Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 25 June 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
25 Jun 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 58 53 43
Rank change year-on-year -5 -10 -18
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,257 2,800 2,116
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.72% 4.38% 5.11%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.81% 14.33% 16.69%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,360 1,959 1,459
10th Percentile £363 £306 £308
25th Percentile £425 £375 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £450 £450
Median % change year-on-year +16.67% - -
75th Percentile £638 £538 £538
90th Percentile £725 £600 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £410 £413
% change year-on-year +12.80% -0.61% -0.90%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 45 13
10th Percentile £22.50 £22.10 £21.90
25th Percentile £35.10 £27.50 £30.00
Median hourly rate £55.50 £40.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +38.75% -11.11% -10.00%
75th Percentile £67.36 £55.00 £52.12
90th Percentile £75.66 £57.10 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £55.50 £40.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +38.75% - -20.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 23,578 19,546 12,680
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 26.92% 30.55% 30.60%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,282 13,887 8,971
10th Percentile £400 £350 £331
25th Percentile £463 £413 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +2.56%
75th Percentile £672 £600 £588
90th Percentile £763 £688 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +11.11% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 229 197 111
10th Percentile £20.25 £20.30 £19.25
25th Percentile £35.00 £27.73 £31.03
Median hourly rate £50.00 £45.00 £46.00
Median % change year-on-year +11.11% -2.17% +2.42%
75th Percentile £65.76 £56.50 £57.50
90th Percentile £76.00 £66.00 £66.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £55.00 £40.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +35.80% -10.00% +2.48%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 June 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 June 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 25 June 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -5 2,688 £530 +14.59% 1,277
Work from Home 0 1,889 £525 +16.67% 679
London -4 1,606 £575 +15.00% 435
UK excluding London -28 944 £463 +12.80% 895
North of England -24 261 £475 +22.58% 257
South East -32 219 £450 +5.88% 196
Midlands -13 180 £475 +20.25% 174
North West -32 150 £475 +26.67% 127
West Midlands -11 127 £493 +15.88% 95
Scotland -35 109 £450 +5.88% 40
South West -18 101 £500 +17.65% 119
Yorkshire -21 87 £463 +5.71% 107
East Midlands -23 53 £439 +27.17% 77
East of England -17 50 £500 +25.00% 81
North East -1 25 £515 +24.85% 23
Wales -4 22 £525 +31.25% 21
Northern Ireland +3 6 £475 +0.74% 8

For the 6 months to 25 June 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,892 (88.79%) HTML
2 2,573 (79.00%) JavaScript
3 1,603 (49.22%) Agile
4 1,409 (43.26%) React
5 889 (27.30%) HTML5
6 844 (25.91%) AngularJS
7 837 (25.70%) TypeScript
8 831 (25.51%) Azure
9 784 (24.07%) C#
10 759 (23.30%) Git (software)
11 756 (23.21%) Front End Development
12 747 (22.94%) .NET
13 746 (22.90%) SQL
14 678 (20.82%) Node.js
15 666 (20.45%) User Experience
16 660 (20.26%) Full Stack Development
17 627 (19.25%) Java
18 625 (19.19%) DevOps
19 563 (17.29%) jQuery
20 541 (16.61%) Social Skills
21 517 (15.87%) TDD
22 513 (15.75%) REST
23 508 (15.60%) CSS3
24 482 (14.80%) Finance
25 477 (14.65%) SQL Server
26 474 (14.55%) AWS
27 468 (14.37%) Web Development
28 465 (14.28%) CI/CD
29 457 (14.03%) Scrum
30 428 (13.14%) Test Automation

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 152 (4.67%) SharePoint
2 131 (4.02%) CMS
3 100 (3.07%) Confluence
4 65 (2.00%) Apache
5 57 (1.75%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 53 (1.63%) nginx
7 52 (1.60%) WordPress
8 46 (1.41%) Tomcat
9 43 (1.32%) Drupal
10 42 (1.29%) Elasticsearch
11 36 (1.11%) IIS
12 34 (1.04%) Umbraco
13 29 (0.89%) WebLogic
14 27 (0.83%) Apache Spark
15 26 (0.80%) JBoss
16 24 (0.74%) Apache Solr
17 23 (0.71%) Cloud Foundry
18 20 (0.61%) WebSphere
19 16 (0.49%) Oracle SOA Suite
20 15 (0.46%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 54 (1.66%) Sketch
2 34 (1.04%) InVision
3 26 (0.80%) Photoshop
4 25 (0.77%) Microsoft Office
5 23 (0.71%) Adobe Illustrator
6 19 (0.58%) Zeplin
7 18 (0.55%) Adobe XD
8 13 (0.40%) Chatbot
9 12 (0.37%) Microsoft Excel
10 9 (0.28%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 7 (0.21%) InfoPath
12 6 (0.18%) InDesign
12 6 (0.18%) MS Visio
13 5 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 4 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
14 4 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
15 3 (0.092%) Adobe After Effects
16 2 (0.061%) FreeHand
16 2 (0.061%) UXPin
17 1 (0.031%) Pixate
Business Applications
1 34 (1.04%) Shopify
2 27 (0.83%) Magento
3 19 (0.58%) Dynamics CRM
3 19 (0.58%) Payment Gateway
4 8 (0.25%) Remedy ITSM
5 7 (0.21%) Oracle Utilities
6 6 (0.18%) SAP Hybris
7 5 (0.15%) WebTrends
8 3 (0.092%) Oracle EBS
8 3 (0.092%) Oracle ERP
9 2 (0.061%) NetSuite
9 2 (0.061%) Oracle BPM
9 2 (0.061%) SAP S/4HANA
10 1 (0.031%) Adobe Campaign
10 1 (0.031%) Algo Collateral
10 1 (0.031%) assyst
10 1 (0.031%) Dynamics AX
10 1 (0.031%) Dynamics NAV
10 1 (0.031%) Oracle EBS R12
Cloud Services
1 831 (25.51%) Azure
2 474 (14.55%) AWS
3 206 (6.32%) GitHub
4 132 (4.05%) Serverless
5 108 (3.32%) npm
6 97 (2.98%) GCP
7 89 (2.73%) SaaS
8 88 (2.70%) Power Platform
9 78 (2.39%) Microsoft 365
10 76 (2.33%) AWS Lambda
11 61 (1.87%) Amazon S3
12 55 (1.69%) Figma
12 55 (1.69%) PowerApps
13 41 (1.26%) Power Automate
14 40 (1.23%) AWS CloudFormation
15 39 (1.20%) Azure Functions
15 39 (1.20%) IaaS
16 38 (1.17%) Dynamics 365
16 38 (1.17%) PaaS
17 32 (0.98%) Pulumi
Communications & Networking
1 82 (2.52%) HTTP
2 44 (1.35%) Internet
3 41 (1.26%) Network Security
4 32 (0.98%) DNS
5 27 (0.83%) RTMP
6 25 (0.77%) Intranet
6 25 (0.77%) SSL
7 14 (0.43%) TCP/IP
8 13 (0.40%) Firewall
9 12 (0.37%) DMZ
9 12 (0.37%) HTTPS
10 11 (0.34%) SSH
10 11 (0.34%) VPN
11 10 (0.31%) Skype
12 7 (0.21%) Broadband
13 5 (0.15%) SNMP
14 4 (0.12%) FTP
15 3 (0.092%) CTI
16 2 (0.061%) DSL
16 2 (0.061%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 477 (14.65%) SQL Server
2 205 (6.29%) Relational Database
3 198 (6.08%) MongoDB
4 184 (5.65%) MySQL
5 177 (5.43%) PostgreSQL
6 174 (5.34%) NoSQL
7 78 (2.39%) Redis
8 50 (1.54%) Power BI
9 46 (1.41%) Big Data
10 45 (1.38%) Oracle Database
11 35 (1.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 30 (0.92%) RDBMS
13 27 (0.83%) Amazon Aurora
14 24 (0.74%) Amazon RDS
15 20 (0.61%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 18 (0.55%) Spatial Data
17 16 (0.49%) Apache Cassandra
18 15 (0.46%) DB2
18 15 (0.46%) SQL Server Reporting Services
19 14 (0.43%) Hazelcast
Development Applications
1 759 (23.30%) Git (software)
2 297 (9.12%) JIRA
3 255 (7.83%) Jenkins
4 187 (5.74%) webpack
5 144 (4.42%) Cypress.io
6 140 (4.30%) Visual Studio
7 139 (4.27%) Maven
8 114 (3.50%) GitLab
9 112 (3.44%) Selenium
10 110 (3.38%) Jasmine
11 100 (3.07%) gulp
12 82 (2.52%) TeamCity
13 76 (2.33%) Bitbucket
14 75 (2.30%) JUnit
15 71 (2.18%) NUnit
15 71 (2.18%) Team Foundation Server
16 70 (2.15%) Grunt
17 59 (1.81%) Eclipse
17 59 (1.81%) Gradle
18 55 (1.69%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 541 (16.61%) Social Skills
2 482 (14.80%) Finance
3 339 (10.41%) Public Sector
4 211 (6.48%) Banking
5 181 (5.56%) Analytical Skills
6 104 (3.19%) Front Office
7 100 (3.07%) Investment Banking
8 93 (2.86%) Marketing
9 78 (2.39%) Retail
10 66 (2.03%) Presentation Skills
11 56 (1.72%) Legal
12 46 (1.41%) Telecoms
13 36 (1.11%) Publishing
14 30 (0.92%) Influencing Skills
15 27 (0.83%) Law
15 27 (0.83%) Manufacturing
16 25 (0.77%) Financial Institution
17 22 (0.68%) Documentation Skills
18 21 (0.64%) Back Office
18 21 (0.64%) Police
Job Titles
1 2,412 (74.06%) Developer
2 500 (15.35%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 384 (11.79%) React Developer
4 370 (11.36%) Full Stack Developer
5 284 (8.72%) .NET Developer
6 258 (7.92%) JavaScript Developer
7 245 (7.52%) Senior Developer
8 222 (6.82%) Designer
9 173 (5.31%) Java Developer
10 154 (4.73%) Angular Developer
11 149 (4.57%) Software Developer
12 129 (3.96%) Python Developer
13 127 (3.90%) C# Developer
14 106 (3.25%) Software Engineer
15 96 (2.95%) UI Developer
16 95 (2.92%) Interaction Designer
17 90 (2.76%) UX Designer
18 87 (2.67%) Web Developer
19 77 (2.36%) C# .NET Developer
20 76 (2.33%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,892 (88.79%) HTML
2 1,409 (43.26%) React
3 889 (27.30%) HTML5
4 844 (25.91%) AngularJS
5 747 (22.94%) .NET
6 678 (20.82%) Node.js
7 563 (17.29%) jQuery
8 513 (15.75%) REST
9 508 (15.60%) CSS3
10 402 (12.34%) Sass
11 394 (12.10%) RESTful
12 342 (10.50%) Web Services
13 324 (9.95%) ASP.NET
13 324 (9.95%) Redux
14 311 (9.55%) JSON
15 293 (9.00%) Spring
16 274 (8.41%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 251 (7.71%) XML
18 247 (7.58%) .NET Framework
19 237 (7.28%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 666 (20.45%) User Experience
2 124 (3.81%) Mobile App
3 116 (3.56%) Greenfield Project
4 62 (1.90%) Management Information System
5 60 (1.84%) Virtual Team
6 51 (1.57%) Cloud Native
7 47 (1.44%) Enterprise Software
8 46 (1.41%) Self-Motivation
9 39 (1.20%) Data Structures
10 37 (1.14%) Derivative
11 36 (1.11%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 36 (1.11%) Legacy Systems
12 33 (1.01%) Public Cloud
13 32 (0.98%) Fixed Income
13 32 (0.98%) Video Conferencing
14 30 (0.92%) Algorithms
15 28 (0.86%) Data Protection Act
16 26 (0.80%) NHS
17 24 (0.74%) W3C
18 23 (0.71%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 187 (5.74%) Linux
2 112 (3.44%) Windows
3 55 (1.69%) Unix
4 27 (0.83%) Apple iOS
5 26 (0.80%) Android
6 9 (0.28%) Mac OS
6 9 (0.28%) Windows Server
7 6 (0.18%) Solaris
7 6 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
7 6 (0.18%) Windows Server 2016
8 5 (0.15%) Ubuntu
9 2 (0.061%) AIX
9 2 (0.061%) Debian
9 2 (0.061%) Mac OS X
9 2 (0.061%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 1 (0.031%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,603 (49.22%) Agile
2 756 (23.21%) Front End Development
3 660 (20.26%) Full Stack Development
4 625 (19.19%) DevOps
5 517 (15.87%) TDD
6 468 (14.37%) Web Development
7 465 (14.28%) CI/CD
8 457 (14.03%) Scrum
9 428 (13.14%) Test Automation
10 391 (12.00%) Microservices
11 384 (11.79%) MVC
12 382 (11.73%) UX Design
13 357 (10.96%) Problem-Solving
14 334 (10.25%) Software Engineering
15 288 (8.84%) Continuous Integration
16 235 (7.22%) Unit Testing
17 224 (6.88%) SDLC
18 195 (5.99%) Prototyping
19 190 (5.83%) OO
20 170 (5.22%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 2,573 (79.00%) JavaScript
2 837 (25.70%) TypeScript
3 784 (24.07%) C#
4 746 (22.90%) SQL
5 627 (19.25%) Java
6 407 (12.50%) Python
7 210 (6.45%) ES6
8 190 (5.83%) PHP
9 143 (4.39%) PowerShell
10 95 (2.92%) T-SQL
11 73 (2.24%) Ruby
12 72 (2.21%) PL/SQL
13 63 (1.93%) Scala
14 60 (1.84%) Bash
15 55 (1.69%) C
16 43 (1.32%) Go
17 40 (1.23%) Shell Script
18 39 (1.20%) Kotlin
19 36 (1.11%) VB.NET
20 28 (0.86%) C++
Qualifications
1 285 (8.75%) Security Cleared
2 245 (7.52%) SC Cleared
3 199 (6.11%) Degree
4 70 (2.15%) Computer Science Degree
5 65 (2.00%) BPSS Clearance
6 46 (1.41%) DV Cleared
7 30 (0.92%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
8 10 (0.31%) Microsoft Certification
9 8 (0.25%) ISEB
9 8 (0.25%) ITIL Certification
9 8 (0.25%) Master's Degree
10 7 (0.21%) AWS Certification
11 6 (0.18%) ISTQB
12 5 (0.15%) Sun Certification
13 2 (0.061%) BC Cleared
13 2 (0.061%) CEH
13 2 (0.061%) CISSP
13 2 (0.061%) MCSA
13 2 (0.061%) OCPJP
13 2 (0.061%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 349 (10.72%) Accessibility
2 156 (4.79%) QA
3 89 (2.73%) WCAG
4 20 (0.61%) GDPR
5 13 (0.40%) PCI DSS
5 13 (0.40%) SLA
6 8 (0.25%) WAI
7 3 (0.092%) Sarbanes-Oxley
8 2 (0.061%) Disclosure Scotland
9 1 (0.031%) ISO/IEC 20000
9 1 (0.031%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 1 (0.031%) NCSC
9 1 (0.031%) PMO
System Software
1 350 (10.75%) Docker
2 41 (1.26%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.18%) Varnish
4 5 (0.15%) VMware NSX
5 3 (0.092%) Slurm Workload Manager
6 2 (0.061%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.061%) VirtualBox
7 1 (0.031%) Firmware
7 1 (0.031%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.031%) VMware Infrastructure
7 1 (0.031%) zsh
Systems Management
1 295 (9.06%) Kubernetes
2 129 (3.96%) Terraform
3 50 (1.54%) Ansible
4 45 (1.38%) Grafana
5 32 (0.98%) Single Sign-On
6 24 (0.74%) Puppet
7 20 (0.61%) Kibana
8 14 (0.43%) Active Directory Federation Services
9 9 (0.28%) MIIS
9 9 (0.28%) Netcool
10 7 (0.21%) Opscode Chef
11 6 (0.18%) HP ALM
11 6 (0.18%) logstash
12 5 (0.15%) HP Fortify
12 5 (0.15%) PowerCLI
12 5 (0.15%) Prometheus
13 3 (0.092%) Control-M
13 3 (0.092%) systemd
13 3 (0.092%) WMI
14 1 (0.031%) Nagios
Vendors
1 384 (11.79%) Microsoft
2 242 (7.43%) Oracle
3 122 (3.75%) Adobe
4 101 (3.10%) Google
5 88 (2.70%) ServiceNow
6 61 (1.87%) Salesforce.com
7 44 (1.35%) SAP
8 43 (1.32%) Sitecore
9 38 (1.17%) Splunk
10 31 (0.95%) Mercator
10 31 (0.95%) MuleSoft
11 22 (0.68%) Atlassian
12 20 (0.61%) IBM
13 17 (0.52%) Red Hat
14 15 (0.46%) AppDynamics
15 12 (0.37%) PayPal
15 12 (0.37%) WorldPay
16 11 (0.34%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
17 10 (0.31%) PagerDuty
18 9 (0.28%) Apple