Period
to 17 January 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 January 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
17 Jan 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 23 19 13
Rank change year-on-year -4 -6 +7
Contract jobs citing CSS 7,122 7,549 8,276
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.16% 7.53% 8.50%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 20.96% 23.45% 27.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,101 5,573 5,800
UK median daily rate £438 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% +6.67%
10th Percentile £311 £288 £275
90th Percentile £575 £575 £563
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £375
% change year-on-year +6.67% - +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 55 50 73
UK median hourly rate £36.23 £43.75 £32.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -17.20% +34.62% +1.56%
10th Percentile £13.50 £14.43 £15.28
90th Percentile £57.80 £48.88 £49.35
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £45.00 £31.23
% change year-on-year -8.89% +44.12% -4.66%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 33,987 32,198 30,541
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 34.19% 32.10% 31.37%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,915 22,953 21,051
UK median daily rate £475 £460 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.26% +8.24% +3.03%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £638 £625 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £393
% change year-on-year +6.25% +1.91% +4.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 292 333 346
UK median hourly rate £41.50 £40.00 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.75% - +6.67%
10th Percentile £19.00 £18.50 £14.87
90th Percentile £60.00 £52.50 £52.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.53 £40.00 £38.00
% change year-on-year +3.83% +5.26% +1.33%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 17 January 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 17 January 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 17 January 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -5 6,545 £450 +5.88% 3,746
UK excluding London -9 3,727 £400 +6.67% 2,835
London -5 3,273 £480 +3.23% 1,127
South East -1 1,196 £425 +6.25% 682
North of England -9 870 £375 - 826
Midlands -2 567 £400 +14.29% 517
South West -12 428 £400 +14.29% 360
North West -8 387 £383 +5.52% 465
Yorkshire -4 376 £375 -1.32% 295
West Midlands -9 346 £400 +10.34% 291
Scotland +5 330 £400 +6.67% 108
East Midlands +2 212 £375 +10.29% 225
East of England -15 195 £388 +3.33% 236
Wales -4 122 £416 -2.06% 89
North East +2 108 £400 -5.88% 66
Northern Ireland +5 30 £412 -1.90% 19
Isle of Man -2 1 - -

For the 6 months to 17 January 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,452 (90.59%) HTML
2 5,680 (79.75%) JavaScript
3 3,324 (46.67%) Agile Software Development
4 2,665 (37.42%) HTML5
5 2,614 (36.70%) AngularJS
6 2,032 (28.53%) Front End Development
7 1,919 (26.94%) React
8 1,917 (26.92%) CSS3
9 1,782 (25.02%) Git (software)
10 1,656 (23.25%) TDD
11 1,643 (23.07%) jQuery
12 1,602 (22.49%) .NET
13 1,548 (21.74%) Node.js
14 1,517 (21.30%) C#
15 1,492 (20.95%) Java
16 1,304 (18.31%) MVC
17 1,199 (16.84%) Sass
18 1,158 (16.26%) SQL
19 1,091 (15.32%) User Experience
20 1,026 (14.41%) Web Development
21 1,010 (14.18%) Test Automation
22 983 (13.80%) Scrum
23 965 (13.55%) SQL Server
24 937 (13.16%) REST
25 916 (12.86%) ASP.NET
26 890 (12.50%) Finance
27 860 (12.08%) Continuous Integration
28 839 (11.78%) BDD
29 776 (10.90%) PHP
30 774 (10.87%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 451 (6.33%) CMS
2 209 (2.93%) SharePoint
3 196 (2.75%) Confluence
4 180 (2.53%) WordPress
5 162 (2.27%) Drupal
6 159 (2.23%) Apache
7 117 (1.64%) Tomcat
8 105 (1.47%) Elasticsearch
9 103 (1.45%) WebSphere
10 90 (1.26%) WebLogic
11 89 (1.25%) JBoss
12 75 (1.05%) nginx
13 71 (1.00%) IIS
13 71 (1.00%) Umbraco
14 70 (0.98%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 69 (0.97%) SharePoint 2013
16 50 (0.70%) Sitecore CMS
17 45 (0.63%) Cloud Foundry
18 30 (0.42%) SharePoint 2010
19 29 (0.41%) Gunicorn
Applications
1 209 (2.93%) Photoshop
2 84 (1.18%) InVision
3 69 (0.97%) Adobe Illustrator
4 43 (0.60%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 42 (0.59%) Microsoft Excel
6 31 (0.44%) InfoPath
7 28 (0.39%) Fireworks
8 23 (0.32%) Microsoft Office
9 18 (0.25%) InDesign
10 13 (0.18%) Adobe After Effects
11 12 (0.17%) OmniGraffle
12 6 (0.084%) Acrobat
12 6 (0.084%) GIMP
12 6 (0.084%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 5 (0.070%) Chatbot
13 5 (0.070%) UXPin
14 4 (0.056%) MS Visio
15 3 (0.042%) Pixate
16 2 (0.028%) Adobe Premiere
16 2 (0.028%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 116 (1.63%) Magento
2 84 (1.18%) Dynamics CRM
3 16 (0.22%) SAP Hybris
4 15 (0.21%) Shopify
5 13 (0.18%) Payment Gateway
6 10 (0.14%) Dynamics AX
7 8 (0.11%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 6 (0.084%) NetSuite
9 4 (0.056%) Adobe Campaign
10 3 (0.042%) Dynamics NAV
10 3 (0.042%) Eloqua
10 3 (0.042%) OpenCart
10 3 (0.042%) SAP ERP
10 3 (0.042%) SDL Web 8
11 2 (0.028%) nopCommerce
11 2 (0.028%) Oracle EBS
11 2 (0.028%) SAP PM
11 2 (0.028%) Scribe Insight
12 1 (0.014%) Northgate Housing
12 1 (0.014%) Remedy ITSM
Cloud Services
1 682 (9.58%) Microsoft Azure
2 595 (8.35%) Amazon AWS
3 304 (4.27%) GitHub
4 182 (2.56%) npm
5 171 (2.40%) Serverless
6 110 (1.54%) AWS Lambda
6 110 (1.54%) Google Analytics
7 98 (1.38%) Office 365
8 82 (1.15%) Google Cloud Platform
9 80 (1.12%) SaaS
10 61 (0.86%) PaaS
11 56 (0.79%) Heroku
12 42 (0.59%) Dynamics 365
13 38 (0.53%) BrowserStack
14 34 (0.48%) Adobe Creative Cloud
15 32 (0.45%) OpenShift
16 31 (0.44%) AWS CloudFormation
17 27 (0.38%) Amazon EC2
18 25 (0.35%) IaaS
19 23 (0.32%) Adobe Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 247 (3.47%) HTTP
2 106 (1.49%) Internet
3 97 (1.36%) SSL
4 96 (1.35%) TCP/IP
5 45 (0.63%) DNS
6 38 (0.53%) FTP
7 37 (0.52%) Intranet
8 25 (0.35%) Firewall
9 19 (0.27%) SSH
10 18 (0.25%) Skype
11 17 (0.24%) SMTP
12 14 (0.20%) LAN
12 14 (0.20%) SMS
13 11 (0.15%) BIG-IP
14 9 (0.13%) DHCP
15 8 (0.11%) BGP
15 8 (0.11%) Cisco ASA
15 8 (0.11%) IPsec
15 8 (0.11%) SNMP
16 7 (0.098%) IMAP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 965 (13.55%) SQL Server
2 699 (9.81%) MySQL
3 419 (5.88%) Relational Database
4 375 (5.27%) MongoDB
5 355 (4.98%) NoSQL
6 282 (3.96%) PostgreSQL
7 136 (1.91%) RDBMS
8 94 (1.32%) Apache Cassandra
9 85 (1.19%) Redis
10 60 (0.84%) Big Data
11 58 (0.81%) Oracle Database
12 55 (0.77%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 51 (0.72%) DB2
14 45 (0.63%) Couchbase
14 45 (0.63%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 36 (0.51%) Power BI
16 35 (0.49%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 34 (0.48%) SQL Server 2012
18 33 (0.46%) SQL Server 2008
19 31 (0.44%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 1,782 (25.02%) Git (software)
2 626 (8.79%) Jenkins
3 505 (7.09%) Selenium
4 457 (6.42%) gulp
5 455 (6.39%) JIRA
6 360 (5.05%) webpack
7 347 (4.87%) Jasmine
8 318 (4.47%) Grunt
9 313 (4.39%) Visual Studio
10 287 (4.03%) Cucumber
11 261 (3.66%) Subversion
12 252 (3.54%) JUnit
13 238 (3.34%) Mocha
14 237 (3.33%) Maven
15 219 (3.07%) Karma Test Runner
16 209 (2.93%) Team Foundation Server
17 169 (2.37%) Visual Studio Team System
18 164 (2.30%) Protractor
19 148 (2.08%) Eclipse
20 132 (1.85%) Gatling
General
1 890 (12.50%) Finance
2 317 (4.45%) Banking
3 287 (4.03%) Retail
4 241 (3.38%) Marketing
5 101 (1.42%) Telecoms
6 99 (1.39%) Games
7 91 (1.28%) Front Office
8 77 (1.08%) Advertising
9 76 (1.07%) Publishing
10 68 (0.95%) Investment Banking
11 63 (0.88%) Legal
12 50 (0.70%) Manufacturing
13 46 (0.65%) Back Office
14 41 (0.58%) Law
15 32 (0.45%) Electronics
16 20 (0.28%) Automotive
17 17 (0.24%) Financial Institution
18 14 (0.20%) Pharmaceutical
19 12 (0.17%) Multimedia
20 8 (0.11%) Billing
Job Titles
1 5,981 (83.98%) Developer
2 1,569 (22.03%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 923 (12.96%) JavaScript Developer
4 902 (12.66%) React Developer
5 758 (10.64%) .NET Developer
6 653 (9.17%) Full Stack Developer
7 631 (8.86%) Angular Developer
8 615 (8.64%) Java Developer
9 544 (7.64%) Senior Developer
10 441 (6.19%) C# Developer
11 368 (5.17%) HTML Developer
12 349 (4.90%) PHP Developer
13 319 (4.48%) Web Developer
14 296 (4.16%) Designer
15 291 (4.09%) HTML CSS Developer
16 282 (3.96%) UI Developer
17 266 (3.73%) C# .NET Developer
18 226 (3.17%) Node.js Developer
19 170 (2.39%) UX Designer
20 167 (2.34%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,452 (90.59%) HTML
2 2,665 (37.42%) HTML5
3 2,614 (36.70%) AngularJS
4 1,919 (26.94%) React
5 1,917 (26.92%) CSS3
6 1,643 (23.07%) jQuery
7 1,602 (22.49%) .NET
8 1,548 (21.74%) Node.js
9 1,199 (16.84%) Sass
10 937 (13.16%) REST
11 916 (12.86%) ASP.NET
12 774 (10.87%) Web Services
13 693 (9.73%) XML
14 679 (9.53%) Redux
15 676 (9.49%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 675 (9.48%) Spring
17 659 (9.25%) RESTful
18 571 (8.02%) JSON
19 493 (6.92%) ASP.NET Web API
20 464 (6.52%) Ajax
Miscellaneous
1 1,091 (15.32%) User Experience
2 381 (5.35%) Greenfield Project
3 314 (4.41%) Analytical Skills
4 261 (3.66%) Mobile App
5 248 (3.48%) Fintech
6 114 (1.60%) Self-Motivation
7 92 (1.29%) Enterprise Software
8 90 (1.26%) Algorithms
8 90 (1.26%) Data Structures
9 60 (0.84%) W3C
10 51 (0.72%) Linux Command Line
11 45 (0.63%) Social Media
12 42 (0.59%) Graphic Design
13 39 (0.55%) Fixed Income
14 34 (0.48%) iPad
15 31 (0.44%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 30 (0.42%) Digital Media
17 29 (0.41%) Hedge funds
17 29 (0.41%) Video on Demand
18 28 (0.39%) CMDB
Operating Systems
1 483 (6.78%) Linux
2 269 (3.78%) Windows
3 250 (3.51%) Unix
4 158 (2.22%) Apple iOS
5 153 (2.15%) Android
6 61 (0.86%) Ubuntu
7 48 (0.67%) Windows Server
8 38 (0.53%) Mac OS X
9 24 (0.34%) Windows Server 2012
10 23 (0.32%) Mac OS
11 21 (0.29%) VMS
11 21 (0.29%) Windows Server 2008
12 16 (0.22%) Windows Server 2003
13 13 (0.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 10 (0.14%) CentOS
15 8 (0.11%) Debian
15 8 (0.11%) Solaris
16 5 (0.070%) Windows 10
17 2 (0.028%) FreeBSD
17 2 (0.028%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,324 (46.67%) Agile Software Development
2 2,032 (28.53%) Front End Development
3 1,656 (23.25%) TDD
4 1,304 (18.31%) MVC
5 1,026 (14.41%) Web Development
6 1,010 (14.18%) Test Automation
7 983 (13.80%) Scrum
8 860 (12.08%) Continuous Integration
9 839 (11.78%) BDD
10 688 (9.66%) OO
11 681 (9.56%) Microservices
12 630 (8.85%) DevOps
13 556 (7.81%) Unit Testing
14 540 (7.58%) E-Commerce
15 511 (7.17%) Responsive Web Design
16 474 (6.66%) Software Engineering
17 450 (6.32%) Problem-Solving
18 338 (4.75%) Analytics
19 297 (4.17%) SDLC
20 283 (3.97%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 5,680 (79.75%) JavaScript
2 1,517 (21.30%) C#
3 1,492 (20.95%) Java
4 1,158 (16.26%) SQL
5 776 (10.90%) PHP
6 724 (10.17%) TypeScript
7 701 (9.84%) ES6
8 459 (6.44%) Python
9 256 (3.59%) Ruby
10 248 (3.48%) Java 8
11 214 (3.00%) Scala
12 181 (2.54%) T-SQL
13 121 (1.70%) Go
14 105 (1.47%) Groovy
15 96 (1.35%) PL/SQL
16 91 (1.28%) Perl
17 83 (1.17%) PowerShell
18 62 (0.87%) ES7
19 60 (0.84%) C++
20 56 (0.79%) C
Qualifications
1 354 (4.97%) Degree
2 285 (4.00%) Security Cleared
3 222 (3.12%) SC Cleared
4 102 (1.43%) Computer Science Degree
5 42 (0.59%) BPSS Clearance
6 26 (0.37%) Numerate Degree
7 17 (0.24%) Microsoft Certification
8 16 (0.22%) DBS Check
9 12 (0.17%) DV Cleared
10 11 (0.15%) MCSE
11 10 (0.14%) Master's Degree
12 9 (0.13%) ITIL Certification
13 7 (0.098%) APMP
13 7 (0.098%) CCNP
13 7 (0.098%) Cisco Certification
14 6 (0.084%) ISEB
14 6 (0.084%) Postgraduate
15 5 (0.070%) CISSP
15 5 (0.070%) SSCP
15 5 (0.070%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 278 (3.90%) QA
2 80 (1.12%) WCAG
3 21 (0.29%) WAI
4 18 (0.25%) Disclosure Scotland
5 11 (0.15%) Data Quality
6 9 (0.13%) GDPR
7 8 (0.11%) PMO
7 8 (0.11%) SLA
8 6 (0.084%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 5 (0.070%) GxP
10 3 (0.042%) Government Security Classifications
10 3 (0.042%) ISO 9001
10 3 (0.042%) Section 508
11 2 (0.028%) MiFID
11 2 (0.028%) PCI DSS
12 1 (0.014%) GMP
System Software
1 526 (7.39%) Docker
2 36 (0.51%) Active Directory
3 15 (0.21%) Virtual Machines
4 9 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
5 6 (0.084%) VirtualBox
6 5 (0.070%) Hyper-V
6 5 (0.070%) KVM
7 4 (0.056%) LXC
8 3 (0.042%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 3 (0.042%) Shibboleth
8 3 (0.042%) vCloud
9 1 (0.014%) Apache Flume
9 1 (0.014%) Gluster
9 1 (0.014%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
9 1 (0.014%) Varnish
9 1 (0.014%) Xen
Systems Management
1 140 (1.97%) Kubernetes
2 115 (1.61%) Puppet
3 104 (1.46%) Kibana
4 95 (1.33%) Ansible
5 75 (1.05%) Grafana
6 67 (0.94%) Terraform
7 52 (0.73%) Opscode Chef
8 26 (0.37%) logstash
9 25 (0.35%) Docker Swarm
10 23 (0.32%) Graphite
11 12 (0.17%) Single Sign-On
12 11 (0.15%) HockeyApp
13 8 (0.11%) SCCM
14 7 (0.098%) Capistrano
14 7 (0.098%) Cisco Prime
15 6 (0.084%) Packer
15 6 (0.084%) Prometheus
16 4 (0.056%) Consul
16 4 (0.056%) Control-M
16 4 (0.056%) Data Guard
Vendors
1 567 (7.96%) Microsoft
2 441 (6.19%) Oracle
3 292 (4.10%) Adobe
4 283 (3.97%) Google
5 89 (1.25%) ServiceNow
6 78 (1.10%) hybris
7 77 (1.08%) IBM
7 77 (1.08%) Sitecore
7 77 (1.08%) Splunk
8 72 (1.01%) SAP
9 58 (0.81%) Salesforce.com
10 55 (0.77%) Zend
11 41 (0.58%) Atlassian
12 39 (0.55%) Twitter
13 37 (0.52%) webMethods
14 36 (0.51%) Nintex
15 33 (0.46%) Xamarin
16 25 (0.35%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 23 (0.32%) Apple
18 21 (0.29%) Red Hat