Period
to 26 February 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 26 February 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
26 Feb 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 18 20 16
Rank change year-on-year +2 -4 -2
Permanent jobs citing CSS 6,690 10,955 15,300
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 10.02% 9.63% 10.88%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.07% 24.90% 27.45%
Number of salaries quoted 6,935 10,311 13,886
Median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £28,750
90th Percentile £75,000 £78,750 £76,250
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
% change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 27,796 43,988 55,732
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 41.61% 38.68% 39.64%
Number of salaries quoted 23,378 36,839 46,641
Median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £91,250 £90,000 £85,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 26 February 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 26 February 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 1,962 £65,000 +4.00% 491
South East +3 1,476 £50,000 +11.11% 309
North of England +4 1,199 £42,500 -5.56% 454
Midlands +3 864 £43,000 +7.50% 286
South West +1 752 £45,000 +12.50% 174
North West +3 622 £45,000 - 239
West Midlands +5 508 £45,000 +9.76% 181
Yorkshire +6 479 £42,500 +2.41% 169
East Midlands 0 354 £42,500 +6.25% 105
East of England +3 332 £45,000 -10.00% 93
North East +1 98 £45,000 +12.50% 46
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 26 February 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,168 (92.20%) HTML
2 5,814 (86.91%) JavaScript
3 2,787 (41.66%) Agile Software Development
4 2,254 (33.69%) C#
5 2,185 (32.66%) .NET
6 1,985 (29.67%) React
7 1,923 (28.74%) HTML5
8 1,912 (28.58%) AngularJS
9 1,895 (28.33%) SQL
10 1,603 (23.96%) Front End Development
11 1,579 (23.60%) Git (software)
12 1,565 (23.39%) MVC
13 1,528 (22.84%) PHP
14 1,509 (22.56%) Azure
15 1,374 (20.54%) Web Development
16 1,361 (20.34%) CSS3
17 1,330 (19.88%) jQuery
18 1,283 (19.18%) SQL Server
19 1,255 (18.76%) Node.js
20 1,190 (17.79%) User Experience
21 1,072 (16.02%) TypeScript
22 1,050 (15.70%) ASP.NET
23 1,038 (15.52%) MySQL
24 998 (14.92%) DevOps
25 993 (14.84%) Vue.js
26 948 (14.17%) Java
27 910 (13.60%) Scrum
28 865 (12.93%) .NET Core
29 858 (12.83%) TDD
30 848 (12.68%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 489 (7.31%) CMS
2 320 (4.78%) WordPress
3 223 (3.33%) SharePoint
4 135 (2.02%) Confluence
5 125 (1.87%) Apache
6 119 (1.78%) IIS
7 105 (1.57%) Drupal
8 103 (1.54%) Umbraco
9 78 (1.17%) Elasticsearch
10 77 (1.15%) Sitecore CMS
11 75 (1.12%) EPiServer
12 59 (0.88%) Tomcat
13 51 (0.76%) nginx
14 46 (0.69%) Kentico
15 39 (0.58%) NServiceBus
16 33 (0.49%) Apache Solr
17 27 (0.40%) Joomla!
18 22 (0.33%) Apache Spark
19 20 (0.30%) Adobe Experience Manager
20 19 (0.28%) JBoss
Applications
1 124 (1.85%) Photoshop
2 120 (1.79%) Sketch
3 99 (1.48%) InVision
4 71 (1.06%) Adobe Illustrator
4 71 (1.06%) Figma
5 60 (0.90%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 57 (0.85%) Adobe XD
7 41 (0.61%) Microsoft Office
8 35 (0.52%) Microsoft Excel
9 24 (0.36%) Zeplin
10 13 (0.19%) Chatbot
11 11 (0.16%) InDesign
12 9 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 7 (0.10%) MS Visio
13 7 (0.10%) Spreadsheet
14 5 (0.075%) Adobe After Effects
15 4 (0.060%) UXPin
16 3 (0.045%) GIMP
17 2 (0.030%) InfoPath
17 2 (0.030%) SOLIDWORKS
Business Applications
1 203 (3.03%) Magento
2 157 (2.35%) Dynamics CRM
3 106 (1.58%) Shopify
4 40 (0.60%) Payment Gateway
5 25 (0.37%) OpenCart
6 18 (0.27%) nopCommerce
6 18 (0.27%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 15 (0.22%) Siebel CRM
8 13 (0.19%) Remedy ITSM
9 8 (0.12%) NetSuite
10 7 (0.10%) Maximo
11 6 (0.090%) Adobe Campaign
12 5 (0.075%) Dynamics NAV
12 5 (0.075%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 4 (0.060%) Bond Adapt
14 3 (0.045%) Odoo
14 3 (0.045%) Oracle Applications
15 2 (0.030%) Oracle CRM On Demand
15 2 (0.030%) Unica
16 1 (0.015%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 1,509 (22.56%) Azure
2 791 (11.82%) AWS
3 449 (6.71%) SaaS
4 201 (3.00%) Serverless
5 198 (2.96%) Power Platform
6 197 (2.94%) PaaS
7 187 (2.80%) GCP
8 169 (2.53%) npm
9 166 (2.48%) Dynamics 365
10 157 (2.35%) GitHub
11 97 (1.45%) AWS Lambda
12 75 (1.12%) Azure Functions
13 74 (1.11%) Azure Active Directory
14 64 (0.96%) PowerApps
15 60 (0.90%) IaaS
16 59 (0.88%) Amazon EC2
16 59 (0.88%) Google Analytics
17 51 (0.76%) Amazon S3
18 48 (0.72%) Microsoft 365
19 46 (0.69%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 139 (2.08%) HTTP
2 78 (1.17%) Internet
3 35 (0.52%) Skype
4 31 (0.46%) SSL
5 27 (0.40%) Intranet
5 27 (0.40%) TCP/IP
6 22 (0.33%) Network Security
6 22 (0.33%) Wireless
7 21 (0.31%) VPN
8 19 (0.28%) DNS
9 18 (0.27%) MQTT
10 17 (0.25%) Ethernet
11 16 (0.24%) Wi-Fi
12 15 (0.22%) RTP
13 14 (0.21%) Bluetooth
14 11 (0.16%) FTP
14 11 (0.16%) SSH
15 10 (0.15%) Firewall
15 10 (0.15%) SMS
16 9 (0.13%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,283 (19.18%) SQL Server
2 1,038 (15.52%) MySQL
3 303 (4.53%) NoSQL
4 294 (4.39%) Relational Database
5 286 (4.28%) MongoDB
6 234 (3.50%) PostgreSQL
7 106 (1.58%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 105 (1.57%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 96 (1.43%) Azure SQL Database
9 96 (1.43%) Redis
10 83 (1.24%) SQL Server 2012
11 75 (1.12%) Big Data
12 72 (1.08%) Power BI
13 45 (0.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 44 (0.66%) Amazon RDS
15 42 (0.63%) RDBMS
16 39 (0.58%) Data Lake
17 35 (0.52%) Cosmos DB
18 32 (0.48%) SQL Server 2019
19 31 (0.46%) SQL Server 2008
Development Applications
1 1,579 (23.60%) Git (software)
2 301 (4.50%) JIRA
3 293 (4.38%) Visual Studio
4 278 (4.16%) webpack
5 252 (3.77%) Team Foundation Server
6 226 (3.38%) gulp
7 204 (3.05%) Jenkins
8 151 (2.26%) Grunt
9 133 (1.99%) Visual Studio Team System
10 127 (1.90%) Selenium
11 101 (1.51%) Bitbucket
12 99 (1.48%) JUnit
13 95 (1.42%) Maven
14 91 (1.36%) NUnit
15 83 (1.24%) Cypress.io
16 78 (1.17%) Jasmine
17 73 (1.09%) Subversion
18 60 (0.90%) TeamCity
19 57 (0.85%) Mocha
19 57 (0.85%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 748 (11.18%) Finance
2 404 (6.04%) Marketing
3 276 (4.13%) Retail
4 248 (3.71%) Public Sector
5 193 (2.88%) Games
6 153 (2.29%) Manufacturing
7 150 (2.24%) Banking
8 132 (1.97%) Telecoms
9 80 (1.20%) Electronics
9 80 (1.20%) Multimedia
10 78 (1.17%) Law
11 72 (1.08%) Automotive
11 72 (1.08%) Back Office
12 68 (1.02%) Advertising
13 49 (0.73%) Publishing
14 48 (0.72%) Private Banking
15 33 (0.49%) Local Government
16 31 (0.46%) Legal
17 30 (0.45%) Front Office
18 27 (0.40%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 5,442 (81.35%) Developer
2 1,197 (17.89%) Senior Developer
3 1,141 (17.06%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 859 (12.84%) .NET Developer
5 804 (12.02%) Full Stack Developer
6 713 (10.66%) PHP Developer
7 623 (9.31%) C# Developer
8 600 (8.97%) Software Developer
9 537 (8.03%) React Developer
10 534 (7.98%) Web Developer
11 512 (7.65%) JavaScript Developer
12 450 (6.73%) C# .NET Developer
13 332 (4.96%) Software Engineer
14 289 (4.32%) Angular Developer
15 271 (4.05%) Senior .NET Developer
16 265 (3.96%) Java Developer
17 257 (3.84%) Lead Developer
18 250 (3.74%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 243 (3.63%) Junior
20 217 (3.24%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,168 (92.20%) HTML
2 2,185 (32.66%) .NET
3 1,985 (29.67%) React
4 1,923 (28.74%) HTML5
5 1,912 (28.58%) AngularJS
6 1,361 (20.34%) CSS3
7 1,330 (19.88%) jQuery
8 1,255 (18.76%) Node.js
9 1,050 (15.70%) ASP.NET
10 993 (14.84%) Vue.js
11 865 (12.93%) .NET Core
12 848 (12.68%) Sass
13 785 (11.73%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 730 (10.91%) REST
15 701 (10.48%) .NET Framework
16 653 (9.76%) RESTful
17 647 (9.67%) Web Services
18 570 (8.52%) ASP.NET Web API
19 561 (8.39%) Laravel
20 509 (7.61%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 1,190 (17.79%) User Experience
2 464 (6.94%) Greenfield Project
3 410 (6.13%) Analytical Skills
4 332 (4.96%) Mobile App
5 205 (3.06%) Enterprise Software
6 186 (2.78%) Self-Motivation
7 160 (2.39%) N-Tier
8 72 (1.08%) Data Structures
9 61 (0.91%) Linux Command Line
10 55 (0.82%) Virtual Team
11 53 (0.79%) Cloud Native
12 47 (0.70%) Graphic Design
13 45 (0.67%) Algorithms
14 42 (0.63%) Social Media
15 39 (0.58%) Client/Server
15 39 (0.58%) Reinsurance
16 37 (0.55%) Public Cloud
17 35 (0.52%) Blog
17 35 (0.52%) Management Information System
18 34 (0.51%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 537 (8.03%) Linux
2 334 (4.99%) Windows
3 163 (2.44%) Android
4 156 (2.33%) Apple iOS
5 78 (1.17%) Windows Server
6 60 (0.90%) Unix
7 47 (0.70%) Ubuntu
8 24 (0.36%) CentOS
8 24 (0.36%) Debian
9 7 (0.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 7 (0.10%) VMS
9 7 (0.10%) Windows 7
9 7 (0.10%) Windows Server 2008
10 5 (0.075%) Solaris
10 5 (0.075%) Windows 10
11 4 (0.060%) Windows Server 2016
12 3 (0.045%) AIX
12 3 (0.045%) Windows Server 2012
13 2 (0.030%) Mac OS X
14 1 (0.015%) Fedora
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,787 (41.66%) Agile Software Development
2 1,603 (23.96%) Front End Development
3 1,565 (23.39%) MVC
4 1,374 (20.54%) Web Development
5 998 (14.92%) DevOps
6 910 (13.60%) Scrum
7 858 (12.83%) TDD
8 811 (12.12%) Microservices
9 788 (11.78%) OO
10 775 (11.58%) Software Engineering
11 634 (9.48%) E-Commerce
12 546 (8.16%) Test Automation
13 507 (7.58%) Unit Testing
14 472 (7.06%) OOP
15 470 (7.03%) Problem-Solving
16 469 (7.01%) Continuous Integration
17 407 (6.08%) Mentoring
18 397 (5.93%) Computer Science
19 380 (5.68%) SDLC
20 361 (5.40%) SOLID
Programming Languages
1 5,814 (86.91%) JavaScript
2 2,254 (33.69%) C#
3 1,895 (28.33%) SQL
4 1,528 (22.84%) PHP
5 1,072 (16.02%) TypeScript
6 948 (14.17%) Java
7 598 (8.94%) Python
8 390 (5.83%) ES6
9 362 (5.41%) T-SQL
10 154 (2.30%) PowerShell
11 125 (1.87%) Ruby
12 122 (1.82%) C++
13 107 (1.60%) Java 8
14 102 (1.52%) VB.NET
15 74 (1.11%) Go
16 68 (1.02%) C
17 64 (0.96%) Scala
18 60 (0.90%) Kotlin
19 55 (0.82%) PHP 7
20 54 (0.81%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 688 (10.28%) Degree
2 204 (3.05%) Computer Science Degree
3 106 (1.58%) Security Cleared
4 95 (1.42%) SC Cleared
5 35 (0.52%) Microsoft Certification
6 28 (0.42%) CIW
6 28 (0.42%) OCA
6 28 (0.42%) OCP
6 28 (0.42%) Oracle Certification
7 15 (0.22%) SANS
8 14 (0.21%) DV Cleared
9 12 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
10 9 (0.13%) PMI Certification
11 8 (0.12%) HND
11 8 (0.12%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 7 (0.10%) Postgraduate
13 6 (0.090%) AWS Certification
13 6 (0.090%) Master's Degree
14 5 (0.075%) PhD
14 5 (0.075%) Six Sigma Black Belt
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 319 (4.77%) QA
2 40 (0.60%) WCAG
3 19 (0.28%) GDPR
4 17 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 15 (0.22%) WAI
6 11 (0.16%) SLA
7 4 (0.060%) PSD2
8 3 (0.045%) ISO 13485
9 2 (0.030%) Good Clinical Practice
9 2 (0.030%) NCSC
9 2 (0.030%) PMO
10 1 (0.015%) Actionable Recommendations
10 1 (0.015%) Data Quality
10 1 (0.015%) NIST
System Software
1 598 (8.94%) Docker
2 26 (0.39%) Active Directory
3 8 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
4 7 (0.10%) Kamailio
4 7 (0.10%) OpenSIPS
5 6 (0.090%) Firmware
6 5 (0.075%) Virtual Machines
7 4 (0.060%) KVM
8 3 (0.045%) Varnish
9 1 (0.015%) Citrix Hypervisor
9 1 (0.015%) LXC
9 1 (0.015%) Terminal Services
9 1 (0.015%) VirtualBox
9 1 (0.015%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 308 (4.60%) Kubernetes
2 150 (2.24%) Terraform
3 74 (1.11%) Opscode Chef
4 42 (0.63%) Ansible
5 33 (0.49%) Puppet
6 16 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
7 13 (0.19%) HP UCMDB
7 13 (0.19%) MIIS
8 7 (0.10%) Docker Swarm
9 6 (0.090%) Kibana
9 6 (0.090%) Packer
10 5 (0.075%) HP Fortify
11 3 (0.045%) cPanel
11 3 (0.045%) HAProxy
11 3 (0.045%) Plesk
11 3 (0.045%) Prometheus
11 3 (0.045%) Rancher
11 3 (0.045%) vRealize
12 2 (0.030%) Icinga
12 2 (0.030%) Salt
Vendors
1 826 (12.35%) Microsoft
2 236 (3.53%) Adobe
3 230 (3.44%) Google
4 157 (2.35%) Oracle
5 103 (1.54%) Sitecore
6 91 (1.36%) Zend
7 87 (1.30%) Salesforce.com
8 83 (1.24%) SAP
9 79 (1.18%) Nintex
10 72 (1.08%) Xamarin
11 54 (0.81%) Atlassian
12 36 (0.54%) Databricks
13 34 (0.51%) VMware
14 31 (0.46%) IBM
15 30 (0.45%) ServiceNow
16 29 (0.43%) Apple
17 28 (0.42%) Siebel
18 26 (0.39%) WooCommerce
19 19 (0.28%) Splunk
20 18 (0.27%) Sparx