Period
to 9 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
9 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 35 24 20
Rank change year-on-year -11 -4 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,255 6,704 7,695
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.37% 6.93% 7.62%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 17.90% 21.04% 23.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,287 5,034 5,737
Median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £306 £313 £288
90th Percentile £613 £588 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £415 £385
% change year-on-year -3.61% +7.79% +5.48%
Number of hourly rates quoted 52 76 44
Median hourly rate £35.00 £39.25 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -10.83% -1.88% +8.84%
10th Percentile £25.68 £14.28 £12.64
90th Percentile £53.68 £55.00 £48.38
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £41.40 £45.00
% change year-on-year -15.46% -8.00% +20.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 18,189 31,869 32,695
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.03% 32.92% 32.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 12,291 22,486 23,085
Median daily rate £500 £488 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.56% +2.63% +10.47%
10th Percentile £331 £325 £313
90th Percentile £663 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £438 £413
% change year-on-year +2.86% +6.06% +3.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 251 314 323
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £41.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -17.65% +3.66% +1.54%
10th Percentile £20.50 £18.50 £17.52
90th Percentile £65.54 £60.00 £59.75
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £41.50
% change year-on-year -17.65% +2.41% +3.75%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 9 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -13 2,900 £450 - 1,486
UK excluding London -15 1,623 £400 -3.61% 1,176
London -7 1,522 £500 +4.17% 406
North of England -22 375 £400 - 356
South East -23 372 £414 -2.65% 262
South West -12 253 £400 -5.88% 139
Midlands -7 229 £388 -3.13% 213
Scotland -5 204 £400 - 50
North West -17 181 £400 - 198
Yorkshire -9 166 £425 +6.25% 113
Work from Home -7 150 £400 - 115
West Midlands -1 143 £400 -1.23% 118
East of England +10 121 £400 -5.88% 110
East Midlands -9 86 £375 -6.25% 95
Wales -15 44 £425 +0.59% 45
North East -26 28 £350 -12.50% 45
Northern Ireland -1 25 £431 +4.61% 2
Channel Islands - 1 £425 -

For the 6 months to 9 April 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,905 (89.25%) HTML
2 2,538 (77.97%) JavaScript
3 1,422 (43.69%) Agile Software Development
4 986 (30.29%) HTML5
5 902 (27.71%) AngularJS
6 888 (27.28%) React
7 820 (25.19%) Front End Development
8 805 (24.73%) Git (software)
9 717 (22.03%) .NET
10 688 (21.14%) CSS3
11 685 (21.04%) C#
12 634 (19.48%) Node.js
13 607 (18.65%) SQL
14 594 (18.25%) Java
15 584 (17.94%) User Experience
16 541 (16.62%) TDD
17 492 (15.12%) SQL Server
17 492 (15.12%) jQuery
18 465 (14.29%) Test Automation
18 465 (14.29%) MVC
19 440 (13.52%) Web Development
20 437 (13.43%) Sass
21 430 (13.21%) Scrum
22 424 (13.03%) Finance
23 410 (12.60%) Azure
24 396 (12.17%) TypeScript
25 386 (11.86%) RESTful
26 373 (11.46%) ASP.NET
27 367 (11.27%) Continuous Integration
28 366 (11.24%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 204 (6.27%) CMS
2 93 (2.86%) SharePoint
3 75 (2.30%) Apache
3 75 (2.30%) WordPress
4 62 (1.90%) Confluence
5 57 (1.75%) Drupal
6 51 (1.57%) Tomcat
6 51 (1.57%) Umbraco
7 48 (1.47%) WebSphere
8 46 (1.41%) IIS
9 42 (1.29%) Elasticsearch
10 40 (1.23%) WebLogic
11 35 (1.08%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 26 (0.80%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 22 (0.68%) Sitecore CMS
14 20 (0.61%) Mendix
15 19 (0.58%) nginx
16 16 (0.49%) JBoss
17 13 (0.40%) SharePoint 2010
18 12 (0.37%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 111 (3.41%) Sketch
2 81 (2.49%) Photoshop
3 61 (1.87%) InVision
4 38 (1.17%) Adobe Illustrator
5 36 (1.11%) Microsoft Excel
6 29 (0.89%) Zeplin
7 26 (0.80%) Adobe XD
8 24 (0.74%) Microsoft Office
9 21 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 14 (0.43%) Adobe After Effects
11 6 (0.18%) InDesign
12 5 (0.15%) Lectora
13 4 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
13 4 (0.12%) Figma
13 4 (0.12%) InfoPath
13 4 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 4 (0.12%) Spreadsheet
14 3 (0.092%) Microsoft Project
14 3 (0.092%) MS Visio
14 3 (0.092%) SketchUp
Business Applications
1 81 (2.49%) Magento
2 34 (1.04%) Shopify
3 25 (0.77%) Dynamics CRM
4 7 (0.22%) Payment Gateway
5 6 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
6 4 (0.12%) NetSuite
6 4 (0.12%) osCommerce
6 4 (0.12%) SAP Hybris
6 4 (0.12%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 4 (0.12%) Visualfiles
7 3 (0.092%) OpenCart
7 3 (0.092%) R3 Corda
8 2 (0.061%) BigMachines
8 2 (0.061%) Oracle Applications
8 2 (0.061%) Oracle BPM
9 1 (0.031%) Adobe Campaign
9 1 (0.031%) JDE OneWorld
9 1 (0.031%) Remedy ITSM
9 1 (0.031%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 1 (0.031%) WebTrends
Cloud Services
1 410 (12.60%) Azure
2 301 (9.25%) AWS
3 179 (5.50%) GitHub
4 123 (3.78%) GCP
5 94 (2.89%) npm
6 60 (1.84%) SaaS
7 46 (1.41%) Serverless
8 45 (1.38%) Power Platform
9 37 (1.14%) Google Analytics
10 36 (1.11%) PaaS
11 35 (1.08%) Heroku
12 30 (0.92%) Office 365
13 28 (0.86%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 24 (0.74%) Cloud Computing
15 23 (0.71%) AWS Lambda
16 21 (0.65%) Amazon S3
17 18 (0.55%) OpenShift
18 16 (0.49%) PowerApps
18 16 (0.49%) Yarn
19 14 (0.43%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 100 (3.07%) HTTP
2 39 (1.20%) Internet
3 36 (1.11%) SSL
4 29 (0.89%) Intranet
5 27 (0.83%) TCP/IP
6 22 (0.68%) DSL
7 13 (0.40%) DNS
8 11 (0.34%) HTTPS
9 9 (0.28%) Firewall
10 8 (0.25%) Network Security
11 6 (0.18%) Skype
12 5 (0.15%) DMZ
12 5 (0.15%) Extranet
12 5 (0.15%) FTP
12 5 (0.15%) SMS
13 4 (0.12%) AMQP
13 4 (0.12%) RTMP
13 4 (0.12%) SSH
14 3 (0.092%) Broadband
14 3 (0.092%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 492 (15.12%) SQL Server
2 246 (7.56%) MySQL
3 178 (5.47%) Relational Database
4 144 (4.42%) NoSQL
5 123 (3.78%) MongoDB
6 111 (3.41%) PostgreSQL
7 49 (1.51%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 38 (1.17%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 35 (1.08%) RDBMS
10 31 (0.95%) SQL Server Analysis Services
11 30 (0.92%) Oracle Database
12 28 (0.86%) Redis
13 25 (0.77%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 25 (0.77%) Power BI
14 24 (0.74%) Big Data
15 23 (0.71%) OLAP
16 22 (0.68%) SQL Server 2008
17 21 (0.65%) Apache Cassandra
17 21 (0.65%) QlikView
18 20 (0.61%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 805 (24.73%) Git (software)
2 269 (8.26%) Jenkins
3 213 (6.54%) JIRA
4 169 (5.19%) webpack
5 149 (4.58%) Selenium
6 142 (4.36%) gulp
7 121 (3.72%) Visual Studio
8 112 (3.44%) Grunt
9 107 (3.29%) JUnit
10 96 (2.95%) Team Foundation Server
11 82 (2.52%) Cucumber
12 73 (2.24%) Jasmine
13 63 (1.94%) Subversion
14 51 (1.57%) git-flow
15 49 (1.51%) GitLab
15 49 (1.51%) Visual Studio Team System
16 48 (1.47%) Maven
17 44 (1.35%) Karma Test Runner
18 42 (1.29%) Travis CI
19 41 (1.26%) TeamCity
General
1 424 (13.03%) Finance
2 204 (6.27%) Public Sector
3 141 (4.33%) Banking
4 135 (4.15%) Marketing
5 84 (2.58%) Retail
6 61 (1.87%) Games
7 49 (1.51%) Front Office
8 47 (1.44%) Law
9 44 (1.35%) Investment Banking
10 38 (1.17%) Publishing
11 32 (0.98%) Telecoms
12 22 (0.68%) Manufacturing
13 16 (0.49%) Advertising
14 15 (0.46%) Legal
15 14 (0.43%) Electronics
16 12 (0.37%) Back Office
17 11 (0.34%) Automotive
18 10 (0.31%) Local Government
19 8 (0.25%) Financial Institution
20 5 (0.15%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 2,569 (78.92%) Developer
2 595 (18.28%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 366 (11.24%) React Developer
4 336 (10.32%) Full Stack Developer
5 309 (9.49%) JavaScript Developer
6 307 (9.43%) .NET Developer
7 231 (7.10%) Senior Developer
8 214 (6.57%) Designer
9 207 (6.36%) Java Developer
10 200 (6.14%) C# Developer
11 197 (6.05%) Angular Developer
12 159 (4.88%) HTML Developer
13 146 (4.49%) UI Developer
14 130 (3.99%) Web Developer
15 115 (3.53%) C# .NET Developer
16 107 (3.29%) HTML CSS Developer
17 95 (2.92%) Node.js Developer
18 94 (2.89%) Software Developer
18 94 (2.89%) Software Engineer
19 90 (2.76%) PHP Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,905 (89.25%) HTML
2 986 (30.29%) HTML5
3 902 (27.71%) AngularJS
4 888 (27.28%) React
5 717 (22.03%) .NET
6 688 (21.14%) CSS3
7 634 (19.48%) Node.js
8 492 (15.12%) jQuery
9 437 (13.43%) Sass
10 386 (11.86%) RESTful
11 373 (11.46%) ASP.NET
12 366 (11.24%) REST
13 365 (11.21%) Web Services
14 347 (10.66%) Redux
15 334 (10.26%) JSON
16 299 (9.19%) XML
17 246 (7.56%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 244 (7.50%) Spring
18 244 (7.50%) Vue.js
19 188 (5.78%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 584 (17.94%) User Experience
2 179 (5.50%) Analytical Skills
3 177 (5.44%) Mobile App
4 126 (3.87%) Greenfield Project
5 78 (2.40%) W3C
6 73 (2.24%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 61 (1.87%) Data Structures
8 55 (1.69%) Enterprise Software
9 47 (1.44%) Self-Motivation
10 39 (1.20%) Hedge funds
11 32 (0.98%) Algorithms
11 32 (0.98%) Virtual Team
12 26 (0.80%) Cloud Native
13 21 (0.65%) Equities
13 21 (0.65%) Management Information System
13 21 (0.65%) Social Media
14 18 (0.55%) Mobile Payment
14 18 (0.55%) Public Cloud
15 16 (0.49%) BYOD
16 13 (0.40%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 163 (5.01%) Linux
2 79 (2.43%) Windows
3 78 (2.40%) Unix
4 60 (1.84%) Android
5 41 (1.26%) Apple iOS
6 14 (0.43%) Mac OS X
7 13 (0.40%) Mac OS
8 7 (0.22%) Ubuntu
8 7 (0.22%) Windows Server
9 6 (0.18%) CentOS
10 4 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 4 (0.12%) VMS
11 3 (0.092%) Windows 7
11 3 (0.092%) Windows Server 2008
11 3 (0.092%) Windows Server 2012
12 2 (0.061%) Windows 10
13 1 (0.031%) Kali Linux
13 1 (0.031%) tvOS
13 1 (0.031%) Windows Server 2016
13 1 (0.031%) Windows Vista
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,422 (43.69%) Agile Software Development
2 820 (25.19%) Front End Development
3 541 (16.62%) TDD
4 465 (14.29%) MVC
4 465 (14.29%) Test Automation
5 440 (13.52%) Web Development
6 430 (13.21%) Scrum
7 367 (11.27%) Continuous Integration
8 365 (11.21%) DevOps
9 316 (9.71%) Microservices
10 268 (8.23%) OO
11 256 (7.86%) Problem-Solving
12 249 (7.65%) E-Commerce
13 232 (7.13%) Software Engineering
14 207 (6.36%) BDD
15 186 (5.71%) Unit Testing
16 180 (5.53%) Responsive Web Design
17 175 (5.38%) Open Source
18 169 (5.19%) SDLC
19 165 (5.07%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 2,538 (77.97%) JavaScript
2 685 (21.04%) C#
3 607 (18.65%) SQL
4 594 (18.25%) Java
5 396 (12.17%) TypeScript
6 282 (8.66%) PHP
7 262 (8.05%) ES6
8 194 (5.96%) Python
9 157 (4.82%) Ruby
10 119 (3.66%) T-SQL
11 99 (3.04%) Java 8
11 99 (3.04%) Scala
12 57 (1.75%) PL/SQL
13 56 (1.72%) PowerShell
14 50 (1.54%) Bash Shell
15 41 (1.26%) VB.NET
16 37 (1.14%) Kotlin
17 34 (1.04%) Groovy
17 34 (1.04%) VBA
18 32 (0.98%) C++
Qualifications
1 195 (5.99%) Degree
2 191 (5.87%) Security Cleared
3 130 (3.99%) SC Cleared
4 74 (2.27%) Computer Science Degree
5 37 (1.14%) BPSS Clearance
6 21 (0.65%) BC Cleared
7 19 (0.58%) DBS Check
8 14 (0.43%) Microsoft Certification
9 9 (0.28%) CTC Cleared
9 9 (0.28%) DV Cleared
10 8 (0.25%) Master's Degree
11 5 (0.15%) HND
11 5 (0.15%) MCPD
11 5 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
12 4 (0.12%) MCAD
12 4 (0.12%) MCITP
13 2 (0.061%) AWS Certification
13 2 (0.061%) Cisco Certification
13 2 (0.061%) MCP
13 2 (0.061%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 113 (3.47%) QA
2 107 (3.29%) WCAG
3 18 (0.55%) GDPR
4 15 (0.46%) WAI
5 10 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
6 7 (0.22%) SLA
7 6 (0.18%) PMO
8 3 (0.092%) Data Quality
8 3 (0.092%) HL7
9 2 (0.061%) ISO 20022
9 2 (0.061%) ISO 9001
9 2 (0.061%) PCI DSS
9 2 (0.061%) Section 508
10 1 (0.031%) Actionable Recommendations
10 1 (0.031%) PSD2
10 1 (0.031%) SEPA
10 1 (0.031%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 224 (6.88%) Docker
2 22 (0.68%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
4 5 (0.15%) zsh
5 1 (0.031%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.031%) HDFS
5 1 (0.031%) ISA Server
5 1 (0.031%) VMware NSX
5 1 (0.031%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 132 (4.06%) Kubernetes
2 64 (1.97%) Terraform
3 46 (1.41%) Kibana
4 20 (0.61%) Ansible
4 20 (0.61%) Grafana
5 15 (0.46%) Puppet
6 14 (0.43%) Opscode Chef
7 8 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
8 7 (0.22%) MIIS
9 5 (0.15%) Tivoli
9 5 (0.15%) Tivoli Storage Manager
10 3 (0.092%) Consul
10 3 (0.092%) HP Quality Center
10 3 (0.092%) Packer
11 2 (0.061%) Docker Swarm
11 2 (0.061%) Istio
11 2 (0.061%) logstash
11 2 (0.061%) OpenNebula
11 2 (0.061%) Oracle Identity Management
11 2 (0.061%) Plesk
Vendors
1 261 (8.02%) Microsoft
2 169 (5.19%) Oracle
3 146 (4.49%) Google
4 130 (3.99%) Adobe
5 63 (1.94%) Salesforce.com
6 40 (1.23%) IBM
6 40 (1.23%) SAP
7 38 (1.17%) Sitecore
8 37 (1.14%) hybris
9 24 (0.74%) Atlassian
9 24 (0.74%) Xamarin
10 23 (0.71%) Cognos
11 22 (0.68%) Remedy
11 22 (0.68%) Splunk
12 21 (0.65%) Demandware
12 21 (0.65%) Tableau
12 21 (0.65%) Zend
13 15 (0.46%) MicroStrategy
14 14 (0.43%) Twitter
15 13 (0.40%) OutSystems