Period
to 9 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
9 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 20 18 14
Rank change year-on-year -2 -4 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 10,283 14,517 20,391
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 9.68% 10.51% 12.29%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.69% 26.83% 30.10%
Number of salaries quoted 9,589 13,021 19,303
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £31,250 £27,750 £27,500
90th Percentile £80,000 £75,000 £70,000
UK median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 41,650 54,106 67,733
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 39.21% 39.17% 40.82%
Number of salaries quoted 34,565 44,682 57,580
Median annual salary £55,000 £53,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +2.80% +7.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £31,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £80,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 9 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -7 3,706 £65,000 +8.33% 418
South East 0 2,534 £45,000 - 284
North of England -3 1,510 £45,000 +7.14% 351
Midlands +2 1,058 £42,500 +6.25% 215
North West -2 882 £45,000 +5.88% 194
South West -1 876 £40,000 - 130
West Midlands +3 583 £42,500 +6.25% 117
East of England -3 543 £47,500 - 110
Yorkshire -3 511 £41,500 +3.75% 111
East Midlands -1 475 £42,500 +13.33% 98
North East -2 117 £40,000 +1.27% 46
South Coast - 1 - -
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 9 April 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 9,459 (91.99%) HTML
2 8,657 (84.19%) JavaScript
3 4,484 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
4 3,901 (37.94%) C#
5 3,875 (37.68%) .NET
6 3,578 (34.80%) AngularJS
7 3,019 (29.36%) HTML5
8 2,858 (27.79%) MVC
9 2,763 (26.87%) React
10 2,573 (25.02%) SQL
11 2,519 (24.50%) jQuery
12 2,414 (23.48%) Front End Development
13 2,244 (21.82%) Git (software)
14 2,226 (21.65%) ASP.NET
15 2,150 (20.91%) SQL Server
16 2,085 (20.28%) Web Development
17 2,001 (19.46%) CSS3
18 1,934 (18.81%) PHP
19 1,773 (17.24%) User Experience
20 1,766 (17.17%) Azure
21 1,710 (16.63%) Node.js
22 1,598 (15.54%) Sass
23 1,582 (15.38%) TDD
24 1,484 (14.43%) Finance
25 1,424 (13.85%) Java
26 1,413 (13.74%) Scrum
27 1,389 (13.51%) Software Engineering
28 1,376 (13.38%) MySQL
29 1,326 (12.90%) Web Services
30 1,311 (12.75%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 621 (6.04%) CMS
2 377 (3.67%) WordPress
3 236 (2.30%) SharePoint
4 209 (2.03%) Apache
5 172 (1.67%) Confluence
5 172 (1.67%) IIS
6 162 (1.58%) Elasticsearch
7 133 (1.29%) Umbraco
8 130 (1.26%) Drupal
9 89 (0.87%) nginx
10 87 (0.85%) Tomcat
11 86 (0.84%) Sitecore CMS
12 68 (0.66%) EPiServer
13 50 (0.49%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 43 (0.42%) SharePoint 2013
15 41 (0.40%) JBoss
16 39 (0.38%) ArcGIS
17 36 (0.35%) Kentico
18 34 (0.33%) Oracle Spatial
19 29 (0.28%) Apache Spark
Applications
1 276 (2.68%) Photoshop
2 198 (1.93%) Sketch
3 154 (1.50%) Adobe Illustrator
4 140 (1.36%) InVision
5 109 (1.06%) Microsoft Office
6 100 (0.97%) Microsoft Excel
7 90 (0.88%) Adobe XD
8 66 (0.64%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 64 (0.62%) Zeplin
10 26 (0.25%) InDesign
11 25 (0.24%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 24 (0.23%) Figma
13 20 (0.19%) Chatbot
14 14 (0.14%) UXPin
15 13 (0.13%) Marvel
16 12 (0.12%) Fireworks
16 12 (0.12%) MS Visio
17 10 (0.097%) Adobe After Effects
17 10 (0.097%) MadCap Flare
18 8 (0.078%) Acrobat
Business Applications
1 250 (2.43%) Magento
2 93 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
3 56 (0.54%) Shopify
4 33 (0.32%) Payment Gateway
5 22 (0.21%) NetSuite
6 16 (0.16%) SAP Hybris
7 14 (0.14%) Dynamics AX
8 12 (0.12%) OpenCart
9 11 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
10 8 (0.078%) SDL Web 8
11 7 (0.068%) GoldMine
12 6 (0.058%) Remedy ITSM
13 5 (0.049%) Distributed Ledger
13 5 (0.049%) Oracle Applications
13 5 (0.049%) SAP S/4HANA
14 4 (0.039%) OpenText MBPM
14 4 (0.039%) StreamServe
15 3 (0.029%) Eloqua
15 3 (0.029%) Salesforce.com CRM
16 2 (0.019%) Oracle CRM On Demand
Cloud Services
1 1,766 (17.17%) Azure
2 1,248 (12.14%) AWS
3 526 (5.12%) SaaS
4 375 (3.65%) npm
5 263 (2.56%) GitHub
6 235 (2.29%) Serverless
7 196 (1.91%) GCP
8 146 (1.42%) AWS Lambda
9 120 (1.17%) PaaS
10 113 (1.10%) Power Platform
11 98 (0.95%) Google Analytics
12 89 (0.87%) Amazon S3
13 88 (0.86%) Office 365
14 71 (0.69%) Cloud Computing
15 67 (0.65%) Amazon SQS
16 63 (0.61%) Dynamics 365
17 62 (0.60%) Amazon EC2
18 57 (0.55%) Azure Functions
19 55 (0.53%) PowerApps
20 54 (0.53%) Amazon ECS
Communications & Networking
1 176 (1.71%) Internet
2 158 (1.54%) HTTP
3 72 (0.70%) Intranet
4 48 (0.47%) DNS
5 47 (0.46%) SSL
6 32 (0.31%) VPN
7 24 (0.23%) Firewall
7 24 (0.23%) Network Security
7 24 (0.23%) TCP/IP
8 22 (0.21%) Wireless
9 19 (0.18%) SSH
10 14 (0.14%) RTP
11 13 (0.13%) RFID
11 13 (0.13%) Skype
12 11 (0.11%) AMQP
13 8 (0.078%) Extranet
13 8 (0.078%) VoIP
14 7 (0.068%) Broadband
15 6 (0.058%) FTP
15 6 (0.058%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,150 (20.91%) SQL Server
2 1,376 (13.38%) MySQL
3 478 (4.65%) NoSQL
4 465 (4.52%) Relational Database
5 350 (3.40%) PostgreSQL
6 345 (3.36%) MongoDB
7 164 (1.59%) Redis
8 157 (1.53%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 145 (1.41%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 137 (1.33%) Big Data
11 122 (1.19%) SQL Server 2012
12 117 (1.14%) SQL Server 2016
13 91 (0.88%) RDBMS
14 90 (0.88%) Azure SQL Database
15 88 (0.86%) SQL Server 2008
16 80 (0.78%) Power BI
17 73 (0.71%) Amazon RDS
18 63 (0.61%) Amazon DynamoDB
19 58 (0.56%) Cosmos DB
19 58 (0.56%) GIS
Development Applications
1 2,244 (21.82%) Git (software)
2 644 (6.26%) webpack
3 570 (5.54%) Visual Studio
4 520 (5.06%) JIRA
5 510 (4.96%) gulp
6 463 (4.50%) Jenkins
7 344 (3.35%) Selenium
8 343 (3.34%) Grunt
9 303 (2.95%) Team Foundation Server
10 277 (2.69%) Jasmine
11 226 (2.20%) NUnit
12 206 (2.00%) Subversion
13 163 (1.59%) Bitbucket
14 151 (1.47%) Maven
15 137 (1.33%) Mocha
16 135 (1.31%) Karma Test Runner
16 135 (1.31%) TeamCity
17 117 (1.14%) GitLab
18 116 (1.13%) JUnit
19 114 (1.11%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 1,484 (14.43%) Finance
2 653 (6.35%) Marketing
3 540 (5.25%) Retail
4 264 (2.57%) Banking
5 253 (2.46%) Games
6 126 (1.23%) Public Sector
7 120 (1.17%) Manufacturing
8 106 (1.03%) Advertising
9 96 (0.93%) Telecoms
10 87 (0.85%) Automotive
11 85 (0.83%) Law
12 82 (0.80%) Legal
13 64 (0.62%) Back Office
14 57 (0.55%) Publishing
15 51 (0.50%) Financial Institution
16 49 (0.48%) Electronics
16 49 (0.48%) Front Office
17 44 (0.43%) Investment Banking
18 33 (0.32%) Pharmaceutical
19 32 (0.31%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 8,133 (79.09%) Developer
2 1,861 (18.10%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,673 (16.27%) .NET Developer
4 1,613 (15.69%) Senior Developer
5 1,182 (11.49%) C# Developer
6 1,091 (10.61%) Full Stack Developer
7 939 (9.13%) Software Developer
8 858 (8.34%) PHP Developer
9 849 (8.26%) Web Developer
10 828 (8.05%) JavaScript Developer
11 756 (7.35%) React Developer
12 752 (7.31%) C# .NET Developer
13 588 (5.72%) Software Engineer
14 498 (4.84%) Java Developer
15 479 (4.66%) Junior
16 462 (4.49%) Angular Developer
17 443 (4.31%) Senior Front-End Developer
18 416 (4.05%) Junior Developer
19 317 (3.08%) Designer
20 308 (3.00%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 9,459 (91.99%) HTML
2 3,875 (37.68%) .NET
3 3,578 (34.80%) AngularJS
4 3,019 (29.36%) HTML5
5 2,763 (26.87%) React
6 2,519 (24.50%) jQuery
7 2,226 (21.65%) ASP.NET
8 2,001 (19.46%) CSS3
9 1,710 (16.63%) Node.js
10 1,598 (15.54%) Sass
11 1,326 (12.90%) Web Services
12 1,311 (12.75%) REST
13 1,180 (11.48%) .NET Framework
14 1,139 (11.08%) ASP.NET MVC
15 1,128 (10.97%) Vue.js
16 1,033 (10.05%) RESTful
17 968 (9.41%) ASP.NET Web API
18 956 (9.30%) .NET Core
19 926 (9.01%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 771 (7.50%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 1,773 (17.24%) User Experience
2 759 (7.38%) Greenfield Project
3 634 (6.17%) Mobile App
4 520 (5.06%) Analytical Skills
5 377 (3.67%) Self-Motivation
6 206 (2.00%) Enterprise Software
7 117 (1.14%) Algorithms
8 112 (1.09%) Data Structures
9 106 (1.03%) Linux Command Line
10 88 (0.86%) Hedge funds
11 77 (0.75%) Management Information System
12 73 (0.71%) Cloud Native
13 65 (0.63%) W3C
14 59 (0.57%) Client/Server
15 56 (0.54%) Graphic Design
16 53 (0.52%) Blog
17 51 (0.50%) Animation
17 51 (0.50%) Social Media
18 43 (0.42%) Public Cloud
18 43 (0.42%) Smartphone
Operating Systems
1 793 (7.71%) Linux
2 443 (4.31%) Windows
3 374 (3.64%) Android
4 338 (3.29%) Apple iOS
5 149 (1.45%) Unix
6 68 (0.66%) Mac OS X
7 62 (0.60%) Windows Server
8 50 (0.49%) CentOS
9 39 (0.38%) Ubuntu
10 24 (0.23%) Mac OS
11 23 (0.22%) VMS
12 19 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
13 16 (0.16%) Fedora
14 13 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
15 12 (0.12%) Debian
16 8 (0.078%) Windows Server 2019
17 5 (0.049%) Windows Server 2016
18 4 (0.039%) Windows 7
18 4 (0.039%) Windows Phone
19 3 (0.029%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,484 (43.61%) Agile Software Development
2 2,858 (27.79%) MVC
3 2,414 (23.48%) Front End Development
4 2,085 (20.28%) Web Development
5 1,582 (15.38%) TDD
6 1,413 (13.74%) Scrum
7 1,389 (13.51%) Software Engineering
8 1,157 (11.25%) OO
9 1,147 (11.15%) DevOps
10 982 (9.55%) Problem-Solving
11 896 (8.71%) Test Automation
12 825 (8.02%) Microservices
13 795 (7.73%) E-Commerce
14 784 (7.62%) Computer Science
15 783 (7.61%) Unit Testing
16 755 (7.34%) Continuous Integration
17 736 (7.16%) OOP
18 655 (6.37%) Mentoring
19 636 (6.18%) BDD
20 603 (5.86%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 8,657 (84.19%) JavaScript
2 3,901 (37.94%) C#
3 2,573 (25.02%) SQL
4 1,934 (18.81%) PHP
5 1,424 (13.85%) Java
6 1,168 (11.36%) TypeScript
7 875 (8.51%) Python
8 750 (7.29%) ES6
9 536 (5.21%) T-SQL
10 277 (2.69%) VB.NET
11 271 (2.64%) Ruby
12 216 (2.10%) C++
13 198 (1.93%) Java 8
14 135 (1.31%) C
15 130 (1.26%) PHP 7
16 119 (1.16%) PowerShell
17 93 (0.90%) Bash Shell
18 86 (0.84%) ES7
18 86 (0.84%) Scala
19 83 (0.81%) Go
Qualifications
1 1,088 (10.58%) Degree
2 404 (3.93%) Computer Science Degree
3 177 (1.72%) Security Cleared
4 112 (1.09%) SC Cleared
5 93 (0.90%) Microsoft Certification
6 30 (0.29%) MCSD
7 28 (0.27%) DBS Check
8 25 (0.24%) Master's Degree
9 22 (0.21%) HND
10 19 (0.18%) Postgraduate
11 18 (0.18%) Analytics IQ
12 17 (0.17%) AWS Certification
13 14 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
14 11 (0.11%) DV Cleared
15 10 (0.097%) CIW
16 9 (0.088%) PhD
17 8 (0.078%) BPSS Clearance
17 8 (0.078%) MCAD
17 8 (0.078%) MCP
18 6 (0.058%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 492 (4.78%) QA
2 61 (0.59%) GDPR
3 45 (0.44%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 42 (0.41%) WCAG
5 32 (0.31%) SLA
6 10 (0.097%) ISO 9001
6 10 (0.097%) PCI DSS
6 10 (0.097%) WAI
7 8 (0.078%) PMO
8 6 (0.058%) Data Quality
9 4 (0.039%) SEPA
10 2 (0.019%) ISO 9000
10 2 (0.019%) RMADS
11 1 (0.010%) Disclosure Scotland
11 1 (0.010%) HL7
11 1 (0.010%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 954 (9.28%) Docker
2 46 (0.45%) Active Directory
3 15 (0.15%) Virtual Machines
4 7 (0.068%) Varnish
5 4 (0.039%) LXC
6 3 (0.029%) Squid
6 3 (0.029%) VMware Infrastructure
7 1 (0.010%) Cronacle
7 1 (0.010%) Firmware
7 1 (0.010%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.010%) vSphere
7 1 (0.010%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 417 (4.06%) Kubernetes
2 109 (1.06%) Terraform
3 53 (0.52%) Single Sign-On
4 46 (0.45%) Ansible
5 44 (0.43%) Opscode Chef
6 30 (0.29%) Kibana
7 21 (0.20%) Mesos
8 20 (0.19%) logstash
9 18 (0.18%) cPanel
10 14 (0.14%) Puppet
11 13 (0.13%) Plesk
12 8 (0.078%) HP Quality Center
13 6 (0.058%) HP UCMDB
14 5 (0.049%) Grafana
15 4 (0.039%) FortiGate
15 4 (0.039%) Packer
16 3 (0.029%) CA Single Sign-On
16 3 (0.029%) TeamSite
17 2 (0.019%) MIIS
17 2 (0.019%) SCCM
Vendors
1 1,253 (12.19%) Microsoft
2 410 (3.99%) Adobe
3 375 (3.65%) Google
4 334 (3.25%) Oracle
5 231 (2.25%) Zend
6 173 (1.68%) Xamarin
7 125 (1.22%) Sitecore
8 118 (1.15%) Salesforce.com
9 97 (0.94%) Atlassian
10 77 (0.75%) SAP
11 76 (0.74%) ServiceNow
12 52 (0.51%) IBM
13 40 (0.39%) Tableau
14 38 (0.37%) ESRI
15 27 (0.26%) hybris
16 25 (0.24%) Red Hat
17 22 (0.21%) Facebook
17 22 (0.21%) MuleSoft
17 22 (0.21%) TIBCO
18 20 (0.19%) Splunk