Period
to 10 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 10 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
10 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 20 21 21
Rank change year-on-year +1 0 -6
Permanent jobs citing CSS 7,665 8,793 13,950
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 9.83% 9.53% 10.27%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.35% 24.32% 26.65%
Number of salaries quoted 6,024 7,641 11,804
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £27,500
25th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
75th Percentile £63,750 £65,000 £62,500
90th Percentile £77,500 £80,000 £76,250
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £46,000
% change year-on-year - +8.70% +2.22%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 31,478 36,162 52,347
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 40.37% 39.21% 38.53%
Number of salaries quoted 24,676 30,291 43,466
10th Percentile £35,000 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £53,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +2.80% +7.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £75,000 £72,500
90th Percentile £92,500 £92,500 £85,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 10 May 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 10 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +4 2,591 £65,000 - 486
South East +2 1,634 £50,000 +5.26% 330
North of England 0 1,229 £42,500 -5.56% 444
Midlands +2 903 £42,500 - 301
South West -1 857 £45,000 +7.14% 180
North West -3 609 £42,500 -5.56% 232
West Midlands +4 549 £45,000 - 184
Yorkshire +3 525 £43,750 +5.42% 159
East Midlands 0 353 £40,000 -5.88% 116
East of England +2 320 £47,500 +5.56% 101
North East +1 97 £41,500 +10.67% 53
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 10 May 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,953 (90.71%) HTML
2 6,615 (86.30%) JavaScript
3 3,228 (42.11%) Agile Software Development
4 2,545 (33.20%) React
5 2,525 (32.94%) C#
6 2,338 (30.50%) .NET
7 2,209 (28.82%) AngularJS
8 2,190 (28.57%) HTML5
9 2,131 (27.80%) SQL
10 1,919 (25.04%) Front End Development
11 1,864 (24.32%) Git (software)
12 1,693 (22.09%) PHP
13 1,655 (21.59%) CSS3
14 1,629 (21.25%) Azure
15 1,621 (21.15%) MVC
16 1,561 (20.37%) User Experience
17 1,472 (19.20%) Node.js
18 1,441 (18.80%) Web Development
19 1,425 (18.59%) jQuery
20 1,421 (18.54%) TypeScript
21 1,381 (18.02%) SQL Server
22 1,248 (16.28%) Social Skills
23 1,228 (16.02%) Vue.js
24 1,185 (15.46%) MySQL
25 1,159 (15.12%) Java
26 1,139 (14.86%) DevOps
27 1,102 (14.38%) Scrum
28 1,098 (14.32%) Software Engineering
29 1,056 (13.78%) ASP.NET
30 1,032 (13.46%) Microservices

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 575 (7.50%) CMS
2 356 (4.64%) WordPress
3 240 (3.13%) SharePoint
4 183 (2.39%) Apache
5 158 (2.06%) Confluence
6 144 (1.88%) Elasticsearch
7 132 (1.72%) IIS
8 117 (1.53%) Drupal
9 102 (1.33%) Umbraco
10 99 (1.29%) EPiServer
11 84 (1.10%) Sitecore CMS
12 75 (0.98%) nginx
13 66 (0.86%) Tomcat
14 61 (0.80%) Apache Spark
15 53 (0.69%) Kentico
16 51 (0.67%) Apache Solr
17 41 (0.53%) GemFire
18 24 (0.31%) JBoss
18 24 (0.31%) NServiceBus
19 23 (0.30%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 159 (2.07%) Sketch
2 131 (1.71%) Photoshop
3 103 (1.34%) InVision
4 101 (1.32%) Adobe Illustrator
5 92 (1.20%) Figma
6 71 (0.93%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 69 (0.90%) Microsoft Office
8 61 (0.80%) Adobe XD
9 40 (0.52%) Microsoft Excel
10 22 (0.29%) Adobe After Effects
11 19 (0.25%) Zeplin
12 17 (0.22%) Chatbot
13 16 (0.21%) UXPin
14 15 (0.20%) InDesign
15 14 (0.18%) GIMP
16 10 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
17 9 (0.12%) MS Visio
18 8 (0.10%) Adobe Premiere
18 8 (0.10%) CINEMA 4D
18 8 (0.10%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 180 (2.35%) Magento
2 142 (1.85%) Dynamics CRM
3 108 (1.41%) Shopify
4 44 (0.57%) Payment Gateway
5 27 (0.35%) OpenCart
6 20 (0.26%) nopCommerce
7 18 (0.23%) Remedy ITSM
8 9 (0.12%) WebTrends
9 7 (0.091%) NetSuite
10 5 (0.065%) Adobe Campaign
10 5 (0.065%) Dynamics NAV
10 5 (0.065%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 4 (0.052%) Bond Adapt
12 3 (0.039%) Dynamics AX
13 2 (0.026%) Odoo
13 2 (0.026%) Sage 300 ERP
13 2 (0.026%) Sage CRM
13 2 (0.026%) Summit
14 1 (0.013%) SAP S/4HANA
14 1 (0.013%) SessionCam
Cloud Services
1 1,629 (21.25%) Azure
2 1,009 (13.16%) AWS
3 535 (6.98%) SaaS
4 300 (3.91%) GitHub
5 266 (3.47%) Serverless
6 255 (3.33%) GCP
7 230 (3.00%) npm
8 193 (2.52%) Power Platform
9 189 (2.47%) PaaS
10 138 (1.80%) AWS Lambda
11 122 (1.59%) Amazon S3
12 117 (1.53%) Dynamics 365
13 104 (1.36%) Amazon EC2
14 97 (1.27%) Azure Service Bus
15 96 (1.25%) Azure Active Directory
16 95 (1.24%) PowerApps
17 91 (1.19%) Azure Functions
18 88 (1.15%) Azure Key Vault
19 87 (1.14%) Azure App Service
20 76 (0.99%) Microsoft 365
Communications & Networking
1 151 (1.97%) HTTP
2 113 (1.47%) Internet
3 47 (0.61%) DNS
3 47 (0.61%) SSL
4 39 (0.51%) Wireless
5 31 (0.40%) Intranet
6 26 (0.34%) TCP/IP
7 25 (0.33%) VPN
8 24 (0.31%) Broadband
9 23 (0.30%) FTP
10 22 (0.29%) Network Security
11 21 (0.27%) SSH
12 19 (0.25%) MQTT
12 19 (0.25%) Skype
13 18 (0.23%) Wi-Fi
14 17 (0.22%) Bluetooth
14 17 (0.22%) Ethernet
15 16 (0.21%) Firewall
16 13 (0.17%) Extranet
17 12 (0.16%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,381 (18.02%) SQL Server
2 1,185 (15.46%) MySQL
3 409 (5.34%) NoSQL
4 372 (4.85%) PostgreSQL
5 344 (4.49%) Relational Database
6 319 (4.16%) MongoDB
7 184 (2.40%) Redis
8 122 (1.59%) Big Data
9 105 (1.37%) Power BI
10 92 (1.20%) Azure SQL Database
11 90 (1.17%) MariaDB
12 87 (1.14%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 72 (0.94%) Amazon RDS
14 63 (0.82%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 55 (0.72%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 55 (0.72%) SQL Server 2012
16 46 (0.60%) RDBMS
17 36 (0.47%) SQL Server 2016
18 35 (0.46%) HBase
19 28 (0.37%) SQLPlus
Development Applications
1 1,864 (24.32%) Git (software)
2 414 (5.40%) webpack
3 398 (5.19%) JIRA
4 325 (4.24%) Visual Studio
5 309 (4.03%) Jenkins
6 286 (3.73%) gulp
7 203 (2.65%) Cypress.io
8 200 (2.61%) Team Foundation Server
9 151 (1.97%) Visual Studio Team System
10 149 (1.94%) Bitbucket
10 149 (1.94%) Grunt
11 137 (1.79%) JUnit
12 127 (1.66%) Selenium
13 114 (1.49%) Storybook
14 100 (1.30%) Gradle
15 97 (1.27%) Maven
16 95 (1.24%) NUnit
17 94 (1.23%) Protractor
18 93 (1.21%) Jasmine
19 82 (1.07%) Subversion
General
1 1,248 (16.28%) Social Skills
2 898 (11.72%) Finance
3 485 (6.33%) Marketing
4 439 (5.73%) Analytical Skills
5 378 (4.93%) Retail
6 297 (3.87%) Games
7 237 (3.09%) Public Sector
8 232 (3.03%) Banking
9 136 (1.77%) Manufacturing
10 133 (1.74%) Law
11 120 (1.57%) Organisational Skills
12 114 (1.49%) Telecoms
13 103 (1.34%) Publishing
14 82 (1.07%) Advertising
15 81 (1.06%) Multimedia
16 70 (0.91%) Back Office
17 63 (0.82%) Automotive
18 61 (0.80%) Electronics
19 60 (0.78%) Legal
20 51 (0.67%) Presentation Skills
Job Titles
1 5,853 (76.36%) Developer
2 1,319 (17.21%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,294 (16.88%) Senior Developer
4 900 (11.74%) .NET Developer
5 894 (11.66%) Full Stack Developer
6 749 (9.77%) PHP Developer
7 692 (9.03%) Software Developer
8 665 (8.68%) C# Developer
9 643 (8.39%) React Developer
10 564 (7.36%) Web Developer
11 485 (6.33%) Software Engineer
12 477 (6.22%) JavaScript Developer
13 473 (6.17%) C# .NET Developer
14 316 (4.12%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 292 (3.81%) Angular Developer
16 258 (3.37%) Junior
17 255 (3.33%) Java Developer
18 254 (3.31%) Senior .NET Developer
19 242 (3.16%) Lead Developer
20 228 (2.97%) .NET Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,953 (90.71%) HTML
2 2,545 (33.20%) React
3 2,338 (30.50%) .NET
4 2,209 (28.82%) AngularJS
5 2,190 (28.57%) HTML5
6 1,655 (21.59%) CSS3
7 1,472 (19.20%) Node.js
8 1,425 (18.59%) jQuery
9 1,228 (16.02%) Vue.js
10 1,056 (13.78%) ASP.NET
11 1,024 (13.36%) Sass
12 962 (12.55%) .NET Core
13 946 (12.34%) REST
14 919 (11.99%) RESTful
15 894 (11.66%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 831 (10.84%) Web Services
17 733 (9.56%) .NET Framework
18 660 (8.61%) Laravel
19 629 (8.21%) Redux
20 593 (7.74%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 1,561 (20.37%) User Experience
2 492 (6.42%) Greenfield Project
3 452 (5.90%) Mobile App
4 303 (3.95%) Self-Motivation
5 187 (2.44%) Enterprise Software
6 153 (2.00%) N-Tier
7 139 (1.81%) Data Structures
8 99 (1.29%) Linux Command Line
9 88 (1.15%) Virtual Team
10 71 (0.93%) Blog
11 63 (0.82%) Cloud Native
12 57 (0.74%) Graphic Design
12 57 (0.74%) Social Media
13 56 (0.73%) Algorithms
14 52 (0.68%) NHS
15 50 (0.65%) Hedge funds
16 49 (0.64%) Client/Server
17 44 (0.57%) Reinsurance
18 39 (0.51%) Animation
18 39 (0.51%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 680 (8.87%) Linux
2 370 (4.83%) Windows
3 257 (3.35%) Android
4 232 (3.03%) Apple iOS
5 110 (1.44%) Unix
6 87 (1.14%) Windows Server
7 55 (0.72%) Ubuntu
8 21 (0.27%) Debian
9 17 (0.22%) CentOS
10 8 (0.10%) VMS
10 8 (0.10%) Windows 7
10 8 (0.10%) Windows Server 2008
11 7 (0.091%) Windows 10
12 6 (0.078%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 6 (0.078%) tvOS
12 6 (0.078%) Windows Server 2012
12 6 (0.078%) Windows Server 2016
13 4 (0.052%) Mac OS X
14 2 (0.026%) AIX
14 2 (0.026%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,228 (42.11%) Agile Software Development
2 1,919 (25.04%) Front End Development
3 1,621 (21.15%) MVC
4 1,441 (18.80%) Web Development
5 1,139 (14.86%) DevOps
6 1,102 (14.38%) Scrum
7 1,098 (14.32%) Software Engineering
8 1,032 (13.46%) Microservices
9 1,011 (13.19%) TDD
10 908 (11.85%) OO
11 782 (10.20%) E-Commerce
12 685 (8.94%) Problem-Solving
13 644 (8.40%) Unit Testing
14 627 (8.18%) Test Automation
15 605 (7.89%) OOP
16 565 (7.37%) Continuous Integration
17 562 (7.33%) Computer Science
18 556 (7.25%) Mentoring
19 460 (6.00%) SDLC
20 396 (5.17%) Fintech
Programming Languages
1 6,615 (86.30%) JavaScript
2 2,525 (32.94%) C#
3 2,131 (27.80%) SQL
4 1,693 (22.09%) PHP
5 1,421 (18.54%) TypeScript
6 1,159 (15.12%) Java
7 753 (9.82%) Python
8 560 (7.31%) ES6
9 421 (5.49%) T-SQL
10 194 (2.53%) Ruby
11 162 (2.11%) Java 8
12 149 (1.94%) PowerShell
13 117 (1.53%) VB.NET
14 112 (1.46%) C++
15 101 (1.32%) Kotlin
16 93 (1.21%) Scala
17 82 (1.07%) C
17 82 (1.07%) PHP 7
18 78 (1.02%) Shell Script
19 76 (0.99%) ES7
Qualifications
1 897 (11.70%) Degree
2 250 (3.26%) Computer Science Degree
3 112 (1.46%) OCP
3 112 (1.46%) Oracle Certification
4 106 (1.38%) Security Cleared
5 96 (1.25%) SC Cleared
6 79 (1.03%) CIW
6 79 (1.03%) OCA
7 70 (0.91%) Microsoft Certification
8 46 (0.60%) Master's Degree
9 26 (0.34%) AWS Certification
9 26 (0.34%) SANS
10 17 (0.22%) HND
11 14 (0.18%) DV Cleared
12 13 (0.17%) PhD
13 12 (0.16%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 9 (0.12%) Numerate Degree
14 9 (0.12%) PMI Certification
15 7 (0.091%) ISTQB
16 5 (0.065%) Six Sigma Black Belt
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 302 (3.94%) QA
2 69 (0.90%) WCAG
3 26 (0.34%) GDPR
4 22 (0.29%) PCI DSS
5 19 (0.25%) WAI
6 15 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 8 (0.10%) Actionable Recommendations
7 8 (0.10%) SLA
8 2 (0.026%) Good Clinical Practice
8 2 (0.026%) PMO
9 1 (0.013%) GRC
9 1 (0.013%) ISO 13485
9 1 (0.013%) PSD2
System Software
1 834 (10.88%) Docker
2 42 (0.55%) VMware Infrastructure
3 33 (0.43%) HDFS
4 30 (0.39%) Active Directory
5 8 (0.10%) Firmware
6 6 (0.078%) Kamailio
6 6 (0.078%) OpenSIPS
7 5 (0.065%) Virtual Machines
7 5 (0.065%) Virtual Servers
8 4 (0.052%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 4 (0.052%) KVM
8 4 (0.052%) Varnish
9 3 (0.039%) Ceph
9 3 (0.039%) Hyper-V
10 1 (0.013%) LXC
10 1 (0.013%) Terminal Services
10 1 (0.013%) VirtualBox
10 1 (0.013%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 442 (5.77%) Kubernetes
2 202 (2.64%) Terraform
3 112 (1.46%) Ansible
4 105 (1.37%) Opscode Chef
5 35 (0.46%) Puppet
6 18 (0.23%) HP UCMDB
7 15 (0.20%) Packer
8 11 (0.14%) Kibana
8 11 (0.14%) MIIS
9 8 (0.10%) Single Sign-On
10 7 (0.091%) Docker Swarm
10 7 (0.091%) HP Fortify
10 7 (0.091%) Prometheus
11 6 (0.078%) Grafana
12 4 (0.052%) vRealize
13 3 (0.039%) Galera Cluster
13 3 (0.039%) Istio
14 2 (0.026%) Graylog
14 2 (0.026%) Icinga
14 2 (0.026%) Salt
Vendors
1 919 (11.99%) Microsoft
2 292 (3.81%) Adobe
3 285 (3.72%) Google
4 248 (3.24%) Oracle
5 112 (1.46%) Sitecore
6 102 (1.33%) Zend
7 90 (1.17%) Nintex
8 89 (1.16%) Salesforce.com
9 84 (1.10%) Xamarin
10 73 (0.95%) VMware
11 65 (0.85%) Atlassian
12 53 (0.69%) SAP
13 46 (0.60%) IBM
14 42 (0.55%) Apple
15 40 (0.52%) Okta
15 40 (0.52%) WooCommerce
16 33 (0.43%) Databricks
17 31 (0.40%) ServiceNow
18 25 (0.33%) HP
19 24 (0.31%) Remedy