Period
to 26 November 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 26 November 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
26 Nov 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 16 21 15
Rank change year-on-year +5 -6 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 5,152 12,080 17,059
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 10.26% 9.63% 11.39%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.47% 25.28% 28.50%
Number of salaries quoted 5,258 11,348 15,579
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,500 £28,750
90th Percentile £75,000 £76,250 £75,000
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +7.95%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 21,955 47,780 59,862
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 43.74% 38.08% 39.96%
Number of salaries quoted 19,021 39,889 49,862
Median annual salary £58,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.45% +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £35,238 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £93,750 £90,000 £85,000
UK median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 26 November 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 26 November 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 1,567 £65,000 +8.33% 356
South East +6 1,211 £50,000 +11.11% 275
North of England +1 910 £45,000 +5.88% 356
Midlands +1 582 £42,500 +6.25% 223
South West +4 567 £45,000 +12.50% 135
North West +3 506 £45,000 - 215
West Midlands +1 330 £42,500 - 133
Yorkshire +5 324 £40,000 - 99
East of England +9 266 £42,500 -10.53% 127
East Midlands +1 250 £42,500 +6.25% 90
North East +8 79 £43,000 +10.97% 42
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 26 November 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,739 (91.98%) HTML
2 4,372 (84.86%) JavaScript
3 2,210 (42.90%) Agile Software Development
4 1,762 (34.20%) .NET
5 1,690 (32.80%) AngularJS
6 1,687 (32.74%) C#
7 1,425 (27.66%) HTML5
8 1,384 (26.86%) React
9 1,378 (26.75%) SQL
10 1,299 (25.21%) Git (software)
11 1,213 (23.54%) MVC
12 1,164 (22.59%) Front End Development
13 1,101 (21.37%) PHP
14 1,091 (21.18%) Azure
15 1,064 (20.65%) Web Development
16 1,041 (20.21%) jQuery
17 999 (19.39%) SQL Server
18 961 (18.65%) Node.js
19 949 (18.42%) CSS3
20 907 (17.60%) ASP.NET
21 850 (16.50%) User Experience
22 834 (16.19%) TypeScript
23 780 (15.14%) DevOps
24 749 (14.54%) MySQL
25 739 (14.34%) Scrum
26 723 (14.03%) TDD
27 718 (13.94%) .NET Core
28 706 (13.70%) Vue.js
29 660 (12.81%) REST
30 652 (12.66%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 366 (7.10%) CMS
2 248 (4.81%) WordPress
3 114 (2.21%) SharePoint
4 100 (1.94%) Elasticsearch
5 95 (1.84%) Confluence
6 85 (1.65%) Apache
6 85 (1.65%) IIS
7 62 (1.20%) Drupal
8 55 (1.07%) NServiceBus
9 49 (0.95%) Umbraco
10 46 (0.89%) nginx
11 35 (0.68%) Tomcat
12 32 (0.62%) Moodle
13 28 (0.54%) EPiServer
14 25 (0.49%) Joomla!
15 20 (0.39%) Jadu
16 17 (0.33%) Apache Spark
17 16 (0.31%) Sitecore CMS
18 15 (0.29%) Headless CMS
19 11 (0.21%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 100 (1.94%) Photoshop
2 86 (1.67%) Sketch
3 65 (1.26%) InVision
4 49 (0.95%) Adobe Illustrator
4 49 (0.95%) Figma
5 41 (0.80%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 31 (0.60%) Adobe XD
7 24 (0.47%) Zeplin
8 18 (0.35%) Microsoft Excel
9 13 (0.25%) Chatbot
9 13 (0.25%) Microsoft Office
10 10 (0.19%) MS Visio
11 7 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 7 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
12 6 (0.12%) UXPin
13 4 (0.078%) InDesign
14 2 (0.039%) Fireworks
14 2 (0.039%) Inkscape
15 1 (0.019%) Microsoft Project
15 1 (0.019%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 183 (3.55%) Magento
2 111 (2.15%) Dynamics CRM
3 84 (1.63%) Shopify
4 37 (0.72%) Payment Gateway
5 20 (0.39%) Remedy ITSM
6 17 (0.33%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 15 (0.29%) OpenCart
7 15 (0.29%) Siebel CRM
8 11 (0.21%) Adobe Campaign
9 7 (0.14%) NetSuite
10 6 (0.12%) Maximo
10 6 (0.12%) Oracle Applications
10 6 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 5 (0.097%) Unica
12 4 (0.078%) Oracle CRM On Demand
13 3 (0.058%) Distributed Ledger
14 2 (0.039%) Odoo
14 2 (0.039%) SAP S/4HANA
15 1 (0.019%) nopCommerce
15 1 (0.019%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
Cloud Services
1 1,091 (21.18%) Azure
2 600 (11.65%) AWS
3 284 (5.51%) SaaS
4 195 (3.78%) npm
5 156 (3.03%) Serverless
6 144 (2.80%) GitHub
7 131 (2.54%) GCP
8 125 (2.43%) PaaS
9 114 (2.21%) Power Platform
10 112 (2.17%) Dynamics 365
11 80 (1.55%) AWS Lambda
12 48 (0.93%) Azure Functions
13 47 (0.91%) IaaS
14 43 (0.83%) Cloud Computing
15 41 (0.80%) Amazon EC2
16 38 (0.74%) Firebase
17 35 (0.68%) Google Analytics
17 35 (0.68%) Office 365
18 34 (0.66%) Logic Apps
19 28 (0.54%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 124 (2.41%) HTTP
2 71 (1.38%) Internet
3 53 (1.03%) Skype
4 23 (0.45%) TCP/IP
5 21 (0.41%) SSL
6 19 (0.37%) Network Security
7 18 (0.35%) Intranet
8 17 (0.33%) Ethernet
8 17 (0.33%) VPN
9 15 (0.29%) MQTT
9 15 (0.29%) RTP
10 12 (0.23%) SMS
10 12 (0.23%) Wi-Fi
11 11 (0.21%) Bluetooth
12 10 (0.19%) SSH
13 9 (0.17%) DNS
13 9 (0.17%) FTP
13 9 (0.17%) Wireless
14 6 (0.12%) Broadband
15 5 (0.097%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 999 (19.39%) SQL Server
2 749 (14.54%) MySQL
3 252 (4.89%) NoSQL
4 247 (4.79%) Relational Database
5 244 (4.74%) MongoDB
6 177 (3.44%) PostgreSQL
7 122 (2.37%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 104 (2.02%) SQL Server 2012
9 100 (1.94%) Redis
10 98 (1.90%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 69 (1.34%) Azure SQL Database
12 42 (0.82%) SQL Server 2008
13 41 (0.80%) Big Data
14 38 (0.74%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 37 (0.72%) Cosmos DB
16 36 (0.70%) Amazon RDS
17 33 (0.64%) Power BI
18 28 (0.54%) RDBMS
19 27 (0.52%) SQL Server 2019
20 22 (0.43%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 1,299 (25.21%) Git (software)
2 277 (5.38%) webpack
3 249 (4.83%) JIRA
4 212 (4.11%) Team Foundation Server
5 186 (3.61%) Visual Studio
6 185 (3.59%) Jenkins
7 173 (3.36%) gulp
8 144 (2.80%) Grunt
9 126 (2.45%) Selenium
10 81 (1.57%) Subversion
11 77 (1.49%) Jasmine
12 72 (1.40%) JUnit
13 70 (1.36%) NUnit
14 67 (1.30%) Bitbucket
14 67 (1.30%) Cypress.io
15 66 (1.28%) Visual Studio Team System
16 64 (1.24%) Maven
17 62 (1.20%) TeamCity
18 57 (1.11%) PHPUnit
19 52 (1.01%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 586 (11.37%) Finance
2 357 (6.93%) Marketing
3 183 (3.55%) Public Sector
4 158 (3.07%) Retail
5 110 (2.14%) Manufacturing
6 98 (1.90%) Banking
7 97 (1.88%) Games
8 92 (1.79%) Telecoms
9 69 (1.34%) Law
10 60 (1.16%) Electronics
11 57 (1.11%) Advertising
12 53 (1.03%) Publishing
13 41 (0.80%) Automotive
14 37 (0.72%) Back Office
14 37 (0.72%) Private Banking
15 27 (0.52%) Local Government
16 25 (0.49%) Front Office
17 22 (0.43%) Legal
18 18 (0.35%) Financial Institution
19 8 (0.16%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 4,196 (81.44%) Developer
2 895 (17.37%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 854 (16.58%) Senior Developer
4 665 (12.91%) .NET Developer
5 604 (11.72%) PHP Developer
6 582 (11.30%) Full Stack Developer
7 456 (8.85%) C# Developer
8 427 (8.29%) Software Developer
9 408 (7.92%) JavaScript Developer
10 403 (7.82%) Web Developer
11 351 (6.81%) React Developer
12 289 (5.61%) C# .NET Developer
13 287 (5.57%) Software Engineer
14 238 (4.62%) Angular Developer
15 215 (4.17%) Lead Developer
16 193 (3.75%) Java Developer
17 186 (3.61%) Junior
18 174 (3.38%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 166 (3.22%) Senior .NET Developer
20 164 (3.18%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,739 (91.98%) HTML
2 1,762 (34.20%) .NET
3 1,690 (32.80%) AngularJS
4 1,425 (27.66%) HTML5
5 1,384 (26.86%) React
6 1,041 (20.21%) jQuery
7 961 (18.65%) Node.js
8 949 (18.42%) CSS3
9 907 (17.60%) ASP.NET
10 718 (13.94%) .NET Core
11 706 (13.70%) Vue.js
12 660 (12.81%) REST
13 652 (12.66%) Sass
14 580 (11.26%) .NET Framework
15 529 (10.27%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 527 (10.23%) Web Services
17 497 (9.65%) RESTful
18 493 (9.57%) ASP.NET Web API
19 466 (9.05%) ASP.NET MVC
20 453 (8.79%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 850 (16.50%) User Experience
2 333 (6.46%) Greenfield Project
3 291 (5.65%) Mobile App
4 270 (5.24%) Analytical Skills
5 112 (2.17%) Enterprise Software
6 102 (1.98%) Self-Motivation
7 94 (1.82%) N-Tier
8 42 (0.82%) Hedge funds
9 38 (0.74%) Cloud Native
9 38 (0.74%) Data Structures
10 33 (0.64%) Algorithms
11 32 (0.62%) e-Learning
12 30 (0.58%) Media Streaming
13 29 (0.56%) Social Media
14 27 (0.52%) Linux Command Line
14 27 (0.52%) Virtual Team
15 26 (0.50%) Embedded Systems
16 23 (0.45%) Blog
16 23 (0.45%) Client/Server
16 23 (0.45%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 387 (7.51%) Linux
2 204 (3.96%) Windows
3 143 (2.78%) Android
4 138 (2.68%) Apple iOS
5 48 (0.93%) Unix
6 37 (0.72%) Windows Server
7 28 (0.54%) CentOS
8 26 (0.50%) Ubuntu
9 8 (0.16%) Debian
10 6 (0.12%) Windows Server 2016
11 5 (0.097%) Fedora
11 5 (0.097%) Windows 10
11 5 (0.097%) Windows Server 2008
12 4 (0.078%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 4 (0.078%) Solaris
12 4 (0.078%) VMS
13 2 (0.039%) AIX
13 2 (0.039%) Windows Server 2012
14 1 (0.019%) Amazon Linux
14 1 (0.019%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,210 (42.90%) Agile Software Development
2 1,213 (23.54%) MVC
3 1,164 (22.59%) Front End Development
4 1,064 (20.65%) Web Development
5 780 (15.14%) DevOps
6 739 (14.34%) Scrum
7 723 (14.03%) TDD
8 648 (12.58%) Software Engineering
9 600 (11.65%) Microservices
10 593 (11.51%) OO
11 457 (8.87%) E-Commerce
12 412 (8.00%) Continuous Integration
13 407 (7.90%) Unit Testing
14 390 (7.57%) Test Automation
15 389 (7.55%) OOP
16 378 (7.34%) Problem-Solving
17 297 (5.76%) SDLC
18 294 (5.71%) Computer Science
19 289 (5.61%) BDD
20 287 (5.57%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 4,372 (84.86%) JavaScript
2 1,687 (32.74%) C#
3 1,378 (26.75%) SQL
4 1,101 (21.37%) PHP
5 834 (16.19%) TypeScript
6 580 (11.26%) Java
7 391 (7.59%) Python
8 270 (5.24%) ES6
9 244 (4.74%) T-SQL
10 141 (2.74%) C++
11 87 (1.69%) PowerShell
12 77 (1.49%) VB.NET
13 76 (1.48%) Ruby
14 62 (1.20%) C
15 60 (1.16%) Go
16 58 (1.13%) Java 8
17 48 (0.93%) PL/SQL
18 38 (0.74%) Apple Swift
18 38 (0.74%) Objective-C
19 37 (0.72%) Apex Code
Qualifications
1 520 (10.09%) Degree
2 189 (3.67%) Computer Science Degree
3 74 (1.44%) Security Cleared
4 57 (1.11%) SC Cleared
5 13 (0.25%) Numerate Degree
6 12 (0.23%) DV Cleared
7 8 (0.16%) HND
7 8 (0.16%) Microsoft Certification
8 5 (0.097%) HNC
9 4 (0.078%) Postgraduate
10 3 (0.058%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.058%) PhD
11 2 (0.039%) CEH
11 2 (0.039%) DBS Check
11 2 (0.039%) MCPD
11 2 (0.039%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.019%) Analytics IQ
12 1 (0.019%) CTC Cleared
12 1 (0.019%) PMI Certification
12 1 (0.019%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 235 (4.56%) QA
2 22 (0.43%) GDPR
3 11 (0.21%) SLA
4 10 (0.19%) WCAG
5 9 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 6 (0.12%) PSD2
7 4 (0.078%) MiFID
8 3 (0.058%) EMIR
8 3 (0.058%) ISO 13485
9 2 (0.039%) NCSC
9 2 (0.039%) NIST
10 1 (0.019%) Data Quality
10 1 (0.019%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 431 (8.37%) Docker
2 17 (0.33%) Active Directory
3 12 (0.23%) Firmware
4 7 (0.14%) vSphere
5 6 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
6 4 (0.078%) Kamailio
6 4 (0.078%) OpenSIPS
7 3 (0.058%) LXC
7 3 (0.058%) Squid
7 3 (0.058%) Virtual Machines
8 2 (0.039%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 2 (0.039%) Varnish
9 1 (0.019%) Hyper-V
9 1 (0.019%) Microsoft Virtual Server
9 1 (0.019%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 220 (4.27%) Kubernetes
2 86 (1.67%) Terraform
3 26 (0.50%) Opscode Chef
4 17 (0.33%) Ansible
5 16 (0.31%) cPanel
6 13 (0.25%) MIIS
6 13 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
7 12 (0.23%) HP UCMDB
8 11 (0.21%) Kibana
9 9 (0.17%) Puppet
10 6 (0.12%) Rancher
11 5 (0.097%) Plesk
12 4 (0.078%) logstash
13 3 (0.058%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
13 3 (0.058%) HAProxy
13 3 (0.058%) vRealize
14 2 (0.039%) Capistrano
14 2 (0.039%) Grafana
15 1 (0.019%) Prometheus
15 1 (0.019%) Rundeck
Vendors
1 574 (11.14%) Microsoft
2 161 (3.13%) Google
3 137 (2.66%) Adobe
4 130 (2.52%) Oracle
5 112 (2.17%) Salesforce.com
6 91 (1.77%) Zend
7 76 (1.48%) Xamarin
8 71 (1.38%) SAP
9 59 (1.15%) ServiceNow
10 43 (0.83%) Atlassian
10 43 (0.83%) VMware
11 33 (0.64%) Nintex
12 30 (0.58%) Siebel
13 28 (0.54%) Splunk
14 27 (0.52%) Sitecore
15 25 (0.49%) Remedy
16 19 (0.37%) Apple
16 19 (0.37%) Databricks
16 19 (0.37%) IBM
17 17 (0.33%) Sparx