Period
to 16 July 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 16 July 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
16 Jul 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 17 13 18
Rank change year-on-year -4 +5 +5
Contract jobs citing CSS 8,327 8,071 8,539
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 8.03% 8.50% 7.75%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.67% 26.40% 27.03%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,023 5,676 6,201
UK median daily rate £425 £400 £388
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +7.64%
10th Percentile £300 £275 £263
90th Percentile £575 £550 £538
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £350
% change year-on-year +6.67% +7.14% +7.69%
Number of hourly rates quoted 48 74 76
UK median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £28.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.25% +39.13% -11.65%
10th Percentile £12.69 £14.75 £10.25
90th Percentile £49.13 £46.18 £50.65
UK excluding London median hourly rate £37.50 £40.00 £27.50
% change year-on-year -6.25% +45.45% -23.08%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 35,181 30,573 31,591
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 33.92% 32.21% 28.69%
Number of daily rates quoted 24,745 21,091 22,089
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £315 £305 £289
90th Percentile £625 £613 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £420 £400 £375
% change year-on-year +5.00% +6.67% +2.74%
Number of hourly rates quoted 370 386 404
UK median hourly rate £41.00 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.50% +6.67% +4.17%
10th Percentile £15.00 £15.08 £13.50
90th Percentile £58.88 £53.75 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £41.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year -2.44% +9.33% +1.35%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 16 July 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 16 July 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 16 July 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -3 7,710 £425 +6.25% 3,261
UK excluding London -4 4,467 £400 +6.67% 2,361
London -5 3,757 £475 +5.56% 1,067
South East 0 1,337 £415 +10.67% 619
North of England 0 1,251 £375 - 675
Midlands -8 668 £375 +7.14% 417
North West +2 662 £375 +7.14% 412
Yorkshire -3 483 £388 +3.33% 217
West Midlands -6 429 £375 +6.69% 223
Scotland -4 415 £400 +6.67% 97
South West -4 397 £375 +1.35% 284
East of England -2 293 £400 +14.29% 199
East Midlands -4 239 £375 +7.14% 194
North East -4 108 £356 -7.47% 46
Wales -8 80 £400 +26.98% 45
Northern Ireland +4 34 £432 +9.71% 23

For the 6 months to 16 July 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,706 (92.54%) HTML
2 6,721 (80.71%) JavaScript
3 3,736 (44.87%) Agile Software Development
4 3,323 (39.91%) HTML5
5 2,882 (34.61%) AngularJS
6 2,614 (31.39%) CSS3
7 2,295 (27.56%) Front End Development
8 2,134 (25.63%) React
9 2,099 (25.21%) jQuery
10 1,884 (22.63%) Git (software)
11 1,804 (21.66%) .NET
12 1,734 (20.82%) C#
13 1,721 (20.67%) TDD
14 1,633 (19.61%) Node.js
15 1,515 (18.19%) User Experience
16 1,505 (18.07%) MVC
17 1,417 (17.02%) Web Development
18 1,344 (16.14%) Sass
19 1,343 (16.13%) Java
20 1,230 (14.77%) SQL
21 1,117 (13.41%) Scrum
22 1,076 (12.92%) SQL Server
23 1,072 (12.87%) ASP.NET
24 1,035 (12.43%) Finance
25 973 (11.68%) Web Services
26 956 (11.48%) REST
27 893 (10.72%) PHP
28 851 (10.22%) ES6
29 847 (10.17%) Twitter Bootstrap
30 839 (10.08%) Redux

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 467 (5.61%) CMS
2 236 (2.83%) WordPress
3 233 (2.80%) SharePoint
4 173 (2.08%) Confluence
5 159 (1.91%) Apache
6 154 (1.85%) Drupal
7 134 (1.61%) IIS
8 120 (1.44%) Umbraco
9 117 (1.41%) Tomcat
10 99 (1.19%) Elasticsearch
11 93 (1.12%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 86 (1.03%) WebSphere
13 72 (0.86%) SharePoint 2013
14 71 (0.85%) Sitecore CMS
15 65 (0.78%) SharePoint 2010
16 56 (0.67%) JBoss
17 55 (0.66%) nginx
18 45 (0.54%) EPiServer
19 41 (0.49%) Apache Spark
19 41 (0.49%) WebLogic
Applications
1 243 (2.92%) Photoshop
2 133 (1.60%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 112 (1.35%) InVision
4 108 (1.30%) Adobe Illustrator
5 58 (0.70%) InfoPath
6 42 (0.50%) Microsoft Excel
7 38 (0.46%) OmniGraffle
8 37 (0.44%) Microsoft Office
9 25 (0.30%) GIMP
10 17 (0.20%) UserZoom
11 16 (0.19%) Adobe After Effects
12 14 (0.17%) InDesign
12 14 (0.17%) MS Visio
13 13 (0.16%) UXPin
14 12 (0.14%) Chatbot
14 12 (0.14%) Fireworks
15 11 (0.13%) Microsoft Project
16 9 (0.11%) Adobe Premiere
17 8 (0.096%) Microsoft PowerPoint
18 2 (0.024%) Stata
Business Applications
1 146 (1.75%) Magento
2 95 (1.14%) Dynamics CRM
3 18 (0.22%) ION MarketView
4 14 (0.17%) Payment Gateway
5 11 (0.13%) Remedy ITSM
6 8 (0.096%) Adobe Campaign
6 8 (0.096%) Distributed Ledger
6 8 (0.096%) SDL Web 8
7 7 (0.084%) Dynamics AX
7 7 (0.084%) Eloqua
7 7 (0.084%) Shopify
8 4 (0.048%) Endur
8 4 (0.048%) R3 Corda
8 4 (0.048%) SAP Hybris
8 4 (0.048%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 4 (0.048%) WebTrends
9 3 (0.036%) Dynamics NAV
9 3 (0.036%) Maximo
9 3 (0.036%) Oracle Applications
9 3 (0.036%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 617 (7.41%) Microsoft Azure
2 602 (7.23%) Amazon AWS
3 299 (3.59%) npm
4 260 (3.12%) GitHub
5 148 (1.78%) Serverless
6 109 (1.31%) Office 365
6 109 (1.31%) SaaS
7 76 (0.91%) Google Analytics
8 73 (0.88%) Google Cloud Platform
9 70 (0.84%) Heroku
10 52 (0.62%) PaaS
11 46 (0.55%) AWS Lambda
12 42 (0.50%) Dynamics 365
13 39 (0.47%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 36 (0.43%) IaaS
15 34 (0.41%) Amazon S3
16 32 (0.38%) Amazon EC2
16 32 (0.38%) Yarn
17 26 (0.31%) Cloud Computing
18 24 (0.29%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 319 (3.83%) HTTP
2 121 (1.45%) Internet
3 67 (0.80%) SSL
4 60 (0.72%) TCP/IP
5 58 (0.70%) SMS
6 57 (0.68%) DNS
7 51 (0.61%) FTP
8 49 (0.59%) Intranet
9 20 (0.24%) Broadband
10 13 (0.16%) HTTPS
11 11 (0.13%) Reverse Proxy
12 10 (0.12%) RTMP
12 10 (0.12%) SMTP
13 9 (0.11%) Firewall
14 8 (0.096%) Network Security
15 7 (0.084%) Kerberos
16 6 (0.072%) 4G
16 6 (0.072%) IMAP
16 6 (0.072%) Skype
16 6 (0.072%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,076 (12.92%) SQL Server
2 743 (8.92%) MySQL
3 448 (5.38%) Relational Database
4 366 (4.40%) MongoDB
5 306 (3.67%) PostgreSQL
6 278 (3.34%) NoSQL
7 133 (1.60%) Redis
8 121 (1.45%) SQL Server 2012
9 103 (1.24%) RDBMS
10 92 (1.10%) Big Data
11 88 (1.06%) SQL Server 2008
12 77 (0.92%) Apache Cassandra
13 69 (0.83%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 61 (0.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 54 (0.65%) Oracle Database
16 53 (0.64%) Blockchain
17 48 (0.58%) SQL Server 2014
18 46 (0.55%) Data Warehouse
18 46 (0.55%) Hadoop
19 45 (0.54%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 1,884 (22.63%) Git (software)
2 611 (7.34%) Jenkins
3 587 (7.05%) webpack
4 546 (6.56%) gulp
5 448 (5.38%) JIRA
6 422 (5.07%) Grunt
7 368 (4.42%) Jasmine
8 366 (4.40%) Selenium
9 348 (4.18%) Visual Studio
10 257 (3.09%) Subversion
11 244 (2.93%) Team Foundation Server
12 214 (2.57%) Karma Test Runner
12 214 (2.57%) Mocha
13 200 (2.40%) Babel
14 194 (2.33%) Maven
15 178 (2.14%) JUnit
16 177 (2.13%) Axure RP
17 150 (1.80%) Cucumber
18 139 (1.67%) TeamCity
19 105 (1.26%) NUnit
General
1 1,035 (12.43%) Finance
2 476 (5.72%) Banking
3 371 (4.46%) Retail
4 320 (3.84%) Marketing
5 147 (1.77%) Telecoms
6 108 (1.30%) Front Office
7 103 (1.24%) Games
8 94 (1.13%) Investment Banking
9 76 (0.91%) Advertising
10 68 (0.82%) Law
11 57 (0.68%) Manufacturing
12 56 (0.67%) Legal
13 54 (0.65%) Publishing
14 40 (0.48%) Back Office
15 33 (0.40%) Electronics
16 31 (0.37%) Financial Institution
17 23 (0.28%) Automotive
18 18 (0.22%) Local Government
19 16 (0.19%) Pharmaceutical
20 14 (0.17%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6,867 (82.47%) Developer
2 1,801 (21.63%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,293 (15.53%) JavaScript Developer
4 987 (11.85%) React Developer
5 890 (10.69%) .NET Developer
6 715 (8.59%) Full Stack Developer
7 694 (8.33%) Angular Developer
8 571 (6.86%) HTML Developer
9 530 (6.36%) Java Developer
10 529 (6.35%) C# Developer
11 528 (6.34%) Web Developer
12 523 (6.28%) Senior Developer
13 486 (5.84%) Designer
14 473 (5.68%) UI Developer
15 451 (5.42%) HTML CSS Developer
16 434 (5.21%) PHP Developer
17 361 (4.34%) C# .NET Developer
18 288 (3.46%) UX Designer
19 274 (3.29%) Node.js Developer
20 212 (2.55%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,706 (92.54%) HTML
2 3,323 (39.91%) HTML5
3 2,882 (34.61%) AngularJS
4 2,614 (31.39%) CSS3
5 2,134 (25.63%) React
6 2,099 (25.21%) jQuery
7 1,804 (21.66%) .NET
8 1,633 (19.61%) Node.js
9 1,344 (16.14%) Sass
10 1,072 (12.87%) ASP.NET
11 973 (11.68%) Web Services
12 956 (11.48%) REST
13 847 (10.17%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 839 (10.08%) Redux
15 795 (9.55%) RESTful
16 740 (8.89%) XML
17 675 (8.11%) JSON
18 646 (7.76%) Ajax
19 595 (7.15%) ASP.NET Web API
20 564 (6.77%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 1,515 (18.19%) User Experience
2 541 (6.50%) Greenfield Project
3 491 (5.90%) Mobile App
4 313 (3.76%) Analytical Skills
5 256 (3.07%) Fintech
6 221 (2.65%) Computer Science
7 154 (1.85%) Enterprise Software
8 117 (1.41%) Self-Motivation
9 104 (1.25%) Data Structures
10 99 (1.19%) Algorithms
11 78 (0.94%) W3C
12 59 (0.71%) Social Media
13 58 (0.70%) Fixed Income
14 57 (0.68%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 55 (0.66%) Linux Command Line
16 47 (0.56%) Virtual Team
17 36 (0.43%) Derivative
18 30 (0.36%) Public Cloud
19 29 (0.35%) Client/Server
20 28 (0.34%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 619 (7.43%) Linux
2 299 (3.59%) Windows
3 281 (3.37%) Android
4 264 (3.17%) Apple iOS
5 179 (2.15%) Unix
6 86 (1.03%) Windows Server
7 47 (0.56%) Windows Server 2003
8 46 (0.55%) Mac OS X
9 45 (0.54%) Windows Server 2008
9 45 (0.54%) Windows Server 2012
10 33 (0.40%) Ubuntu
11 18 (0.22%) Mac OS
12 13 (0.16%) Windows 10
13 12 (0.14%) CentOS
14 10 (0.12%) VMS
15 9 (0.11%) Oracle Linux
16 6 (0.072%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16 6 (0.072%) Solaris
17 4 (0.048%) Windows 7
17 4 (0.048%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,736 (44.87%) Agile Software Development
2 2,295 (27.56%) Front End Development
3 1,721 (20.67%) TDD
4 1,505 (18.07%) MVC
5 1,417 (17.02%) Web Development
6 1,117 (13.41%) Scrum
7 838 (10.06%) Continuous Integration
8 766 (9.20%) BDD
9 740 (8.89%) Test Automation
10 718 (8.62%) OO
11 624 (7.49%) E-Commerce
12 615 (7.39%) Microservices
13 606 (7.28%) Responsive Web Design
14 600 (7.21%) Unit Testing
15 524 (6.29%) DevOps
16 517 (6.21%) Problem-Solving
17 469 (5.63%) Software Engineering
18 414 (4.97%) Wireframes
19 413 (4.96%) Open Source
20 360 (4.32%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 6,721 (80.71%) JavaScript
2 1,734 (20.82%) C#
3 1,343 (16.13%) Java
4 1,230 (14.77%) SQL
5 893 (10.72%) PHP
6 851 (10.22%) ES6
7 695 (8.35%) TypeScript
8 532 (6.39%) Python
9 255 (3.06%) Ruby
10 219 (2.63%) Java 8
11 203 (2.44%) T-SQL
12 186 (2.23%) Scala
13 139 (1.67%) PowerShell
14 113 (1.36%) ES7
15 93 (1.12%) C++
16 88 (1.06%) Go
16 88 (1.06%) PL/SQL
17 74 (0.89%) Groovy
18 57 (0.68%) VB.NET
19 55 (0.66%) Perl
Qualifications
1 392 (4.71%) Degree
2 311 (3.73%) Security Cleared
3 227 (2.73%) SC Cleared
4 142 (1.71%) Computer Science Degree
5 56 (0.67%) Microsoft Certification
6 29 (0.35%) MCSE
7 24 (0.29%) BPSS Clearance
8 21 (0.25%) ITIL Certification
9 12 (0.14%) DBS Check
10 8 (0.096%) ISTQB
11 7 (0.084%) CESG Certified Professional
11 7 (0.084%) CTC Cleared
11 7 (0.084%) IISP
12 5 (0.060%) CISMP
12 5 (0.060%) DV Cleared
13 4 (0.048%) AWS Certification
13 4 (0.048%) BC Cleared
13 4 (0.048%) Master's Degree
13 4 (0.048%) Numerate Degree
14 3 (0.036%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 233 (2.80%) QA
2 47 (0.56%) WCAG
3 33 (0.40%) GDPR
4 22 (0.26%) SLA
5 21 (0.25%) WAI
6 17 (0.20%) Disclosure Scotland
6 17 (0.20%) PMO
7 15 (0.18%) Data Quality
8 11 (0.13%) MiFID
9 8 (0.096%) GCP
9 8 (0.096%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 6 (0.072%) PCI DSS
11 3 (0.036%) PMBOK
12 2 (0.024%) Actionable Recommendations
13 1 (0.012%) MISRA
13 1 (0.012%) MISRA C
13 1 (0.012%) PSD2
13 1 (0.012%) Section 508
System Software
1 545 (6.54%) Docker
2 27 (0.32%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.19%) Virtual Machines
4 10 (0.12%) VirtualBox
5 8 (0.096%) HDFS
5 8 (0.096%) Hyper-V
6 6 (0.072%) LXC
6 6 (0.072%) Microsoft App-V
6 6 (0.072%) VMware ESXi
7 5 (0.060%) GeoWebCache
7 5 (0.060%) VMware Infrastructure
8 4 (0.048%) etcd
8 4 (0.048%) flannel
9 3 (0.036%) vCloud
10 2 (0.024%) Postfix
11 1 (0.012%) Apache Flume
11 1 (0.012%) Firmware
11 1 (0.012%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 107 (1.28%) Puppet
2 100 (1.20%) Ansible
3 96 (1.15%) Kubernetes
4 68 (0.82%) Opscode Chef
5 41 (0.49%) Terraform
6 33 (0.40%) Docker Swarm
7 29 (0.35%) Kibana
8 18 (0.22%) Mesos
9 16 (0.19%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
10 15 (0.18%) Grafana
11 13 (0.16%) HAProxy
12 10 (0.12%) Marathon
12 10 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
13 8 (0.096%) TeamSite
14 7 (0.084%) SCCM
15 6 (0.072%) Matomo
15 6 (0.072%) vCenter Server
16 5 (0.060%) logstash
16 5 (0.060%) Nagios
16 5 (0.060%) Rancher
Vendors
1 646 (7.76%) Microsoft
2 462 (5.55%) Oracle
3 417 (5.01%) Adobe
4 228 (2.74%) Google
5 138 (1.66%) Salesforce.com
6 109 (1.31%) Sitecore
7 99 (1.19%) ServiceNow
8 80 (0.96%) SAP
9 73 (0.88%) IBM
10 61 (0.73%) Capita
11 56 (0.67%) Zend
12 51 (0.61%) Twitter
13 46 (0.55%) Nintex
14 42 (0.50%) Atlassian
15 40 (0.48%) Splunk
16 36 (0.43%) hybris
17 33 (0.40%) Xamarin
18 28 (0.34%) Apple
19 27 (0.32%) Perforce
19 27 (0.32%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud