Period
to 20 September 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
20 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 18 22 15
Rank change year-on-year +4 -7 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 4,636 12,292 18,287
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in England 10.26% 9.42% 11.72%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.46% 25.22% 29.16%
Number of salaries quoted 4,555 11,457 16,966
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £46,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +3.26% +2.22%
10th Percentile £32,500 £28,750 £28,000
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £75,000
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +3.45%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 19,764 48,735 62,716
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 43.76% 37.34% 40.20%
Number of salaries quoted 16,794 40,340 52,342
Median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £51,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.55% +6.80% +3.00%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £87,500 £83,750
UK median annual salary £57,500 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year +9.52% +5.00% +5.26%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 20 September 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 20 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -6 1,488 £65,000 +8.33% 317
South East +4 1,067 £50,000 +11.11% 214
North of England +3 859 £45,000 +5.88% 373
North West +4 515 £45,000 +5.88% 216
Midlands +2 491 £45,000 +12.50% 214
South West +6 459 £45,000 +5.88% 164
West Midlands +5 302 £45,750 +7.65% 118
Yorkshire +14 273 £40,000 - 111
East of England +7 230 £45,000 - 99
East Midlands +1 188 £42,500 +6.25% 96
North East +13 70 £40,000 -8.05% 46
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 20 September 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,288 (92.49%) HTML
2 3,935 (84.88%) JavaScript
3 2,022 (43.62%) Agile Software Development
4 1,653 (35.66%) .NET
5 1,581 (34.10%) AngularJS
6 1,555 (33.54%) C#
7 1,283 (27.67%) HTML5
8 1,245 (26.86%) React
9 1,239 (26.73%) SQL
10 1,205 (25.99%) MVC
11 1,175 (25.35%) Git (software)
12 1,047 (22.58%) jQuery
13 1,012 (21.83%) PHP
14 996 (21.48%) Front End Development
15 982 (21.18%) Web Development
16 964 (20.79%) SQL Server
17 950 (20.49%) ASP.NET
18 882 (19.03%) CSS3
19 800 (17.26%) Azure
20 784 (16.91%) Node.js
21 715 (15.42%) TDD
22 701 (15.12%) MySQL
23 688 (14.84%) TypeScript
24 677 (14.60%) User Experience
25 673 (14.52%) DevOps
25 673 (14.52%) Scrum
26 652 (14.06%) Vue.js
27 637 (13.74%) Software Engineering
28 613 (13.22%) Sass
29 612 (13.20%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 296 (6.38%) CMS
2 181 (3.90%) WordPress
3 102 (2.20%) Apache
3 102 (2.20%) IIS
4 91 (1.96%) Elasticsearch
5 78 (1.68%) Confluence
6 63 (1.36%) SharePoint
7 49 (1.06%) Umbraco
8 45 (0.97%) nginx
9 42 (0.91%) Drupal
10 41 (0.88%) NServiceBus
11 33 (0.71%) Moodle
12 30 (0.65%) EPiServer
13 18 (0.39%) Tomcat
14 16 (0.35%) Headless CMS
15 15 (0.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 14 (0.30%) SharePoint 2013
17 13 (0.28%) Joomla!
18 12 (0.26%) Apache Solr
18 12 (0.26%) Jadu
Applications
1 85 (1.83%) Photoshop
2 76 (1.64%) Sketch
3 56 (1.21%) Adobe Illustrator
4 51 (1.10%) InVision
5 36 (0.78%) Microsoft Excel
6 35 (0.75%) Figma
7 27 (0.58%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 27 (0.58%) Adobe XD
8 25 (0.54%) Microsoft Office
9 22 (0.47%) Zeplin
10 11 (0.24%) UXPin
11 8 (0.17%) Chatbot
11 8 (0.17%) MS Visio
12 7 (0.15%) OmniGraffle
13 5 (0.11%) InDesign
14 4 (0.086%) Marvel
15 3 (0.065%) Microsoft PowerPoint
16 2 (0.043%) FileZilla
16 2 (0.043%) Fireworks
17 1 (0.022%) AutoCAD
Business Applications
1 151 (3.26%) Magento
2 66 (1.42%) Dynamics CRM
3 60 (1.29%) Shopify
4 31 (0.67%) Payment Gateway
5 30 (0.65%) Remedy ITSM
6 12 (0.26%) Adobe Campaign
7 9 (0.19%) NetSuite
8 8 (0.17%) Siebel CRM
9 6 (0.13%) Eloqua
10 5 (0.11%) OpenCart
10 5 (0.11%) Unica
11 4 (0.086%) Dynamics AX
11 4 (0.086%) Maximo
11 4 (0.086%) Oracle Applications
11 4 (0.086%) SDL Web 8
12 3 (0.065%) Distributed Ledger
12 3 (0.065%) Oracle CRM On Demand
12 3 (0.065%) Salesforce.com CRM
12 3 (0.065%) SAP Hybris
13 2 (0.043%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 800 (17.26%) Azure
2 488 (10.53%) AWS
3 272 (5.87%) SaaS
4 158 (3.41%) npm
5 127 (2.74%) Serverless
6 122 (2.63%) GitHub
7 103 (2.22%) GCP
8 83 (1.79%) Power Platform
9 70 (1.51%) AWS Lambda
10 50 (1.08%) PaaS
11 47 (1.01%) Cloud Computing
12 43 (0.93%) Dynamics 365
13 34 (0.73%) Azure Functions
13 34 (0.73%) Google Analytics
14 31 (0.67%) Amazon EC2
15 29 (0.63%) Office 365
16 28 (0.60%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
17 26 (0.56%) Firebase
18 24 (0.52%) IaaS
19 23 (0.50%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 111 (2.39%) HTTP
2 60 (1.29%) Internet
3 56 (1.21%) Skype
4 32 (0.69%) SSL
5 31 (0.67%) Network Security
6 22 (0.47%) VPN
7 15 (0.32%) Intranet
8 14 (0.30%) TCP/IP
9 11 (0.24%) Ethernet
9 11 (0.24%) Firewall
9 11 (0.24%) FTP
9 11 (0.24%) SSH
10 9 (0.19%) Broadband
10 9 (0.19%) MQTT
11 8 (0.17%) DNS
12 7 (0.15%) RTP
12 7 (0.15%) SMS
13 5 (0.11%) LAN
13 5 (0.11%) WAN
13 5 (0.11%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 964 (20.79%) SQL Server
2 701 (15.12%) MySQL
3 254 (5.48%) MongoDB
4 243 (5.24%) NoSQL
5 202 (4.36%) Relational Database
6 155 (3.34%) PostgreSQL
7 127 (2.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 108 (2.33%) Redis
9 88 (1.90%) SQL Server 2012
10 85 (1.83%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 61 (1.32%) Big Data
12 50 (1.08%) SQL Server 2008
13 49 (1.06%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 46 (0.99%) Power BI
15 41 (0.88%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 33 (0.71%) RDBMS
17 32 (0.69%) Azure SQL Database
18 30 (0.65%) Amazon RDS
19 27 (0.58%) SQL Server 2016
20 26 (0.56%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 1,175 (25.35%) Git (software)
2 288 (6.21%) webpack
3 250 (5.39%) JIRA
4 196 (4.23%) Visual Studio
5 173 (3.73%) Team Foundation Server
6 165 (3.56%) Jenkins
7 158 (3.41%) gulp
8 145 (3.13%) Selenium
9 125 (2.70%) Grunt
10 96 (2.07%) Subversion
11 80 (1.73%) Cypress.io
11 80 (1.73%) Jasmine
12 72 (1.55%) TeamCity
13 71 (1.53%) Bitbucket
14 66 (1.42%) NUnit
15 59 (1.27%) Octopus Deploy
16 57 (1.23%) Mocha
17 48 (1.04%) PHPUnit
18 47 (1.01%) Babel
19 44 (0.95%) Protractor
General
1 593 (12.79%) Finance
2 344 (7.42%) Marketing
3 165 (3.56%) Retail
4 101 (2.18%) Public Sector
5 86 (1.86%) Games
6 71 (1.53%) Telecoms
7 70 (1.51%) Banking
8 67 (1.45%) Manufacturing
9 59 (1.27%) Law
10 47 (1.01%) Publishing
11 42 (0.91%) Electronics
12 39 (0.84%) Advertising
13 34 (0.73%) Financial Institution
14 29 (0.63%) Legal
15 24 (0.52%) Front Office
15 24 (0.52%) Local Government
16 23 (0.50%) Private Banking
17 20 (0.43%) Back Office
18 18 (0.39%) Automotive
19 13 (0.28%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 3,664 (79.03%) Developer
2 803 (17.32%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 728 (15.70%) Senior Developer
4 630 (13.59%) .NET Developer
5 575 (12.40%) PHP Developer
6 459 (9.90%) Full Stack Developer
7 440 (9.49%) C# Developer
8 377 (8.13%) Software Developer
9 376 (8.11%) JavaScript Developer
10 354 (7.64%) Web Developer
11 352 (7.59%) React Developer
12 308 (6.64%) Software Engineer
13 268 (5.78%) C# .NET Developer
14 208 (4.49%) Angular Developer
15 162 (3.49%) Lead Developer
16 158 (3.41%) Java Developer
17 151 (3.26%) Senior .NET Developer
18 149 (3.21%) Junior
19 137 (2.96%) Senior Front-End Developer
20 122 (2.63%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,288 (92.49%) HTML
2 1,653 (35.66%) .NET
3 1,581 (34.10%) AngularJS
4 1,283 (27.67%) HTML5
5 1,245 (26.86%) React
6 1,047 (22.58%) jQuery
7 950 (20.49%) ASP.NET
8 882 (19.03%) CSS3
9 784 (16.91%) Node.js
10 652 (14.06%) Vue.js
11 613 (13.22%) Sass
12 612 (13.20%) REST
13 596 (12.86%) .NET Core
14 529 (11.41%) Web Services
15 515 (11.11%) .NET Framework
16 504 (10.87%) ASP.NET MVC
17 485 (10.46%) ASP.NET Web API
18 468 (10.09%) RESTful
19 412 (8.89%) XML
20 370 (7.98%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 677 (14.60%) User Experience
2 343 (7.40%) Greenfield Project
3 255 (5.50%) Mobile App
4 220 (4.75%) Analytical Skills
5 125 (2.70%) Self-Motivation
6 83 (1.79%) Enterprise Software
7 48 (1.04%) Hedge funds
8 42 (0.91%) N-Tier
9 39 (0.84%) e-Learning
10 36 (0.78%) Cloud Native
11 29 (0.63%) Data Structures
12 28 (0.60%) Social Media
13 27 (0.58%) Algorithms
13 27 (0.58%) Linux Command Line
13 27 (0.58%) Media Streaming
14 24 (0.52%) Blog
15 22 (0.47%) Video\Live Streaming
16 20 (0.43%) Embedded Systems
17 19 (0.41%) CMDB
18 18 (0.39%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 391 (8.43%) Linux
2 202 (4.36%) Windows
3 107 (2.31%) Apple iOS
4 106 (2.29%) Android
5 57 (1.23%) Unix
6 38 (0.82%) Windows Server
7 21 (0.45%) Ubuntu
8 20 (0.43%) CentOS
9 8 (0.17%) Windows 10
10 7 (0.15%) Windows Server 2012
10 7 (0.15%) Windows Server 2016
11 5 (0.11%) Fedora
11 5 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
12 4 (0.086%) Debian
12 4 (0.086%) Mac OS X
13 3 (0.065%) Windows 7
14 1 (0.022%) MVS
14 1 (0.022%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 1 (0.022%) tvOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,022 (43.62%) Agile Software Development
2 1,205 (25.99%) MVC
3 996 (21.48%) Front End Development
4 982 (21.18%) Web Development
5 715 (15.42%) TDD
6 673 (14.52%) DevOps
6 673 (14.52%) Scrum
7 637 (13.74%) Software Engineering
8 535 (11.54%) OO
9 498 (10.74%) Microservices
10 426 (9.19%) OOP
11 418 (9.02%) E-Commerce
12 395 (8.52%) Problem-Solving
13 343 (7.40%) Continuous Integration
14 337 (7.27%) Test Automation
15 332 (7.16%) Unit Testing
16 284 (6.13%) Computer Science
17 277 (5.97%) BDD
18 267 (5.76%) Mentoring
19 262 (5.65%) Fintech
Programming Languages
1 3,935 (84.88%) JavaScript
2 1,555 (33.54%) C#
3 1,239 (26.73%) SQL
4 1,012 (21.83%) PHP
5 688 (14.84%) TypeScript
6 516 (11.13%) Java
7 336 (7.25%) Python
8 302 (6.51%) ES6
9 210 (4.53%) T-SQL
10 124 (2.67%) C++
11 102 (2.20%) Ruby
12 78 (1.68%) VB.NET
13 54 (1.16%) C
13 54 (1.16%) PowerShell
14 48 (1.04%) Java 8
15 47 (1.01%) PL/SQL
16 37 (0.80%) Go
17 35 (0.75%) Apex Code
18 34 (0.73%) Objective-C
19 33 (0.71%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 493 (10.63%) Degree
2 194 (4.18%) Computer Science Degree
3 60 (1.29%) Security Cleared
4 44 (0.95%) SC Cleared
5 12 (0.26%) Microsoft Certification
6 10 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
7 7 (0.15%) DV Cleared
8 6 (0.13%) HND
9 4 (0.086%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.065%) CCNA
10 3 (0.065%) CCNP
10 3 (0.065%) Cisco Certification
10 3 (0.065%) HNC
10 3 (0.065%) MCPD
11 2 (0.043%) DBS Check
11 2 (0.043%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
11 2 (0.043%) Master's Degree
11 2 (0.043%) PhD
11 2 (0.043%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.022%) BPSS Clearance
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 226 (4.87%) QA
2 28 (0.60%) GDPR
3 20 (0.43%) Data Quality
4 11 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 7 (0.15%) SLA
6 6 (0.13%) PCI DSS
7 4 (0.086%) MiFID
7 4 (0.086%) WCAG
8 3 (0.065%) EMIR
8 3 (0.065%) PSD2
9 2 (0.043%) NIST
10 1 (0.022%) PMO
10 1 (0.022%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 470 (10.14%) Docker
2 14 (0.30%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.22%) vSphere
4 8 (0.17%) Firmware
4 8 (0.17%) Squid
5 7 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
6 4 (0.086%) LXC
7 3 (0.065%) Hyper-V
7 3 (0.065%) Microsoft Virtual Server
7 3 (0.065%) Virtual Machines
7 3 (0.065%) Virtual Servers
8 2 (0.043%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 2 (0.043%) Varnish
9 1 (0.022%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 221 (4.77%) Kubernetes
2 43 (0.93%) Terraform
3 26 (0.56%) Ansible
4 18 (0.39%) HP UCMDB
5 16 (0.35%) cPanel
6 13 (0.28%) Kibana
7 12 (0.26%) Opscode Chef
8 10 (0.22%) Puppet
8 10 (0.22%) Single Sign-On
9 8 (0.17%) MIIS
10 6 (0.13%) Packer
10 6 (0.13%) Rancher
11 4 (0.086%) logstash
12 3 (0.065%) CA Single Sign-On
12 3 (0.065%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
12 3 (0.065%) Grafana
12 3 (0.065%) Plesk
12 3 (0.065%) TeamSite
12 3 (0.065%) vRealize
13 2 (0.043%) Nagios
Vendors
1 507 (10.94%) Microsoft
2 141 (3.04%) Zend
3 135 (2.91%) Oracle
4 124 (2.67%) Google
5 123 (2.65%) Adobe
6 99 (2.14%) Salesforce.com
7 74 (1.60%) ServiceNow
8 48 (1.04%) Xamarin
9 44 (0.95%) Atlassian
9 44 (0.95%) SAP
10 34 (0.73%) Remedy
11 33 (0.71%) VMware
12 19 (0.41%) Pardot
13 18 (0.39%) BMC
13 18 (0.39%) HP
13 18 (0.39%) hybris
14 16 (0.35%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
15 14 (0.30%) IBM
15 14 (0.30%) Splunk
15 14 (0.30%) Twitter