Period
to 14 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
14 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 51 41 25
Rank change year-on-year -10 -16 -8
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,705 2,184 6,162
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.40% 5.03% 6.80%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.54% 16.50% 21.05%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,891 1,498 4,449
10th Percentile £306 £308 £313
25th Percentile £375 £363 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £450 £450 £450
75th Percentile £538 £531 £525
90th Percentile £600 £613 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £405 £410 £423
% change year-on-year -1.22% -2.96% +5.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 46 15 58
10th Percentile £22.10 £22.30 £13.50
25th Percentile £26.00 £30.63 £29.45
Median hourly rate £40.00 £45.00 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year -11.11% -10.00% +11.11%
75th Percentile £54.75 £52.50 £55.00
90th Percentile £57.00 £54.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £39.19 £47.50 £50.00
% change year-on-year -17.49% -5.00% +17.65%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 18,606 13,236 29,273
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.27% 30.46% 32.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,234 9,386 20,728
10th Percentile £350 £331 £331
25th Percentile £413 £413 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £490
Median % change year-on-year - +2.04% +4.26%
75th Percentile £600 £588 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 183 115 262
10th Percentile £22.10 £20.50 £16.11
25th Percentile £30.98 £31.25 £26.06
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £44.92
Median % change year-on-year -2.17% +2.42% +7.54%
75th Percentile £56.50 £56.75 £52.50
90th Percentile £66.00 £66.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year -2.17% +8.24% +6.25%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 14 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 2,116 £465 +3.33% 2,029
London -9 1,201 £500 - 570
UK excluding London -4 996 £405 -1.22% 1,581
Work from Home -20 873 £450 +12.50% 522
North of England +14 257 £388 -5.49% 507
South East -1 224 £425 - 326
Scotland -11 188 £420 +5.00% 84
North West +18 168 £375 -6.25% 267
Midlands -14 150 £375 -3.23% 305
South West -22 102 £430 +7.50% 184
West Midlands -21 82 £419 +4.69% 189
Yorkshire -6 71 £425 - 180
East Midlands +4 63 £345 -1.43% 116
East of England -26 45 £406 +1.56% 131
Wales 0 22 £375 -16.67% 33
North East +8 18 £434 -3.61% 60
Northern Ireland -9 8 £472 +4.20% 11

For the 6 months to 14 June 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,433 (89.94%) HTML
2 2,102 (77.71%) JavaScript
3 1,096 (40.52%) Agile Software Development
4 849 (31.39%) React
5 759 (28.06%) AngularJS
6 710 (26.25%) Front End Development
7 697 (25.77%) HTML5
8 614 (22.70%) Node.js
9 577 (21.33%) Git (software)
10 518 (19.15%) User Experience
11 514 (19.00%) TypeScript
12 499 (18.45%) Azure
13 482 (17.82%) CSS3
14 457 (16.89%) Java
15 446 (16.49%) TDD
16 440 (16.27%) SQL
17 431 (15.93%) .NET
18 426 (15.75%) Social Skills
19 425 (15.71%) jQuery
20 399 (14.75%) C#
21 378 (13.97%) DevOps
22 372 (13.75%) Sass
23 357 (13.20%) REST
24 346 (12.79%) Redux
25 328 (12.13%) AWS
26 311 (11.50%) Web Development
27 305 (11.28%) Accessibility
28 290 (10.72%) Web Services
29 289 (10.68%) MVC
29 289 (10.68%) Finance

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 147 (5.43%) CMS
2 86 (3.18%) SharePoint
3 80 (2.96%) WordPress
4 56 (2.07%) Apache
5 54 (2.00%) Confluence
6 47 (1.74%) Drupal
7 37 (1.37%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 37 (1.37%) IIS
8 24 (0.89%) Elasticsearch
8 24 (0.89%) Tomcat
9 23 (0.85%) Umbraco
10 19 (0.70%) JBoss
11 17 (0.63%) Headless CMS
11 17 (0.63%) WebLogic
12 14 (0.52%) Apache Solr
12 14 (0.52%) nginx
12 14 (0.52%) SharePoint 2010
13 12 (0.44%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 11 (0.41%) IBM Domino
14 11 (0.41%) Jadu
Applications
1 54 (2.00%) Sketch
2 46 (1.70%) Photoshop
3 34 (1.26%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 34 (1.26%) Figma
4 22 (0.81%) Adobe Illustrator
4 22 (0.81%) InVision
5 21 (0.78%) Adobe XD
6 16 (0.59%) Microsoft Office
7 15 (0.55%) Chatbot
7 15 (0.55%) InfoPath
8 13 (0.48%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 9 (0.33%) Adobe After Effects
10 8 (0.30%) Adobe Premiere
11 7 (0.26%) Microsoft Excel
12 6 (0.22%) InDesign
13 5 (0.18%) CINEMA 4D
14 4 (0.15%) OmniGraffle
14 4 (0.15%) Zeplin
15 2 (0.074%) UXPin
16 1 (0.037%) MadCap Flare
Business Applications
1 69 (2.55%) Magento
2 27 (1.00%) Shopify
3 15 (0.55%) Dynamics CRM
4 7 (0.26%) Adobe Campaign
5 4 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
6 3 (0.11%) Oracle ERP
6 3 (0.11%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 2 (0.074%) Dynamics NAV
8 1 (0.037%) Dynamics AX
8 1 (0.037%) Dynamics GP
8 1 (0.037%) Eloqua
8 1 (0.037%) Exchequer
8 1 (0.037%) Oracle Applications
8 1 (0.037%) SAP BPC
8 1 (0.037%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 1 (0.037%) Sentinel
8 1 (0.037%) Temenos T24
8 1 (0.037%) Tesseract
8 1 (0.037%) Toggl
Cloud Services
1 499 (18.45%) Azure
2 328 (12.13%) AWS
3 146 (5.40%) Serverless
4 120 (4.44%) GitHub
5 95 (3.51%) npm
6 93 (3.44%) AWS Lambda
7 72 (2.66%) Amazon S3
8 68 (2.51%) Microsoft 365
9 67 (2.48%) AWS CloudFormation
10 66 (2.44%) SaaS
11 62 (2.29%) PaaS
12 55 (2.03%) GCP
13 49 (1.81%) Power Platform
14 44 (1.63%) Google Analytics
15 35 (1.29%) Azure Service Bus
16 29 (1.07%) Heroku
17 27 (1.00%) Azure Functions
18 25 (0.92%) Azure Active Directory
19 24 (0.89%) PowerApps
20 22 (0.81%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 54 (2.00%) HTTP
2 41 (1.52%) Internet
3 20 (0.74%) SSL
4 17 (0.63%) DNS
5 13 (0.48%) VPN
6 12 (0.44%) Intranet
7 11 (0.41%) HTTPS
8 9 (0.33%) TCP/IP
9 5 (0.18%) RTMP
10 4 (0.15%) DHCP
11 3 (0.11%) IPFS
12 2 (0.074%) AMQP
12 2 (0.074%) Broadband
12 2 (0.074%) Firewall
12 2 (0.074%) UPnP
12 2 (0.074%) ZigBee
13 1 (0.037%) CTI
13 1 (0.037%) Extranet
13 1 (0.037%) Wi-Fi
13 1 (0.037%) X.500
Database & Business Intelligence
1 225 (8.32%) SQL Server
2 167 (6.17%) MySQL
3 134 (4.95%) MongoDB
4 108 (3.99%) PostgreSQL
5 106 (3.92%) NoSQL
6 81 (2.99%) Relational Database
7 36 (1.33%) Redis
8 34 (1.26%) Oracle Database
9 31 (1.15%) Amazon Aurora
10 29 (1.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 28 (1.04%) Azure SQL Database
11 28 (1.04%) Power BI
12 18 (0.67%) Tableau
13 17 (0.63%) Big Data
13 17 (0.63%) Oracle Reports
14 16 (0.59%) SQL Server 2016
15 15 (0.55%) Apache Cassandra
16 14 (0.52%) RDBMS
17 12 (0.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 12 (0.44%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 577 (21.33%) Git (software)
2 219 (8.10%) Jenkins
3 198 (7.32%) webpack
4 194 (7.17%) JIRA
5 98 (3.62%) Jasmine
6 97 (3.59%) Maven
7 87 (3.22%) Cypress.io
8 81 (2.99%) gulp
9 64 (2.37%) Selenium
10 62 (2.29%) Mocha
11 58 (2.14%) JUnit
12 57 (2.11%) Grunt
12 57 (2.11%) Visual Studio
13 51 (1.89%) Karma Test Runner
14 49 (1.81%) SonarQube
15 47 (1.74%) Team Foundation Server
16 44 (1.63%) Bitbucket
17 42 (1.55%) Cucumber
18 37 (1.37%) Subversion
19 32 (1.18%) TeamCity
General
1 426 (15.75%) Social Skills
2 289 (10.68%) Finance
3 162 (5.99%) Analytical Skills
4 153 (5.66%) Public Sector
5 141 (5.21%) Marketing
6 129 (4.77%) Banking
7 84 (3.11%) Retail
8 47 (1.74%) Law
9 44 (1.63%) Telecoms
10 38 (1.40%) Presentation Skills
11 32 (1.18%) Games
12 29 (1.07%) Publishing
13 27 (1.00%) Front Office
13 27 (1.00%) Investment Banking
14 25 (0.92%) Influencing Skills
15 22 (0.81%) Manufacturing
16 18 (0.67%) Organisational Skills
17 17 (0.63%) Retail Banking
18 16 (0.59%) Legal
19 15 (0.55%) Advertising
Job Titles
1 2,063 (76.27%) Developer
2 510 (18.85%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 371 (13.72%) React Developer
4 288 (10.65%) Full Stack Developer
5 253 (9.35%) Senior Developer
6 215 (7.95%) JavaScript Developer
7 177 (6.54%) .NET Developer
8 168 (6.21%) Angular Developer
9 161 (5.95%) Designer
10 129 (4.77%) Java Developer
11 109 (4.03%) UI Developer
12 102 (3.77%) PHP Developer
13 100 (3.70%) HTML Developer
14 83 (3.07%) Web Developer
15 82 (3.03%) C# Developer
16 79 (2.92%) HTML CSS Developer
17 71 (2.62%) UX Designer
18 69 (2.55%) Lead Developer
19 67 (2.48%) Software Developer
20 66 (2.44%) Node.js Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,433 (89.94%) HTML
2 849 (31.39%) React
3 759 (28.06%) AngularJS
4 697 (25.77%) HTML5
5 614 (22.70%) Node.js
6 482 (17.82%) CSS3
7 431 (15.93%) .NET
8 425 (15.71%) jQuery
9 372 (13.75%) Sass
10 357 (13.20%) REST
11 346 (12.79%) Redux
12 290 (10.72%) Web Services
13 267 (9.87%) RESTful
14 216 (7.99%) Spring
15 210 (7.76%) Vue.js
16 192 (7.10%) JSON
17 191 (7.06%) ASP.NET
18 187 (6.91%) Twitter Bootstrap
19 186 (6.88%) GraphQL
20 181 (6.69%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 518 (19.15%) User Experience
2 171 (6.32%) Greenfield Project
3 135 (4.99%) Mobile App
4 58 (2.14%) Data Structures
5 54 (2.00%) Social Media
6 46 (1.70%) Self-Motivation
7 42 (1.55%) Enterprise Software
8 40 (1.48%) Algorithms
9 27 (1.00%) Cloud Native
10 26 (0.96%) W3C
11 22 (0.81%) Management Information System
12 18 (0.67%) Graphic Design
13 17 (0.63%) PKI
14 16 (0.59%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 16 (0.59%) Hedge funds
14 16 (0.59%) Public Cloud
15 15 (0.55%) N-Tier
15 15 (0.55%) Virtual Team
16 13 (0.48%) Animation
17 11 (0.41%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 107 (3.96%) Linux
2 73 (2.70%) Unix
3 69 (2.55%) Windows
4 57 (2.11%) Android
5 44 (1.63%) Apple iOS
6 18 (0.67%) Windows Server
7 16 (0.59%) Windows Server 2012
8 14 (0.52%) Mac OS
8 14 (0.52%) Ubuntu
8 14 (0.52%) Windows Server 2016
9 9 (0.33%) Windows 10
10 7 (0.26%) CentOS
11 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2003
11 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2008
11 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2019
12 3 (0.11%) Mac OS X
12 3 (0.11%) VMS
13 1 (0.037%) Embedded Linux
13 1 (0.037%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 1 (0.037%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,096 (40.52%) Agile Software Development
2 710 (26.25%) Front End Development
3 446 (16.49%) TDD
4 378 (13.97%) DevOps
5 311 (11.50%) Web Development
6 289 (10.68%) MVC
7 285 (10.54%) Scrum
8 281 (10.39%) Microservices
9 276 (10.20%) Test Automation
10 260 (9.61%) Software Engineering
11 230 (8.50%) Continuous Integration
12 225 (8.32%) Problem-Solving
13 201 (7.43%) Unit Testing
14 160 (5.91%) E-Commerce
15 154 (5.69%) BDD
16 153 (5.66%) OO
17 137 (5.06%) SDLC
18 126 (4.66%) Wireframes
19 121 (4.47%) Open Source
20 115 (4.25%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 2,102 (77.71%) JavaScript
2 514 (19.00%) TypeScript
3 457 (16.89%) Java
4 440 (16.27%) SQL
5 399 (14.75%) C#
6 273 (10.09%) PHP
7 239 (8.84%) Python
8 229 (8.47%) ES6
9 72 (2.66%) PowerShell
10 71 (2.62%) PL/SQL
11 63 (2.33%) Java 8
12 53 (1.96%) Ruby
13 45 (1.66%) T-SQL
14 43 (1.59%) Bash Shell
15 40 (1.48%) Scala
16 38 (1.40%) Kotlin
17 30 (1.11%) Apex Code
18 28 (1.04%) ES7
18 28 (1.04%) Go
19 25 (0.92%) C++
Qualifications
1 157 (5.80%) Security Cleared
2 139 (5.14%) Degree
3 133 (4.92%) SC Cleared
4 58 (2.14%) Computer Science Degree
5 12 (0.44%) BPSS Clearance
6 10 (0.37%) ITIL Certification
7 8 (0.30%) DV Cleared
8 7 (0.26%) AWS Certification
9 6 (0.22%) Master's Degree
10 3 (0.11%) DBS Check
10 3 (0.11%) MCSE
10 3 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
10 3 (0.11%) Postgraduate
11 2 (0.074%) CCA
11 2 (0.074%) ISTQB
12 1 (0.037%) HNC
12 1 (0.037%) HND
12 1 (0.037%) ISEB
12 1 (0.037%) ISEB Practitioner
12 1 (0.037%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 305 (11.28%) Accessibility
2 98 (3.62%) QA
3 62 (2.29%) WCAG
4 18 (0.67%) GDPR
5 14 (0.52%) Data Quality
6 10 (0.37%) SLA
7 3 (0.11%) WAI
8 2 (0.074%) Disclosure Scotland
8 2 (0.074%) HL7
8 2 (0.074%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 1 (0.037%) Actionable Recommendations
9 1 (0.037%) GRC
9 1 (0.037%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 270 (9.98%) Docker
2 37 (1.37%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.22%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.037%) OpenAM
4 1 (0.037%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.037%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 154 (5.69%) Kubernetes
2 35 (1.29%) Terraform
3 34 (1.26%) Single Sign-On
4 32 (1.18%) Ansible
5 26 (0.96%) Grafana
6 15 (0.55%) Puppet
7 12 (0.44%) Kibana
8 9 (0.33%) Active Directory Federation Services
9 4 (0.15%) Opscode Chef
9 4 (0.15%) Rancher
10 3 (0.11%) Icinga
10 3 (0.11%) MIIS
10 3 (0.11%) Prometheus
11 2 (0.074%) HP ALM
11 2 (0.074%) HP Quality Center
12 1 (0.037%) Istio
12 1 (0.037%) Microsoft Clustering
12 1 (0.037%) Microsoft Intune
12 1 (0.037%) Nagios
12 1 (0.037%) vCenter Server
Vendors
1 184 (6.80%) Microsoft
2 153 (5.66%) Oracle
3 139 (5.14%) Adobe
4 81 (2.99%) Salesforce.com
5 80 (2.96%) Google
6 71 (2.62%) ServiceNow
7 23 (0.85%) Nintex
8 22 (0.81%) SAP
9 21 (0.78%) Optimizely
10 19 (0.70%) Sitecore
11 18 (0.67%) VMware
12 16 (0.59%) Splunk
13 15 (0.55%) Zend
14 14 (0.52%) hybris
15 13 (0.48%) DevExpress
16 11 (0.41%) Atlassian
16 11 (0.41%) Telerik
16 11 (0.41%) Xerox
17 10 (0.37%) Xamarin
18 9 (0.33%) Apple