Period
to 14 December 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 December 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
14 Dec 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 30 23 15
Rank change year-on-year -7 -8 -2
Contract jobs citing CSS 4,606 7,606 7,912
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 5.82% 7.25% 7.66%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.30% 20.85% 23.80%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,188 5,488 5,803
UK median daily rate £450 £430 £420
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.65% +2.38% +5.00%
10th Percentile £313 £313 £284
90th Percentile £600 £575 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £400 £375
% change year-on-year - +6.67% +0.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 57 61 66
UK median hourly rate £36.70 £41.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -10.49% -3.53% +18.06%
10th Percentile £23.60 £15.00 £18.13
90th Percentile £53.30 £57.50 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £41.25 £45.00
% change year-on-year -15.15% -8.33% +40.73%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 23,871 36,477 33,250
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.16% 34.76% 32.20%
Number of daily rates quoted 16,465 25,779 23,511
UK median daily rate £490 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.16% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £331 £325 £313
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% +3.09%
Number of hourly rates quoted 272 314 363
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £41.52 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.37% +3.79% -
10th Percentile £17.50 £19.08 £17.80
90th Percentile £73.75 £60.00 £52.40
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £41.53 £40.00
% change year-on-year +1.13% +3.83% +3.23%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 14 December 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 14 December 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 14 December 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 4,220 £450 +2.86% 2,714
UK excluding London -12 2,251 £400 - 2,111
London -4 2,247 £500 +5.26% 787
South East -24 597 £425 - 447
North of England -16 510 £400 +6.38% 603
South West -12 334 £400 - 268
Midlands -5 331 £400 - 384
North West -18 272 £388 +2.65% 346
Scotland -3 223 £425 +6.25% 118
West Midlands 0 219 £425 - 196
Yorkshire -14 188 £400 +6.67% 181
East of England +8 179 £425 +9.68% 227
East Midlands -11 111 £350 -6.67% 187
Wales -5 61 £425 +6.25% 55
North East -14 50 £381 -3.17% 76
Northern Ireland -6 19 £420 -0.47% 11

For the 6 months to 14 December 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,179 (90.73%) HTML
2 3,569 (77.49%) JavaScript
3 2,139 (46.44%) Agile Software Development
4 1,462 (31.74%) AngularJS
5 1,425 (30.94%) HTML5
6 1,273 (27.64%) React
7 1,212 (26.31%) Front End Development
8 1,074 (23.32%) C#
9 1,070 (23.23%) .NET
10 1,067 (23.17%) Git (software)
11 1,066 (23.14%) CSS3
12 932 (20.23%) TDD
13 887 (19.26%) Node.js
14 798 (17.33%) SQL
15 791 (17.17%) Java
16 786 (17.06%) User Experience
17 753 (16.35%) jQuery
18 723 (15.70%) MVC
19 698 (15.15%) Sass
20 676 (14.68%) SQL Server
21 634 (13.76%) Scrum
21 634 (13.76%) Web Development
22 594 (12.90%) Azure
23 587 (12.74%) TypeScript
24 569 (12.35%) Finance
25 561 (12.18%) ASP.NET
26 549 (11.92%) Continuous Integration
27 542 (11.77%) Test Automation
28 512 (11.12%) Redux
29 490 (10.64%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 337 (7.32%) CMS
2 141 (3.06%) SharePoint
3 113 (2.45%) Confluence
4 112 (2.43%) WordPress
5 100 (2.17%) Apache
6 94 (2.04%) Drupal
7 75 (1.63%) Umbraco
8 62 (1.35%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 55 (1.19%) IIS
10 49 (1.06%) Tomcat
11 47 (1.02%) WebSphere
12 44 (0.96%) Sitecore CMS
13 42 (0.91%) Elasticsearch
14 41 (0.89%) nginx
15 38 (0.83%) JBoss
16 31 (0.67%) WebLogic
17 25 (0.54%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 19 (0.41%) SharePoint 2013
19 16 (0.35%) Moodle
20 15 (0.33%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 176 (3.82%) Photoshop
2 125 (2.71%) Sketch
3 87 (1.89%) Adobe Illustrator
4 68 (1.48%) InVision
5 47 (1.02%) Microsoft Office
6 46 (1.00%) Adobe XD
7 36 (0.78%) Microsoft Excel
8 35 (0.76%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 31 (0.67%) Zeplin
10 23 (0.50%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 21 (0.46%) GIMP
12 18 (0.39%) InDesign
13 14 (0.30%) Marvel
14 13 (0.28%) Figma
15 11 (0.24%) MS Visio
16 9 (0.20%) InfoPath
17 8 (0.17%) Adobe After Effects
18 7 (0.15%) UXPin
19 6 (0.13%) UserZoom
19 6 (0.13%) XMetaL
Business Applications
1 111 (2.41%) Magento
2 27 (0.59%) Dynamics CRM
3 25 (0.54%) Shopify
4 12 (0.26%) Adobe Campaign
5 6 (0.13%) Visualfiles
6 5 (0.11%) Eloqua
6 5 (0.11%) Oracle BPM
6 5 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
7 4 (0.087%) NetSuite
7 4 (0.087%) osCommerce
7 4 (0.087%) R3 Corda
8 3 (0.065%) Oracle EBS
8 3 (0.065%) SAP Hybris
8 3 (0.065%) WebTrends
9 2 (0.043%) Primavera
9 2 (0.043%) SDL Web 8
10 1 (0.022%) JDE OneWorld
10 1 (0.022%) Oracle Financials
10 1 (0.022%) Sprinklr
10 1 (0.022%) Unica
Cloud Services
1 594 (12.90%) Azure
2 390 (8.47%) AWS
3 192 (4.17%) GitHub
4 159 (3.45%) npm
5 119 (2.58%) GCP
6 91 (1.98%) SaaS
7 77 (1.67%) Google Analytics
8 76 (1.65%) Serverless
9 59 (1.28%) Power Platform
10 57 (1.24%) Office 365
11 54 (1.17%) PaaS
12 39 (0.85%) Amazon S3
13 38 (0.83%) AWS Lambda
14 30 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Cloud
15 28 (0.61%) Yarn
16 27 (0.59%) Cloud Computing
17 26 (0.56%) Adobe Analytics
18 24 (0.52%) OpenShift
19 19 (0.41%) Heroku
20 17 (0.37%) BrowserStack
Communications & Networking
1 145 (3.15%) HTTP
2 42 (0.91%) SSL
3 41 (0.89%) TCP/IP
4 38 (0.83%) Internet
5 32 (0.69%) Intranet
6 24 (0.52%) DSL
7 11 (0.24%) SSH
8 10 (0.22%) FTP
9 9 (0.20%) Network Security
10 8 (0.17%) DNS
11 7 (0.15%) Reverse Proxy
12 6 (0.13%) Firewall
12 6 (0.13%) HTTPS
13 5 (0.11%) SMS
14 4 (0.087%) Extranet
14 4 (0.087%) Skype
14 4 (0.087%) VPN
15 3 (0.065%) DMZ
15 3 (0.065%) RTMP
15 3 (0.065%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 676 (14.68%) SQL Server
2 371 (8.05%) MySQL
3 251 (5.45%) Relational Database
4 178 (3.86%) NoSQL
5 158 (3.43%) MongoDB
6 154 (3.34%) PostgreSQL
7 45 (0.98%) Power BI
7 45 (0.98%) RDBMS
7 45 (0.98%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 41 (0.89%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 40 (0.87%) Oracle Database
10 38 (0.83%) Big Data
11 35 (0.76%) SQL Server Analysis Services
12 33 (0.72%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 31 (0.67%) QlikView
14 29 (0.63%) SQL Server 2008
15 28 (0.61%) Redis
16 27 (0.59%) Flink
17 25 (0.54%) Apache Cassandra
17 25 (0.54%) OLAP
Development Applications
1 1,067 (23.17%) Git (software)
2 385 (8.36%) Jenkins
3 338 (7.34%) JIRA
4 283 (6.14%) webpack
5 232 (5.04%) gulp
6 223 (4.84%) Selenium
7 190 (4.13%) Visual Studio
8 187 (4.06%) Grunt
9 152 (3.30%) Jasmine
10 139 (3.02%) Team Foundation Server
11 128 (2.78%) Cucumber
12 126 (2.74%) Subversion
13 122 (2.65%) JUnit
14 114 (2.48%) TeamCity
15 113 (2.45%) Karma Test Runner
16 104 (2.26%) Visual Studio Team System
17 81 (1.76%) Bitbucket
18 74 (1.61%) Octopus Deploy
19 73 (1.58%) Babel
20 70 (1.52%) Axure RP
General
1 569 (12.35%) Finance
2 247 (5.36%) Public Sector
3 244 (5.30%) Marketing
4 191 (4.15%) Retail
5 166 (3.60%) Banking
6 108 (2.34%) Games
7 77 (1.67%) Front Office
8 76 (1.65%) Telecoms
9 70 (1.52%) Law
10 56 (1.22%) Manufacturing
11 53 (1.15%) Advertising
12 49 (1.06%) Investment Banking
13 37 (0.80%) Electronics
14 28 (0.61%) Publishing
15 20 (0.43%) Legal
16 17 (0.37%) Police
17 16 (0.35%) Automotive
18 12 (0.26%) Back Office
18 12 (0.26%) Pharmaceutical
19 8 (0.17%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 3,718 (80.72%) Developer
2 871 (18.91%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 553 (12.01%) React Developer
4 451 (9.79%) .NET Developer
5 449 (9.75%) JavaScript Developer
6 447 (9.70%) Full Stack Developer
7 355 (7.71%) Senior Developer
8 340 (7.38%) Angular Developer
9 321 (6.97%) C# Developer
10 274 (5.95%) Designer
11 263 (5.71%) Java Developer
12 211 (4.58%) HTML Developer
13 201 (4.36%) UI Developer
14 200 (4.34%) Web Developer
15 167 (3.63%) PHP Developer
16 159 (3.45%) C# .NET Developer
16 159 (3.45%) UX Designer
17 147 (3.19%) HTML CSS Developer
18 142 (3.08%) Node.js Developer
19 141 (3.06%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,179 (90.73%) HTML
2 1,462 (31.74%) AngularJS
3 1,425 (30.94%) HTML5
4 1,273 (27.64%) React
5 1,070 (23.23%) .NET
6 1,066 (23.14%) CSS3
7 887 (19.26%) Node.js
8 753 (16.35%) jQuery
9 698 (15.15%) Sass
10 561 (12.18%) ASP.NET
11 512 (11.12%) Redux
12 490 (10.64%) REST
13 451 (9.79%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 442 (9.60%) JSON
15 434 (9.42%) RESTful
16 432 (9.38%) Web Services
17 397 (8.62%) XML
18 367 (7.97%) Spring
19 365 (7.92%) Vue.js
20 291 (6.32%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 786 (17.06%) User Experience
2 233 (5.06%) Analytical Skills
3 232 (5.04%) Greenfield Project
4 225 (4.88%) Mobile App
5 102 (2.21%) W3C
6 95 (2.06%) Enterprise Software
7 94 (2.04%) Hedge funds
8 74 (1.61%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 54 (1.17%) Equities
10 48 (1.04%) Data Structures
11 42 (0.91%) Graphic Design
11 42 (0.91%) Self-Motivation
12 41 (0.89%) Social Media
13 34 (0.74%) Digital Media
13 34 (0.74%) Virtual Team
14 32 (0.69%) Management Information System
15 30 (0.65%) Algorithms
16 24 (0.52%) e-Learning
17 22 (0.48%) Linux Command Line
18 20 (0.43%) Vector Graphics
Operating Systems
1 268 (5.82%) Linux
2 138 (3.00%) Windows
3 122 (2.65%) Unix
4 87 (1.89%) Apple iOS
5 77 (1.67%) Android
6 33 (0.72%) Mac OS X
7 27 (0.59%) Mac OS
8 20 (0.43%) Ubuntu
9 13 (0.28%) Windows Server
10 10 (0.22%) Windows 10
11 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
11 6 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
12 4 (0.087%) CentOS
13 3 (0.065%) Solaris
13 3 (0.065%) Windows 7
14 2 (0.043%) VMS
14 2 (0.043%) Windows 2000
14 2 (0.043%) Windows Server 2003
14 2 (0.043%) Windows Vista
14 2 (0.043%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,139 (46.44%) Agile Software Development
2 1,212 (26.31%) Front End Development
3 932 (20.23%) TDD
4 723 (15.70%) MVC
5 634 (13.76%) Scrum
5 634 (13.76%) Web Development
6 549 (11.92%) Continuous Integration
7 542 (11.77%) Test Automation
8 441 (9.57%) DevOps
9 416 (9.03%) Microservices
10 391 (8.49%) OO
11 370 (8.03%) BDD
12 334 (7.25%) E-Commerce
13 333 (7.23%) Problem-Solving
14 282 (6.12%) Responsive Web Design
15 269 (5.84%) Unit Testing
16 241 (5.23%) Software Engineering
17 228 (4.95%) Analytics
17 228 (4.95%) Wireframes
18 198 (4.30%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 3,569 (77.49%) JavaScript
2 1,074 (23.32%) C#
3 798 (17.33%) SQL
4 791 (17.17%) Java
5 587 (12.74%) TypeScript
6 465 (10.10%) PHP
7 369 (8.01%) ES6
8 319 (6.93%) Python
9 228 (4.95%) Ruby
10 159 (3.45%) Scala
11 118 (2.56%) Java 8
12 110 (2.39%) T-SQL
13 103 (2.24%) PowerShell
14 53 (1.15%) Groovy
15 52 (1.13%) ES7
16 51 (1.11%) Bash Shell
17 43 (0.93%) PL/SQL
18 37 (0.80%) C++
19 33 (0.72%) Perl
19 33 (0.72%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 248 (5.38%) Security Cleared
2 214 (4.65%) Degree
3 154 (3.34%) SC Cleared
4 55 (1.19%) Computer Science Degree
5 42 (0.91%) BPSS Clearance
6 23 (0.50%) BC Cleared
7 18 (0.39%) Master's Degree
8 11 (0.24%) Microsoft Certification
9 10 (0.22%) ISEB
10 9 (0.20%) DBS Check
11 7 (0.15%) AWS Certification
12 6 (0.13%) DV Cleared
12 6 (0.13%) ISTQB
13 5 (0.11%) CTC Cleared
14 4 (0.087%) A+ Certification
14 4 (0.087%) MCSD
15 2 (0.043%) Cisco Certification
15 2 (0.043%) HND
15 2 (0.043%) MCP
15 2 (0.043%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 158 (3.43%) QA
2 133 (2.89%) WCAG
3 18 (0.39%) GDPR
4 12 (0.26%) PMO
5 11 (0.24%) Disclosure Scotland
6 9 (0.20%) SLA
7 7 (0.15%) WAI
8 3 (0.065%) Data Quality
9 2 (0.043%) ISO 9001
9 2 (0.043%) MiFID
9 2 (0.043%) Section 508
10 1 (0.022%) COBIT
10 1 (0.022%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 1 (0.022%) PCI DSS
10 1 (0.022%) PSD2
10 1 (0.022%) SEPA
10 1 (0.022%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 334 (7.25%) Docker
2 26 (0.56%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.35%) Virtual Machines
4 8 (0.17%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.087%) vSphere
5 4 (0.087%) zsh
6 3 (0.065%) HDFS
7 1 (0.022%) GridGain
7 1 (0.022%) VMware NSX
7 1 (0.022%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 131 (2.84%) Kubernetes
2 61 (1.32%) Kibana
3 37 (0.80%) Grafana
4 34 (0.74%) Puppet
5 32 (0.69%) Ansible
6 30 (0.65%) Terraform
7 14 (0.30%) Single Sign-On
8 13 (0.28%) Opscode Chef
9 11 (0.24%) HP Quality Center
9 11 (0.24%) MIIS
10 6 (0.13%) Docker Swarm
10 6 (0.13%) TeamSite
11 5 (0.11%) Hadoop YARN
12 3 (0.065%) SCCM
13 2 (0.043%) Control-M
13 2 (0.043%) HAProxy
13 2 (0.043%) logstash
13 2 (0.043%) Mesos
13 2 (0.043%) MOM
13 2 (0.043%) Oracle Identity Management
Vendors
1 426 (9.25%) Microsoft
2 219 (4.75%) Adobe
3 213 (4.62%) Oracle
4 210 (4.56%) Google
5 73 (1.58%) Sitecore
6 57 (1.24%) Atlassian
7 55 (1.19%) Salesforce.com
7 55 (1.19%) ServiceNow
8 51 (1.11%) IBM
9 39 (0.85%) SAP
10 37 (0.80%) Remedy
11 34 (0.74%) hybris
12 32 (0.69%) Tableau
13 29 (0.63%) MicroStrategy
14 28 (0.61%) Zend
15 27 (0.59%) Cognos
16 23 (0.50%) Splunk
17 19 (0.41%) Demandware
17 19 (0.41%) Vermilion
18 17 (0.37%) webMethods