Period
to 18 October 2017

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 18 October 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
18 Oct 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 13 14 20
Rank change year-on-year +1 +6 -1
Contract jobs citing CSS 8124 8999 8486
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 8.18% 8.45% 7.50%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.55% 28.12% 26.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 5897 6483 6131
UK median daily rate £413 £400 £365
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.13% +9.59% +1.39%
10th Percentile £285 £263 £248
90th Percentile £575 £550 £525
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £364 £338
% change year-on-year +3.09% +7.78% +3.85%
Number of hourly rates quoted 64 81 156
UK median hourly rate £41.25 £36.00 £31.47
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.58% +14.39% -10.09%
10th Percentile £14.65 £15.00 £11.00
90th Percentile £48.75 £52.50 £45.13
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £29.00 £32.54
% change year-on-year +46.55% -10.88% -5.68%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 31792 32007 31625
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 31.99% 30.04% 27.94%
Number of daily rates quoted 22290 22285 21568
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% -
10th Percentile £313 £297 £275
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £388 £375
% change year-on-year +3.23% +3.33% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 370 374 527
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £37.25 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +7.38% -0.67% +8.70%
10th Percentile £18.45 £13.50 £14.25
90th Percentile £52.50 £51.35 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.40 £36.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year +12.23% -4.00% +10.29%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 18 October 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 18 October 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 18 October 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 7504 £425 +6.25% 2127
UK excluding London +8 4197 £375 +3.09% 1470
London -5 3810 £450 +5.88% 738
South East +3 1239 £400 +10.34% 349
North of England +10 996 £375 -1.32% 428
Midlands +4 705 £350 - 300
North West +9 514 £363 -3.33% 232
South West -4 410 £350 +1.45% 161
Yorkshire 0 381 £385 -3.75% 169
West Midlands -1 380 £360 +2.86% 143
Scotland +18 356 £375 - 55
East Midlands +4 322 £350 -5.41% 157
East of England +6 319 £365 +4.29% 148
Wales +3 113 £394 -1.56% 22
North East +26 97 £425 -2.86% 27
Northern Ireland +6 77 £413 +3.13% 7

For the 6 months to 18 October 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7515 (92.50%) HTML
2 6467 (79.60%) JavaScript
3 3633 (44.72%) Agile Software Development
4 3373 (41.52%) HTML5
5 2887 (35.54%) AngularJS
6 2677 (32.95%) CSS3
7 2231 (27.46%) Front End Development
8 2166 (26.66%) jQuery
9 1948 (23.98%) Git (software)
10 1829 (22.51%) TDD
11 1737 (21.38%) Java
12 1736 (21.37%) .NET
13 1730 (21.29%) React
14 1677 (20.64%) C#
15 1662 (20.46%) MVC
16 1616 (19.89%) Node.js
17 1459 (17.96%) Web Development
18 1414 (17.41%) User Experience
19 1287 (15.84%) Sass
20 1245 (15.32%) SQL
21 1180 (14.52%) Scrum
22 1149 (14.14%) Web Services
23 1108 (13.64%) Finance
24 1013 (12.47%) SQL Server
25 1006 (12.38%) ASP.NET
26 935 (11.51%) REST
27 900 (11.08%) PHP
28 898 (11.05%) Twitter Bootstrap
29 876 (10.78%) OO
30 872 (10.73%) JSON

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 520 (6.40%) CMS
2 279 (3.43%) Drupal
3 238 (2.93%) SharePoint
4 226 (2.78%) Apache
5 215 (2.65%) WordPress
6 214 (2.63%) Confluence
7 145 (1.78%) WebSphere
8 144 (1.77%) Elasticsearch
9 142 (1.75%) IIS
10 136 (1.67%) Tomcat
11 121 (1.49%) WebLogic
12 119 (1.46%) JBoss
13 109 (1.34%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 101 (1.24%) Umbraco
15 83 (1.02%) Sitecore CMS
16 81 (1.00%) nginx
17 69 (0.85%) SharePoint 2013
18 67 (0.82%) Apache Solr
19 62 (0.76%) SharePoint 2010
20 49 (0.60%) EPiServer
Applications
1 328 (4.04%) Photoshop
2 166 (2.04%) Adobe Illustrator
3 164 (2.02%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 64 (0.79%) InVision
5 58 (0.71%) OmniGraffle
6 47 (0.58%) Microsoft Excel
7 40 (0.49%) MS Visio
8 32 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
9 21 (0.26%) Adobe After Effects
10 20 (0.25%) InDesign
11 13 (0.16%) Adobe Premiere
12 12 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 11 (0.14%) UXPin
14 10 (0.12%) InfoPath
15 9 (0.11%) Fireworks
15 9 (0.11%) GIMP
16 5 (0.062%) ImageReady
16 5 (0.062%) Microsoft Project
17 3 (0.037%) Acrobat
17 3 (0.037%) LaTeX
Business Applications
1 158 (1.94%) Magento
2 69 (0.85%) Dynamics CRM
3 23 (0.28%) SAP Hybris
4 19 (0.23%) Adobe Campaign
5 17 (0.21%) Payment Gateway
6 12 (0.15%) Eloqua
7 11 (0.14%) SDL Web 8
8 9 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 8 (0.098%) KANA IQ
10 7 (0.086%) Shopify
10 7 (0.086%) WebTrends
11 6 (0.074%) Dynamics AX
12 5 (0.062%) Dynamics NAV
12 5 (0.062%) Oracle BPM
12 5 (0.062%) Pega PRPC
13 4 (0.049%) RMDS
14 3 (0.037%) Social Studio
14 3 (0.037%) Unica
15 2 (0.025%) Cognos Business Intelligence
15 2 (0.025%) Endur
Cloud Services
1 476 (5.86%) Amazon AWS
2 359 (4.42%) Microsoft Azure
3 264 (3.25%) npm
4 184 (2.26%) GitHub
5 114 (1.40%) SaaS
6 95 (1.17%) Serverless
7 77 (0.95%) PaaS
8 68 (0.84%) Office 365
9 64 (0.79%) Google Analytics
10 36 (0.44%) Cloud Computing
11 34 (0.42%) IaaS
12 33 (0.41%) Amazon EC2
13 32 (0.39%) AWS Lambda
14 30 (0.37%) Adobe Creative Cloud
15 23 (0.28%) Heroku
16 22 (0.27%) Amazon S3
17 18 (0.22%) Google Cloud Platform
17 18 (0.22%) Salesforce Service Cloud
18 17 (0.21%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
19 16 (0.20%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 232 (2.86%) HTTP
2 131 (1.61%) Internet
3 55 (0.68%) SMS
4 42 (0.52%) TCP/IP
5 38 (0.47%) Intranet
6 35 (0.43%) SSL
7 33 (0.41%) DNS
8 24 (0.30%) Firewall
9 21 (0.26%) LDAP
10 17 (0.21%) FTP
11 10 (0.12%) Skype
12 8 (0.098%) Reverse Proxy
12 8 (0.098%) WebEx
13 7 (0.086%) Ethernet
13 7 (0.086%) HTTPS
14 6 (0.074%) ATM
14 6 (0.074%) CTI
14 6 (0.074%) Tactical Data Link
14 6 (0.074%) Wireshark
15 5 (0.062%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1013 (12.47%) SQL Server
2 718 (8.84%) MySQL
3 433 (5.33%) MongoDB
4 416 (5.12%) Relational Database
5 323 (3.98%) NoSQL
6 182 (2.24%) PostgreSQL
7 125 (1.54%) SQL Server 2012
8 115 (1.42%) Big Data
9 103 (1.27%) RDBMS
10 101 (1.24%) SQL Server 2008
11 86 (1.06%) Oracle Database
12 67 (0.82%) Apache Cassandra
13 66 (0.81%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 60 (0.74%) DB2
15 57 (0.70%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 54 (0.66%) SQL Server 2005
17 49 (0.60%) Hadoop
18 34 (0.42%) Redis
18 34 (0.42%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 33 (0.41%) SQL Server 2014
Development Applications
1 1948 (23.98%) Git (software)
2 624 (7.68%) gulp
3 598 (7.36%) Jenkins
4 586 (7.21%) Grunt
5 434 (5.34%) JIRA
6 403 (4.96%) Jasmine
7 390 (4.80%) Subversion
8 322 (3.96%) webpack
9 317 (3.90%) Selenium
10 296 (3.64%) Visual Studio
11 244 (3.00%) JUnit
12 242 (2.98%) Team Foundation Server
13 225 (2.77%) Maven
14 223 (2.74%) Karma Test Runner
15 201 (2.47%) Mocha
16 178 (2.19%) Cucumber
17 175 (2.15%) Axure RP
18 158 (1.94%) IntelliJ
19 135 (1.66%) Bower
20 125 (1.54%) NUnit
General
1 1108 (13.64%) Finance
2 496 (6.11%) Banking
3 402 (4.95%) Marketing
4 297 (3.66%) Retail
5 152 (1.87%) Telecoms
6 135 (1.66%) Front Office
7 118 (1.45%) Games
7 118 (1.45%) Investment Banking
8 102 (1.26%) Advertising
9 96 (1.18%) Publishing
10 86 (1.06%) Manufacturing
11 66 (0.81%) Electronics
12 47 (0.58%) Automotive
13 42 (0.52%) Financial Institution
14 35 (0.43%) Law
15 22 (0.27%) Legal
16 18 (0.22%) Back Office
17 17 (0.21%) Retail Banking
18 15 (0.18%) Pharmaceutical
19 11 (0.14%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 6772 (83.36%) Developer
2 1722 (21.20%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1387 (17.07%) JavaScript Developer
4 801 (9.86%) .NET Developer
5 789 (9.71%) Java Developer
6 729 (8.97%) Angular Developer
6 729 (8.97%) HTML Developer
7 608 (7.48%) Senior Developer
8 566 (6.97%) Full Stack Developer
9 541 (6.66%) HTML CSS Developer
10 518 (6.38%) C# Developer
11 509 (6.27%) Designer
12 503 (6.19%) UI Developer
13 499 (6.14%) Web Developer
14 382 (4.70%) PHP Developer
15 349 (4.30%) C# .NET Developer
16 316 (3.89%) UX Designer
17 292 (3.59%) Node.js Developer
18 207 (2.55%) ASP.NET Developer
19 202 (2.49%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7515 (92.50%) HTML
2 3373 (41.52%) HTML5
3 2887 (35.54%) AngularJS
4 2677 (32.95%) CSS3
5 2166 (26.66%) jQuery
6 1736 (21.37%) .NET
7 1730 (21.29%) React
8 1616 (19.89%) Node.js
9 1287 (15.84%) Sass
10 1149 (14.14%) Web Services
11 1006 (12.38%) ASP.NET
12 935 (11.51%) REST
13 898 (11.05%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 872 (10.73%) JSON
15 855 (10.52%) RESTful
16 846 (10.41%) XML
17 845 (10.40%) Ajax
18 643 (7.91%) Spring
19 567 (6.98%) LESS
20 478 (5.88%) ASP.NET MVC
Miscellaneous
1 1414 (17.41%) User Experience
2 413 (5.08%) Greenfield Project
3 378 (4.65%) Mobile App
4 249 (3.06%) Analytical Skills
5 180 (2.22%) Computer Science
6 137 (1.69%) Fintech
7 96 (1.18%) Enterprise Software
8 89 (1.10%) W3C
9 83 (1.02%) Virtual Team
10 61 (0.75%) Linux Command Line
11 59 (0.73%) Social Media
12 56 (0.69%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 53 (0.65%) Graphic Design
14 52 (0.64%) Management Information System
15 51 (0.63%) Data Structures
16 46 (0.57%) Derivative
16 46 (0.57%) N-Tier
17 42 (0.52%) NHS
18 40 (0.49%) iPad
19 38 (0.47%) Algorithms
Operating Systems
1 735 (9.05%) Linux
2 297 (3.66%) Windows
3 278 (3.42%) Unix
4 163 (2.01%) Android
5 143 (1.76%) Apple iOS
6 63 (0.78%) Windows Server
7 55 (0.68%) Mac OS X
8 46 (0.57%) Mac OS
9 19 (0.23%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 17 (0.21%) Ubuntu
11 16 (0.20%) Windows Server 2003
12 15 (0.18%) Windows Server 2008
13 14 (0.17%) Windows 10
14 9 (0.11%) Oracle Linux
14 9 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
15 8 (0.098%) Debian
15 8 (0.098%) Solaris
16 7 (0.086%) CentOS
16 7 (0.086%) Windows 2000
17 4 (0.049%) SUSE
Processes & Methodologies
1 3633 (44.72%) Agile Software Development
2 2231 (27.46%) Front End Development
3 1829 (22.51%) TDD
4 1662 (20.46%) MVC
5 1459 (17.96%) Web Development
6 1180 (14.52%) Scrum
7 876 (10.78%) OO
8 842 (10.36%) Test Automation
9 816 (10.04%) Continuous Integration
10 761 (9.37%) Responsive Web Design
11 688 (8.47%) BDD
12 596 (7.34%) E-Commerce
13 515 (6.34%) Unit Testing
14 471 (5.80%) Web Design
15 436 (5.37%) Software Engineering
16 422 (5.19%) Open Source
17 401 (4.94%) Microservices
18 376 (4.63%) DevOps
19 375 (4.62%) Wireframes
20 367 (4.52%) Prototyping
Programming Languages
1 6467 (79.60%) JavaScript
2 1737 (21.38%) Java
3 1677 (20.64%) C#
4 1245 (15.32%) SQL
5 900 (11.08%) PHP
6 553 (6.81%) Python
7 548 (6.75%) ES6
8 482 (5.93%) TypeScript
9 359 (4.42%) Scala
10 308 (3.79%) Ruby
11 217 (2.67%) T-SQL
12 127 (1.56%) VB.NET
13 100 (1.23%) C++
14 94 (1.16%) Groovy
15 86 (1.06%) PL/SQL
16 79 (0.97%) ECMAScript
17 75 (0.92%) PowerShell
18 65 (0.80%) Bash Shell
19 61 (0.75%) Perl
20 60 (0.74%) C
Qualifications
1 389 (4.79%) Degree
2 244 (3.00%) Security Cleared
3 167 (2.06%) SC Cleared
4 105 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
5 37 (0.46%) BPSS Clearance
6 26 (0.32%) Microsoft Certification
7 14 (0.17%) DV Cleared
8 12 (0.15%) CTC Cleared
8 12 (0.15%) ISTQB
9 9 (0.11%) BC Cleared
9 9 (0.11%) Master's Degree
10 7 (0.086%) MCSE
10 7 (0.086%) OCPJP
11 6 (0.074%) DBS Check
12 5 (0.062%) ITIL Certification
12 5 (0.062%) MCSD
13 4 (0.049%) HND
13 4 (0.049%) MCPD
13 4 (0.049%) MCTS
14 3 (0.037%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 248 (3.05%) QA
2 49 (0.60%) WCAG
3 33 (0.41%) Disclosure Scotland
4 32 (0.39%) WAI
5 19 (0.23%) SLA
6 12 (0.15%) HL7
7 9 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 5 (0.062%) COBIT
9 4 (0.049%) PCI DSS
9 4 (0.049%) PMO
10 3 (0.037%) Data Quality
10 3 (0.037%) FedRAMP
10 3 (0.037%) GDPR
11 2 (0.025%) FATCA
11 2 (0.025%) RosettaNet
11 2 (0.025%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 1 (0.012%) ISO 9001
12 1 (0.012%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 1 (0.012%) Solvency II
System Software
1 409 (5.03%) Docker
2 34 (0.42%) Active Directory
3 11 (0.14%) VirtualBox
4 10 (0.12%) Virtual Machines
5 9 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
6 6 (0.074%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 6 (0.074%) LXC
6 6 (0.074%) Varnish
7 5 (0.062%) ISA Server
7 5 (0.062%) UAG
8 3 (0.037%) Apache Flume
8 3 (0.037%) Virtual Desktop
9 2 (0.025%) HDFS
9 2 (0.025%) Oracle RAC
9 2 (0.025%) VMware ESXi
10 1 (0.012%) Hyper-V
10 1 (0.012%) KVM
10 1 (0.012%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
10 1 (0.012%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 143 (1.76%) Puppet
2 69 (0.85%) Kubernetes
3 66 (0.81%) Ansible
4 57 (0.70%) Opscode Chef
5 24 (0.30%) Terraform
6 19 (0.23%) Kibana
7 18 (0.22%) Business Desktop Deployment
8 15 (0.18%) Sysdig
9 14 (0.17%) Grafana
10 8 (0.098%) Nagios
11 7 (0.086%) Mesos
12 6 (0.074%) Rancher
12 6 (0.074%) ZABBIX
13 4 (0.049%) Docker Swarm
13 4 (0.049%) Graphite
13 4 (0.049%) Icinga
13 4 (0.049%) Salt
14 3 (0.037%) cPanel
14 3 (0.037%) logstash
14 3 (0.037%) Symantec Endpoint Protection
Vendors
1 546 (6.72%) Microsoft
2 480 (5.91%) Oracle
3 458 (5.64%) Adobe
4 233 (2.87%) Google
5 131 (1.61%) Sitecore
6 112 (1.38%) ServiceNow
7 108 (1.33%) SAP
8 83 (1.02%) Salesforce.com
9 82 (1.01%) Zend
10 66 (0.81%) hybris
11 59 (0.73%) IBM
12 51 (0.63%) New Relic
13 47 (0.58%) Twitter
14 46 (0.57%) Demandware
15 42 (0.52%) Xamarin
16 38 (0.47%) Nintex
17 37 (0.46%) Telerik
18 29 (0.36%) Atlassian
19 27 (0.33%) ATG
19 27 (0.33%) VMware