Period
to 17 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
17 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 26 20 23
Rank change year-on-year -6 +3 -7
Permanent jobs citing CSS 9,579 4,597 11,907
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 8.75% 10.44% 9.39%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.48% 23.72% 25.13%
Number of salaries quoted 5,930 4,023 10,452
10th Percentile £32,000 £32,050 £28,750
25th Percentile £38,750 £37,500 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% -
75th Percentile £66,000 £63,750 £62,500
90th Percentile £80,000 £75,000 £76,250
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.15%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 44,601 19,379 47,389
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 40.74% 44.03% 37.36%
Number of salaries quoted 28,643 16,774 39,679
10th Percentile £36,250 £35,000 £32,500
25th Percentile £45,000 £43,750 £40,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +4.76%
75th Percentile £80,000 £75,000 £73,750
90th Percentile £96,250 £95,000 £88,750
UK median annual salary £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +8.91%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 17 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London +2 4,347 £62,500 -1.57% 662
South East -3 2,086 £47,500 -5.00% 279
North of England -18 1,085 £45,000 - 439
Midlands -7 842 £45,000 +5.88% 265
South West -8 836 £47,500 +5.56% 153
North West -16 557 £45,000 - 243
West Midlands -2 550 £45,000 - 160
Yorkshire -13 455 £45,000 +12.50% 150
East Midlands -14 273 £42,500 +6.25% 104
East of England -40 232 £52,500 +23.53% 131
North East -25 73 £39,000 -2.50% 46
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 17 October 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 8,449 (88.20%) HTML
2 7,966 (83.16%) JavaScript
3 4,671 (48.76%) React
4 4,182 (43.66%) Agile Software Development
5 2,980 (31.11%) AngularJS
6 2,695 (28.13%) Git (software)
7 2,632 (27.48%) Front End Development
8 2,482 (25.91%) User Experience
9 2,478 (25.87%) .NET
10 2,461 (25.69%) HTML5
11 2,452 (25.60%) C#
12 2,432 (25.39%) Full Stack Development
13 2,380 (24.85%) Node.js
14 2,130 (22.24%) TypeScript
15 2,086 (21.78%) SQL
16 1,894 (19.77%) Software Engineering
17 1,857 (19.39%) Social Skills
18 1,831 (19.11%) Azure
18 1,831 (19.11%) PHP
19 1,716 (17.91%) Web Development
20 1,714 (17.89%) CSS3
21 1,685 (17.59%) Finance
22 1,681 (17.55%) AWS
23 1,637 (17.09%) jQuery
24 1,584 (16.54%) MVC
25 1,491 (15.57%) TDD
26 1,489 (15.54%) Java
27 1,467 (15.31%) DevOps
28 1,436 (14.99%) RESTful
29 1,415 (14.77%) MySQL

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 917 (9.57%) CMS
2 583 (6.09%) WordPress
3 370 (3.86%) Apache
4 231 (2.41%) Apache Spark
5 226 (2.36%) Elasticsearch
6 212 (2.21%) Confluence
7 186 (1.94%) GemFire
8 148 (1.55%) SharePoint
9 146 (1.52%) nginx
10 142 (1.48%) Umbraco
11 139 (1.45%) IIS
12 130 (1.36%) Drupal
13 88 (0.92%) Tomcat
14 87 (0.91%) Apache Solr
15 83 (0.87%) Headless CMS
16 72 (0.75%) GeoServer
17 71 (0.74%) EPiServer
18 66 (0.69%) Kentico
19 59 (0.62%) Sitecore CMS
20 43 (0.45%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 204 (2.13%) Sketch
2 197 (2.06%) Figma
3 191 (1.99%) Photoshop
4 121 (1.26%) Adobe XD
5 116 (1.21%) Microsoft Office
6 112 (1.17%) Adobe Illustrator
6 112 (1.17%) InVision
7 89 (0.93%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 35 (0.37%) Zeplin
9 34 (0.35%) InDesign
9 34 (0.35%) Microsoft Excel
10 31 (0.32%) GIMP
11 25 (0.26%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 23 (0.24%) Chatbot
13 20 (0.21%) Campfire
14 13 (0.14%) MS Visio
14 13 (0.14%) UXPin
15 12 (0.13%) Adobe After Effects
16 9 (0.094%) Adobe Premiere
17 8 (0.084%) Marvel
Business Applications
1 214 (2.23%) Magento
2 150 (1.57%) Shopify
3 85 (0.89%) Payment Gateway
4 62 (0.65%) Dynamics CRM
5 25 (0.26%) WebTrends
6 11 (0.11%) Summit
7 9 (0.094%) Dynamics NAV
7 9 (0.094%) NetSuite
8 7 (0.073%) Dynamics AX
8 7 (0.073%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 7 (0.073%) SDL Web 8
9 6 (0.063%) OpenCart
10 5 (0.052%) Elite 3E
10 5 (0.052%) Remedy ITSM
10 5 (0.052%) SAP Hybris
10 5 (0.052%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 3 (0.031%) Adobe Campaign
11 3 (0.031%) Maximo
11 3 (0.031%) SessionCam
11 3 (0.031%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 1,831 (19.11%) Azure
2 1,681 (17.55%) AWS
3 814 (8.50%) SaaS
4 703 (7.34%) GitHub
5 471 (4.92%) GCP
6 468 (4.89%) npm
7 413 (4.31%) Serverless
8 246 (2.57%) AWS Lambda
9 152 (1.59%) Amazon S3
10 148 (1.55%) PaaS
11 147 (1.53%) Amazon Kinesis
12 137 (1.43%) Amazon EC2
13 123 (1.28%) OpenShift
14 113 (1.18%) Power Platform
15 104 (1.09%) Yarn
16 103 (1.08%) AWS CloudFormation
17 100 (1.04%) Google Analytics
18 97 (1.01%) GitHub Actions
19 85 (0.89%) Microsoft 365
20 79 (0.82%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 423 (4.42%) HTTP
2 175 (1.83%) Internet
3 94 (0.98%) DNS
4 79 (0.82%) Broadband
5 65 (0.68%) SSL
6 40 (0.42%) TCP/IP
7 34 (0.35%) Wireless
8 33 (0.34%) MQTT
9 28 (0.29%) SSH
10 25 (0.26%) Bluetooth
11 24 (0.25%) Ethernet
11 24 (0.25%) Intranet
11 24 (0.25%) Wi-Fi
12 19 (0.20%) SMS
13 16 (0.17%) Extranet
14 14 (0.15%) FTP
15 11 (0.11%) Firewall
15 11 (0.11%) SMTP
16 9 (0.094%) VPN
17 8 (0.084%) DAB
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,415 (14.77%) MySQL
2 1,400 (14.62%) SQL Server
3 768 (8.02%) PostgreSQL
4 679 (7.09%) NoSQL
5 551 (5.75%) Relational Database
6 483 (5.04%) Redis
7 431 (4.50%) MongoDB
8 275 (2.87%) MariaDB
9 228 (2.38%) Big Data
10 185 (1.93%) HBase
11 105 (1.10%) Amazon RDS
12 84 (0.88%) GIS
13 82 (0.86%) Power BI
14 75 (0.78%) QGIS
15 74 (0.77%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 72 (0.75%) Azure SQL Database
17 68 (0.71%) Oracle Database
18 65 (0.68%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 56 (0.58%) Hadoop
20 53 (0.55%) Blockchain
Development Applications
1 2,695 (28.13%) Git (software)
2 940 (9.81%) webpack
3 773 (8.07%) Jenkins
4 605 (6.32%) JIRA
5 486 (5.07%) Cypress.io
6 419 (4.37%) gulp
7 338 (3.53%) Storybook
8 308 (3.22%) Visual Studio
9 285 (2.98%) Cucumber
10 280 (2.92%) JUnit
11 265 (2.77%) Gradle
12 263 (2.75%) Protractor
13 247 (2.58%) Selenium
14 231 (2.41%) Bitbucket
15 221 (2.31%) Mocha
16 218 (2.28%) Eclipse
17 210 (2.19%) Jasmine
18 208 (2.17%) Sonatype Nexus
19 201 (2.10%) Mockito
20 195 (2.04%) IntelliJ
General
1 1,857 (19.39%) Social Skills
2 1,685 (17.59%) Finance
3 815 (8.51%) Marketing
4 499 (5.21%) Analytical Skills
5 480 (5.01%) Retail
6 428 (4.47%) Banking
7 334 (3.49%) Law
8 293 (3.06%) Inclusion and Diversity
9 274 (2.86%) Games
10 170 (1.77%) Public Sector
11 149 (1.56%) Manufacturing
12 142 (1.48%) Publishing
13 138 (1.44%) Legal
14 131 (1.37%) Organisational Skills
15 123 (1.28%) Telecoms
16 100 (1.04%) Advertising
17 84 (0.88%) Automotive
18 78 (0.81%) Presentation Skills
19 75 (0.78%) Pharmaceutical
20 62 (0.65%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 6,732 (70.28%) Developer
2 1,923 (20.08%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,381 (14.42%) Senior Developer
4 979 (10.22%) Software Engineer
5 918 (9.58%) Full Stack Developer
6 869 (9.07%) .NET Developer
7 788 (8.23%) PHP Developer
8 745 (7.78%) Software Developer
9 698 (7.29%) React Developer
10 585 (6.11%) Web Developer
11 553 (5.77%) C# Developer
12 449 (4.69%) JavaScript Developer
13 431 (4.50%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 343 (3.58%) C# .NET Developer
15 319 (3.33%) Angular Developer
16 313 (3.27%) Java Developer
17 305 (3.18%) Lead Developer
18 267 (2.79%) Designer
19 238 (2.48%) Senior Software Engineer
20 210 (2.19%) Senior React Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 8,449 (88.20%) HTML
2 4,671 (48.76%) React
3 2,980 (31.11%) AngularJS
4 2,478 (25.87%) .NET
5 2,461 (25.69%) HTML5
6 2,380 (24.85%) Node.js
7 1,714 (17.89%) CSS3
8 1,637 (17.09%) jQuery
9 1,436 (14.99%) RESTful
10 1,414 (14.76%) Sass
11 1,377 (14.38%) REST
12 1,344 (14.03%) Vue.js
13 1,120 (11.69%) Redux
14 1,098 (11.46%) ASP.NET
15 1,084 (11.32%) Web Services
16 972 (10.15%) .NET Core
17 944 (9.85%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 806 (8.41%) JSON
19 724 (7.56%) .NET Framework
20 690 (7.20%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 2,482 (25.91%) User Experience
2 644 (6.72%) Mobile App
3 600 (6.26%) Greenfield Project
4 457 (4.77%) Self-Motivation
5 271 (2.83%) Linux Command Line
6 213 (2.22%) Enterprise Software
7 212 (2.21%) Virtual Team
8 136 (1.42%) Legacy Code
9 134 (1.40%) Algorithms
10 127 (1.33%) Legacy Systems
11 119 (1.24%) Data Structures
12 115 (1.20%) Blog
13 99 (1.03%) e-Learning
14 96 (1.00%) Social Media
15 91 (0.95%) Management Information System
16 81 (0.85%) Animation
17 76 (0.79%) Client/Server
18 72 (0.75%) Cloud Native
18 72 (0.75%) NHS
19 70 (0.73%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 998 (10.42%) Linux
2 394 (4.11%) Windows
3 336 (3.51%) Android
4 333 (3.48%) Apple iOS
5 256 (2.67%) Unix
6 127 (1.33%) Ubuntu
7 53 (0.55%) Windows Server
8 52 (0.54%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 37 (0.39%) CentOS
10 17 (0.18%) Windows 10
11 14 (0.15%) VMS
12 9 (0.094%) Windows Server 2012
13 8 (0.084%) Mac OS
13 8 (0.084%) Windows 7
13 8 (0.084%) Windows Server 2016
14 7 (0.073%) Fedora
15 6 (0.063%) Windows 8
15 6 (0.063%) Windows Server 2008
15 6 (0.063%) Windows Server 2019
16 4 (0.042%) tvOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,182 (43.66%) Agile Software Development
2 2,632 (27.48%) Front End Development
3 2,432 (25.39%) Full Stack Development
4 1,894 (19.77%) Software Engineering
5 1,716 (17.91%) Web Development
6 1,584 (16.54%) MVC
7 1,491 (15.57%) TDD
8 1,467 (15.31%) DevOps
9 1,335 (13.94%) Scrum
10 1,314 (13.72%) Problem-Solving
11 1,166 (12.17%) Microservices
12 1,046 (10.92%) Unit Testing
13 963 (10.05%) Test Automation
14 958 (10.00%) E-Commerce
15 943 (9.84%) Computer Science
16 934 (9.75%) OO
17 853 (8.90%) Continuous Integration
18 756 (7.89%) Mentoring
19 650 (6.79%) SDLC
20 646 (6.74%) Clean Code
Programming Languages
1 7,966 (83.16%) JavaScript
2 2,452 (25.60%) C#
3 2,130 (22.24%) TypeScript
4 2,086 (21.78%) SQL
5 1,831 (19.11%) PHP
6 1,489 (15.54%) Java
7 1,087 (11.35%) Python
8 831 (8.68%) ES6
9 345 (3.60%) T-SQL
10 254 (2.65%) Ruby
11 219 (2.29%) Groovy
12 212 (2.21%) Shell Script
13 199 (2.08%) Go
14 148 (1.55%) PowerShell
15 138 (1.44%) Kotlin
16 137 (1.43%) C++
17 125 (1.30%) C
17 125 (1.30%) ES7
18 120 (1.25%) Java 8
19 106 (1.11%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 1,075 (11.22%) Degree
2 373 (3.89%) Computer Science Degree
3 190 (1.98%) Security Cleared
4 174 (1.82%) OCP
4 174 (1.82%) Oracle Certification
5 104 (1.09%) SC Cleared
6 59 (0.62%) Master's Degree
7 52 (0.54%) Microsoft Certification
8 32 (0.33%) AWS Certification
9 30 (0.31%) DV Cleared
9 30 (0.31%) PhD
10 29 (0.30%) Numerate Degree
11 17 (0.18%) SANS
12 16 (0.17%) DBS Check
13 9 (0.094%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 8 (0.084%) ITIL Certification
14 8 (0.084%) MCSA
14 8 (0.084%) Sun Certification
15 7 (0.073%) PRINCE2 Certification
16 6 (0.063%) SAFe Agilist
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 678 (7.08%) Accessibility
2 535 (5.59%) QA
3 130 (1.36%) WCAG
4 43 (0.45%) GDPR
5 42 (0.44%) PCI DSS
6 19 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 19 (0.20%) WAI
7 13 (0.14%) SLA
8 12 (0.13%) Data Quality
8 12 (0.13%) ISO 13485
9 7 (0.073%) IEC 62304
10 5 (0.052%) Actionable Recommendations
11 2 (0.021%) GRC
11 2 (0.021%) PMO
12 1 (0.010%) DICOM
12 1 (0.010%) Disclosure Scotland
12 1 (0.010%) HL7
System Software
1 1,173 (12.25%) Docker
2 181 (1.89%) HDFS
3 141 (1.47%) VMware Infrastructure
4 41 (0.43%) Active Directory
5 24 (0.25%) Firmware
6 19 (0.20%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 10 (0.10%) Hyper-V
7 10 (0.10%) Varnish
8 7 (0.073%) VMware ESXi
9 6 (0.063%) Ceph
9 6 (0.063%) Virtual Machines
10 4 (0.042%) KVM
11 3 (0.031%) Virtual Servers
12 2 (0.021%) Terminal Services
13 1 (0.010%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 650 (6.79%) Kubernetes
2 283 (2.95%) Ansible
3 230 (2.40%) Terraform
4 126 (1.32%) Opscode Chef
5 45 (0.47%) Graphite
6 44 (0.46%) Grafana
7 34 (0.35%) Hadoop YARN
8 30 (0.31%) Graylog
8 30 (0.31%) Opsgenie
9 19 (0.20%) Rancher
10 17 (0.18%) Kibana
11 15 (0.16%) Bugsnag
12 14 (0.15%) Prometheus
13 13 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
14 12 (0.13%) Puppet
15 10 (0.10%) HP Fortify
16 9 (0.094%) Consul
16 9 (0.094%) Packer
17 8 (0.084%) Argo
17 8 (0.084%) Docker Swarm
Vendors
1 879 (9.18%) Microsoft
2 505 (5.27%) Google
3 469 (4.90%) Adobe
4 303 (3.16%) Oracle
5 229 (2.39%) VMware
6 208 (2.17%) Okta
7 165 (1.72%) Salesforce.com
8 126 (1.32%) Xamarin
9 121 (1.26%) WooCommerce
10 93 (0.97%) Atlassian
11 88 (0.92%) Apple
12 79 (0.82%) Sitecore
13 76 (0.79%) Zend
14 74 (0.77%) SAP
15 59 (0.62%) Splunk
16 58 (0.61%) ServiceNow
17 56 (0.58%) IBM
18 40 (0.42%) OutSystems
19 39 (0.41%) Samsung
20 36 (0.38%) Sony