Period
to 3 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 3 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
3 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 22 21 23
Rank change year-on-year -1 +2 -7
Permanent jobs citing CSS 9,431 6,070 13,003
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 9.40% 9.79% 9.76%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 22.64% 23.97% 25.93%
Number of salaries quoted 6,079 5,239 11,248
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £28,000
25th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
75th Percentile £65,000 £63,750 £62,500
90th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £76,250
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 41,649 25,325 50,151
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 41.50% 40.85% 37.64%
Number of salaries quoted 27,655 21,383 42,089
10th Percentile £36,250 £33,750 £32,000
25th Percentile £44,500 £42,500 £39,733
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +10.00%
75th Percentile £77,500 £75,000 £72,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £93,750 £87,500
UK median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 3 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +6 4,041 £65,000 +0.78% 722
South East 0 2,071 £47,500 - 298
North of England -11 1,068 £45,000 - 492
South West -3 934 £45,000 +5.88% 181
Midlands -2 875 £42,500 -5.56% 279
West Midlands -1 582 £45,000 - 166
North West -12 532 £45,000 - 279
Yorkshire -8 458 £45,000 +8.43% 160
East Midlands -6 287 £40,000 -5.88% 112
East of England -10 287 £50,000 +11.11% 120
North East -10 80 £40,000 - 53
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 3 August 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 8,236 (87.33%) HTML
2 7,859 (83.33%) JavaScript
3 4,442 (47.10%) React
4 4,093 (43.40%) Agile Software Development
5 2,973 (31.52%) AngularJS
6 2,705 (28.68%) C#
7 2,635 (27.94%) .NET
8 2,546 (27.00%) Git (software)
9 2,496 (26.47%) Front End Development
10 2,438 (25.85%) HTML5
11 2,354 (24.96%) Full Stack Development
12 2,337 (24.78%) User Experience
13 2,336 (24.77%) SQL
14 2,207 (23.40%) Node.js
15 2,097 (22.24%) TypeScript
16 1,910 (20.25%) Azure
17 1,849 (19.61%) PHP
18 1,786 (18.94%) Software Engineering
19 1,771 (18.78%) CSS3
20 1,710 (18.13%) Social Skills
21 1,643 (17.42%) Web Development
22 1,632 (17.30%) MVC
23 1,592 (16.88%) jQuery
24 1,572 (16.67%) AWS
25 1,568 (16.63%) Finance
26 1,506 (15.97%) Java
27 1,485 (15.75%) SQL Server
28 1,462 (15.50%) DevOps
29 1,413 (14.98%) MySQL
30 1,408 (14.93%) Vue.js

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 796 (8.44%) CMS
2 503 (5.33%) WordPress
3 365 (3.87%) Apache
4 232 (2.46%) Apache Spark
5 211 (2.24%) Confluence
5 211 (2.24%) Elasticsearch
6 204 (2.16%) SharePoint
7 184 (1.95%) GemFire
8 164 (1.74%) IIS
9 140 (1.48%) nginx
10 127 (1.35%) Drupal
11 120 (1.27%) Umbraco
12 99 (1.05%) Apache Solr
13 88 (0.93%) Tomcat
14 74 (0.78%) EPiServer
15 66 (0.70%) Kentico
16 62 (0.66%) Headless CMS
17 61 (0.65%) GeoServer
18 55 (0.58%) Sitecore CMS
19 42 (0.45%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 214 (2.27%) Sketch
2 182 (1.93%) Photoshop
3 158 (1.68%) Figma
4 129 (1.37%) Adobe Illustrator
5 112 (1.19%) InVision
6 97 (1.03%) Adobe XD
7 95 (1.01%) Microsoft Office
8 84 (0.89%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 42 (0.45%) Microsoft Excel
10 34 (0.36%) Zeplin
11 32 (0.34%) GIMP
12 27 (0.29%) InDesign
13 26 (0.28%) Chatbot
14 24 (0.25%) Adobe After Effects
15 20 (0.21%) Campfire
15 20 (0.21%) Microsoft PowerPoint
15 20 (0.21%) UXPin
16 11 (0.12%) MS Visio
17 10 (0.11%) Adobe Premiere
18 9 (0.095%) InfoPath
Business Applications
1 215 (2.28%) Magento
2 151 (1.60%) Shopify
3 91 (0.96%) Dynamics CRM
4 69 (0.73%) Payment Gateway
5 26 (0.28%) WebTrends
6 19 (0.20%) Remedy ITSM
7 8 (0.085%) OpenCart
8 7 (0.074%) NetSuite
9 6 (0.064%) Dynamics NAV
9 6 (0.064%) SDL Web 8
10 5 (0.053%) Dynamics AX
10 5 (0.053%) SAP Hybris
10 5 (0.053%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 3 (0.032%) nopCommerce
11 3 (0.032%) Sage 300 ERP
11 3 (0.032%) Sage CRM
11 3 (0.032%) SessionCam
11 3 (0.032%) Workfront
12 2 (0.021%) Adobe Campaign
12 2 (0.021%) Summit
Cloud Services
1 1,910 (20.25%) Azure
2 1,572 (16.67%) AWS
3 691 (7.33%) SaaS
4 608 (6.45%) GitHub
5 430 (4.56%) GCP
6 422 (4.47%) Serverless
7 419 (4.44%) npm
8 250 (2.65%) AWS Lambda
9 183 (1.94%) PaaS
10 173 (1.83%) Amazon S3
11 161 (1.71%) Power Platform
12 150 (1.59%) Amazon EC2
13 123 (1.30%) Amazon Kinesis
14 122 (1.29%) Yarn
15 106 (1.12%) AWS CloudFormation
16 104 (1.10%) OpenShift
17 100 (1.06%) Microsoft 365
18 99 (1.05%) Azure Functions
19 97 (1.03%) Google Analytics
20 91 (0.96%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 305 (3.23%) HTTP
2 163 (1.73%) Internet
3 88 (0.93%) DNS
4 70 (0.74%) Broadband
4 70 (0.74%) SSL
5 45 (0.48%) Wireless
6 35 (0.37%) Intranet
7 31 (0.33%) TCP/IP
8 24 (0.25%) FTP
8 24 (0.25%) MQTT
8 24 (0.25%) SSH
9 23 (0.24%) VPN
10 22 (0.23%) Ethernet
11 20 (0.21%) Extranet
11 20 (0.21%) Firewall
12 19 (0.20%) Bluetooth
12 19 (0.20%) Wi-Fi
13 15 (0.16%) Skype
14 14 (0.15%) SMS
14 14 (0.15%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,485 (15.75%) SQL Server
2 1,413 (14.98%) MySQL
3 716 (7.59%) NoSQL
4 713 (7.56%) PostgreSQL
5 543 (5.76%) Relational Database
6 453 (4.80%) Redis
7 428 (4.54%) MongoDB
8 270 (2.86%) MariaDB
9 238 (2.52%) Big Data
10 181 (1.92%) HBase
11 111 (1.18%) Power BI
12 110 (1.17%) Amazon RDS
13 83 (0.88%) Azure SQL Database
14 79 (0.84%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 69 (0.73%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 69 (0.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 66 (0.70%) GIS
17 65 (0.69%) Oracle Database
18 64 (0.68%) QGIS
19 56 (0.59%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 2,546 (27.00%) Git (software)
2 797 (8.45%) webpack
3 620 (6.57%) Jenkins
4 613 (6.50%) JIRA
5 465 (4.93%) Cypress.io
6 407 (4.32%) gulp
7 336 (3.56%) Visual Studio
8 330 (3.50%) Storybook
9 290 (3.07%) JUnit
10 282 (2.99%) Cucumber
11 261 (2.77%) Protractor
12 256 (2.71%) Gradle
13 229 (2.43%) Bitbucket
14 211 (2.24%) Eclipse
15 198 (2.10%) Mockito
15 198 (2.10%) Selenium
15 198 (2.10%) Sonatype Nexus
16 190 (2.01%) IntelliJ
17 182 (1.93%) Jasmine
18 174 (1.84%) Grunt
General
1 1,710 (18.13%) Social Skills
2 1,568 (16.63%) Finance
3 756 (8.02%) Marketing
4 528 (5.60%) Retail
5 480 (5.09%) Analytical Skills
6 461 (4.89%) Banking
7 340 (3.61%) Games
8 307 (3.26%) Law
9 270 (2.86%) Inclusion and Diversity
10 219 (2.32%) Public Sector
11 167 (1.77%) Manufacturing
12 145 (1.54%) Organisational Skills
13 133 (1.41%) Publishing
14 127 (1.35%) Telecoms
15 124 (1.31%) Legal
16 107 (1.13%) Advertising
17 82 (0.87%) Presentation Skills
18 79 (0.84%) Automotive
19 67 (0.71%) Electronics
20 63 (0.67%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 6,633 (70.33%) Developer
2 1,711 (18.14%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,388 (14.72%) Senior Developer
4 984 (10.43%) Full Stack Developer
5 908 (9.63%) .NET Developer
6 905 (9.60%) Software Engineer
7 783 (8.30%) PHP Developer
8 760 (8.06%) Software Developer
9 700 (7.42%) React Developer
10 644 (6.83%) C# Developer
11 574 (6.09%) Web Developer
12 451 (4.78%) JavaScript Developer
13 420 (4.45%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 412 (4.37%) C# .NET Developer
15 336 (3.56%) Angular Developer
16 297 (3.15%) Lead Developer
17 278 (2.95%) Java Developer
18 268 (2.84%) Designer
19 251 (2.66%) Junior
20 223 (2.36%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 8,236 (87.33%) HTML
2 4,442 (47.10%) React
3 2,973 (31.52%) AngularJS
4 2,635 (27.94%) .NET
5 2,438 (25.85%) HTML5
6 2,207 (23.40%) Node.js
7 1,771 (18.78%) CSS3
8 1,592 (16.88%) jQuery
9 1,408 (14.93%) Vue.js
10 1,388 (14.72%) Sass
11 1,375 (14.58%) REST
12 1,344 (14.25%) RESTful
13 1,128 (11.96%) ASP.NET
14 1,106 (11.73%) .NET Core
15 1,070 (11.35%) Redux
16 1,060 (11.24%) Web Services
17 1,025 (10.87%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 796 (8.44%) JSON
19 793 (8.41%) .NET Framework
20 663 (7.03%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 2,337 (24.78%) User Experience
2 665 (7.05%) Mobile App
3 524 (5.56%) Greenfield Project
4 418 (4.43%) Self-Motivation
5 259 (2.75%) Linux Command Line
6 197 (2.09%) Virtual Team
7 177 (1.88%) Enterprise Software
8 156 (1.65%) Legacy Systems
9 155 (1.64%) Data Structures
10 127 (1.35%) Algorithms
11 122 (1.29%) Blog
12 97 (1.03%) N-Tier
13 87 (0.92%) Social Media
14 82 (0.87%) Legacy Code
15 79 (0.84%) Client/Server
16 74 (0.78%) NHS
17 72 (0.76%) Animation
17 72 (0.76%) Cloud Native
18 69 (0.73%) Hedge funds
19 66 (0.70%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 973 (10.32%) Linux
2 419 (4.44%) Windows
3 356 (3.77%) Android
4 333 (3.53%) Apple iOS
5 265 (2.81%) Unix
6 127 (1.35%) Ubuntu
7 72 (0.76%) Windows Server
8 42 (0.45%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 37 (0.39%) CentOS
10 16 (0.17%) Windows 10
11 12 (0.13%) Debian
11 12 (0.13%) VMS
11 12 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
12 11 (0.12%) Windows 7
13 9 (0.095%) Windows Server 2016
14 7 (0.074%) tvOS
15 6 (0.064%) Windows 8
15 6 (0.064%) Windows Server 2008
15 6 (0.064%) Windows Server 2019
16 5 (0.053%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,093 (43.40%) Agile Software Development
2 2,496 (26.47%) Front End Development
3 2,354 (24.96%) Full Stack Development
4 1,786 (18.94%) Software Engineering
5 1,643 (17.42%) Web Development
6 1,632 (17.30%) MVC
7 1,462 (15.50%) DevOps
8 1,385 (14.69%) TDD
9 1,349 (14.30%) Scrum
10 1,291 (13.69%) Microservices
11 1,122 (11.90%) Problem-Solving
12 1,045 (11.08%) OO
13 977 (10.36%) Unit Testing
14 967 (10.25%) E-Commerce
15 942 (9.99%) Computer Science
16 875 (9.28%) Test Automation
17 794 (8.42%) Continuous Integration
18 759 (8.05%) Mentoring
19 636 (6.74%) Clean Code
20 628 (6.66%) OOP
Programming Languages
1 7,859 (83.33%) JavaScript
2 2,705 (28.68%) C#
3 2,336 (24.77%) SQL
4 2,097 (22.24%) TypeScript
5 1,849 (19.61%) PHP
6 1,506 (15.97%) Java
7 1,082 (11.47%) Python
8 840 (8.91%) ES6
9 427 (4.53%) T-SQL
10 255 (2.70%) Ruby
11 214 (2.27%) Shell Script
12 208 (2.21%) Groovy
13 167 (1.77%) Java 8
14 156 (1.65%) PowerShell
15 148 (1.57%) C++
15 148 (1.57%) Go
16 131 (1.39%) Kotlin
17 124 (1.31%) VB.NET
18 116 (1.23%) ES7
19 111 (1.18%) C
Qualifications
1 1,159 (12.29%) Degree
2 382 (4.05%) Computer Science Degree
3 224 (2.38%) OCP
3 224 (2.38%) Oracle Certification
4 178 (1.89%) Security Cleared
5 105 (1.11%) SC Cleared
6 83 (0.88%) Master's Degree
7 78 (0.83%) Microsoft Certification
8 54 (0.57%) CIW
8 54 (0.57%) OCA
9 41 (0.43%) AWS Certification
10 33 (0.35%) DV Cleared
11 30 (0.32%) PhD
12 23 (0.24%) SANS
13 18 (0.19%) Numerate Degree
14 16 (0.17%) HND
15 11 (0.12%) DBS Check
16 9 (0.095%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
17 7 (0.074%) BPSS Clearance
17 7 (0.074%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 588 (6.23%) Accessibility
2 429 (4.55%) QA
3 115 (1.22%) WCAG
4 48 (0.51%) GDPR
5 45 (0.48%) PCI DSS
6 16 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 13 (0.14%) WAI
8 12 (0.13%) Actionable Recommendations
9 9 (0.095%) Data Quality
10 8 (0.085%) SLA
11 7 (0.074%) ISO 13485
12 4 (0.042%) IEC 62304
13 2 (0.021%) Good Clinical Practice
13 2 (0.021%) GRC
14 1 (0.011%) PMO
System Software
1 1,127 (11.95%) Docker
2 176 (1.87%) HDFS
3 139 (1.47%) VMware Infrastructure
4 33 (0.35%) Active Directory
5 19 (0.20%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 19 (0.20%) Firmware
6 10 (0.11%) Hyper-V
7 8 (0.085%) Varnish
8 7 (0.074%) Ceph
8 7 (0.074%) Virtual Servers
9 6 (0.064%) VMware ESXi
10 5 (0.053%) Virtual Machines
11 3 (0.032%) Kamailio
11 3 (0.032%) OpenSIPS
11 3 (0.032%) Terminal Services
12 1 (0.011%) LXC
12 1 (0.011%) VirtualBox
12 1 (0.011%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 658 (6.98%) Kubernetes
2 278 (2.95%) Ansible
3 253 (2.68%) Terraform
4 161 (1.71%) Opscode Chef
5 38 (0.40%) Graphite
6 32 (0.34%) Grafana
7 26 (0.28%) Graylog
7 26 (0.28%) Opsgenie
8 24 (0.25%) Hadoop YARN
9 19 (0.20%) HP UCMDB
10 17 (0.18%) Prometheus
11 15 (0.16%) Active Directory Federation Services
11 15 (0.16%) Puppet
12 14 (0.15%) Kibana
12 14 (0.15%) Packer
13 12 (0.13%) Bugsnag
13 12 (0.13%) MIIS
13 12 (0.13%) Rancher
14 10 (0.11%) Docker Swarm
15 9 (0.095%) HP Fortify
Vendors
1 942 (9.99%) Microsoft
2 455 (4.82%) Google
3 415 (4.40%) Adobe
4 348 (3.69%) Oracle
5 231 (2.45%) VMware
6 203 (2.15%) Okta
7 143 (1.52%) Salesforce.com
8 103 (1.09%) Atlassian
9 98 (1.04%) Xamarin
10 95 (1.01%) WooCommerce
10 95 (1.01%) Zend
11 79 (0.84%) Apple
12 71 (0.75%) Sitecore
13 63 (0.67%) SAP
14 59 (0.63%) Nintex
15 52 (0.55%) IBM
16 46 (0.49%) Splunk
17 45 (0.48%) OutSystems
18 44 (0.47%) ServiceNow
19 42 (0.45%) Samsung