Period
to 14 December 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 December 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
14 Dec 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 21 15 15
Rank change year-on-year -6 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 11,765 16,403 20,588
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 9.65% 11.08% 12.24%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.13% 27.98% 30.38%
Number of salaries quoted 10,289 13,972 18,510
England median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £29,500 £28,750 £27,500
90th Percentile £77,500 £75,000 £70,000
UK median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £43,500
% change year-on-year - +9.20% +2.35%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 46,813 58,628 67,774
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 38.39% 39.60% 40.28%
Number of salaries quoted 38,983 48,539 56,884
England median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,500 £30,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £78,750
UK median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 14 December 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 14 December 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 4,297 £60,000 - 787
South East -2 2,803 £45,000 - 447
North of England -4 1,654 £42,500 +6.25% 602
Midlands +1 1,254 £40,000 - 384
South West -4 1,061 £42,500 +6.25% 268
North West -4 1,009 £45,000 +2.86% 345
West Midlands +1 687 £40,000 - 196
East of England -2 670 £47,500 +5.56% 226
East Midlands +2 565 £40,000 - 187
Yorkshire -5 550 £40,000 - 181
North East -9 96 £40,000 +6.67% 76
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 14 December 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 10,800 (91.80%) HTML
2 10,068 (85.58%) JavaScript
3 5,030 (42.75%) Agile Software Development
4 4,783 (40.65%) C#
5 4,560 (38.76%) .NET
6 3,946 (33.54%) AngularJS
7 3,510 (29.83%) MVC
8 3,237 (27.51%) HTML5
9 2,988 (25.40%) jQuery
10 2,900 (24.65%) ASP.NET
11 2,894 (24.60%) React
12 2,836 (24.11%) SQL
13 2,711 (23.04%) Front End Development
14 2,669 (22.69%) SQL Server
15 2,517 (21.39%) Web Development
16 2,436 (20.71%) Git (software)
17 2,201 (18.71%) CSS3
18 2,180 (18.53%) PHP
19 2,060 (17.51%) User Experience
20 1,834 (15.59%) Azure
21 1,792 (15.23%) TDD
22 1,762 (14.98%) Node.js
23 1,632 (13.87%) Sass
24 1,629 (13.85%) MySQL
25 1,611 (13.69%) Java
26 1,577 (13.40%) ASP.NET MVC
27 1,560 (13.26%) Scrum
28 1,554 (13.21%) Microsoft
29 1,549 (13.17%) Web Services
30 1,516 (12.89%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 714 (6.07%) CMS
2 534 (4.54%) WordPress
3 261 (2.22%) Elasticsearch
4 251 (2.13%) SharePoint
5 209 (1.78%) Umbraco
6 207 (1.76%) Drupal
7 201 (1.71%) Confluence
8 198 (1.68%) IIS
9 186 (1.58%) Apache
10 139 (1.18%) Tomcat
11 105 (0.89%) nginx
12 101 (0.86%) EPiServer
13 85 (0.72%) Sitecore CMS
14 75 (0.64%) JBoss
15 60 (0.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 54 (0.46%) Kentico
17 51 (0.43%) Joomla!
18 42 (0.36%) Apache Spark
19 36 (0.31%) SharePoint 2013
20 35 (0.30%) Sitefinity
Applications
1 313 (2.66%) Photoshop
2 230 (1.95%) Sketch
3 185 (1.57%) Adobe Illustrator
4 147 (1.25%) InVision
5 140 (1.19%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 111 (0.94%) Microsoft Office
7 94 (0.80%) Adobe XD
8 77 (0.65%) Microsoft Excel
9 53 (0.45%) Zeplin
10 36 (0.31%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 32 (0.27%) InDesign
12 27 (0.23%) MS Visio
13 24 (0.20%) Figma
14 19 (0.16%) Acrobat
15 18 (0.15%) Chatbot
16 17 (0.14%) Marvel
17 16 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
18 15 (0.13%) OmniGraffle
19 14 (0.12%) Adobe After Effects
19 14 (0.12%) Fireworks
Business Applications
1 214 (1.82%) Magento
2 98 (0.83%) Dynamics CRM
3 58 (0.49%) Payment Gateway
4 44 (0.37%) Shopify
5 25 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
6 14 (0.12%) Dynamics AX
7 13 (0.11%) NetSuite
8 12 (0.10%) OpenCart
9 11 (0.093%) WebTrends
10 10 (0.085%) Adobe Campaign
10 10 (0.085%) GoldMine
10 10 (0.085%) SDL Web 8
11 8 (0.068%) Dynamics NAV
11 8 (0.068%) SAP S/4HANA
12 7 (0.059%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 6 (0.051%) Oracle Applications
14 3 (0.025%) OpenText MBPM
14 3 (0.025%) osCommerce
14 3 (0.025%) SAP Business One
14 3 (0.025%) StreamServe
Cloud Services
1 1,834 (15.59%) Azure
2 1,382 (11.75%) AWS
3 581 (4.94%) SaaS
4 432 (3.67%) npm
5 363 (3.09%) GitHub
6 279 (2.37%) Serverless
7 221 (1.88%) GCP
8 158 (1.34%) AWS Lambda
9 121 (1.03%) PaaS
10 112 (0.95%) Office 365
11 106 (0.90%) Google Analytics
12 97 (0.82%) Amazon EC2
12 97 (0.82%) Amazon S3
13 88 (0.75%) Power Platform
14 72 (0.61%) Amazon ECS
15 64 (0.54%) Yarn
16 58 (0.49%) Cloud Computing
17 51 (0.43%) CloudFront
18 46 (0.39%) Amazon CloudWatch
18 46 (0.39%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 210 (1.78%) Internet
2 187 (1.59%) HTTP
3 65 (0.55%) Intranet
4 41 (0.35%) TCP/IP
5 28 (0.24%) SSL
6 27 (0.23%) Firewall
7 24 (0.20%) DNS
7 24 (0.20%) SSH
7 24 (0.20%) VPN
8 16 (0.14%) Network Security
9 11 (0.093%) Remote Desktop
10 10 (0.085%) DAB
10 10 (0.085%) VoIP
10 10 (0.085%) WebEx
11 9 (0.076%) FTP
11 9 (0.076%) HTTPS
12 7 (0.059%) AMQP
12 7 (0.059%) Extranet
12 7 (0.059%) Wireless
13 5 (0.042%) GPON
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,669 (22.69%) SQL Server
2 1,629 (13.85%) MySQL
3 468 (3.98%) NoSQL
4 457 (3.88%) Relational Database
5 432 (3.67%) MongoDB
6 323 (2.75%) PostgreSQL
7 192 (1.63%) Redis
8 182 (1.55%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 169 (1.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 159 (1.35%) Big Data
11 151 (1.28%) SQL Server 2012
12 145 (1.23%) SQL Server 2016
13 115 (0.98%) RDBMS
14 88 (0.75%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 84 (0.71%) Azure SQL Database
16 74 (0.63%) SQL Server 2008
17 71 (0.60%) GIS
18 63 (0.54%) MariaDB
19 61 (0.52%) RavenDB
20 55 (0.47%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 2,436 (20.71%) Git (software)
2 694 (5.90%) webpack
3 636 (5.41%) Visual Studio
4 620 (5.27%) JIRA
5 489 (4.16%) gulp
6 464 (3.94%) Jenkins
7 387 (3.29%) Team Foundation Server
8 367 (3.12%) Selenium
9 361 (3.07%) Grunt
10 294 (2.50%) Jasmine
11 257 (2.18%) Subversion
12 215 (1.83%) Bitbucket
13 175 (1.49%) NUnit
14 172 (1.46%) TeamCity
15 169 (1.44%) Maven
16 159 (1.35%) JUnit
17 152 (1.29%) GitLab
18 138 (1.17%) Mocha
19 137 (1.16%) Karma Test Runner
20 131 (1.11%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 1,476 (12.55%) Finance
2 790 (6.71%) Marketing
3 571 (4.85%) Retail
4 309 (2.63%) Banking
5 232 (1.97%) Games
6 224 (1.90%) Advertising
7 190 (1.61%) Public Sector
8 162 (1.38%) Manufacturing
9 132 (1.12%) Telecoms
10 105 (0.89%) Automotive
11 93 (0.79%) Electronics
12 83 (0.71%) Law
13 82 (0.70%) Legal
14 59 (0.50%) Publishing
15 51 (0.43%) Investment Banking
16 50 (0.42%) Multimedia
17 37 (0.31%) Back Office
18 27 (0.23%) Front Office
19 26 (0.22%) Aerospace
19 26 (0.22%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 9,279 (78.87%) Developer
2 2,083 (17.71%) .NET Developer
3 2,077 (17.65%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 1,704 (14.48%) Senior Developer
5 1,489 (12.66%) C# Developer
6 1,092 (9.28%) Software Developer
7 1,041 (8.85%) Full Stack Developer
8 1,030 (8.75%) PHP Developer
9 1,004 (8.53%) C# .NET Developer
10 994 (8.45%) Web Developer
11 989 (8.41%) JavaScript Developer
12 809 (6.88%) React Developer
13 663 (5.64%) Software Engineer
14 581 (4.94%) Junior
15 520 (4.42%) Java Developer
16 508 (4.32%) Junior Developer
17 462 (3.93%) Angular Developer
18 420 (3.57%) ASP.NET Developer
19 410 (3.48%) Senior Front-End Developer
20 395 (3.36%) Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 10,800 (91.80%) HTML
2 4,560 (38.76%) .NET
3 3,946 (33.54%) AngularJS
4 3,237 (27.51%) HTML5
5 2,988 (25.40%) jQuery
6 2,900 (24.65%) ASP.NET
7 2,894 (24.60%) React
8 2,201 (18.71%) CSS3
9 1,762 (14.98%) Node.js
10 1,632 (13.87%) Sass
11 1,577 (13.40%) ASP.NET MVC
12 1,549 (13.17%) Web Services
13 1,438 (12.22%) REST
14 1,229 (10.45%) Vue.js
15 1,225 (10.41%) .NET Framework
16 1,150 (9.77%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 1,145 (9.73%) ASP.NET Web API
18 1,116 (9.49%) RESTful
19 944 (8.02%) XML
20 873 (7.42%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,060 (17.51%) User Experience
2 874 (7.43%) Greenfield Project
3 700 (5.95%) Mobile App
4 573 (4.87%) Analytical Skills
5 415 (3.53%) Self-Motivation
6 255 (2.17%) Enterprise Software
7 164 (1.39%) Algorithms
8 132 (1.12%) Data Structures
9 105 (0.89%) Management Information System
10 92 (0.78%) Hedge funds
11 82 (0.70%) Linux Command Line
12 79 (0.67%) Graphic Design
13 75 (0.64%) Virtual Team
14 74 (0.63%) Social Media
15 65 (0.55%) Tandem
16 64 (0.54%) Cloud Native
17 62 (0.53%) W3C
18 55 (0.47%) iPad
18 55 (0.47%) N-Tier
19 51 (0.43%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 879 (7.47%) Linux
2 545 (4.63%) Windows
3 398 (3.38%) Android
4 370 (3.14%) Apple iOS
5 140 (1.19%) Unix
6 81 (0.69%) Windows Server
7 60 (0.51%) Mac OS
8 51 (0.43%) Ubuntu
9 47 (0.40%) CentOS
10 36 (0.31%) Mac OS X
11 32 (0.27%) Debian
12 26 (0.22%) VMS
13 24 (0.20%) Windows Server 2012
14 18 (0.15%) Windows 10
14 18 (0.15%) Windows 7
15 16 (0.14%) AIX
15 16 (0.14%) Windows Server 2003
16 15 (0.13%) Windows XP
17 13 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
18 11 (0.093%) Windows 2000
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,030 (42.75%) Agile Software Development
2 3,510 (29.83%) MVC
3 2,711 (23.04%) Front End Development
4 2,517 (21.39%) Web Development
5 1,792 (15.23%) TDD
6 1,560 (13.26%) Scrum
7 1,516 (12.89%) Software Engineering
8 1,414 (12.02%) OO
9 1,283 (10.91%) DevOps
10 1,159 (9.85%) Problem-Solving
11 996 (8.47%) Computer Science
12 995 (8.46%) Unit Testing
13 923 (7.85%) E-Commerce
14 872 (7.41%) OOP
15 871 (7.40%) Continuous Integration
16 826 (7.02%) Test Automation
17 792 (6.73%) SDLC
18 781 (6.64%) Microservices
19 754 (6.41%) Mentoring
20 744 (6.32%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 10,068 (85.58%) JavaScript
2 4,783 (40.65%) C#
3 2,836 (24.11%) SQL
4 2,180 (18.53%) PHP
5 1,611 (13.69%) Java
6 1,212 (10.30%) TypeScript
7 923 (7.85%) Python
8 868 (7.38%) ES6
9 611 (5.19%) T-SQL
10 395 (3.36%) VB.NET
11 244 (2.07%) Java 8
12 234 (1.99%) Ruby
13 186 (1.58%) C++
14 154 (1.31%) C
15 150 (1.27%) PowerShell
16 120 (1.02%) PHP 7
17 108 (0.92%) ES7
18 93 (0.79%) Scala
19 92 (0.78%) Bash Shell
20 85 (0.72%) VB
Qualifications
1 1,367 (11.62%) Degree
2 504 (4.28%) Computer Science Degree
3 155 (1.32%) Security Cleared
4 106 (0.90%) Microsoft Certification
5 78 (0.66%) SC Cleared
6 41 (0.35%) MCP
7 36 (0.31%) MCSD
8 31 (0.26%) HND
9 30 (0.25%) Master's Degree
10 26 (0.22%) Postgraduate
11 21 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
12 20 (0.17%) DBS Check
13 16 (0.14%) MCAD
14 14 (0.12%) DV Cleared
14 14 (0.12%) MCPD
14 14 (0.12%) MCTS
15 13 (0.11%) ISTQB
16 11 (0.093%) CIW
16 11 (0.093%) ISEB
17 8 (0.068%) OCA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 442 (3.76%) QA
2 59 (0.50%) GDPR
3 42 (0.36%) SLA
4 34 (0.29%) WCAG
5 30 (0.25%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 23 (0.20%) WAI
7 19 (0.16%) PCI DSS
8 10 (0.085%) PMO
9 6 (0.051%) Cyber Essentials
10 4 (0.034%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 3 (0.025%) Data Quality
12 2 (0.017%) ISO 9001
12 2 (0.017%) RMADS
13 1 (0.008%) HL7
13 1 (0.008%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 1 (0.008%) SEPA
System Software
1 926 (7.87%) Docker
2 56 (0.48%) Active Directory
3 18 (0.15%) Virtual Machines
4 13 (0.11%) Forefront TMG
5 10 (0.085%) VMware Infrastructure
6 7 (0.059%) vCloud
7 6 (0.051%) Firmware
7 6 (0.051%) Hyper-V
7 6 (0.051%) Varnish
8 3 (0.025%) LXC
9 1 (0.008%) Cronacle
9 1 (0.008%) Shibboleth
9 1 (0.008%) vSphere
9 1 (0.008%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 353 (3.00%) Kubernetes
2 99 (0.84%) Terraform
3 83 (0.71%) Opscode Chef
4 72 (0.61%) Ansible
5 36 (0.31%) Kibana
6 30 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
7 25 (0.21%) logstash
8 22 (0.19%) HP Quality Center
8 22 (0.19%) Puppet
9 21 (0.18%) SCCM
10 17 (0.14%) Mesos
11 11 (0.093%) cPanel
11 11 (0.093%) Ganglia
11 11 (0.093%) Matomo
12 10 (0.085%) Plesk
13 8 (0.068%) HAProxy
13 8 (0.068%) TeamSite
14 7 (0.059%) Docker Swarm
15 6 (0.051%) Marathon
16 5 (0.042%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 1,554 (13.21%) Microsoft
2 539 (4.58%) Adobe
3 422 (3.59%) Oracle
4 408 (3.47%) Google
5 244 (2.07%) Zend
6 150 (1.27%) Xamarin
7 147 (1.25%) Salesforce.com
8 129 (1.10%) Sitecore
9 124 (1.05%) Atlassian
10 120 (1.02%) SAP
11 64 (0.54%) IBM
12 62 (0.53%) Splunk
13 58 (0.49%) Facebook
14 35 (0.30%) Tableau
15 33 (0.28%) hybris
15 33 (0.28%) ServiceNow
16 32 (0.27%) WooCommerce
16 32 (0.27%) YouTube
17 30 (0.25%) Apple
18 29 (0.25%) Demandware