Period
to 23 February 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 February 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
23 Feb 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 33 23 20
Rank change year-on-year -10 -3 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,747 6,918 7,599
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 5.56% 7.04% 7.49%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 18.50% 20.93% 23.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,559 5,000 5,565
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £302 £313 £283
90th Percentile £608 £588 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £413 £375
% change year-on-year -3.03% +10.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 66 51
UK median hourly rate £36.70 £36.75 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.14% -18.33% +25.00%
10th Percentile £23.62 £13.50 £12.83
90th Percentile £53.00 £54.38 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £37.36 £45.00
% change year-on-year -6.32% -16.97% +38.46%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 20,254 33,048 32,335
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.07% 33.63% 31.88%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,860 23,252 23,008
UK median daily rate £500 £488 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.56% +5.41% +8.82%
10th Percentile £330 £325 £313
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +3.53% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 238 292 338
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £42.17 £40.15
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -2.78% +5.03% +0.38%
10th Percentile £21.03 £18.01 £19.70
90th Percentile £73.75 £60.00 £57.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £39.89 £42.50 £41.81
% change year-on-year -6.15% +1.66% +7.19%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 February 2020.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 February 2020.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 23 February 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -12 3,360 £450 - 2,846
UK excluding London -13 1,859 £400 -3.03% 2,330
London -6 1,781 £500 +2.56% 780
South East -26 427 £400 -5.88% 527
North of England -16 422 £400 +2.30% 658
South West -11 295 £400 -5.88% 293
Midlands -4 291 £389 -2.81% 376
Scotland -1 240 £425 +6.25% 156
North West -10 212 £400 - 401
West Midlands -1 184 £400 - 175
Yorkshire -11 169 £413 +10.00% 196
East of England +8 119 £400 -5.88% 212
East Midlands 0 107 £363 -6.15% 201
Wales -14 46 £400 -5.33% 78
North East -18 41 £363 -9.38% 61
Northern Ireland -1 19 £419 +1.64% 29
Channel Islands - 1 £425 - 2

For the 6 months to 23 February 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,389 (90.45%) HTML
2 2,915 (77.80%) JavaScript
3 1,634 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
4 1,154 (30.80%) HTML5
5 1,123 (29.97%) AngularJS
6 1,010 (26.95%) React
7 942 (25.14%) Front End Development
8 902 (24.07%) Git (software)
9 842 (22.47%) .NET
10 830 (22.15%) CSS3
11 825 (22.02%) C#
12 677 (18.07%) Node.js
12 677 (18.07%) Java
13 661 (17.64%) User Experience
14 648 (17.29%) SQL
15 646 (17.24%) TDD
16 577 (15.40%) SQL Server
17 558 (14.89%) MVC
18 549 (14.65%) jQuery
19 519 (13.85%) Sass
20 516 (13.77%) Web Development
21 501 (13.37%) Test Automation
22 486 (12.97%) Scrum
23 458 (12.22%) TypeScript
24 457 (12.20%) Azure
25 438 (11.69%) Finance
26 435 (11.61%) ASP.NET
27 430 (11.48%) RESTful
27 430 (11.48%) REST
28 422 (11.26%) Continuous Integration

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 237 (6.33%) CMS
2 105 (2.80%) SharePoint
3 83 (2.22%) WordPress
4 81 (2.16%) Confluence
5 79 (2.11%) Apache
6 62 (1.65%) Drupal
7 57 (1.52%) Umbraco
8 51 (1.36%) IIS
9 45 (1.20%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 41 (1.09%) Tomcat
10 41 (1.09%) WebSphere
11 40 (1.07%) Elasticsearch
11 40 (1.07%) WebLogic
12 27 (0.72%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 27 (0.72%) Sitecore CMS
13 24 (0.64%) nginx
14 21 (0.56%) Mendix
15 18 (0.48%) JBoss
16 15 (0.40%) SharePoint 2013
17 13 (0.35%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 128 (3.42%) Photoshop
2 101 (2.70%) Sketch
3 58 (1.55%) Adobe Illustrator
4 55 (1.47%) InVision
5 39 (1.04%) Microsoft Excel
6 37 (0.99%) Adobe XD
7 30 (0.80%) Microsoft Office
8 24 (0.64%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 23 (0.61%) Zeplin
10 19 (0.51%) InDesign
11 11 (0.29%) Figma
11 11 (0.29%) GIMP
12 10 (0.27%) Adobe After Effects
13 9 (0.24%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 6 (0.16%) InfoPath
15 5 (0.13%) Lectora
15 5 (0.13%) SketchUp
15 5 (0.13%) UserZoom
16 4 (0.11%) Marvel
16 4 (0.11%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 92 (2.46%) Magento
2 34 (0.91%) Shopify
3 19 (0.51%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.21%) Payment Gateway
5 7 (0.19%) Visualfiles
6 5 (0.13%) NetSuite
6 5 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
6 5 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
7 4 (0.11%) osCommerce
7 4 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 3 (0.080%) Oracle EBS
8 3 (0.080%) R3 Corda
9 2 (0.053%) Eloqua
9 2 (0.053%) OpenCart
9 2 (0.053%) Oracle Applications
10 1 (0.027%) JDE OneWorld
10 1 (0.027%) Oracle Financials
10 1 (0.027%) Remedy ITSM
10 1 (0.027%) SDL Web 8
10 1 (0.027%) WebTrends
Cloud Services
1 457 (12.20%) Azure
2 303 (8.09%) AWS
3 199 (5.31%) GitHub
4 124 (3.31%) npm
5 111 (2.96%) GCP
6 80 (2.14%) SaaS
7 56 (1.49%) Serverless
8 49 (1.31%) Google Analytics
9 48 (1.28%) Power Platform
10 46 (1.23%) PaaS
11 33 (0.88%) Office 365
12 25 (0.67%) Adobe Creative Cloud
12 25 (0.67%) Cloud Computing
12 25 (0.67%) Heroku
13 24 (0.64%) AWS Lambda
14 22 (0.59%) OpenShift
15 20 (0.53%) Amazon S3
16 17 (0.45%) Yarn
17 15 (0.40%) Azure Functions
17 15 (0.40%) Azure Stack
Communications & Networking
1 136 (3.63%) HTTP
2 42 (1.12%) SSL
3 40 (1.07%) Internet
4 35 (0.93%) TCP/IP
5 34 (0.91%) Intranet
6 21 (0.56%) DSL
7 14 (0.37%) DNS
8 13 (0.35%) HTTPS
9 10 (0.27%) Network Security
9 10 (0.27%) SSH
10 9 (0.24%) FTP
11 8 (0.21%) Firewall
12 7 (0.19%) Skype
13 6 (0.16%) Extranet
14 5 (0.13%) DMZ
15 4 (0.11%) AMQP
15 4 (0.11%) SMS
16 3 (0.080%) Broadband
16 3 (0.080%) Reverse Proxy
16 3 (0.080%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 577 (15.40%) SQL Server
2 301 (8.03%) MySQL
3 210 (5.60%) Relational Database
4 154 (4.11%) NoSQL
5 136 (3.63%) MongoDB
6 123 (3.28%) PostgreSQL
7 39 (1.04%) Oracle Database
7 39 (1.04%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 36 (0.96%) RDBMS
9 32 (0.85%) Power BI
10 31 (0.83%) SQL Server Analysis Services
10 31 (0.83%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 27 (0.72%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 27 (0.72%) Flink
12 25 (0.67%) Apache Cassandra
12 25 (0.67%) Redis
13 24 (0.64%) QlikView
14 23 (0.61%) Big Data
14 23 (0.61%) SQL Server 2008
15 22 (0.59%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 902 (24.07%) Git (software)
2 323 (8.62%) Jenkins
3 258 (6.89%) JIRA
4 201 (5.36%) gulp
5 190 (5.07%) webpack
6 169 (4.51%) Selenium
7 156 (4.16%) Grunt
8 150 (4.00%) Visual Studio
9 125 (3.34%) Team Foundation Server
10 118 (3.15%) JUnit
11 104 (2.78%) Cucumber
12 91 (2.43%) Jasmine
13 86 (2.30%) Subversion
14 64 (1.71%) Karma Test Runner
14 64 (1.71%) TeamCity
14 64 (1.71%) Visual Studio Team System
15 57 (1.52%) GitLab
16 54 (1.44%) Octopus Deploy
17 49 (1.31%) Maven
18 47 (1.25%) Bitbucket
General
1 438 (11.69%) Finance
2 243 (6.49%) Public Sector
3 182 (4.86%) Marketing
4 145 (3.87%) Banking
5 118 (3.15%) Retail
6 74 (1.97%) Games
7 62 (1.65%) Law
8 56 (1.49%) Front Office
9 49 (1.31%) Investment Banking
9 49 (1.31%) Telecoms
10 42 (1.12%) Manufacturing
11 32 (0.85%) Publishing
12 29 (0.77%) Electronics
13 28 (0.75%) Advertising
14 18 (0.48%) Automotive
14 18 (0.48%) Legal
15 17 (0.45%) Police
16 12 (0.32%) Back Office
17 9 (0.24%) Financial Institution
18 5 (0.13%) Military
Job Titles
1 2,992 (79.85%) Developer
2 697 (18.60%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 402 (10.73%) React Developer
4 383 (10.22%) Full Stack Developer
5 370 (9.87%) JavaScript Developer
6 357 (9.53%) .NET Developer
7 282 (7.53%) Senior Developer
8 257 (6.86%) Designer
9 254 (6.78%) C# Developer
10 248 (6.62%) Angular Developer
11 232 (6.19%) Java Developer
12 180 (4.80%) HTML Developer
13 166 (4.43%) UI Developer
14 151 (4.03%) Web Developer
15 133 (3.55%) C# .NET Developer
16 132 (3.52%) UX Designer
17 129 (3.44%) HTML CSS Developer
18 128 (3.42%) Software Developer
19 124 (3.31%) PHP Developer
20 97 (2.59%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,389 (90.45%) HTML
2 1,154 (30.80%) HTML5
3 1,123 (29.97%) AngularJS
4 1,010 (26.95%) React
5 842 (22.47%) .NET
6 830 (22.15%) CSS3
7 677 (18.07%) Node.js
8 549 (14.65%) jQuery
9 519 (13.85%) Sass
10 435 (11.61%) ASP.NET
11 430 (11.48%) REST
11 430 (11.48%) RESTful
12 409 (10.92%) JSON
13 390 (10.41%) Web Services
14 376 (10.03%) Redux
15 359 (9.58%) XML
16 329 (8.78%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 308 (8.22%) Vue.js
18 303 (8.09%) Spring
19 208 (5.55%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 661 (17.64%) User Experience
2 212 (5.66%) Analytical Skills
3 198 (5.28%) Mobile App
4 153 (4.08%) Greenfield Project
5 101 (2.70%) W3C
6 94 (2.51%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 71 (1.89%) Enterprise Software
8 64 (1.71%) Hedge funds
9 51 (1.36%) Data Structures
10 50 (1.33%) Self-Motivation
11 42 (1.12%) Equities
12 34 (0.91%) Virtual Team
13 30 (0.80%) Social Media
14 29 (0.77%) Graphic Design
15 26 (0.69%) Algorithms
15 26 (0.69%) Cloud Native
16 24 (0.64%) Management Information System
17 18 (0.48%) Learning Management System
18 17 (0.45%) Blog
19 16 (0.43%) CMDB
Operating Systems
1 195 (5.20%) Linux
2 93 (2.48%) Unix
3 89 (2.38%) Windows
4 59 (1.57%) Android
5 53 (1.41%) Apple iOS
6 21 (0.56%) Mac OS X
7 15 (0.40%) Mac OS
8 13 (0.35%) Ubuntu
9 10 (0.27%) Windows Server
10 6 (0.16%) CentOS
11 4 (0.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 4 (0.11%) VMS
11 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
11 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
12 3 (0.080%) Windows 7
13 2 (0.053%) Windows 10
13 2 (0.053%) Windows 2000
13 2 (0.053%) Windows Server 2003
13 2 (0.053%) Windows Vista
13 2 (0.053%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,634 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
2 942 (25.14%) Front End Development
3 646 (17.24%) TDD
4 558 (14.89%) MVC
5 516 (13.77%) Web Development
6 501 (13.37%) Test Automation
7 486 (12.97%) Scrum
8 422 (11.26%) Continuous Integration
9 363 (9.69%) DevOps
10 340 (9.07%) Microservices
11 309 (8.25%) OO
12 289 (7.71%) E-Commerce
12 289 (7.71%) Problem-Solving
13 239 (6.38%) BDD
14 230 (6.14%) Software Engineering
15 209 (5.58%) Responsive Web Design
16 204 (5.44%) Unit Testing
17 172 (4.59%) Wireframes
18 168 (4.48%) Open Source
19 165 (4.40%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 2,915 (77.80%) JavaScript
2 825 (22.02%) C#
3 677 (18.07%) Java
4 648 (17.29%) SQL
5 458 (12.22%) TypeScript
6 352 (9.39%) PHP
7 285 (7.61%) ES6
8 228 (6.08%) Python
9 176 (4.70%) Ruby
10 125 (3.34%) Scala
11 119 (3.18%) T-SQL
12 109 (2.91%) Java 8
13 76 (2.03%) PowerShell
14 62 (1.65%) Bash Shell
15 51 (1.36%) PL/SQL
16 43 (1.15%) VB.NET
17 39 (1.04%) ES7
18 36 (0.96%) C++
18 36 (0.96%) Groovy
19 28 (0.75%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 222 (5.92%) Security Cleared
2 192 (5.12%) Degree
3 145 (3.87%) SC Cleared
4 58 (1.55%) Computer Science Degree
5 40 (1.07%) BPSS Clearance
6 24 (0.64%) BC Cleared
7 14 (0.37%) Master's Degree
8 10 (0.27%) CTC Cleared
8 10 (0.27%) Microsoft Certification
9 9 (0.24%) DBS Check
9 9 (0.24%) DV Cleared
10 7 (0.19%) AWS Certification
11 5 (0.13%) HND
11 5 (0.13%) Numerate Degree
12 3 (0.080%) A+ Certification
12 3 (0.080%) ISEB
12 3 (0.080%) MCSD
13 2 (0.053%) Cisco Certification
13 2 (0.053%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
13 2 (0.053%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 143 (3.82%) WCAG
2 115 (3.07%) QA
3 17 (0.45%) WAI
4 13 (0.35%) GDPR
5 11 (0.29%) Disclosure Scotland
6 9 (0.24%) SLA
7 8 (0.21%) PMO
8 4 (0.11%) Data Quality
9 2 (0.053%) HL7
9 2 (0.053%) ISO 20022
9 2 (0.053%) ISO 9001
9 2 (0.053%) PCI DSS
9 2 (0.053%) Section 508
10 1 (0.027%) COBIT
10 1 (0.027%) PSD2
10 1 (0.027%) SEPA
10 1 (0.027%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 254 (6.78%) Docker
2 26 (0.69%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.43%) Virtual Machines
4 8 (0.21%) VMware Infrastructure
5 5 (0.13%) zsh
6 4 (0.11%) vSphere
7 2 (0.053%) HDFS
8 1 (0.027%) Apache Flume
8 1 (0.027%) ISA Server
8 1 (0.027%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 119 (3.18%) Kubernetes
2 53 (1.41%) Kibana
3 43 (1.15%) Terraform
4 28 (0.75%) Grafana
5 24 (0.64%) Puppet
6 23 (0.61%) Ansible
7 18 (0.48%) Single Sign-On
8 15 (0.40%) Opscode Chef
9 12 (0.32%) MIIS
10 6 (0.16%) TeamSite
11 5 (0.13%) Docker Swarm
12 3 (0.080%) HP Quality Center
12 3 (0.080%) logstash
13 2 (0.053%) Control-M
13 2 (0.053%) HAProxy
13 2 (0.053%) Mesos
13 2 (0.053%) Oracle Identity Management
13 2 (0.053%) Plesk
13 2 (0.053%) SCCM
14 1 (0.027%) cPanel
Vendors
1 331 (8.83%) Microsoft
2 187 (4.99%) Oracle
3 168 (4.48%) Google
4 145 (3.87%) Adobe
5 60 (1.60%) Salesforce.com
6 51 (1.36%) Sitecore
7 43 (1.15%) IBM
8 42 (1.12%) hybris
8 42 (1.12%) SAP
9 38 (1.01%) Remedy
9 38 (1.01%) ServiceNow
10 29 (0.77%) Demandware
11 27 (0.72%) Atlassian
11 27 (0.72%) Zend
12 24 (0.64%) Tableau
13 20 (0.53%) Splunk
14 19 (0.51%) Cognos
14 19 (0.51%) MicroStrategy
14 19 (0.51%) Vermilion
14 19 (0.51%) Xamarin