Period
to 6 July 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 6 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
6 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 39 24 17
Rank change year-on-year -15 -7 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,105 6,273 8,350
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.08% 6.70% 7.99%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 16.50% 20.72% 23.72%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,490 4,614 6,193
Median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £300 £313 £300
90th Percentile £600 £594 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £404 £413 £400
% change year-on-year -2.00% +3.13% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 39 75 49
Median hourly rate £35.00 £47.50 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -26.32% +11.76% +6.25%
10th Percentile £29.25 £21.95 £12.45
90th Percentile £52.50 £60.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £45.25 £37.50
% change year-on-year -22.65% +20.67% -6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,758 30,276 35,199
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.76% 32.32% 33.68%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,568 21,200 24,717
Median daily rate £500 £490 £470
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.04% +4.26% +4.44%
10th Percentile £334 £334 £315
90th Percentile £675 £650 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £440 £415
% change year-on-year +2.27% +6.02% +3.75%
Number of hourly rates quoted 196 321 366
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £41.88
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -17.65% +1.47% +2.15%
10th Percentile £22.50 £18.50 £14.90
90th Percentile £63.00 £60.00 £60.47
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year -17.65% +6.25% -2.44%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 6 July 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 6 July 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 6 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -19 1,829 £450 - 1,028
UK excluding London -12 1,057 £404 -2.00% 845
London -20 938 £488 - 237
North of England -18 243 £410 +2.50% 261
South East -26 223 £425 - 160
Work from Home -8 163 £398 -3.13% 150
South West -9 159 £413 -2.94% 107
Midlands -5 157 £400 - 175
Scotland +10 152 £400 - 30
North West -18 121 £400 +3.09% 158
West Midlands -6 102 £410 +1.23% 106
Yorkshire -6 99 £425 +1.80% 77
East of England +8 80 £400 - 86
East Midlands -7 55 £350 -7.89% 68
Wales -21 26 £425 +4.94% 22
North East +3 23 £478 +19.38% 26
Northern Ireland +3 17 £454 +6.76% 5
Channel Islands - 1 £425 -

For the 6 months to 6 July 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,851 (87.93%) HTML
2 1,662 (78.95%) JavaScript
3 928 (44.09%) Agile Software Development
4 623 (29.60%) HTML5
5 596 (28.31%) React
6 583 (27.70%) AngularJS
7 582 (27.65%) Front End Development
8 499 (23.71%) Git (software)
9 451 (21.43%) Node.js
10 448 (21.28%) User Experience
11 442 (21.00%) .NET
12 432 (20.52%) C#
13 410 (19.48%) CSS3
14 396 (18.81%) Java
15 394 (18.72%) SQL
16 349 (16.58%) jQuery
17 328 (15.58%) TDD
18 323 (15.34%) Sass
19 313 (14.87%) SQL Server
20 297 (14.11%) Web Development
21 283 (13.44%) TypeScript
22 278 (13.21%) DevOps
23 269 (12.78%) Finance
24 266 (12.64%) Azure
25 264 (12.54%) Scrum
26 257 (12.21%) Test Automation
27 255 (12.11%) MVC
28 234 (11.12%) Web Services
29 227 (10.78%) Redux
30 220 (10.45%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 109 (5.18%) CMS
2 63 (2.99%) SharePoint
3 49 (2.33%) Elasticsearch
4 47 (2.23%) Apache
5 46 (2.19%) Tomcat
6 42 (2.00%) WordPress
7 36 (1.71%) Confluence
8 32 (1.52%) IIS
8 32 (1.52%) WebLogic
9 27 (1.28%) WebSphere
10 23 (1.09%) Drupal
10 23 (1.09%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 23 (1.09%) Umbraco
11 18 (0.86%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 18 (0.86%) Apache Solr
12 14 (0.67%) Headless CMS
13 10 (0.48%) JBoss
14 9 (0.43%) SAP EP
14 9 (0.43%) SAP Portal
15 8 (0.38%) Apache Spark
Applications
1 83 (3.94%) Sketch
2 47 (2.23%) InVision
3 42 (2.00%) Photoshop
4 27 (1.28%) Zeplin
5 25 (1.19%) Microsoft Excel
6 21 (1.00%) Adobe Illustrator
7 20 (0.95%) Microsoft Office
8 10 (0.48%) Adobe After Effects
9 9 (0.43%) Adobe XD
9 9 (0.43%) InfoPath
10 8 (0.38%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 6 (0.29%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 5 (0.24%) Chatbot
12 5 (0.24%) Figma
13 4 (0.19%) Adobe Premiere
13 4 (0.19%) InDesign
14 3 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
15 2 (0.095%) Camtasia
16 1 (0.048%) Marvel
16 1 (0.048%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 39 (1.85%) Magento
2 25 (1.19%) Dynamics CRM
3 20 (0.95%) Shopify
4 12 (0.57%) Oracle ERP
5 6 (0.29%) Payment Gateway
6 4 (0.19%) Visualfiles
7 3 (0.14%) NetSuite
7 3 (0.14%) OpenCart
7 3 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
8 2 (0.095%) BigMachines
8 2 (0.095%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 1 (0.048%) Adobe Campaign
9 1 (0.048%) Oracle Applications
9 1 (0.048%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 266 (12.64%) Azure
2 186 (8.84%) AWS
3 90 (4.28%) GCP
4 77 (3.66%) npm
5 75 (3.56%) GitHub
6 47 (2.23%) Serverless
7 41 (1.95%) SaaS
8 29 (1.38%) PaaS
9 22 (1.05%) Heroku
10 21 (1.00%) Power Platform
11 20 (0.95%) AWS Lambda
11 20 (0.95%) Cloud Computing
12 19 (0.90%) Adobe Creative Cloud
13 17 (0.81%) Google Analytics
14 16 (0.76%) OpenShift
15 14 (0.67%) Amazon S3
15 14 (0.67%) Azure Functions
15 14 (0.67%) Office 365
16 11 (0.52%) Amazon EC2
17 10 (0.48%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 46 (2.19%) HTTP
2 25 (1.19%) Internet
3 17 (0.81%) DNS
4 16 (0.76%) SSL
5 13 (0.62%) Intranet
6 11 (0.52%) HTTPS
7 9 (0.43%) TCP/IP
8 6 (0.29%) Firewall
8 6 (0.29%) Skype
9 5 (0.24%) DKIM
9 5 (0.24%) DSL
10 4 (0.19%) Kerberos
11 3 (0.14%) Network Security
12 2 (0.095%) 3G
12 2 (0.095%) 4G
12 2 (0.095%) AMQP
12 2 (0.095%) Extranet
12 2 (0.095%) LTE
12 2 (0.095%) Reverse Proxy
12 2 (0.095%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 313 (14.87%) SQL Server
2 140 (6.65%) MySQL
3 94 (4.47%) NoSQL
4 89 (4.23%) Relational Database
5 73 (3.47%) PostgreSQL
6 70 (3.33%) MongoDB
7 50 (2.38%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 38 (1.81%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 26 (1.24%) Big Data
10 20 (0.95%) Redis
11 17 (0.81%) Oracle Database
12 14 (0.67%) SQL Server 2008
13 13 (0.62%) Apache Cassandra
13 13 (0.62%) Cosmos DB
13 13 (0.62%) Data Warehouse
13 13 (0.62%) RDBMS
14 12 (0.57%) Azure SQL Database
15 11 (0.52%) GIS
16 10 (0.48%) Power BI
17 9 (0.43%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 499 (23.71%) Git (software)
2 152 (7.22%) Jenkins
3 128 (6.08%) gulp
4 111 (5.27%) Grunt
5 109 (5.18%) webpack
6 101 (4.80%) JIRA
7 79 (3.75%) Jasmine
8 76 (3.61%) Subversion
9 72 (3.42%) Selenium
9 72 (3.42%) Visual Studio
10 51 (2.42%) Team Foundation Server
11 50 (2.38%) Mocha
12 47 (2.23%) Maven
13 46 (2.19%) git-flow
14 45 (2.14%) JUnit
15 39 (1.85%) Cucumber
16 32 (1.52%) Cypress.io
16 32 (1.52%) Postman
17 27 (1.28%) Axure RP
17 27 (1.28%) SoapUI
General
1 269 (12.78%) Finance
2 151 (7.17%) Public Sector
3 116 (5.51%) Banking
4 65 (3.09%) Marketing
5 45 (2.14%) Retail
6 41 (1.95%) Investment Banking
7 31 (1.47%) Front Office
7 31 (1.47%) Games
7 31 (1.47%) Law
8 28 (1.33%) Publishing
9 16 (0.76%) Telecoms
10 9 (0.43%) Financial Institution
10 9 (0.43%) Legal
10 9 (0.43%) Retail Banking
11 8 (0.38%) Automotive
12 7 (0.33%) Local Government
12 7 (0.33%) Pharmaceutical
13 6 (0.29%) Back Office
14 5 (0.24%) French Language
14 5 (0.24%) Manufacturing
Job Titles
1 1,607 (76.34%) Developer
2 427 (20.29%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 254 (12.07%) React Developer
4 218 (10.36%) Full Stack Developer
5 202 (9.60%) JavaScript Developer
6 176 (8.36%) .NET Developer
7 174 (8.27%) Designer
8 139 (6.60%) Angular Developer
9 132 (6.27%) Senior Developer
10 115 (5.46%) C# Developer
11 113 (5.37%) UI Developer
12 112 (5.32%) Java Developer
13 97 (4.61%) HTML Developer
14 86 (4.09%) Web Developer
15 67 (3.18%) PHP Developer
16 66 (3.14%) UX Designer
17 65 (3.09%) C# .NET Developer
18 60 (2.85%) HTML CSS Developer
19 58 (2.76%) Software Engineer
20 53 (2.52%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,851 (87.93%) HTML
2 623 (29.60%) HTML5
3 596 (28.31%) React
4 583 (27.70%) AngularJS
5 451 (21.43%) Node.js
6 442 (21.00%) .NET
7 410 (19.48%) CSS3
8 349 (16.58%) jQuery
9 323 (15.34%) Sass
10 234 (11.12%) Web Services
11 227 (10.78%) Redux
12 220 (10.45%) REST
13 215 (10.21%) ASP.NET
14 197 (9.36%) RESTful
15 184 (8.74%) XML
16 167 (7.93%) JSON
16 167 (7.93%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 124 (5.89%) Spring
18 121 (5.75%) .NET Framework
19 117 (5.56%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 448 (21.28%) User Experience
2 101 (4.80%) Mobile App
3 96 (4.56%) Analytical Skills
4 85 (4.04%) Greenfield Project
5 42 (2.00%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 41 (1.95%) Data Structures
7 33 (1.57%) Enterprise Software
8 31 (1.47%) Self-Motivation
9 27 (1.28%) W3C
10 26 (1.24%) Algorithms
10 26 (1.24%) Virtual Team
11 23 (1.09%) Cloud Native
12 21 (1.00%) Public Cloud
13 17 (0.81%) Management Information System
14 14 (0.67%) Client/Server
15 13 (0.62%) Blog
15 13 (0.62%) Fixed Income
16 12 (0.57%) Mobile Payment
16 12 (0.57%) Reinsurance
17 11 (0.52%) Derivative
Operating Systems
1 138 (6.56%) Linux
2 60 (2.85%) Windows
3 51 (2.42%) Android
4 48 (2.28%) Unix
5 37 (1.76%) Apple iOS
6 28 (1.33%) Mac OS X
7 10 (0.48%) Windows Server
8 7 (0.33%) CentOS
8 7 (0.33%) Mac OS
9 3 (0.14%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 3 (0.14%) VMS
9 3 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
9 3 (0.14%) Windows Server 2016
10 2 (0.095%) tvOS
10 2 (0.095%) Windows 10
10 2 (0.095%) Windows 7
11 1 (0.048%) Debian
11 1 (0.048%) Kali Linux
11 1 (0.048%) Solaris
11 1 (0.048%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 928 (44.09%) Agile Software Development
2 582 (27.65%) Front End Development
3 328 (15.58%) TDD
4 297 (14.11%) Web Development
5 278 (13.21%) DevOps
6 264 (12.54%) Scrum
7 257 (12.21%) Test Automation
8 255 (12.11%) MVC
9 197 (9.36%) Microservices
10 186 (8.84%) OO
11 181 (8.60%) Continuous Integration
12 162 (7.70%) Unit Testing
13 161 (7.65%) Problem-Solving
14 155 (7.36%) Software Engineering
15 145 (6.89%) SDLC
16 137 (6.51%) E-Commerce
17 133 (6.32%) BDD
18 129 (6.13%) Responsive Web Design
19 119 (5.65%) Open Source
19 119 (5.65%) Web Design
Programming Languages
1 1,662 (78.95%) JavaScript
2 432 (20.52%) C#
3 396 (18.81%) Java
4 394 (18.72%) SQL
5 283 (13.44%) TypeScript
6 177 (8.41%) PHP
7 150 (7.13%) ES6
8 136 (6.46%) Python
9 80 (3.80%) T-SQL
10 53 (2.52%) PL/SQL
11 48 (2.28%) Java 8
12 45 (2.14%) Ruby
13 35 (1.66%) PowerShell
14 34 (1.62%) Scala
15 30 (1.43%) Kotlin
16 29 (1.38%) C
17 21 (1.00%) Bash Shell
17 21 (1.00%) PHP 7
17 21 (1.00%) VB.NET
17 21 (1.00%) VBA
Qualifications
1 188 (8.93%) Security Cleared
2 169 (8.03%) Degree
3 136 (6.46%) SC Cleared
4 66 (3.14%) Computer Science Degree
5 28 (1.33%) BPSS Clearance
6 25 (1.19%) DBS Check
7 21 (1.00%) DV Cleared
8 12 (0.57%) Microsoft Certification
9 6 (0.29%) MCAD
9 6 (0.29%) MCITP
9 6 (0.29%) MCPD
10 5 (0.24%) Master's Degree
11 4 (0.19%) CTC Cleared
11 4 (0.19%) MCSD
12 3 (0.14%) ISTQB
12 3 (0.14%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 2 (0.095%) BC Cleared
13 2 (0.095%) HND
13 2 (0.095%) Numerate Degree
13 2 (0.095%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 104 (4.94%) WCAG
2 60 (2.85%) QA
3 13 (0.62%) GDPR
4 12 (0.57%) WAI
5 4 (0.19%) Government Security Classifications
5 4 (0.19%) SLA
6 3 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
7 2 (0.095%) Data Quality
7 2 (0.095%) HL7
7 2 (0.095%) ISO 20022
7 2 (0.095%) PCI DSS
7 2 (0.095%) PMO
8 1 (0.048%) Actionable Recommendations
System Software
1 143 (6.79%) Docker
2 20 (0.95%) Active Directory
3 7 (0.33%) Virtual Machines
4 2 (0.095%) VMware Infrastructure
5 1 (0.048%) Apache Flume
5 1 (0.048%) Hyper-V
5 1 (0.048%) ISA Server
5 1 (0.048%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 109 (5.18%) Kubernetes
2 69 (3.28%) Terraform
3 24 (1.14%) Ansible
4 19 (0.90%) Opscode Chef
5 15 (0.71%) Kibana
6 9 (0.43%) Puppet
7 6 (0.29%) Grafana
8 5 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
8 5 (0.24%) Tivoli
8 5 (0.24%) Tivoli Storage Manager
9 3 (0.14%) Consul
9 3 (0.14%) MIIS
9 3 (0.14%) Packer
10 2 (0.095%) Istio
10 2 (0.095%) logstash
10 2 (0.095%) OpenNebula
11 1 (0.048%) Docker Swarm
11 1 (0.048%) Plesk
11 1 (0.048%) Prometheus
11 1 (0.048%) Rancher
Vendors
1 165 (7.84%) Microsoft
2 136 (6.46%) Oracle
3 83 (3.94%) Adobe
4 77 (3.66%) Google
5 51 (2.42%) Salesforce.com
6 31 (1.47%) SAP
7 20 (0.95%) hybris
8 17 (0.81%) IBM
8 17 (0.81%) Sitecore
9 16 (0.76%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
10 12 (0.57%) Xamarin
10 12 (0.57%) Zend
11 11 (0.52%) Red Hat
12 10 (0.48%) Atlassian
12 10 (0.48%) Demandware
12 10 (0.48%) IFS
12 10 (0.48%) Splunk
13 9 (0.43%) Cognos
14 7 (0.33%) MuleSoft
14 7 (0.33%) Twitter