Period
to 19 April 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 April 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
19 Apr 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 19 13 19
Rank change year-on-year -6 +6 +3
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,791 7,587 8,204
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.71% 8.19% 7.68%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.62% 25.95% 26.81%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,640 5,210 6,019
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £385
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +3.90% +2.67%
10th Percentile £290 £265 £263
90th Percentile £575 £550 £538
UK excluding London median daily rate £388 £363 £350
% change year-on-year +6.90% +3.57% +3.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 48 69 95
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £37.00 £31.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +8.11% +19.35% -4.62%
10th Percentile £12.19 £15.75 £11.10
90th Percentile £48.75 £47.05 £55.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £37.50 £30.50
% change year-on-year +20.00% +22.95% -9.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 32,982 29,235 30,596
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 32.62% 31.55% 28.66%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,265 20,180 21,207
UK median daily rate £475 £435 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +9.20% +2.35% +6.25%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £288
90th Percentile £625 £600 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £413 £400 £375
% change year-on-year +3.13% +6.67% +2.74%
Number of hourly rates quoted 331 365 481
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £40.50 £38.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +1.23% +4.52% +10.71%
10th Percentile £17.25 £15.75 £15.00
90th Percentile £58.75 £52.50 £57.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £40.00 £38.63
% change year-on-year +2.50% +3.56% +7.29%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 April 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 April 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 April 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -5 7,261 £425 +6.25% 3,804
UK excluding London +3 4,169 £388 +6.90% 2,885
London -5 3,521 £475 +11.76% 1,101
South East +1 1,285 £415 +12.16% 732
North of England +1 1,145 £375 +3.45% 813
Midlands -5 648 £370 +4.96% 557
North West +6 639 £375 +7.14% 463
Yorkshire -4 432 £375 +1.35% 279
West Midlands -4 398 £375 - 280
South West -3 384 £375 - 315
Scotland -8 331 £400 +10.34% 110
East of England 0 273 £388 +10.71% 284
East Midlands -4 245 £369 +8.53% 276
Wales -6 84 £375 -2.60% 53
North East -16 79 £378 -4.13% 71
Northern Ireland +3 30 £431 +46.19% 19
Isle of Man -1 1 £400 +14.29% 3

For the 6 months to 19 April 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,202 (92.44%) HTML
2 6,123 (78.59%) JavaScript
3 3,541 (45.45%) Agile Software Development
4 3,144 (40.35%) HTML5
5 2,722 (34.94%) AngularJS
6 2,462 (31.60%) CSS3
7 2,100 (26.95%) Front End Development
8 1,951 (25.04%) jQuery
9 1,891 (24.27%) React
10 1,779 (22.83%) TDD
11 1,756 (22.54%) .NET
12 1,753 (22.50%) Git (software)
13 1,659 (21.29%) C#
14 1,461 (18.75%) Node.js
15 1,451 (18.62%) MVC
16 1,371 (17.60%) Web Development
17 1,348 (17.30%) Java
18 1,340 (17.20%) User Experience
19 1,215 (15.59%) Sass
20 1,192 (15.30%) SQL
21 1,073 (13.77%) SQL Server
22 1,034 (13.27%) Web Services
23 1,015 (13.03%) ASP.NET
24 1,002 (12.86%) Scrum
25 948 (12.17%) Finance
26 891 (11.44%) REST
27 883 (11.33%) Continuous Integration
28 867 (11.13%) BDD
29 836 (10.73%) Twitter Bootstrap
30 823 (10.56%) PHP

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 500 (6.42%) CMS
2 195 (2.50%) WordPress
3 192 (2.46%) SharePoint
4 160 (2.05%) Apache
5 152 (1.95%) Drupal
6 145 (1.86%) Confluence
7 123 (1.58%) Umbraco
8 119 (1.53%) IIS
9 110 (1.41%) Tomcat
10 103 (1.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 94 (1.21%) Elasticsearch
12 88 (1.13%) WebSphere
13 80 (1.03%) JBoss
14 69 (0.89%) SharePoint 2013
14 69 (0.89%) Sitecore CMS
15 63 (0.81%) WebLogic
16 48 (0.62%) nginx
17 47 (0.60%) EPiServer
17 47 (0.60%) SharePoint 2010
18 30 (0.39%) SharePoint Server
Applications
1 244 (3.13%) Photoshop
2 149 (1.91%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 133 (1.71%) Adobe Illustrator
4 119 (1.53%) InVision
5 81 (1.04%) Microsoft Excel
6 52 (0.67%) OmniGraffle
7 43 (0.55%) Microsoft Office
8 42 (0.54%) InfoPath
9 20 (0.26%) Microsoft Project
10 18 (0.23%) Adobe After Effects
10 18 (0.23%) GIMP
10 18 (0.23%) UXPin
11 15 (0.19%) MS Visio
12 13 (0.17%) Adobe Premiere
13 12 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 11 (0.14%) UserZoom
15 9 (0.12%) InDesign
16 8 (0.10%) Flinto
17 7 (0.090%) Fireworks
18 3 (0.039%) Chatbot
Business Applications
1 161 (2.07%) Magento
2 65 (0.83%) Dynamics CRM
3 14 (0.18%) Eloqua
4 12 (0.15%) Payment Gateway
5 10 (0.13%) Dynamics AX
6 7 (0.090%) ION MarketView
6 7 (0.090%) SAP Hybris
6 7 (0.090%) Shopify
7 6 (0.077%) WebTrends
8 5 (0.064%) Adobe Campaign
9 4 (0.051%) Dynamics NAV
9 4 (0.051%) R3 Corda
9 4 (0.051%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 4 (0.051%) SDL Web 8
10 3 (0.039%) Distributed Ledger
10 3 (0.039%) Infor M3
10 3 (0.039%) Maximo
10 3 (0.039%) NetSuite
10 3 (0.039%) SAP Oil and Gas
11 2 (0.026%) Social Studio
Cloud Services
1 545 (7.00%) Amazon AWS
2 504 (6.47%) Microsoft Azure
3 278 (3.57%) npm
4 240 (3.08%) GitHub
5 135 (1.73%) Serverless
6 102 (1.31%) SaaS
7 84 (1.08%) Google Analytics
8 81 (1.04%) Office 365
9 67 (0.86%) Google Cloud Platform
10 55 (0.71%) PaaS
11 54 (0.69%) Heroku
12 48 (0.62%) IaaS
13 46 (0.59%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 41 (0.53%) OpenShift
15 39 (0.50%) AWS Lambda
16 31 (0.40%) Amazon S3
17 30 (0.39%) Amazon EC2
18 21 (0.27%) Cloud Computing
19 20 (0.26%) Yarn
20 19 (0.24%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 257 (3.30%) HTTP
2 89 (1.14%) Internet
3 69 (0.89%) SSL
4 54 (0.69%) TCP/IP
5 53 (0.68%) SMS
6 48 (0.62%) DNS
7 47 (0.60%) FTP
8 32 (0.41%) Intranet
9 16 (0.21%) SMTP
10 15 (0.19%) Broadband
11 8 (0.10%) Skype
12 6 (0.077%) 4G
12 6 (0.077%) AMQP
12 6 (0.077%) Network Security
12 6 (0.077%) Wi-Fi
13 5 (0.064%) 3G
13 5 (0.064%) Firewall
13 5 (0.064%) HTTPS
14 4 (0.051%) LAN
14 4 (0.051%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,073 (13.77%) SQL Server
2 718 (9.22%) MySQL
3 401 (5.15%) Relational Database
4 350 (4.49%) MongoDB
5 265 (3.40%) NoSQL
6 235 (3.02%) PostgreSQL
7 107 (1.37%) Redis
8 103 (1.32%) SQL Server 2012
9 96 (1.23%) SQL Server 2008
10 76 (0.98%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 71 (0.91%) Big Data
12 66 (0.85%) RDBMS
13 62 (0.80%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 54 (0.69%) Oracle Database
15 51 (0.65%) DB2
15 51 (0.65%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 49 (0.63%) SQL Server 2014
17 47 (0.60%) Hadoop
18 45 (0.58%) Apache Cassandra
19 39 (0.50%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 1,753 (22.50%) Git (software)
2 616 (7.91%) Jenkins
3 518 (6.65%) webpack
4 510 (6.55%) gulp
5 415 (5.33%) JIRA
6 403 (5.17%) Grunt
7 350 (4.49%) Selenium
8 348 (4.47%) Jasmine
9 336 (4.31%) Visual Studio
10 275 (3.53%) Subversion
11 220 (2.82%) Mocha
12 213 (2.73%) Karma Test Runner
13 202 (2.59%) JUnit
14 185 (2.37%) Maven
15 178 (2.28%) Team Foundation Server
16 175 (2.25%) Babel
17 171 (2.19%) Cucumber
18 167 (2.14%) Axure RP
19 129 (1.66%) NUnit
20 106 (1.36%) Eclipse
General
1 948 (12.17%) Finance
2 402 (5.16%) Banking
3 338 (4.34%) Marketing
4 319 (4.09%) Retail
5 145 (1.86%) Telecoms
6 94 (1.21%) Games
7 91 (1.17%) Front Office
8 72 (0.92%) Law
9 69 (0.89%) Investment Banking
10 55 (0.71%) Advertising
10 55 (0.71%) Publishing
11 48 (0.62%) Manufacturing
12 46 (0.59%) Legal
13 34 (0.44%) Electronics
14 28 (0.36%) Back Office
15 27 (0.35%) Multimedia
16 26 (0.33%) Financial Institution
17 19 (0.24%) Japanese Language
18 16 (0.21%) Retail Banking
19 14 (0.18%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 6,335 (81.31%) Developer
2 1,640 (21.05%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,238 (15.89%) JavaScript Developer
4 858 (11.01%) .NET Developer
5 854 (10.96%) React Developer
6 638 (8.19%) Full Stack Developer
7 631 (8.10%) Angular Developer
8 601 (7.71%) HTML Developer
9 574 (7.37%) Java Developer
10 511 (6.56%) Designer
11 501 (6.43%) Senior Developer
12 499 (6.40%) C# Developer
13 492 (6.31%) Web Developer
14 447 (5.74%) HTML CSS Developer
15 362 (4.65%) PHP Developer
16 349 (4.48%) UI Developer
17 343 (4.40%) C# .NET Developer
18 297 (3.81%) Node.js Developer
19 296 (3.80%) UX Designer
20 210 (2.70%) ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,202 (92.44%) HTML
2 3,144 (40.35%) HTML5
3 2,722 (34.94%) AngularJS
4 2,462 (31.60%) CSS3
5 1,951 (25.04%) jQuery
6 1,891 (24.27%) React
7 1,756 (22.54%) .NET
8 1,461 (18.75%) Node.js
9 1,215 (15.59%) Sass
10 1,034 (13.27%) Web Services
11 1,015 (13.03%) ASP.NET
12 891 (11.44%) REST
13 836 (10.73%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 785 (10.08%) RESTful
15 660 (8.47%) Redux
16 656 (8.42%) XML
17 589 (7.56%) JSON
18 556 (7.14%) Ajax
19 548 (7.03%) ASP.NET Web API
20 547 (7.02%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 1,340 (17.20%) User Experience
2 486 (6.24%) Greenfield Project
3 416 (5.34%) Mobile App
4 296 (3.80%) Analytical Skills
5 231 (2.96%) Fintech
6 192 (2.46%) Computer Science
7 151 (1.94%) Enterprise Software
8 92 (1.18%) Data Structures
9 91 (1.17%) Self-Motivation
10 87 (1.12%) Algorithms
11 65 (0.83%) W3C
12 64 (0.82%) Virtual Team
13 63 (0.81%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 55 (0.71%) Social Media
15 43 (0.55%) Derivative
16 40 (0.51%) Fixed Income
17 37 (0.47%) N-Tier
18 36 (0.46%) Digital Media
19 35 (0.45%) Linux Command Line
20 33 (0.42%) e-Learning
Operating Systems
1 584 (7.50%) Linux
2 246 (3.16%) Windows
3 212 (2.72%) Android
3 212 (2.72%) Apple iOS
4 193 (2.48%) Unix
5 80 (1.03%) Mac OS X
6 73 (0.94%) Windows Server
7 32 (0.41%) Windows Server 2012
8 31 (0.40%) Windows Server 2008
9 30 (0.39%) Windows Server 2003
10 29 (0.37%) Ubuntu
11 18 (0.23%) Windows 10
12 16 (0.21%) Mac OS
13 12 (0.15%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 10 (0.13%) Oracle Linux
15 9 (0.12%) CentOS
16 6 (0.077%) Debian
17 5 (0.064%) VMS
18 3 (0.039%) Solaris
18 3 (0.039%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,541 (45.45%) Agile Software Development
2 2,100 (26.95%) Front End Development
3 1,779 (22.83%) TDD
4 1,451 (18.62%) MVC
5 1,371 (17.60%) Web Development
6 1,002 (12.86%) Scrum
7 883 (11.33%) Continuous Integration
8 867 (11.13%) BDD
9 735 (9.43%) Test Automation
10 643 (8.25%) OO
11 620 (7.96%) E-Commerce
12 592 (7.60%) Responsive Web Design
13 580 (7.44%) Unit Testing
14 526 (6.75%) Microservices
15 494 (6.34%) DevOps
16 468 (6.01%) Software Engineering
17 434 (5.57%) Problem-Solving
18 399 (5.12%) SDLC
19 371 (4.76%) Open Source
20 342 (4.39%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 6,123 (78.59%) JavaScript
2 1,659 (21.29%) C#
3 1,348 (17.30%) Java
4 1,192 (15.30%) SQL
5 823 (10.56%) PHP
6 728 (9.34%) ES6
7 611 (7.84%) TypeScript
8 501 (6.43%) Python
9 291 (3.74%) Ruby
10 253 (3.25%) Scala
11 227 (2.91%) Java 8
12 206 (2.64%) T-SQL
13 115 (1.48%) PowerShell
14 102 (1.31%) C++
14 102 (1.31%) ES7
15 96 (1.23%) PL/SQL
16 95 (1.22%) Groovy
17 91 (1.17%) VB.NET
18 61 (0.78%) C
19 58 (0.74%) Go
Qualifications
1 376 (4.83%) Degree
2 244 (3.13%) Security Cleared
3 159 (2.04%) SC Cleared
4 121 (1.55%) Computer Science Degree
5 28 (0.36%) Microsoft Certification
6 24 (0.31%) BPSS Clearance
7 19 (0.24%) MCSE
8 16 (0.21%) DBS Check
9 14 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
10 11 (0.14%) ITIL Certification
11 10 (0.13%) DV Cleared
12 8 (0.10%) CESG Certified Professional
12 8 (0.10%) IISP
12 8 (0.10%) ISTQB
13 7 (0.090%) Master's Degree
14 6 (0.077%) CISMP
15 5 (0.064%) MCSD
16 4 (0.051%) AWS Certification
17 3 (0.039%) BC Cleared
17 3 (0.039%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 218 (2.80%) QA
2 50 (0.64%) WCAG
3 23 (0.30%) GDPR
4 17 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
5 13 (0.17%) WAI
6 12 (0.15%) GCP
7 10 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 10 (0.13%) SLA
8 7 (0.090%) PMO
9 5 (0.064%) Data Quality
9 5 (0.064%) MiFID
10 4 (0.051%) PCI DSS
11 2 (0.026%) Actionable Recommendations
11 2 (0.026%) PSD2
12 1 (0.013%) CESG Infosec
12 1 (0.013%) HMG Security Policy Framework
12 1 (0.013%) Section 508
System Software
1 527 (6.76%) Docker
2 31 (0.40%) Active Directory
3 12 (0.15%) Hyper-V
4 9 (0.12%) Virtual Machines
4 9 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
5 8 (0.10%) GeoWebCache
5 8 (0.10%) VMware ESXi
6 7 (0.090%) Microsoft App-V
7 5 (0.064%) VirtualBox
8 2 (0.026%) etcd
8 2 (0.026%) flannel
8 2 (0.026%) LXC
9 1 (0.013%) Apache Flume
9 1 (0.013%) Firmware
9 1 (0.013%) HDFS
9 1 (0.013%) Oracle RAC
9 1 (0.013%) Varnish
9 1 (0.013%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 118 (1.51%) Ansible
2 100 (1.28%) Puppet
3 82 (1.05%) Opscode Chef
4 67 (0.86%) Kubernetes
5 44 (0.56%) Terraform
6 28 (0.36%) Kibana
7 22 (0.28%) Docker Swarm
7 22 (0.28%) Grafana
8 11 (0.14%) HP ALM
8 11 (0.14%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
9 10 (0.13%) Single Sign-On
10 8 (0.10%) SCCM
10 8 (0.10%) TeamSite
11 7 (0.090%) CA Service Virtualization
11 7 (0.090%) vCenter Server
12 5 (0.064%) Galera Cluster
12 5 (0.064%) Marathon
12 5 (0.064%) Mesos
12 5 (0.064%) OpenNebula
12 5 (0.064%) Rancher
Vendors
1 630 (8.09%) Microsoft
2 420 (5.39%) Oracle
3 419 (5.38%) Adobe
4 212 (2.72%) Google
5 128 (1.64%) Salesforce.com
6 100 (1.28%) Sitecore
7 94 (1.21%) ServiceNow
8 82 (1.05%) SAP
9 56 (0.72%) IBM
9 56 (0.72%) Splunk
9 56 (0.72%) Twitter
10 53 (0.68%) Capita
11 49 (0.63%) Zend
12 45 (0.58%) Atlassian
13 42 (0.54%) hybris
14 41 (0.53%) Nintex
15 29 (0.37%) Xamarin
16 27 (0.35%) Perforce
17 24 (0.31%) Apple
18 22 (0.28%) webMethods