Period
to 19 November 2017

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Nov 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 13 13 20
Rank change year-on-year 0 +7 -1
Contract jobs citing CSS 8002 8980 8769
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.89% 8.56% 7.65%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.61% 28.22% 27.06%
Number of daily rates quoted 5861 6370 6425
UK median daily rate £420 £400 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +6.67% +3.45%
10th Percentile £288 £263 £250
90th Percentile £575 £556 £525
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £365 £350
% change year-on-year +2.74% +4.29% +7.69%
Number of hourly rates quoted 72 89 157
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £35.69 £32.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +19.10% +11.52% -8.57%
10th Percentile £15.63 £17.85 £11.00
90th Percentile £48.75 £49.60 £47.33
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.39 £32.00 £33.55
% change year-on-year +35.59% -4.62% -2.75%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 32518 31826 32407
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 32.07% 30.35% 28.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 22959 22067 22211
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £410
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +3.66% +2.50%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £275
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £388 £375
% change year-on-year +3.23% +3.33% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 373 364 554
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £37.50 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.67% - +7.14%
10th Percentile £18.10 £14.19 £15.01
90th Percentile £52.50 £51.40 £54.97
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £37.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year +10.81% -1.33% +10.29%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 November 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 November 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 7403 £425 +6.25% 1225
UK excluding London +4 4076 £375 +2.74% 895
London -6 3817 £475 +11.76% 366
South East -2 1226 £400 +10.34% 244
North of England +6 954 £375 - 249
Midlands -1 668 £350 -3.45% 194
North West +11 507 £363 -3.33% 123
South West -4 414 £350 - 73
West Midlands -7 371 £350 -1.41% 86
Yorkshire -3 346 £380 +1.33% 108
Scotland +6 340 £375 - 25
East of England +2 301 £371 +6.07% 99
East Midlands -1 294 £340 -6.21% 106
Wales +4 113 £400 -5.88% 10
North East +19 98 £425 - 18
Northern Ireland +13 76 £414 +3.44% 2

For the 6 months to 19 November 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7421 (92.74%) HTML
2 6369 (79.59%) JavaScript
3 3614 (45.16%) Agile Software Development
4 3350 (41.86%) HTML5
5 2815 (35.18%) AngularJS
6 2641 (33.00%) CSS3
7 2140 (26.74%) Front End Development
8 2081 (26.01%) jQuery
9 1887 (23.58%) TDD
10 1876 (23.44%) Git (software)
11 1734 (21.67%) React
12 1717 (21.46%) .NET
13 1685 (21.06%) Java
14 1634 (20.42%) C#
15 1626 (20.32%) MVC
16 1596 (19.95%) Node.js
17 1445 (18.06%) Web Development
18 1359 (16.98%) User Experience
19 1273 (15.91%) Sass
20 1242 (15.52%) SQL
21 1192 (14.90%) Web Services
22 1189 (14.86%) Scrum
23 1095 (13.68%) Finance
24 1024 (12.80%) SQL Server
25 988 (12.35%) ASP.NET
26 945 (11.81%) REST
27 918 (11.47%) PHP
28 872 (10.90%) Twitter Bootstrap
29 864 (10.80%) RESTful
30 857 (10.71%) Continuous Integration

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 532 (6.65%) CMS
2 261 (3.26%) Drupal
3 223 (2.79%) WordPress
4 219 (2.74%) SharePoint
5 216 (2.70%) Apache
6 199 (2.49%) Confluence
7 140 (1.75%) IIS
8 133 (1.66%) Tomcat
9 130 (1.62%) WebSphere
10 128 (1.60%) Elasticsearch
11 115 (1.44%) WebLogic
12 114 (1.42%) Umbraco
13 109 (1.36%) Adobe Experience Manager
13 109 (1.36%) JBoss
14 82 (1.02%) Sitecore CMS
15 76 (0.95%) nginx
16 62 (0.77%) SharePoint 2013
17 61 (0.76%) Apache Solr
17 61 (0.76%) SharePoint 2010
18 43 (0.54%) EPiServer
Applications
1 325 (4.06%) Photoshop
2 164 (2.05%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 160 (2.00%) Adobe Illustrator
4 63 (0.79%) OmniGraffle
5 59 (0.74%) Microsoft Excel
6 56 (0.70%) InVision
7 39 (0.49%) Microsoft Office
8 35 (0.44%) MS Visio
9 20 (0.25%) Adobe After Effects
10 19 (0.24%) InDesign
11 13 (0.16%) Adobe Premiere
11 13 (0.16%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 13 (0.16%) Microsoft Project
12 12 (0.15%) InfoPath
13 11 (0.14%) Fireworks
13 11 (0.14%) GIMP
13 11 (0.14%) UXPin
14 6 (0.075%) Acrobat
15 4 (0.050%) LaTeX
15 4 (0.050%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 181 (2.26%) Magento
2 69 (0.86%) Dynamics CRM
3 21 (0.26%) Adobe Campaign
4 16 (0.20%) SAP Hybris
5 13 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
6 10 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 9 (0.11%) Eloqua
7 9 (0.11%) Shopify
8 8 (0.100%) KANA IQ
8 8 (0.100%) WebTrends
9 7 (0.087%) SDL Web 8
10 5 (0.062%) Dynamics NAV
10 5 (0.062%) Oracle BPM
11 4 (0.050%) RMDS
11 4 (0.050%) Unica
12 3 (0.037%) Dynamics AX
13 2 (0.025%) Cognos Business Intelligence
13 2 (0.025%) Endur
13 2 (0.025%) Maximo
13 2 (0.025%) Social Studio
Cloud Services
1 498 (6.22%) Amazon AWS
2 385 (4.81%) Microsoft Azure
3 268 (3.35%) npm
4 178 (2.22%) GitHub
5 121 (1.51%) SaaS
6 96 (1.20%) Serverless
7 82 (1.02%) PaaS
8 69 (0.86%) Office 365
9 62 (0.77%) Google Analytics
10 36 (0.45%) IaaS
11 33 (0.41%) Amazon EC2
12 31 (0.39%) Adobe Creative Cloud
12 31 (0.39%) AWS Lambda
13 27 (0.34%) Heroku
14 26 (0.32%) Cloud Computing
14 26 (0.32%) Google Cloud Platform
15 22 (0.27%) Amazon S3
16 20 (0.25%) Salesforce Service Cloud
17 17 (0.21%) Firebase
17 17 (0.21%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 195 (2.44%) HTTP
2 121 (1.51%) Internet
3 62 (0.77%) SMS
4 42 (0.52%) Intranet
5 41 (0.51%) TCP/IP
6 38 (0.47%) SSL
7 27 (0.34%) DNS
8 21 (0.26%) FTP
9 17 (0.21%) Firewall
10 14 (0.17%) LDAP
11 9 (0.11%) Skype
12 8 (0.100%) SMTP
13 7 (0.087%) HTTPS
13 7 (0.087%) Reverse Proxy
14 6 (0.075%) ATM
14 6 (0.075%) CTI
14 6 (0.075%) Ethernet
14 6 (0.075%) Tactical Data Link
15 5 (0.062%) MQTT
15 5 (0.062%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1024 (12.80%) SQL Server
2 716 (8.95%) MySQL
3 413 (5.16%) Relational Database
4 412 (5.15%) MongoDB
5 332 (4.15%) NoSQL
6 191 (2.39%) PostgreSQL
7 112 (1.40%) SQL Server 2012
8 111 (1.39%) RDBMS
9 106 (1.32%) Big Data
10 88 (1.10%) SQL Server 2008
11 73 (0.91%) Oracle Database
12 69 (0.86%) DB2
13 67 (0.84%) Apache Cassandra
14 65 (0.81%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 55 (0.69%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 49 (0.61%) Hadoop
16 49 (0.61%) SQL Server 2005
17 39 (0.49%) SQL Server 2014
18 38 (0.47%) Redis
19 31 (0.39%) DB2 UDB
Development Applications
1 1876 (23.44%) Git (software)
2 592 (7.40%) Jenkins
3 579 (7.24%) gulp
4 530 (6.62%) Grunt
5 441 (5.51%) JIRA
6 386 (4.82%) Jasmine
7 351 (4.39%) webpack
8 338 (4.22%) Subversion
9 334 (4.17%) Selenium
10 300 (3.75%) Visual Studio
11 245 (3.06%) JUnit
12 227 (2.84%) Maven
13 226 (2.82%) Karma Test Runner
14 218 (2.72%) Team Foundation Server
15 191 (2.39%) Cucumber
16 177 (2.21%) Mocha
17 164 (2.05%) Axure RP
18 145 (1.81%) IntelliJ
19 133 (1.66%) NUnit
20 124 (1.55%) Eclipse
General
1 1095 (13.68%) Finance
2 482 (6.02%) Banking
3 394 (4.92%) Marketing
4 316 (3.95%) Retail
5 162 (2.02%) Telecoms
6 126 (1.57%) Front Office
7 117 (1.46%) Games
8 107 (1.34%) Investment Banking
9 94 (1.17%) Advertising
10 92 (1.15%) Publishing
11 82 (1.02%) Manufacturing
12 64 (0.80%) Electronics
13 41 (0.51%) Automotive
13 41 (0.51%) Law
14 31 (0.39%) Financial Institution
15 27 (0.34%) Retail Banking
16 21 (0.26%) Legal
17 19 (0.24%) Back Office
18 14 (0.17%) Multimedia
18 14 (0.17%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 6652 (83.13%) Developer
2 1660 (20.74%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1386 (17.32%) JavaScript Developer
4 809 (10.11%) .NET Developer
5 756 (9.45%) Java Developer
6 729 (9.11%) HTML Developer
7 663 (8.29%) Angular Developer
8 592 (7.40%) Senior Developer
9 545 (6.81%) HTML CSS Developer
10 536 (6.70%) Full Stack Developer
11 521 (6.51%) C# Developer
12 505 (6.31%) Designer
13 495 (6.19%) Web Developer
14 471 (5.89%) UI Developer
15 364 (4.55%) PHP Developer
16 357 (4.46%) C# .NET Developer
17 294 (3.67%) UX Designer
18 291 (3.64%) Node.js Developer
19 222 (2.77%) Agile Developer
20 205 (2.56%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7421 (92.74%) HTML
2 3350 (41.86%) HTML5
3 2815 (35.18%) AngularJS
4 2641 (33.00%) CSS3
5 2081 (26.01%) jQuery
6 1734 (21.67%) React
7 1717 (21.46%) .NET
8 1596 (19.95%) Node.js
9 1273 (15.91%) Sass
10 1192 (14.90%) Web Services
11 988 (12.35%) ASP.NET
12 945 (11.81%) REST
13 872 (10.90%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 864 (10.80%) RESTful
15 838 (10.47%) JSON
16 805 (10.06%) XML
17 785 (9.81%) Ajax
18 621 (7.76%) Spring
19 539 (6.74%) LESS
20 494 (6.17%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 1359 (16.98%) User Experience
2 405 (5.06%) Greenfield Project
3 392 (4.90%) Mobile App
4 264 (3.30%) Analytical Skills
5 193 (2.41%) Computer Science
6 156 (1.95%) Fintech
7 97 (1.21%) Enterprise Software
8 93 (1.16%) W3C
9 91 (1.14%) Virtual Team
10 59 (0.74%) Data Structures
11 58 (0.72%) Social Media
12 54 (0.67%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 53 (0.66%) N-Tier
14 52 (0.65%) Management Information System
15 51 (0.64%) Linux Command Line
16 47 (0.59%) Derivative
16 47 (0.59%) Graphic Design
17 42 (0.52%) Digital Media
18 40 (0.50%) Video on Demand
19 37 (0.46%) Algorithms
Operating Systems
1 684 (8.55%) Linux
2 284 (3.55%) Windows
3 227 (2.84%) Unix
4 169 (2.11%) Android
5 151 (1.89%) Apple iOS
6 63 (0.79%) Windows Server
7 40 (0.50%) Mac OS X
8 36 (0.45%) Mac OS
9 16 (0.20%) Ubuntu
9 16 (0.20%) Windows Server 2003
10 15 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 15 (0.19%) Windows 10
10 15 (0.19%) Windows Server 2008
11 12 (0.15%) Oracle Linux
12 9 (0.11%) Debian
12 9 (0.11%) Solaris
12 9 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
13 7 (0.087%) Windows 2000
14 6 (0.075%) CentOS
15 3 (0.037%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 3614 (45.16%) Agile Software Development
2 2140 (26.74%) Front End Development
3 1887 (23.58%) TDD
4 1626 (20.32%) MVC
5 1445 (18.06%) Web Development
6 1189 (14.86%) Scrum
7 857 (10.71%) Continuous Integration
8 838 (10.47%) OO
9 818 (10.22%) Test Automation
10 751 (9.39%) BDD
11 725 (9.06%) Responsive Web Design
12 556 (6.95%) E-Commerce
13 499 (6.24%) Unit Testing
14 435 (5.44%) Web Design
15 428 (5.35%) Software Engineering
16 392 (4.90%) Open Source
17 360 (4.50%) Prototyping
18 358 (4.47%) Wireframes
19 353 (4.41%) Microservices
20 336 (4.20%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 6369 (79.59%) JavaScript
2 1685 (21.06%) Java
3 1634 (20.42%) C#
4 1242 (15.52%) SQL
5 918 (11.47%) PHP
6 567 (7.09%) ES6
7 505 (6.31%) Python
8 467 (5.84%) TypeScript
9 345 (4.31%) Scala
10 269 (3.36%) Ruby
11 214 (2.67%) T-SQL
12 119 (1.49%) VB.NET
13 105 (1.31%) C++
14 93 (1.16%) ECMAScript
15 91 (1.14%) Groovy
16 84 (1.05%) PL/SQL
17 73 (0.91%) PowerShell
18 71 (0.89%) C
19 55 (0.69%) Perl
20 46 (0.57%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 407 (5.09%) Degree
2 244 (3.05%) Security Cleared
3 162 (2.02%) SC Cleared
4 113 (1.41%) Computer Science Degree
5 36 (0.45%) BPSS Clearance
6 20 (0.25%) Microsoft Certification
7 12 (0.15%) DBS Check
8 11 (0.14%) DV Cleared
9 10 (0.12%) ISTQB
10 9 (0.11%) BC Cleared
11 7 (0.087%) MCSE
12 5 (0.062%) CTC Cleared
12 5 (0.062%) ITIL Certification
12 5 (0.062%) MCSD
13 4 (0.050%) HND
14 3 (0.037%) IBM Certification
14 3 (0.037%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 3 (0.037%) Master's Degree
14 3 (0.037%) Numerate Degree
14 3 (0.037%) OCPJP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 234 (2.92%) QA
2 53 (0.66%) WCAG
3 29 (0.36%) Disclosure Scotland
3 29 (0.36%) WAI
4 18 (0.22%) SLA
5 12 (0.15%) HL7
6 9 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 5 (0.062%) GCP
8 4 (0.050%) GDPR
9 3 (0.037%) COBIT
9 3 (0.037%) PCI DSS
9 3 (0.037%) PMO
10 2 (0.025%) Data Quality
10 2 (0.025%) FedRAMP
10 2 (0.025%) RosettaNet
10 2 (0.025%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 1 (0.012%) ISO 9001
11 1 (0.012%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 1 (0.012%) PSD2
11 1 (0.012%) Solvency II
System Software
1 429 (5.36%) Docker
2 37 (0.46%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.16%) VMware Infrastructure
4 10 (0.12%) Virtual Machines
5 9 (0.11%) VirtualBox
6 6 (0.075%) LXC
7 5 (0.062%) ISA Server
7 5 (0.062%) Varnish
8 3 (0.037%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.037%) UAG
8 3 (0.037%) Virtual Desktop
8 3 (0.037%) VMware ESXi
9 2 (0.025%) Apache Flume
9 2 (0.025%) HDFS
9 2 (0.025%) Oracle RAC
10 1 (0.012%) Hyper-V
10 1 (0.012%) KVM
10 1 (0.012%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
Systems Management
1 112 (1.40%) Puppet
2 68 (0.85%) Kubernetes
3 63 (0.79%) Ansible
4 54 (0.67%) Opscode Chef
5 37 (0.46%) Terraform
6 22 (0.27%) Kibana
7 19 (0.24%) Business Desktop Deployment
8 18 (0.22%) Grafana
9 15 (0.19%) Sysdig
10 6 (0.075%) Rancher
11 5 (0.062%) Galera Cluster
11 5 (0.062%) ITRS Geneos
11 5 (0.062%) Nagios
11 5 (0.062%) OpenNebula
12 4 (0.050%) CA Service Virtualization
12 4 (0.050%) HP Quality Center
13 3 (0.037%) cPanel
13 3 (0.037%) Mesos
13 3 (0.037%) Piwik
13 3 (0.037%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
Vendors
1 577 (7.21%) Microsoft
2 485 (6.06%) Oracle
3 438 (5.47%) Adobe
4 209 (2.61%) Google
5 121 (1.51%) Sitecore
6 116 (1.45%) ServiceNow
7 96 (1.20%) SAP
8 89 (1.11%) Salesforce.com
9 76 (0.95%) Zend
10 65 (0.81%) hybris
11 58 (0.72%) Twitter
12 57 (0.71%) IBM
13 51 (0.64%) New Relic
14 43 (0.54%) Xamarin
15 42 (0.52%) Nintex
16 33 (0.41%) Atlassian
17 31 (0.39%) Perforce
17 31 (0.39%) Telerik
17 31 (0.39%) VMware
18 28 (0.35%) ATG