Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 2 July 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
2 Jul 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 34 22 21
Rank change year-on-year -12 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 12,441 9,303 7,008
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 8.27% 9.74% 9.62%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.14% 23.71% 24.50%
Number of salaries quoted 5,300 6,372 6,068
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £31,250
25th Percentile £40,000 £37,500 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £71,250 £65,000 £65,000
90th Percentile £87,500 £78,750 £80,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
% change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 58,863 39,242 28,609
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 39.15% 41.07% 39.28%
Number of salaries quoted 26,831 27,148 24,099
10th Percentile £38,000 £35,000 £33,750
25th Percentile £47,500 £43,750 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £57,500 £57,105
Median % change year-on-year +13.04% +0.69% +8.77%
75th Percentile £85,000 £77,500 £75,000
90th Percentile £100,000 £93,825 £92,500
UK median annual salary £64,500 £57,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year +12.17% +4.55% +4.76%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 2 July 2022.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 2 July 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
London -15 6,094 £65,000 - 377
South East -11 2,084 £50,000 +3.09% 176
North of England 0 1,698 £49,500 +16.47% 226
Midlands -9 1,024 £50,000 +17.65% 147
North West -5 871 £50,000 +17.65% 113
South West -9 847 £47,500 +5.56% 104
Yorkshire -3 664 £45,750 +1.67% 95
West Midlands -9 609 £50,000 +11.11% 83
East of England -7 557 £43,000 -14.00% 57
East Midlands -6 409 £50,000 +25.00% 64
North East +3 164 £37,616 -10.44% 18
South Coast - 1 £70,000 -
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 2 July 2022, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 11,036 (88.71%) HTML
2 10,281 (82.64%) JavaScript
3 6,087 (48.93%) React
4 6,066 (48.76%) Agile
5 4,070 (32.71%) Git (software)
6 3,833 (30.81%) .NET
7 3,645 (29.30%) C#
8 3,599 (28.93%) AngularJS
9 3,591 (28.86%) HTML5
10 3,320 (26.69%) Software Engineering
11 3,168 (25.46%) SQL
12 3,145 (25.28%) Social Skills
13 3,092 (24.85%) Azure
14 3,085 (24.80%) TypeScript
15 3,066 (24.64%) Full Stack Development
16 3,021 (24.28%) Node.js
17 2,889 (23.22%) User Experience
18 2,883 (23.17%) Java
19 2,765 (22.22%) AWS
20 2,618 (21.04%) CSS3
21 2,604 (20.93%) Front End Development
22 2,484 (19.97%) Web Development
23 2,443 (19.64%) DevOps
24 2,348 (18.87%) MVC
25 2,303 (18.51%) Python
26 2,292 (18.42%) Finance
27 2,259 (18.16%) Docker
28 2,227 (17.90%) TDD
29 2,168 (17.43%) CI/CD
30 2,133 (17.14%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 838 (6.74%) CMS
2 370 (2.97%) WordPress
3 354 (2.85%) Apache
4 346 (2.78%) Confluence
5 343 (2.76%) Umbraco
6 230 (1.85%) Apache Spark
7 176 (1.41%) Drupal
8 123 (0.99%) IIS
9 119 (0.96%) nginx
10 112 (0.90%) Headless CMS
11 95 (0.76%) GeoServer
12 94 (0.76%) SharePoint
13 77 (0.62%) Tomcat
14 73 (0.59%) Sitecore CMS
15 64 (0.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 52 (0.42%) Cloud Foundry
16 52 (0.42%) EPiServer
17 33 (0.27%) Moodle
18 32 (0.26%) Joomla!
19 27 (0.22%) Tornado
Applications
1 353 (2.84%) Sketch
2 255 (2.05%) Photoshop
3 172 (1.38%) Adobe XD
4 151 (1.21%) InVision
5 141 (1.13%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 117 (0.94%) Adobe Illustrator
7 109 (0.88%) Microsoft Office
8 90 (0.72%) Microsoft Excel
9 49 (0.39%) InDesign
10 41 (0.33%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 31 (0.25%) Spreadsheet
12 28 (0.23%) Adobe After Effects
12 28 (0.23%) OmniGraffle
13 26 (0.21%) Chatbot
14 21 (0.17%) MS Visio
15 19 (0.15%) Campfire
16 16 (0.13%) Zeplin
17 13 (0.10%) Acrobat
17 13 (0.10%) Maya
18 10 (0.080%) RoboHelp
Business Applications
1 115 (0.92%) Shopify
2 104 (0.84%) Magento
3 59 (0.47%) Dynamics CRM
4 40 (0.32%) Academy Housing
5 37 (0.30%) WebTrends
6 32 (0.26%) Social Studio
7 24 (0.19%) Payment Gateway
8 15 (0.12%) Dynamics NAV
9 14 (0.11%) Remedy ITSM
10 12 (0.096%) Maximo
11 11 (0.088%) Adobe Campaign
12 9 (0.072%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 8 (0.064%) NetSuite
13 8 (0.064%) SAP Hybris
14 7 (0.056%) SessionCam
15 4 (0.032%) OpenCart
16 3 (0.024%) Infor CloudSuite Industrial (formerly SyteLine)
16 3 (0.024%) Oracle Applications
16 3 (0.024%) Summit
16 3 (0.024%) VisionPLUS
Cloud Services
1 3,092 (24.85%) Azure
2 2,765 (22.22%) AWS
3 1,288 (10.35%) Serverless
4 851 (6.84%) SaaS
5 846 (6.80%) GitHub
6 766 (6.16%) GCP
7 639 (5.14%) Azure DevOps
8 594 (4.77%) npm
9 591 (4.75%) AWS Lambda
10 502 (4.04%) Figma
11 299 (2.40%) OpenShift
12 282 (2.27%) Amazon S3
13 256 (2.06%) PaaS
14 234 (1.88%) Google Analytics
15 227 (1.82%) Azure Functions
16 223 (1.79%) Amazon SQS
17 213 (1.71%) Amazon EC2
18 209 (1.68%) Cloud Functions
19 202 (1.62%) Azure Service Bus
20 176 (1.41%) Power Platform
Communications & Networking
1 762 (6.12%) HTTP
2 489 (3.93%) Internet
3 419 (3.37%) SSL
4 114 (0.92%) Broadband
5 52 (0.42%) DNS
6 40 (0.32%) SSH
7 39 (0.31%) Intranet
8 27 (0.22%) VoIP
9 26 (0.21%) PPP
10 23 (0.18%) VPN
11 21 (0.17%) SNA
12 20 (0.16%) FTP
13 19 (0.15%) 5G
14 18 (0.14%) TCP/IP
15 16 (0.13%) DHCP
16 15 (0.12%) Network Security
17 14 (0.11%) X.25
18 12 (0.096%) Extranet
18 12 (0.096%) Firewall
18 12 (0.096%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,042 (16.41%) SQL Server
2 1,727 (13.88%) MySQL
3 1,130 (9.08%) PostgreSQL
4 1,116 (8.97%) NoSQL
5 747 (6.00%) Relational Database
6 695 (5.59%) MongoDB
7 593 (4.77%) Redis
8 317 (2.55%) Elasticsearch
9 222 (1.78%) Apache Cassandra
10 195 (1.57%) Flink
11 176 (1.41%) Big Data
12 142 (1.14%) Power BI
13 137 (1.10%) RDBMS
14 130 (1.04%) DynamoDB
15 108 (0.87%) Amazon RDS
16 107 (0.86%) MariaDB
17 100 (0.80%) GIS
18 99 (0.80%) QGIS
19 90 (0.72%) Oracle Database
20 69 (0.55%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 4,070 (32.71%) Git (software)
2 1,419 (11.41%) JIRA
3 1,129 (9.07%) webpack
4 1,000 (8.04%) Jenkins
5 498 (4.00%) Cypress.io
6 386 (3.10%) Selenium
7 377 (3.03%) gulp
8 333 (2.68%) Subversion
9 330 (2.65%) Bitbucket
10 324 (2.60%) Maven
11 298 (2.40%) Visual Studio
12 293 (2.36%) GitLab
13 270 (2.17%) Team Foundation Server
14 269 (2.16%) Gradle
15 264 (2.12%) Grunt
16 260 (2.09%) Jasmine
17 254 (2.04%) Babel
17 254 (2.04%) Mocha
18 197 (1.58%) Ant
19 161 (1.29%) JUnit
General
1 3,145 (25.28%) Social Skills
2 2,292 (18.42%) Finance
3 1,478 (11.88%) Marketing
4 983 (7.90%) Analytical Skills
5 787 (6.33%) Retail
6 653 (5.25%) Inclusion and Diversity
7 647 (5.20%) Games
8 518 (4.16%) Banking
9 435 (3.50%) Manufacturing
10 397 (3.19%) Public Sector
11 265 (2.13%) Legal
11 265 (2.13%) Organisational Skills
12 211 (1.70%) Publishing
13 188 (1.51%) Advertising
14 177 (1.42%) Law
15 148 (1.19%) Automotive
16 146 (1.17%) Pharmaceutical
17 144 (1.16%) Presentation Skills
18 142 (1.14%) Local Government
19 116 (0.93%) Telecoms
Job Titles
1 7,565 (60.81%) Developer
2 2,158 (17.35%) Software Engineer
3 1,799 (14.46%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 1,724 (13.86%) Senior Developer
5 1,254 (10.08%) Software Developer
6 1,111 (8.93%) Full Stack Developer
7 950 (7.64%) .NET Developer
8 672 (5.40%) React Developer
9 644 (5.18%) Web Developer
10 533 (4.28%) Senior Front-End Developer
11 491 (3.95%) JavaScript Developer
12 485 (3.90%) Senior Software Engineer
13 466 (3.75%) Designer
14 452 (3.63%) PHP Developer
15 428 (3.44%) C# Developer
16 394 (3.17%) Trainee
17 393 (3.16%) Trainee Developer
17 393 (3.16%) Trainee Software Developer
18 341 (2.74%) Lead Developer
19 294 (2.36%) Java Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 11,036 (88.71%) HTML
2 6,087 (48.93%) React
3 3,833 (30.81%) .NET
4 3,599 (28.93%) AngularJS
5 3,591 (28.86%) HTML5
6 3,021 (24.28%) Node.js
7 2,618 (21.04%) CSS3
8 2,133 (17.14%) Sass
9 1,965 (15.79%) ASP.NET
10 1,822 (14.65%) jQuery
11 1,777 (14.28%) Vue.js
12 1,764 (14.18%) REST
13 1,398 (11.24%) RESTful
14 1,264 (10.16%) .NET Core
15 1,210 (9.73%) .NET Framework
16 1,154 (9.28%) Redux
17 1,104 (8.87%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 1,048 (8.42%) Web Services
19 990 (7.96%) GraphQL
20 929 (7.47%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 2,889 (23.22%) User Experience
2 959 (7.71%) Data Structures
3 916 (7.36%) Mobile App
4 526 (4.23%) Self-Motivation
5 509 (4.09%) Algorithms
6 430 (3.46%) Greenfield Project
7 330 (2.65%) Enterprise Software
8 327 (2.63%) Virtual Team
9 309 (2.48%) Linux Command Line
10 252 (2.03%) Life Science
11 223 (1.79%) Blog
12 186 (1.50%) Social Media
13 156 (1.25%) W3C
14 145 (1.17%) Sports Betting
15 143 (1.15%) Cloud Native
16 133 (1.07%) Social Network
17 124 (1.00%) Hackathon
18 118 (0.95%) Graphic Design
19 115 (0.92%) NHS
20 113 (0.91%) Online Banking
Operating Systems
1 1,010 (8.12%) Linux
2 664 (5.34%) Android
3 623 (5.01%) Apple iOS
4 404 (3.25%) Windows
5 397 (3.19%) Unix
6 247 (1.99%) Ubuntu
7 63 (0.51%) Windows Server
8 56 (0.45%) VMS
9 37 (0.30%) Debian
10 22 (0.18%) CentOS
10 22 (0.18%) tvOS
11 20 (0.16%) Mac OS
12 18 (0.14%) Windows Server 2016
13 16 (0.13%) Windows Phone
13 16 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
14 15 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 15 (0.12%) Windows Server 2019
15 8 (0.064%) Scientific Linux
16 5 (0.040%) Windows Server 2008
17 4 (0.032%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 6,066 (48.76%) Agile
2 3,320 (26.69%) Software Engineering
3 3,066 (24.64%) Full Stack Development
4 2,604 (20.93%) Front End Development
5 2,484 (19.97%) Web Development
6 2,443 (19.64%) DevOps
7 2,348 (18.87%) MVC
8 2,227 (17.90%) TDD
9 2,168 (17.43%) CI/CD
10 1,843 (14.81%) Problem-Solving
11 1,831 (14.72%) Scrum
12 1,781 (14.32%) Mentoring
13 1,656 (13.31%) Test Automation
14 1,633 (13.13%) Microservices
15 1,440 (11.57%) OO
16 1,392 (11.19%) Computer Science
16 1,392 (11.19%) UX Design
17 1,366 (10.98%) Unit Testing
18 1,345 (10.81%) Continuous Integration
19 1,314 (10.56%) OOP
Programming Languages
1 10,281 (82.64%) JavaScript
2 3,645 (29.30%) C#
3 3,168 (25.46%) SQL
4 3,085 (24.80%) TypeScript
5 2,883 (23.17%) Java
6 2,303 (18.51%) Python
7 1,821 (14.64%) PHP
8 1,093 (8.79%) ES6
9 941 (7.56%) Ruby
10 631 (5.07%) Go
11 386 (3.10%) T-SQL
12 376 (3.02%) C++
13 369 (2.97%) PowerShell
14 356 (2.86%) C
15 296 (2.38%) Objective-C
16 223 (1.79%) Perl
17 222 (1.78%) Shell Script
18 218 (1.75%) Kotlin
19 137 (1.10%) VB.NET
20 134 (1.08%) Scala
Qualifications
1 1,742 (14.00%) Degree
2 842 (6.77%) Computer Science Degree
3 447 (3.59%) Security Cleared
4 400 (3.22%) OCP
4 400 (3.22%) Oracle Certification
5 393 (3.16%) CIW
5 393 (3.16%) OCA
6 267 (2.15%) SC Cleared
7 200 (1.61%) Master's Degree
8 153 (1.23%) Microsoft Certification
9 52 (0.42%) DBS Check
10 27 (0.22%) PhD
11 22 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
12 20 (0.16%) AWS Certification
13 17 (0.14%) ISTQB
13 17 (0.14%) PMI Certification
14 15 (0.12%) HND
14 15 (0.12%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
15 11 (0.088%) MCPD
16 9 (0.072%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,176 (9.45%) Accessibility
2 1,012 (8.13%) QA
3 163 (1.31%) WCAG
4 95 (0.76%) GDPR
5 51 (0.41%) WAI
6 44 (0.35%) Data Quality
7 30 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 13 (0.10%) SLA
9 10 (0.080%) HIPAA
10 9 (0.072%) ISO 13485
10 9 (0.072%) PCI DSS
11 8 (0.064%) IEC 62304
11 8 (0.064%) MiFID
12 3 (0.024%) Disclosure Scotland
12 3 (0.024%) NIST
13 2 (0.016%) GxP
13 2 (0.016%) ISO 9001
13 2 (0.016%) PMO
14 1 (0.008%) NCSC
14 1 (0.008%) SNOMED CT
System Software
1 2,259 (18.16%) Docker
2 53 (0.43%) Active Directory
3 22 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
4 14 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
5 11 (0.088%) VirtualBox
6 9 (0.072%) LXC
6 9 (0.072%) Virtual Machines
7 8 (0.064%) Lustre
7 8 (0.064%) Slurm Workload Manager
8 7 (0.056%) HDFS
9 6 (0.048%) Varnish
10 5 (0.040%) VMware ESXi
11 4 (0.032%) Hyper-V
11 4 (0.032%) Virtual Servers
12 2 (0.016%) Oracle RAC
13 1 (0.008%) Firmware
13 1 (0.008%) ISA Server
13 1 (0.008%) KVM
13 1 (0.008%) Microsoft Virtual Server
13 1 (0.008%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 1,222 (9.82%) Kubernetes
2 602 (4.84%) Terraform
3 101 (0.81%) Ansible
4 64 (0.51%) Prometheus
5 58 (0.47%) Bugsnag
6 43 (0.35%) Grafana
7 31 (0.25%) Opscode Chef
8 29 (0.23%) Kibana
9 28 (0.23%) Puppet
10 26 (0.21%) HP Quality Center
11 23 (0.18%) HP Fortify
11 23 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
12 22 (0.18%) Hadoop YARN
13 14 (0.11%) Rancher
14 13 (0.10%) HP UCMDB
14 13 (0.10%) Proxmox
15 11 (0.088%) Docker Swarm
15 11 (0.088%) Plesk
16 10 (0.080%) cPanel
17 9 (0.072%) MIIS
Vendors
1 1,944 (15.63%) Microsoft
2 958 (7.70%) Google
3 704 (5.66%) Oracle
4 560 (4.50%) Adobe
5 278 (2.23%) Xamarin
6 144 (1.16%) Zend
7 125 (1.00%) Sitecore
8 115 (0.92%) Sun
9 114 (0.92%) Salesforce.com
10 105 (0.84%) Apple
11 99 (0.80%) Sony
12 91 (0.73%) SAP
13 80 (0.64%) Facebook
14 71 (0.57%) NEC
15 61 (0.49%) ServiceNow
16 58 (0.47%) Atlassian
17 55 (0.44%) IBM
18 53 (0.43%) Netlify
19 49 (0.39%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
20 48 (0.39%) Bloomberg