Period
to 17 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
17 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 28 19 22
Rank change year-on-year -9 +3 -5
Permanent jobs citing CSS 8,835 5,684 11,196
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 8.11% 10.28% 9.59%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.28% 24.18% 25.16%
Number of salaries quoted 5,402 5,020 9,840
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,750 £29,750
25th Percentile £40,000 £37,500 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £68,750 £63,750 £63,750
90th Percentile £85,000 £75,000 £77,500
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 41,515 23,505 44,504
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 38.13% 42.50% 38.14%
Number of salaries quoted 26,923 20,429 37,138
10th Percentile £37,500 £35,000 £32,500
25th Percentile £46,250 £43,750 £41,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +8.70% +4.55% +4.76%
75th Percentile £82,500 £75,000 £75,000
90th Percentile £100,000 £90,000 £90,000
UK median annual salary £60,000 £56,375 £55,000
% change year-on-year +6.43% +2.50% +4.76%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 17 January 2022.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 17 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -3 3,817 £65,000 - 573
South East -10 1,778 £50,000 - 244
North of England -10 1,320 £45,000 +5.88% 394
Midlands -7 924 £45,000 +5.88% 219
North West -14 661 £47,500 +5.56% 206
South West -11 652 £47,500 +3.26% 124
Yorkshire -8 556 £45,000 +7.14% 135
West Midlands -9 539 £47,500 +11.76% 135
East Midlands -7 354 £45,000 +12.50% 83
East of England -64 200 £50,000 +17.65% 103
North East -11 103 £44,000 +1.15% 53
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 17 January 2022, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 8,015 (90.72%) HTML
2 7,501 (84.90%) JavaScript
3 4,036 (45.68%) React
4 3,705 (41.94%) Agile Software Development
5 2,777 (31.43%) HTML5
6 2,507 (28.38%) AngularJS
7 2,479 (28.06%) C#
8 2,420 (27.39%) Git (software)
9 2,233 (25.27%) Full Stack Development
10 2,168 (24.54%) Front End Development
11 2,090 (23.66%) .NET
12 1,985 (22.47%) CSS3
13 1,981 (22.42%) Node.js
14 1,957 (22.15%) User Experience
15 1,894 (21.44%) TypeScript
16 1,806 (20.44%) SQL
17 1,783 (20.18%) Software Engineering
18 1,759 (19.91%) Java
19 1,726 (19.54%) Social Skills
20 1,622 (18.36%) PHP
21 1,618 (18.31%) Web Development
22 1,591 (18.01%) Azure
23 1,509 (17.08%) jQuery
24 1,486 (16.82%) AWS
25 1,415 (16.02%) Python
26 1,408 (15.94%) Finance
27 1,383 (15.65%) DevOps
28 1,363 (15.43%) MVC
29 1,362 (15.42%) TDD
30 1,305 (14.77%) MySQL

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 768 (8.69%) CMS
2 480 (5.43%) WordPress
3 256 (2.90%) Apache
4 197 (2.23%) Confluence
5 187 (2.12%) Elasticsearch
6 122 (1.38%) SharePoint
7 116 (1.31%) Drupal
8 115 (1.30%) Umbraco
9 107 (1.21%) nginx
10 89 (1.01%) Tomcat
11 81 (0.92%) Apache Spark
12 80 (0.91%) IIS
13 61 (0.69%) GeoServer
14 60 (0.68%) GemFire
15 57 (0.65%) Headless CMS
16 56 (0.63%) Sitecore CMS
17 54 (0.61%) EPiServer
18 38 (0.43%) Apache Solr
18 38 (0.43%) Joomla!
19 34 (0.38%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 184 (2.08%) Sketch
2 165 (1.87%) Photoshop
3 120 (1.36%) Adobe XD
4 117 (1.32%) Microsoft Office
5 107 (1.21%) InVision
6 89 (1.01%) Adobe Illustrator
7 85 (0.96%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 62 (0.70%) Microsoft Excel
9 30 (0.34%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 22 (0.25%) Chatbot
11 21 (0.24%) Zeplin
12 20 (0.23%) InDesign
13 13 (0.15%) OmniGraffle
14 12 (0.14%) Campfire
15 11 (0.12%) GIMP
15 11 (0.12%) MS Visio
16 8 (0.091%) Adobe After Effects
16 8 (0.091%) Adobe Premiere
17 6 (0.068%) InfoPath
17 6 (0.068%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 166 (1.88%) Magento
2 88 (1.00%) Shopify
3 70 (0.79%) Payment Gateway
4 49 (0.55%) Dynamics CRM
5 18 (0.20%) Summit
6 13 (0.15%) WebTrends
7 11 (0.12%) NetSuite
8 9 (0.10%) Remedy ITSM
8 9 (0.10%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 7 (0.079%) Maximo
10 6 (0.068%) Dynamics NAV
11 5 (0.057%) Elite 3E
12 4 (0.045%) OpenCart
12 4 (0.045%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
13 3 (0.034%) Dynamics AX
13 3 (0.034%) Infor CloudSuite Industrial (formerly SyteLine)
13 3 (0.034%) Primavera
13 3 (0.034%) SAP Hybris
13 3 (0.034%) SDL Web 8
14 2 (0.023%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 1,591 (18.01%) Azure
2 1,486 (16.82%) AWS
3 774 (8.76%) SaaS
4 584 (6.61%) GitHub
5 484 (5.48%) GCP
6 448 (5.07%) npm
7 446 (5.05%) Serverless
8 238 (2.69%) AWS Lambda
9 210 (2.38%) Figma
10 135 (1.53%) Amazon S3
11 123 (1.39%) Google Analytics
12 115 (1.30%) Amazon EC2
13 103 (1.17%) Power Platform
14 102 (1.15%) Amazon SQS
15 96 (1.09%) GitHub Actions
16 95 (1.08%) PaaS
17 86 (0.97%) Cloud Computing
18 85 (0.96%) Microsoft 365
19 84 (0.95%) Amazon Kinesis
20 81 (0.92%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 438 (4.96%) HTTP
2 145 (1.64%) Internet
3 62 (0.70%) DNS
4 51 (0.58%) Broadband
5 45 (0.51%) SSL
6 42 (0.48%) SSH
7 27 (0.31%) TCP/IP
8 26 (0.29%) Intranet
9 23 (0.26%) MQTT
10 17 (0.19%) FTP
10 17 (0.19%) Wireless
11 13 (0.15%) 5G
11 13 (0.15%) VLAN
12 12 (0.14%) Bluetooth
12 12 (0.14%) Wi-Fi
13 11 (0.12%) Firewall
14 10 (0.11%) Ethernet
14 10 (0.11%) HTTPS
14 10 (0.11%) VoIP
14 10 (0.11%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,305 (14.77%) MySQL
2 1,256 (14.22%) SQL Server
3 595 (6.73%) PostgreSQL
4 429 (4.86%) NoSQL
5 402 (4.55%) Relational Database
6 361 (4.09%) MongoDB
7 351 (3.97%) Redis
8 152 (1.72%) Big Data
9 104 (1.18%) MariaDB
10 97 (1.10%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 93 (1.05%) Amazon RDS
12 88 (1.00%) GIS
13 71 (0.80%) RDBMS
14 64 (0.72%) Blockchain
14 64 (0.72%) Power BI
15 63 (0.71%) Oracle Database
15 63 (0.71%) QGIS
16 59 (0.67%) HBase
17 56 (0.63%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 45 (0.51%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 2,420 (27.39%) Git (software)
2 785 (8.89%) webpack
3 716 (8.10%) Jenkins
4 535 (6.06%) JIRA
5 332 (3.76%) Cypress.io
6 329 (3.72%) gulp
7 232 (2.63%) Selenium
8 211 (2.39%) Visual Studio
9 210 (2.38%) Bitbucket
10 193 (2.18%) Mocha
11 192 (2.17%) Grunt
12 185 (2.09%) Storybook
13 176 (1.99%) GitLab
14 154 (1.74%) Jasmine
15 143 (1.62%) JUnit
16 122 (1.38%) Subversion
17 118 (1.34%) Cucumber
17 118 (1.34%) PHPUnit
18 114 (1.29%) Gradle
18 114 (1.29%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 1,726 (19.54%) Social Skills
2 1,408 (15.94%) Finance
3 674 (7.63%) Marketing
4 533 (6.03%) Analytical Skills
5 384 (4.35%) Retail
6 275 (3.11%) Banking
7 266 (3.01%) Games
8 211 (2.39%) Inclusion and Diversity
9 182 (2.06%) Law
10 174 (1.97%) Manufacturing
11 150 (1.70%) Public Sector
12 134 (1.52%) Advertising
13 121 (1.37%) Publishing
14 114 (1.29%) Organisational Skills
15 94 (1.06%) Legal
15 94 (1.06%) Pharmaceutical
16 88 (1.00%) Automotive
17 85 (0.96%) Telecoms
18 61 (0.69%) Financial Institution
19 59 (0.67%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 6,436 (72.85%) Developer
2 1,639 (18.55%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,228 (13.90%) Senior Developer
4 1,027 (11.62%) Software Developer
5 893 (10.11%) Software Engineer
6 859 (9.72%) Full Stack Developer
7 746 (8.44%) .NET Developer
8 702 (7.95%) PHP Developer
9 667 (7.55%) React Developer
10 563 (6.37%) Web Developer
11 476 (5.39%) JavaScript Developer
12 418 (4.73%) C# Developer
13 395 (4.47%) Trainee
14 394 (4.46%) Trainee Developer
15 393 (4.45%) Trainee Software Developer
16 369 (4.18%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 295 (3.34%) Java Developer
18 286 (3.24%) Lead Developer
19 269 (3.04%) Junior
20 262 (2.97%) Angular Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 8,015 (90.72%) HTML
2 4,036 (45.68%) React
3 2,777 (31.43%) HTML5
4 2,507 (28.38%) AngularJS
5 2,090 (23.66%) .NET
6 1,985 (22.47%) CSS3
7 1,981 (22.42%) Node.js
8 1,509 (17.08%) jQuery
9 1,279 (14.48%) Sass
10 1,218 (13.79%) Vue.js
11 1,201 (13.59%) RESTful
12 1,130 (12.79%) REST
13 995 (11.26%) ASP.NET
14 882 (9.98%) Web Services
15 775 (8.77%) Redux
16 762 (8.62%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 735 (8.32%) .NET Core
18 637 (7.21%) .NET Framework
19 627 (7.10%) JSON
20 591 (6.69%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 1,957 (22.15%) User Experience
2 543 (6.15%) Data Structures
3 520 (5.89%) Greenfield Project
4 467 (5.29%) Mobile App
5 417 (4.72%) Self-Motivation
6 246 (2.78%) Enterprise Software
7 162 (1.83%) Legacy Code
8 145 (1.64%) Virtual Team
9 144 (1.63%) Algorithms
10 143 (1.62%) e-Learning
11 133 (1.51%) Linux Command Line
12 104 (1.18%) Social Media
13 90 (1.02%) Management Information System
14 80 (0.91%) Legacy Systems
15 69 (0.78%) Blog
16 65 (0.74%) W3C
17 63 (0.71%) Animation
17 63 (0.71%) Public Cloud
18 62 (0.70%) Data Protection Act
19 60 (0.68%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 814 (9.21%) Linux
2 283 (3.20%) Android
3 279 (3.16%) Apple iOS
4 275 (3.11%) Windows
5 141 (1.60%) Unix
6 116 (1.31%) Ubuntu
7 34 (0.38%) Windows Server
8 26 (0.29%) CentOS
9 23 (0.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 16 (0.18%) VMS
11 13 (0.15%) Mac OS
12 6 (0.068%) Fedora
12 6 (0.068%) Windows 10
13 5 (0.057%) Windows Server 2008
13 5 (0.057%) Windows Server 2016
14 4 (0.045%) Debian
14 4 (0.045%) Windows Phone
15 3 (0.034%) Windows Mobile
16 2 (0.023%) Mac OS X
16 2 (0.023%) Windows Embedded Compact
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,705 (41.94%) Agile Software Development
2 2,233 (25.27%) Full Stack Development
3 2,168 (24.54%) Front End Development
4 1,783 (20.18%) Software Engineering
5 1,618 (18.31%) Web Development
6 1,383 (15.65%) DevOps
7 1,363 (15.43%) MVC
8 1,362 (15.42%) TDD
9 1,233 (13.96%) Problem-Solving
10 1,231 (13.93%) OO
11 1,110 (12.56%) Scrum
12 923 (10.45%) OOP
13 910 (10.30%) UX Design
14 878 (9.94%) Microservices
15 867 (9.81%) Test Automation
16 863 (9.77%) Unit Testing
17 815 (9.22%) Continuous Integration
18 741 (8.39%) Computer Science
19 729 (8.25%) E-Commerce
20 712 (8.06%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 7,501 (84.90%) JavaScript
2 2,479 (28.06%) C#
3 1,894 (21.44%) TypeScript
4 1,806 (20.44%) SQL
5 1,759 (19.91%) Java
6 1,622 (18.36%) PHP
7 1,415 (16.02%) Python
8 642 (7.27%) ES6
9 494 (5.59%) Java 8
10 330 (3.74%) T-SQL
11 216 (2.44%) Ruby
12 199 (2.25%) Go
13 156 (1.77%) Kotlin
14 155 (1.75%) C++
15 151 (1.71%) C
16 135 (1.53%) PHP 7
17 129 (1.46%) VB.NET
18 125 (1.41%) PowerShell
19 107 (1.21%) Groovy
20 105 (1.19%) ES7
Qualifications
1 997 (11.28%) Degree
2 452 (5.12%) Oracle Certification
3 448 (5.07%) OCP
4 393 (4.45%) CIW
4 393 (4.45%) OCA
5 380 (4.30%) Computer Science Degree
6 182 (2.06%) Security Cleared
7 152 (1.72%) SC Cleared
8 47 (0.53%) Microsoft Certification
9 31 (0.35%) Master's Degree
9 31 (0.35%) Numerate Degree
10 21 (0.24%) DBS Check
11 19 (0.22%) AWS Certification
12 16 (0.18%) SANS
13 11 (0.12%) DV Cleared
14 10 (0.11%) HND
14 10 (0.11%) MCPD
14 10 (0.11%) PhD
14 10 (0.11%) Sun Certification
15 9 (0.10%) ITIL Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 638 (7.22%) QA
2 573 (6.49%) Accessibility
3 98 (1.11%) WCAG
4 41 (0.46%) GDPR
5 34 (0.38%) SLA
6 20 (0.23%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 15 (0.17%) Data Quality
8 14 (0.16%) ISO 13485
8 14 (0.16%) WAI
9 13 (0.15%) PCI DSS
10 11 (0.12%) IEC 62304
11 4 (0.045%) HIPAA
12 3 (0.034%) PMO
13 2 (0.023%) HL7
14 1 (0.011%) Cyber Essentials
14 1 (0.011%) Cyber Essentials PLUS
14 1 (0.011%) DICOM
14 1 (0.011%) Disclosure Scotland
14 1 (0.011%) SNOMED CT
14 1 (0.011%) TickIT
System Software
1 1,119 (12.67%) Docker
2 71 (0.80%) VMware Infrastructure
3 58 (0.66%) HDFS
4 46 (0.52%) Active Directory
5 21 (0.24%) Varnish
6 14 (0.16%) KVM
7 12 (0.14%) Firmware
8 7 (0.079%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 7 (0.079%) Virtual Machines
9 4 (0.045%) Oracle RAC
9 4 (0.045%) VMware ESXi
10 2 (0.023%) Hyper-V
10 2 (0.023%) Virtual Servers
10 2 (0.023%) VirtualBox
11 1 (0.011%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 542 (6.13%) Kubernetes
2 222 (2.51%) Terraform
3 136 (1.54%) Ansible
4 33 (0.37%) Opscode Chef
5 32 (0.36%) Kibana
6 27 (0.31%) Grafana
7 22 (0.25%) Hadoop YARN
8 21 (0.24%) Prometheus
9 17 (0.19%) logstash
9 17 (0.19%) Puppet
10 16 (0.18%) Consul
10 16 (0.18%) Graphite
11 14 (0.16%) Packer
12 13 (0.15%) HP Fortify
12 13 (0.15%) Single Sign-On
13 11 (0.12%) Rancher
14 10 (0.11%) Graylog
14 10 (0.11%) Opsgenie
15 8 (0.091%) HP UCMDB
16 7 (0.079%) Bugsnag
Vendors
1 1,241 (14.05%) Microsoft
2 631 (7.14%) Oracle
3 464 (5.25%) Google
4 391 (4.43%) Adobe
5 186 (2.11%) Salesforce.com
6 148 (1.68%) Xamarin
7 91 (1.03%) Zend
8 89 (1.01%) VMware
8 89 (1.01%) WooCommerce
9 83 (0.94%) Sitecore
10 69 (0.78%) SAP
11 68 (0.77%) Okta
12 65 (0.74%) IBM
13 64 (0.72%) Apple
14 57 (0.65%) ServiceNow
15 52 (0.59%) Facebook
16 40 (0.45%) Atlassian
17 38 (0.43%) HubSpot
17 38 (0.43%) Telerik
18 31 (0.35%) HP