CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 3 March 2024 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

6 months to
3 Mar 2024
Same period 2023 Same period 2022
Rank 123 88 59
Rank change year-on-year -35 -29 -5
Contract jobs citing CSS 860 1,851 3,534
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.95% 2.83% 3.94%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 9.49% 11.62% 13.98%
Number of daily rates quoted 614 1,346 2,606
10th Percentile £300 £325 £363
25th Percentile £400 £413 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £500 £510
Median % change year-on-year -2.50% -1.96% +13.33%
75th Percentile £588 £618 £625
90th Percentile £700 £722 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £475
% change year-on-year - -5.26% +18.75%
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 26 41
10th Percentile £26.63 £21.40 £26.25
25th Percentile £37.63 £48.89 £41.67
Median hourly rate £52.50 £67.50 £57.00
Median % change year-on-year -22.22% +18.42% +35.71%
75th Percentile £67.50 £76.91 £67.80
90th Percentile £71.46 £85.00 £70.10
UK excluding London median hourly rate £58.75 £57.50 £55.00
% change year-on-year +2.17% +4.55% +37.50%

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 9,065 15,926 25,274
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.59% 24.38% 28.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,320 11,467 18,524
10th Percentile £340 £400 £400
25th Percentile £425 £463 £458
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £570 £550
Median % change year-on-year -7.89% +3.64% +12.02%
75th Percentile £650 £688 £650
90th Percentile £750 £775 £744
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £513 £500
% change year-on-year -2.44% +2.50% +17.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 223 199 260
10th Percentile £20.77 £31.15 £21.00
25th Percentile £40.00 £50.03 £35.00
Median hourly rate £48.72 £65.00 £49.00
Median % change year-on-year -25.05% +32.65% +8.89%
75th Percentile £65.63 £70.00 £65.00
90th Percentile £76.22 £78.75 £75.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £48.72 £65.00 £49.00
% change year-on-year -25.05% +32.65% +8.89%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 3 March 2024.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 3 March 2024.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 3 March 2024. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -34 701 £481 -6.33% 950
London -12 414 £520 -5.45% 323
Work from Home -21 373 £475 -5.00% 564
UK excluding London -31 337 £450 - 721
South East -13 83 £388 -13.89% 135
North of England -31 66 £425 -10.53% 209
Scotland +15 64 £498 +6.42% 47
Midlands -23 43 £425 +0.59% 126
South West -9 38 £450 -14.29% 86
North West -33 34 £450 -5.26% 126
Yorkshire +11 31 £416 -10.00% 66
East of England -12 29 £534 +6.80% 79
West Midlands 0 24 £425 -5.56% 84
East Midlands -20 19 £388 -6.63% 42
Wales +12 8 £425 - 39
Northern Ireland +12 6 - - 15
North East +7 1 £300 -38.46% 18

CSS
Co-occurring Skills and Capabilities by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same employment type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 37 (4.30%) CMS
2 27 (3.14%) SharePoint
3 22 (2.56%) Confluence
3 22 (2.56%) WordPress
4 15 (1.74%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 13 (1.51%) nginx
6 9 (1.05%) Headless CMS
7 8 (0.93%) IIS
7 8 (0.93%) Kentico
8 7 (0.81%) Apache
8 7 (0.81%) SharePoint 2010
8 7 (0.81%) SharePoint Server
9 6 (0.70%) Umbraco
10 3 (0.35%) Drupal
10 3 (0.35%) Skype for Business
10 3 (0.35%) Tomcat
10 3 (0.35%) WebSphere
11 2 (0.23%) Cloud Foundry
11 2 (0.23%) Ethereum
11 2 (0.23%) Moodle
Applications
1 18 (2.09%) Photoshop
2 16 (1.86%) Adobe Illustrator
3 13 (1.51%) InVision
3 13 (1.51%) Sketch
4 11 (1.28%) Adobe XD
4 11 (1.28%) Microsoft Excel
4 11 (1.28%) Microsoft Office
5 8 (0.93%) Adobe After Effects
6 7 (0.81%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 6 (0.70%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 4 (0.47%) MS Visio
9 3 (0.35%) InDesign
10 2 (0.23%) Adobe Premiere
11 1 (0.12%) 3ds Max
11 1 (0.12%) Acrobat
11 1 (0.12%) Avocode
11 1 (0.12%) Blender
11 1 (0.12%) Chatbot
Business Applications
1 10 (1.16%) Shopify
2 9 (1.05%) Dynamics CRM
3 7 (0.81%) Magento
4 3 (0.35%) Maximo
5 2 (0.23%) Adobe Campaign
5 2 (0.23%) Payment Gateway
5 2 (0.23%) Remedy ITSM
5 2 (0.23%) Unica
5 2 (0.23%) WebTrends
6 1 (0.12%) OpenCart
6 1 (0.12%) Salesforce CRM
6 1 (0.12%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 146 (16.98%) Azure
2 142 (16.51%) AWS
3 47 (5.47%) Figma
4 35 (4.07%) Power Platform
4 35 (4.07%) Serverless
5 34 (3.95%) Azure DevOps
6 33 (3.84%) GitHub
7 31 (3.60%) Power Automate
8 30 (3.49%) GCP
9 28 (3.26%) Amazon S3
10 25 (2.91%) SaaS
11 24 (2.79%) AWS Lambda
12 17 (1.98%) AWS CloudFormation
13 16 (1.86%) Microsoft 365
13 16 (1.86%) PowerApps
14 15 (1.74%) Google Analytics
15 14 (1.63%) Dynamics 365
16 13 (1.51%) OpenShift
17 12 (1.40%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
17 12 (1.40%) GitHub Actions
Communications & Networking
1 19 (2.21%) Firewall
2 17 (1.98%) HTTP
2 17 (1.98%) VPN
3 9 (1.05%) SNMP
3 9 (1.05%) Software-Defined Radio
4 7 (0.81%) DNS
4 7 (0.81%) TCP/IP
5 5 (0.58%) Broadband
6 4 (0.47%) Internet
6 4 (0.47%) Intranet
7 3 (0.35%) MQTT
7 3 (0.35%) Skype
7 3 (0.35%) Wireless
8 2 (0.23%) 5G
8 2 (0.23%) FTP
8 2 (0.23%) RTP
9 1 (0.12%) HTTPS
9 1 (0.12%) Network Security
9 1 (0.12%) SSH
9 1 (0.12%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 63 (7.33%) PostgreSQL
1 63 (7.33%) SQL Server
2 59 (6.86%) MySQL
3 41 (4.77%) MongoDB
4 36 (4.19%) NoSQL
5 35 (4.07%) Relational Database
6 19 (2.21%) Amazon Aurora
7 17 (1.98%) Power BI
8 11 (1.28%) Metadata
9 10 (1.16%) Oracle Database
10 9 (1.05%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 8 (0.93%) Elasticsearch
11 8 (0.93%) Redis
12 7 (0.81%) MariaDB
12 7 (0.81%) PowerPivot
13 6 (0.70%) Microsoft Power View
14 5 (0.58%) BusinessObjects
15 4 (0.47%) Amazon RDS
15 4 (0.47%) Azure SQL Database
15 4 (0.47%) KNIME
Development Applications
1 147 (17.09%) Git
2 47 (5.47%) Jenkins
3 46 (5.35%) JIRA
4 30 (3.49%) Cypress.io
5 21 (2.44%) webpack
6 18 (2.09%) Bitbucket
7 17 (1.98%) TeamCity
7 17 (1.98%) Visual Studio Code
8 13 (1.51%) GitLab
9 12 (1.40%) Robot Framework
10 11 (1.28%) Selenium
11 10 (1.16%) git-flow
12 9 (1.05%) Eclipse
12 9 (1.05%) GoogleTest
13 8 (0.93%) Babel
13 8 (0.93%) Visual Studio
14 7 (0.81%) SonarQube
15 6 (0.70%) Dreamweaver
15 6 (0.70%) Postman
15 6 (0.70%) Storybook
General
1 196 (22.79%) Social Skills
2 114 (13.26%) Finance
3 92 (10.70%) Analytical Skills
4 90 (10.47%) Public Sector
5 82 (9.53%) Marketing
6 47 (5.47%) Banking
7 21 (2.44%) Investment Banking
8 20 (2.33%) Presentation Skills
9 17 (1.98%) Publishing
10 14 (1.63%) Front Office
10 14 (1.63%) Telecoms
11 9 (1.05%) Inclusion and Diversity
11 9 (1.05%) Retail
12 8 (0.93%) Influencing Skills
12 8 (0.93%) Law
12 8 (0.93%) Manufacturing
13 7 (0.81%) Tech for Good
14 6 (0.70%) Advertising
14 6 (0.70%) Games
14 6 (0.70%) German Language
Job Titles
1 559 (65.00%) Developer
2 110 (12.79%) Full Stack Developer
3 105 (12.21%) Front-End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 100 (11.63%) Senior
5 69 (8.02%) React Developer
6 61 (7.09%) Designer
7 53 (6.16%) Senior Developer
8 47 (5.47%) Lead
9 35 (4.07%) .NET Developer
9 35 (4.07%) Software Developer
10 34 (3.95%) JavaScript Developer
11 33 (3.84%) Software Engineer
12 32 (3.72%) Full Stack Engineer
13 31 (3.60%) Java Developer
14 29 (3.37%) Python Developer
15 26 (3.02%) UI Developer
16 25 (2.91%) ServiceNow Developer
17 23 (2.67%) Architect
17 23 (2.67%) PHP Developer
18 21 (2.44%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 772 (89.77%) HTML
2 281 (32.67%) React
3 156 (18.14%) Node.js
4 141 (16.40%) AngularJS
5 136 (15.81%) .NET
6 129 (15.00%) REST
7 109 (12.67%) HTML5
8 85 (9.88%) CSS3
9 60 (6.98%) Web Services
10 56 (6.51%) ASP.NET
11 53 (6.16%) jQuery
12 51 (5.93%) Vue
13 46 (5.35%) Sass
14 44 (5.12%) GraphQL
15 43 (5.00%) XML
16 38 (4.42%) .NET Framework
16 38 (4.42%) Jest
16 38 (4.42%) Redux
16 38 (4.42%) Spring
17 36 (4.19%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 33 (3.84%) Product Ownership
2 28 (3.26%) Mobile App
3 22 (2.56%) Greenfield Project
4 20 (2.33%) Self-Motivation
5 18 (2.09%) Legacy Systems
6 17 (1.98%) Algorithms
6 17 (1.98%) CMDB
7 16 (1.86%) Data Structures
8 13 (1.51%) Marketing Technology
9 11 (1.28%) Onboarding
9 11 (1.28%) Public Cloud
10 10 (1.16%) Management Information System
10 10 (1.16%) NHS
11 9 (1.05%) Fixed Income
12 8 (0.93%) Animation
12 8 (0.93%) Cloud Native
12 8 (0.93%) Enterprise Software
12 8 (0.93%) Graphic Design
13 7 (0.81%) Data Protection Act
13 7 (0.81%) Distributed Systems
Operating Systems
1 55 (6.40%) Linux
2 29 (3.37%) Unix
3 19 (2.21%) Android
3 19 (2.21%) Apple iOS
4 17 (1.98%) Windows
5 6 (0.70%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 5 (0.58%) Windows Server
7 2 (0.23%) CentOS
7 2 (0.23%) Mac OS X
7 2 (0.23%) Windows Server 2016
7 2 (0.23%) Windows Server 2019
8 1 (0.12%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 303 (35.23%) Agile
2 203 (23.60%) Full Stack Development
3 162 (18.84%) Problem-Solving
4 160 (18.60%) Front End Development
5 152 (17.67%) User Experience
6 139 (16.16%) Web Development
7 124 (14.42%) CI/CD
8 113 (13.14%) DevOps
9 102 (11.86%) Software Engineering
10 78 (9.07%) TDD
11 76 (8.84%) MVC
12 75 (8.72%) Test Automation
13 68 (7.91%) SDLC
14 66 (7.67%) Microservices
14 66 (7.67%) UX Design
15 63 (7.33%) Prototyping
16 58 (6.74%) Analytics
17 57 (6.63%) Responsive Web Design
18 56 (6.51%) Design Patterns
19 55 (6.40%) Unit Testing
Programming Languages
1 638 (74.19%) JavaScript
2 225 (26.16%) TypeScript
3 158 (18.37%) SQL
4 136 (15.81%) Java
5 129 (15.00%) C#
6 107 (12.44%) Python
7 83 (9.65%) PHP
8 31 (3.60%) PowerShell
9 18 (2.09%) Bash
10 16 (1.86%) C++
11 15 (1.74%) Shell Script
12 14 (1.63%) Ruby
13 11 (1.28%) Apex Code
14 9 (1.05%) Go
15 8 (0.93%) Kotlin
16 7 (0.81%) C
16 7 (0.81%) PL/SQL
17 4 (0.47%) T-SQL
18 3 (0.35%) Perl
18 3 (0.35%) Solidity
Qualifications
1 95 (11.05%) Security Cleared
2 87 (10.12%) Degree
3 76 (8.84%) SC Cleared
4 30 (3.49%) Computer Science Degree
5 11 (1.28%) BPSS Clearance
5 11 (1.28%) DV Cleared
6 9 (1.05%) Master's Degree
7 6 (0.70%) CTC Cleared
8 4 (0.47%) ITIL Certification
8 4 (0.47%) RHCE
8 4 (0.47%) RHCSA
9 3 (0.35%) AWS Certification
9 3 (0.35%) Microsoft Certification
9 3 (0.35%) PMP
10 2 (0.23%) DBS Check
10 2 (0.23%) MCSD
10 2 (0.23%) MCSE
11 1 (0.12%) CEH
11 1 (0.12%) CISSP
11 1 (0.12%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 97 (11.28%) Accessibility
2 28 (3.26%) QA
3 15 (1.74%) WCAG
4 8 (0.93%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.93%) GDPR
5 7 (0.81%) Disclosure Scotland
6 4 (0.47%) GxP
6 4 (0.47%) SLA
7 3 (0.35%) GRC
7 3 (0.35%) HIPAA
7 3 (0.35%) NIST
8 1 (0.12%) HL7
8 1 (0.12%) ISO 20022
System Software
1 49 (5.70%) Docker
2 12 (1.40%) Active Directory
3 10 (1.16%) Firmware
4 9 (1.05%) VMware Infrastructure
5 3 (0.35%) Hyper-V
6 2 (0.23%) NFS
6 2 (0.23%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 33 (3.84%) Kubernetes
2 21 (2.44%) Terraform
3 14 (1.63%) Grafana
4 12 (1.40%) Single Sign-On
5 11 (1.28%) Kibana
6 6 (0.70%) Ansible
7 4 (0.47%) Puppet
7 4 (0.47%) RSA Archer
8 3 (0.35%) Netcool
9 2 (0.23%) Active Directory Federation Services
9 2 (0.23%) logstash
9 2 (0.23%) systemd
10 1 (0.12%) Progress Chef
10 1 (0.12%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 66 (7.67%) Microsoft
2 54 (6.28%) Adobe
3 43 (5.00%) ServiceNow
4 42 (4.88%) Oracle
5 37 (4.30%) Google
6 30 (3.49%) Salesforce
7 17 (1.98%) SAP
8 14 (1.63%) Atlassian
8 14 (1.63%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
9 9 (1.05%) Red Hat
9 9 (1.05%) VMware
10 7 (0.81%) Optimizely
10 7 (0.81%) Xamarin
11 6 (0.70%) BiZZdesign
11 6 (0.70%) dotdigital
11 6 (0.70%) Sitecore
12 5 (0.58%) Blue Prism
12 5 (0.58%) Splunk
12 5 (0.58%) UiPath
12 5 (0.58%) WooCommerce