.03%) Wireframes
18 399 (4.90%) Software Engineering
19 383 (4.70%) DevOps
20 379 (4.65%) Prototyping
Programming Languages
1 6505 (79.85%) JavaScript
2 1776 (21.80%) Java
3 1683 (20.66%) C#
4 1252 (15.37%) SQL
5 809 (9.93%) PHP
6 570 (7.00%) Python
7 462 (5.67%) ES6
8 417 (5.12%) Scala
9 397 (4.87%) TypeScript
10 383 (4.70%) Ruby
11 205 (2.52%) T-SQL
12 118 (1.45%) VB.NET
13 100 (1.23%) PL/SQL
14 95 (1.17%) C++
15 93 (1.14%) Groovy
16 89 (1.09%) PowerShell
17 71 (0.87%) ECMAScript
18 68 (0.83%) Perl
19 63 (0.77%) Bash Shell
20 59 (0.72%) C
Qualifications
1 378 (4.64%) Degree
2 265 (3.25%) Security Cleared
3 175 (2.15%) SC Cleared
4 90 (1.10%) Computer Science Degree
5 38 (0.47%) BPSS Clearance
6 33 (0.41%) Microsoft Certification
7 24 (0.29%) DV Cleared
8 15 (0.18%) CTC Cleared
9 13 (0.16%) OCPJP
10 12 (0.15%) BC Cleared
10 12 (0.15%) ISTQB
11 11 (0.14%) MCSE
12 9 (0.11%) Master's Degree
13 8 (0.098%) ITIL Certification
14 6 (0.074%) MCTS
15 5 (0.061%) CISA
15 5 (0.061%) CISM
15 5 (0.061%) CISSP
15 5 (0.061%) MCP
16 4 (0.049%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 225 (2.76%) QA
2 44 (0.54%) WCAG
3 38 (0.47%) Disclosure Scotland
4 36 (0.44%) WAI
5 18 (0.22%) SLA
6 14 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 11 (0.14%) HL7
8 7 (0.086%) ISO 9001
8 7 (0.086%) MiFID
9 6 (0.074%) COBIT
10 5 (0.061%) Data Quality
10 5 (0.061%) FedRAMP
10 5 (0.061%) PCI DSS
11 4 (0.049%) FATCA
12 3 (0.037%) Dodd-Frank
12 3 (0.037%) EMIR
12 3 (0.037%) PMO
13 2 (0.025%) GDPR
13 2 (0.025%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 1 (0.012%) Actionable Recommendations
System Software
1 375 (4.60%) Docker
2 23 (0.28%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.11%) VirtualBox
4 6 (0.074%) Apache Flume
4 6 (0.074%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 6 (0.074%) LXC
4 6 (0.074%) Shibboleth
5 5 (0.061%) UAG
6 4 (0.049%) Virtual Machines
7 3 (0.037%) HDFS
7 3 (0.037%) Varnish
7 3 (0.037%) Virtual Desktop
7 3 (0.037%) VMware Infrastructure
8 2 (0.025%) Virtual Servers
9 1 (0.012%) Hyper-V
Systems Management
1 167 (2.05%) Puppet
2 62 (0.76%) Kubernetes
3 58 (0.71%) Ansible
4 51 (0.63%) Opscode Chef
5 24 (0.29%) Terraform
6 16 (0.20%) Kibana
7 12 (0.15%) Business Desktop Deployment
7 12 (0.15%) Sysdig
8 8 (0.098%) Grafana
8 8 (0.098%) Piwik
9 6 (0.074%) HP Quality Center
9 6 (0.074%) Nagios
9 6 (0.074%) Rancher
9 6 (0.074%) TeamSite
10 5 (0.061%) logstash
10 5 (0.061%) Mesos
10 5 (0.061%) Salt
11 4 (0.049%) cPanel
11 4 (0.049%) Graphite
11 4 (0.049%) Icinga
Vendors
1 540 (6.63%) Microsoft
2 475 (5.83%) Oracle
3 450 (5.52%) Adobe
4 281 (3.45%) Google
5 134 (1.64%) Sitecore
6 112 (1.37%) SAP
7 110 (1.35%) ServiceNow
8 85 (1.04%) IBM
9 71 (0.87%) Zend
10 66 (0.81%) Salesforce.com
11 65 (0.80%) hybris
12 51 (0.63%) Twitter
13 40 (0.49%) Demandware
13 40 (0.49%) Telerik
14 37 (0.45%) Xamarin
15 35 (0.43%) New Relic
16 33 (0.41%) Nintex
17 29 (0.36%) Atlassian
18 27 (0.33%) ATG
18 27 (0.33%) webMethods