Period
to 22 September 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 22 September 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > England
6 months to
22 Sep 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 22 15 15
Rank change year-on-year -7 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 12,056 18,197 21,087
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 9.38% 11.72% 12.71%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.20% 29.13% 31.50%
Number of salaries quoted 10,454 15,919 18,801
England median annual salary £47,500 £46,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +3.26% +2.22% +5.88%
10th Percentile £28,750 £27,750 £27,250
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £69,500
UK median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £43,500
% change year-on-year +5.56% +3.45% +2.35%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 47,844 62,469 66,939
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in England 37.22% 40.23% 40.34%
Number of salaries quoted 39,585 52,121 55,787
England median annual salary £55,000 £52,000 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.77% +4.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £29,750
90th Percentile £87,500 £83,750 £78,750
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £48,000
% change year-on-year +5.00% +4.17% +1.05%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Trend in England

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS in England.

Salary trend for CSS in England

CSS
Salary Histogram in England

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in England over the 6 months to 22 September 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in England

CSS
Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the England region over the 6 months to 22 September 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -5 4,420 £60,000 - 865
South East -6 2,847 £45,000 - 533
North of England -5 1,804 £42,500 +6.25% 680
Midlands -3 1,238 £40,000 - 397
North West -2 1,186 £43,500 +2.35% 411
South West -7 1,089 £42,500 +6.25% 264
West Midlands -4 659 £40,000 - 189
East of England -5 628 £45,000 +5.88% 229
East Midlands -1 568 £40,000 - 207
Yorkshire -20 528 £40,000 - 202
North East -14 91 £43,500 +16.00% 67
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 22 September 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the England region with a requirement for CSS.

1 11,144 (92.44%) HTML
2 10,319 (85.59%) JavaScript
3 5,197 (43.11%) Agile Software Development
4 4,716 (39.12%) C#
5 4,492 (37.26%) .NET
6 4,064 (33.71%) AngularJS
7 3,459 (28.69%) MVC
8 3,421 (28.38%) HTML5
9 3,074 (25.50%) jQuery
10 2,988 (24.78%) SQL
11 2,980 (24.72%) ASP.NET
12 2,770 (22.98%) React
13 2,698 (22.38%) Front End Development
14 2,648 (21.96%) Git (software)
15 2,643 (21.92%) SQL Server
16 2,581 (21.41%) Web Development
17 2,342 (19.43%) PHP
18 2,279 (18.90%) CSS3
19 2,111 (17.51%) User Experience
20 1,865 (15.47%) TDD
21 1,825 (15.14%) MySQL
22 1,747 (14.49%) Java
23 1,691 (14.03%) Node.js
24 1,658 (13.75%) Scrum
25 1,646 (13.65%) Sass
26 1,617 (13.41%) Azure
27 1,552 (12.87%) Web Services
28 1,543 (12.80%) ASP.NET MVC
29 1,542 (12.79%) Microsoft
30 1,486 (12.33%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 714 (5.92%) CMS
2 626 (5.19%) WordPress
3 317 (2.63%) Elasticsearch
4 259 (2.15%) SharePoint
5 231 (1.92%) Umbraco
6 230 (1.91%) Drupal
7 205 (1.70%) Confluence
8 203 (1.68%) IIS
9 201 (1.67%) Apache
10 144 (1.19%) Tomcat
11 97 (0.80%) nginx
12 78 (0.65%) EPiServer
12 78 (0.65%) Sitecore CMS
13 76 (0.63%) JBoss
14 70 (0.58%) Joomla!
15 66 (0.55%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 46 (0.38%) Kentico
17 43 (0.36%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 40 (0.33%) BizTalk Server
19 39 (0.32%) Apache Spark
Applications
1 397 (3.29%) Photoshop
2 284 (2.36%) Sketch
3 192 (1.59%) Adobe Illustrator
4 147 (1.22%) InVision
5 132 (1.09%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 96 (0.80%) Adobe XD
7 85 (0.71%) Microsoft Office
8 66 (0.55%) Microsoft Excel
9 55 (0.46%) Zeplin
10 36 (0.30%) InDesign
11 28 (0.23%) MS Visio
12 27 (0.22%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 23 (0.19%) Figma
14 22 (0.18%) Marvel
15 21 (0.17%) OmniGraffle
16 19 (0.16%) Microsoft Project
17 18 (0.15%) Acrobat
18 16 (0.13%) Adobe After Effects
18 16 (0.13%) Chatbot
18 16 (0.13%) InfoPath
Business Applications
1 295 (2.45%) Magento
2 109 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
3 79 (0.66%) Payment Gateway
4 57 (0.47%) Shopify
5 21 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
6 19 (0.16%) Dynamics NAV
7 18 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
8 15 (0.12%) NetSuite
8 15 (0.12%) WebTrends
9 10 (0.083%) Adobe Campaign
9 10 (0.083%) OpenCart
10 9 (0.075%) nopCommerce
10 9 (0.075%) SDL Web 8
11 6 (0.050%) Salesforce.com CRM
12 5 (0.041%) Unica
13 4 (0.033%) OpenText MBPM
13 4 (0.033%) Remedy ITSM
13 4 (0.033%) StreamServe
14 3 (0.025%) Oracle Applications
14 3 (0.025%) osCommerce
Cloud Services
1 1,617 (13.41%) Azure
2 1,396 (11.58%) AWS
3 612 (5.08%) SaaS
4 370 (3.07%) GitHub
5 350 (2.90%) npm
6 322 (2.67%) Serverless
7 262 (2.17%) GCP
8 183 (1.52%) AWS Lambda
9 126 (1.05%) Google Analytics
10 125 (1.04%) Office 365
11 119 (0.99%) PaaS
12 113 (0.94%) Amazon S3
13 105 (0.87%) Amazon EC2
14 96 (0.80%) Power Platform
15 83 (0.69%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 71 (0.59%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 71 (0.59%) Yarn
17 69 (0.57%) Amazon ECS
18 68 (0.56%) Cloud Computing
19 54 (0.45%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 203 (1.68%) Internet
2 192 (1.59%) HTTP
3 59 (0.49%) Intranet
4 39 (0.32%) TCP/IP
5 32 (0.27%) DNS
6 27 (0.22%) Firewall
7 20 (0.17%) SSH
7 20 (0.17%) VPN
8 17 (0.14%) Network Security
8 17 (0.14%) Skype
8 17 (0.14%) SSL
9 16 (0.13%) Broadband
10 15 (0.12%) VoIP
10 15 (0.12%) WebEx
11 14 (0.12%) Remote Desktop
12 12 (0.100%) HTTPS
13 10 (0.083%) DAB
14 9 (0.075%) Extranet
15 8 (0.066%) FTP
16 7 (0.058%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,643 (21.92%) SQL Server
2 1,825 (15.14%) MySQL
3 582 (4.83%) NoSQL
4 491 (4.07%) MongoDB
5 430 (3.57%) Relational Database
6 315 (2.61%) PostgreSQL
7 234 (1.94%) Redis
8 189 (1.57%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 177 (1.47%) Big Data
10 173 (1.43%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 149 (1.24%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 141 (1.17%) SQL Server 2012
13 111 (0.92%) RDBMS
14 106 (0.88%) SQL Server 2008
15 103 (0.85%) SQL Server 2016
16 78 (0.65%) Power BI
17 62 (0.51%) MariaDB
18 57 (0.47%) GIS
19 56 (0.46%) Azure SQL Database
20 54 (0.45%) Neo4j
Development Applications
1 2,648 (21.96%) Git (software)
2 667 (5.53%) webpack
3 661 (5.48%) Visual Studio
4 655 (5.43%) JIRA
5 511 (4.24%) Jenkins
6 424 (3.52%) gulp
7 394 (3.27%) Team Foundation Server
8 374 (3.10%) Subversion
9 362 (3.00%) Selenium
10 330 (2.74%) Grunt
11 310 (2.57%) Jasmine
12 202 (1.68%) Maven
13 191 (1.58%) TeamCity
14 187 (1.55%) Bitbucket
15 170 (1.41%) NUnit
16 162 (1.34%) Visual Studio Team System
17 156 (1.29%) JUnit
18 150 (1.24%) Mocha
19 148 (1.23%) Karma Test Runner
20 120 (1.00%) Cucumber
General
1 1,452 (12.04%) Finance
2 842 (6.98%) Marketing
3 637 (5.28%) Retail
4 281 (2.33%) Banking
5 255 (2.12%) Advertising
6 234 (1.94%) Games
7 232 (1.92%) Public Sector
8 217 (1.80%) Manufacturing
9 163 (1.35%) Telecoms
10 114 (0.95%) Law
11 108 (0.90%) Electronics
12 85 (0.71%) Legal
13 82 (0.68%) Publishing
14 75 (0.62%) Automotive
15 58 (0.48%) Investment Banking
16 45 (0.37%) Pharmaceutical
17 42 (0.35%) Multimedia
18 38 (0.32%) Financial Institution
19 37 (0.31%) Back Office
20 36 (0.30%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 9,474 (78.58%) Developer
2 2,055 (17.05%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,992 (16.52%) .NET Developer
4 1,603 (13.30%) Senior Developer
5 1,461 (12.12%) C# Developer
6 1,185 (9.83%) PHP Developer
7 1,155 (9.58%) Software Developer
8 1,012 (8.39%) Web Developer
9 1,011 (8.39%) C# .NET Developer
10 992 (8.23%) Full Stack Developer
11 988 (8.20%) JavaScript Developer
12 695 (5.76%) React Developer
13 654 (5.42%) Software Engineer
14 605 (5.02%) Junior
15 571 (4.74%) Java Developer
16 533 (4.42%) Junior Developer
17 465 (3.86%) Designer
18 447 (3.71%) Angular Developer
19 443 (3.67%) ASP.NET Developer
20 408 (3.38%) C# ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 11,144 (92.44%) HTML
2 4,492 (37.26%) .NET
3 4,064 (33.71%) AngularJS
4 3,421 (28.38%) HTML5
5 3,074 (25.50%) jQuery
6 2,980 (24.72%) ASP.NET
7 2,770 (22.98%) React
8 2,279 (18.90%) CSS3
9 1,691 (14.03%) Node.js
10 1,646 (13.65%) Sass
11 1,552 (12.87%) Web Services
12 1,543 (12.80%) ASP.NET MVC
13 1,379 (11.44%) REST
14 1,251 (10.38%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 1,159 (9.61%) ASP.NET Web API
16 1,130 (9.37%) .NET Framework
17 1,051 (8.72%) Vue.js
18 1,031 (8.55%) RESTful
19 1,017 (8.44%) XML
20 895 (7.42%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,111 (17.51%) User Experience
2 797 (6.61%) Greenfield Project
3 686 (5.69%) Mobile App
4 533 (4.42%) Analytical Skills
5 334 (2.77%) Self-Motivation
6 323 (2.68%) Enterprise Software
7 185 (1.53%) Algorithms
8 162 (1.34%) Data Structures
9 117 (0.97%) Social Media
10 94 (0.78%) Management Information System
11 83 (0.69%) Hedge funds
12 79 (0.66%) Graphic Design
13 72 (0.60%) Tandem
14 68 (0.56%) Cloud Native
15 62 (0.51%) Virtual Team
16 57 (0.47%) N-Tier
17 55 (0.46%) Blog
18 54 (0.45%) Life Science
19 53 (0.44%) W3C
20 50 (0.41%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 934 (7.75%) Linux
2 531 (4.40%) Windows
3 378 (3.14%) Android
4 368 (3.05%) Apple iOS
5 115 (0.95%) Unix
6 106 (0.88%) Windows Server
7 58 (0.48%) Debian
8 48 (0.40%) Mac OS
9 43 (0.36%) CentOS
9 43 (0.36%) Ubuntu
10 28 (0.23%) Windows Server 2012
11 25 (0.21%) Windows 10
12 22 (0.18%) AIX
12 22 (0.18%) Windows 7
13 18 (0.15%) Windows Server 2003
13 18 (0.15%) Windows XP
14 17 (0.14%) Mac OS X
15 14 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
15 14 (0.12%) Windows 2000
15 14 (0.12%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,197 (43.11%) Agile Software Development
2 3,459 (28.69%) MVC
3 2,698 (22.38%) Front End Development
4 2,581 (21.41%) Web Development
5 1,865 (15.47%) TDD
6 1,658 (13.75%) Scrum
7 1,486 (12.33%) Software Engineering
8 1,402 (11.63%) OO
9 1,247 (10.34%) DevOps
10 1,146 (9.51%) Problem-Solving
11 1,063 (8.82%) Unit Testing
12 997 (8.27%) E-Commerce
13 951 (7.89%) OOP
14 940 (7.80%) Computer Science
15 917 (7.61%) Continuous Integration
16 822 (6.82%) Test Automation
17 808 (6.70%) Microservices
18 777 (6.44%) Mentoring
19 774 (6.42%) BDD
20 767 (6.36%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 10,319 (85.59%) JavaScript
2 4,716 (39.12%) C#
3 2,988 (24.78%) SQL
4 2,342 (19.43%) PHP
5 1,747 (14.49%) Java
6 1,092 (9.06%) TypeScript
7 860 (7.13%) ES6
8 859 (7.13%) Python
9 624 (5.18%) T-SQL
10 360 (2.99%) VB.NET
11 267 (2.21%) Ruby
12 246 (2.04%) Java 8
13 196 (1.63%) C++
14 171 (1.42%) C
15 156 (1.29%) PowerShell
16 117 (0.97%) Scala
17 113 (0.94%) PHP 7
18 96 (0.80%) PHP 5
19 91 (0.75%) ES7
20 85 (0.71%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 1,317 (10.92%) Degree
2 447 (3.71%) Computer Science Degree
3 144 (1.19%) Security Cleared
4 84 (0.70%) Microsoft Certification
5 75 (0.62%) SC Cleared
6 38 (0.32%) MCP
7 34 (0.28%) DV Cleared
8 31 (0.26%) Master's Degree
8 31 (0.26%) Numerate Degree
9 20 (0.17%) ISTQB
10 16 (0.13%) ISEB
11 14 (0.12%) DBS Check
11 14 (0.12%) MCSD
11 14 (0.12%) MCSE
12 13 (0.11%) HND
13 9 (0.075%) Postgraduate
14 7 (0.058%) PhD
14 7 (0.058%) SANS
15 6 (0.050%) CCNA
15 6 (0.050%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 455 (3.77%) QA
2 52 (0.43%) GDPR
3 51 (0.42%) WAI
4 37 (0.31%) SLA
5 20 (0.17%) WCAG
6 19 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 13 (0.11%) PCI DSS
8 10 (0.083%) PMO
9 7 (0.058%) Cyber Essentials
10 5 (0.041%) Data Quality
11 4 (0.033%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 2 (0.017%) ISO 9001
13 1 (0.008%) Dublin Core
13 1 (0.008%) ISO 14001
13 1 (0.008%) PSD2
13 1 (0.008%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 866 (7.18%) Docker
2 77 (0.64%) Active Directory
3 22 (0.18%) Forefront TMG
4 21 (0.17%) VMware Infrastructure
5 19 (0.16%) Varnish
6 12 (0.100%) Firmware
7 9 (0.075%) vCloud
8 7 (0.058%) Hyper-V
9 6 (0.050%) Virtual Machines
10 4 (0.033%) KVM
11 3 (0.025%) Apache ZooKeeper
12 1 (0.008%) GridGain
12 1 (0.008%) Shibboleth
12 1 (0.008%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 337 (2.80%) Kubernetes
2 117 (0.97%) Opscode Chef
3 89 (0.74%) Terraform
4 88 (0.73%) Ansible
5 39 (0.32%) Kibana
6 32 (0.27%) logstash
6 32 (0.27%) Puppet
7 25 (0.21%) SCCM
8 15 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
9 14 (0.12%) TeamSite
10 12 (0.100%) Docker Swarm
10 12 (0.100%) Ganglia
10 12 (0.100%) Grafana
11 11 (0.091%) HP Quality Center
11 11 (0.091%) Matomo
12 8 (0.066%) HAProxy
13 7 (0.058%) Consul
13 7 (0.058%) Prometheus
14 6 (0.050%) Marathon
14 6 (0.050%) Mesos
Vendors
1 1,542 (12.79%) Microsoft
2 559 (4.64%) Adobe
3 482 (4.00%) Oracle
4 426 (3.53%) Google
5 234 (1.94%) Zend
6 150 (1.24%) Salesforce.com
7 132 (1.09%) SAP
8 125 (1.04%) Xamarin
9 118 (0.98%) Atlassian
10 101 (0.84%) Sitecore
11 83 (0.69%) Splunk
12 57 (0.47%) IBM
13 54 (0.45%) Facebook
14 53 (0.44%) ServiceNow
15 50 (0.41%) Nintex
15 50 (0.41%) WorldPay
16 46 (0.38%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 42 (0.35%) WooCommerce
18 38 (0.32%) Tableau
18 38 (0.32%) Twitter