Period
to 24 March 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 24 March 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
24 Mar 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 25 20 13
Rank change year-on-year -5 -7 +1
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,029 3,535 3,592
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 7.10% 7.52% 8.86%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.01% 20.95% 25.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,335 2,801 2,729
London median daily rate £488 £475 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.63% +11.76% +1.19%
10th Percentile £325 £314 £313
90th Percentile £625 £600 £575
England median daily rate £450 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +3.90%
Number of hourly rates quoted 15 15 15
London median hourly rate £37.50 £27.00 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +38.89% -32.50% +17.65%
10th Percentile £22.20 £21.07 £16.64
90th Percentile £53.75 £47.50 £92.10
England median hourly rate £41.00 £45.00 £38.75
% change year-on-year -8.89% +16.13% +22.05%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 15,930 16,877 14,281
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 37.36% 35.91% 35.23%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,993 13,018 10,693
London median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +4.40%
10th Percentile £370 £360 £325
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
England median daily rate £500 £475 £440
% change year-on-year +5.26% +8.08% +3.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 77 120 82
London median hourly rate £35.50 £36.25 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -2.07% -19.44% +12.50%
10th Percentile £24.11 £20.71 £21.40
90th Percentile £53.75 £54.13 £57.19
England median hourly rate £41.69 £41.21 £40.38
% change year-on-year +1.17% +2.04% +4.21%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 24 March 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 24 March 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 24 March 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -2 677 £500 +5.26% 106
West London -11 139 £425 -9.57% 31
South London +8 103 £450 +12.50% 15
East London -8 71 £500 +5.26% 19
North London +6 26 £400 +52.38% 1
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 24 March 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,753 (90.89%) HTML
2 2,455 (81.05%) JavaScript
3 1,464 (48.33%) Agile Software Development
4 1,216 (40.15%) HTML5
5 1,193 (39.39%) AngularJS
6 1,000 (33.01%) React
7 971 (32.06%) Front End Development
8 848 (28.00%) CSS3
9 756 (24.96%) TDD
10 746 (24.63%) Node.js
11 741 (24.46%) Git (software)
12 546 (18.03%) jQuery
13 542 (17.89%) Java
13 542 (17.89%) Finance
14 534 (17.63%) Sass
15 522 (17.23%) User Experience
16 485 (16.01%) .NET
17 478 (15.78%) SQL
18 460 (15.19%) C#
19 449 (14.82%) MVC
20 446 (14.72%) ES6
21 442 (14.59%) TypeScript
22 425 (14.03%) REST
23 423 (13.97%) Test Automation
24 407 (13.44%) Scrum
25 403 (13.30%) Web Development
26 396 (13.07%) BDD
27 381 (12.58%) Redux
28 367 (12.12%) DevOps
29 362 (11.95%) Amazon AWS

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 216 (7.13%) CMS
2 80 (2.64%) Apache
3 78 (2.58%) Drupal
4 74 (2.44%) SharePoint
5 69 (2.28%) Elasticsearch
6 66 (2.18%) Confluence
7 60 (1.98%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 57 (1.88%) WordPress
9 31 (1.02%) Umbraco
10 23 (0.76%) Sitecore CMS
10 23 (0.76%) Tomcat
11 22 (0.73%) Gunicorn
12 20 (0.66%) IIS
13 16 (0.53%) JBoss
14 15 (0.50%) Apache Spark
14 15 (0.50%) SharePoint 2013
14 15 (0.50%) WebLogic
15 14 (0.46%) Apache Solr
15 14 (0.46%) WebSphere
16 13 (0.43%) nginx
Applications
1 124 (4.09%) Photoshop
2 50 (1.65%) Adobe Illustrator
3 37 (1.22%) InVision
4 34 (1.12%) Microsoft Excel
5 14 (0.46%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 13 (0.43%) Adobe After Effects
7 11 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
8 8 (0.26%) Fireworks
9 6 (0.20%) InDesign
9 6 (0.20%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 6 (0.20%) UXPin
10 5 (0.17%) InfoPath
11 3 (0.099%) Acrobat
11 3 (0.099%) Chatbot
11 3 (0.099%) OmniGraffle
12 2 (0.066%) GIMP
13 1 (0.033%) MS Visio
13 1 (0.033%) Spreadsheet
13 1 (0.033%) Stata
Business Applications
1 27 (0.89%) Magento
2 10 (0.33%) Dynamics CRM
3 8 (0.26%) Payment Gateway
4 7 (0.23%) Adobe Campaign
5 4 (0.13%) Dynamics AX
6 3 (0.099%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.099%) SDL Web 8
6 3 (0.099%) Shopify
7 2 (0.066%) Dynamics NAV
7 2 (0.066%) Endur
7 2 (0.066%) SAP Oil and Gas
7 2 (0.066%) WebTrends
8 1 (0.033%) BigMachines
8 1 (0.033%) Eloqua
8 1 (0.033%) NetSuite
8 1 (0.033%) Northgate Housing
8 1 (0.033%) Social Studio
8 1 (0.033%) Unica
8 1 (0.033%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 362 (11.95%) Amazon AWS
2 304 (10.04%) Microsoft Azure
3 129 (4.26%) GitHub
4 100 (3.30%) Serverless
5 75 (2.48%) Google Cloud Platform
6 71 (2.34%) npm
7 59 (1.95%) AWS Lambda
8 51 (1.68%) PaaS
9 42 (1.39%) Heroku
10 35 (1.16%) SaaS
11 30 (0.99%) OpenShift
12 28 (0.92%) Adobe Analytics
13 26 (0.86%) Google Analytics
14 20 (0.66%) Amazon SQS
15 19 (0.63%) Yarn
16 18 (0.59%) Amazon S3
16 18 (0.59%) Office 365
17 17 (0.56%) Amazon EC2
18 16 (0.53%) AWS CloudFormation
18 16 (0.53%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 104 (3.43%) HTTP
2 40 (1.32%) Internet
3 35 (1.16%) TCP/IP
4 31 (1.02%) FTP
5 28 (0.92%) SSL
6 23 (0.76%) DNS
7 15 (0.50%) SSH
8 14 (0.46%) SMTP
9 12 (0.40%) Intranet
10 5 (0.17%) SNMP
11 4 (0.13%) Firewall
12 3 (0.099%) HTTPS
12 3 (0.099%) IMAP
13 2 (0.066%) Kerberos
13 2 (0.066%) MVNO
13 2 (0.066%) Skype
14 1 (0.033%) BIG-IP
14 1 (0.033%) Multicast
14 1 (0.033%) RTMP
14 1 (0.033%) SAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 308 (10.17%) SQL Server
2 248 (8.19%) MySQL
3 179 (5.91%) NoSQL
4 166 (5.48%) MongoDB
5 157 (5.18%) Relational Database
6 146 (4.82%) PostgreSQL
7 64 (2.11%) Apache Cassandra
8 44 (1.45%) RDBMS
9 43 (1.42%) Big Data
10 39 (1.29%) Redis
11 27 (0.89%) Cosmos DB
12 23 (0.76%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 22 (0.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 21 (0.69%) Hadoop
15 20 (0.66%) Blockchain
16 18 (0.59%) Couchbase
16 18 (0.59%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 17 (0.56%) SQL Server 2014
18 16 (0.53%) Azure SQL Database
19 15 (0.50%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 741 (24.46%) Git (software)
2 273 (9.01%) Jenkins
3 209 (6.90%) gulp
4 206 (6.80%) webpack
5 197 (6.50%) JIRA
6 185 (6.11%) Jasmine
7 180 (5.94%) Selenium
8 143 (4.72%) Mocha
9 140 (4.62%) Grunt
10 127 (4.19%) Karma Test Runner
11 102 (3.37%) Cucumber
12 94 (3.10%) Visual Studio
13 90 (2.97%) Visual Studio Team System
14 80 (2.64%) Maven
14 80 (2.64%) Team Foundation Server
15 77 (2.54%) Subversion
16 67 (2.21%) Protractor
17 56 (1.85%) GitLab
18 54 (1.78%) Gradle
18 54 (1.78%) TeamCity
General
1 542 (17.89%) Finance
2 211 (6.97%) Banking
3 167 (5.51%) Marketing
4 133 (4.39%) Retail
5 105 (3.47%) Front Office
6 51 (1.68%) Publishing
7 45 (1.49%) Legal
8 42 (1.39%) Investment Banking
9 36 (1.19%) Advertising
10 32 (1.06%) Games
11 25 (0.83%) Telecoms
12 22 (0.73%) Law
13 16 (0.53%) French Language
14 15 (0.50%) Manufacturing
15 11 (0.36%) Financial Institution
16 10 (0.33%) Automotive
17 9 (0.30%) Electronics
17 9 (0.30%) German Language
18 8 (0.26%) Back Office
19 7 (0.23%) Digital Economy
Job Titles
1 2,501 (82.57%) Developer
2 704 (23.24%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 576 (19.02%) React Developer
4 475 (15.68%) JavaScript Developer
5 339 (11.19%) Full Stack Developer
6 300 (9.90%) Angular Developer
7 256 (8.45%) Senior Developer
8 222 (7.33%) .NET Developer
9 198 (6.54%) Java Developer
10 171 (5.65%) C# Developer
11 146 (4.82%) UI Developer
12 144 (4.75%) Node.js Developer
13 131 (4.32%) HTML Developer
14 129 (4.26%) Designer
15 107 (3.53%) Web Developer
16 97 (3.20%) PHP Developer
17 92 (3.04%) HTML CSS Developer
18 84 (2.77%) C# .NET Developer
19 73 (2.41%) Lead Developer
20 70 (2.31%) ServiceNow Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,753 (90.89%) HTML
2 1,216 (40.15%) HTML5
3 1,193 (39.39%) AngularJS
4 1,000 (33.01%) React
5 848 (28.00%) CSS3
6 746 (24.63%) Node.js
7 546 (18.03%) jQuery
8 534 (17.63%) Sass
9 485 (16.01%) .NET
10 425 (14.03%) REST
11 381 (12.58%) Redux
12 333 (10.99%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 300 (9.90%) RESTful
14 287 (9.48%) XML
15 278 (9.18%) JSON
16 268 (8.85%) Web Services
17 251 (8.29%) ASP.NET
18 225 (7.43%) Spring
19 208 (6.87%) SOAP
20 205 (6.77%) Ajax
Miscellaneous
1 522 (17.23%) User Experience
2 203 (6.70%) Analytical Skills
3 187 (6.17%) Greenfield Project
4 168 (5.55%) Fintech
5 156 (5.15%) Mobile App
6 70 (2.31%) Algorithms
7 65 (2.15%) Data Structures
8 57 (1.88%) Self-Motivation
9 51 (1.68%) Hedge funds
10 44 (1.45%) W3C
11 42 (1.39%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 42 (1.39%) Virtual Team
12 39 (1.29%) Fixed Income
13 36 (1.19%) Social Media
14 34 (1.12%) Equities
15 32 (1.06%) Linux Command Line
16 25 (0.83%) Enterprise Software
17 24 (0.79%) Derivative
18 23 (0.76%) Fat Client
18 23 (0.76%) Thin Client
Operating Systems
1 243 (8.02%) Linux
2 97 (3.20%) Windows
3 74 (2.44%) Apple iOS
4 73 (2.41%) Unix
5 66 (2.18%) Android
6 22 (0.73%) VMS
7 14 (0.46%) Ubuntu
8 10 (0.33%) CentOS
9 9 (0.30%) Mac OS
9 9 (0.30%) Mac OS X
9 9 (0.30%) Windows Server
10 7 (0.23%) Fedora
11 6 (0.20%) Debian
12 5 (0.17%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 2 (0.066%) Windows Server 2008
14 1 (0.033%) FreeBSD
14 1 (0.033%) Solaris
14 1 (0.033%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,464 (48.33%) Agile Software Development
2 971 (32.06%) Front End Development
3 756 (24.96%) TDD
4 449 (14.82%) MVC
5 423 (13.97%) Test Automation
6 407 (13.44%) Scrum
7 403 (13.30%) Web Development
8 396 (13.07%) BDD
9 367 (12.12%) DevOps
10 348 (11.49%) Microservices
11 284 (9.38%) OO
12 265 (8.75%) Continuous Integration
13 244 (8.06%) Responsive Web Design
14 223 (7.36%) E-Commerce
15 219 (7.23%) Unit Testing
16 204 (6.73%) Software Engineering
17 203 (6.70%) Problem-Solving
18 172 (5.68%) Analytics
19 149 (4.92%) Kanban
20 147 (4.85%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 2,455 (81.05%) JavaScript
2 542 (17.89%) Java
3 478 (15.78%) SQL
4 460 (15.19%) C#
5 446 (14.72%) ES6
6 442 (14.59%) TypeScript
7 239 (7.89%) PHP
8 210 (6.93%) Python
9 134 (4.42%) Java 8
10 106 (3.50%) Ruby
11 85 (2.81%) T-SQL
12 60 (1.98%) Scala
13 55 (1.82%) Go
14 45 (1.49%) ES7
15 31 (1.02%) PowerShell
16 25 (0.83%) Groovy
17 23 (0.76%) Bash Shell
18 22 (0.73%) PL/SQL
19 19 (0.63%) Perl
20 18 (0.59%) JSX
Qualifications
1 164 (5.41%) Degree
2 86 (2.84%) Security Cleared
3 62 (2.05%) SC Cleared
4 49 (1.62%) Computer Science Degree
5 27 (0.89%) Numerate Degree
6 15 (0.50%) BPSS Clearance
7 12 (0.40%) Master's Degree
8 10 (0.33%) DBS Check
9 7 (0.23%) CISSP
9 7 (0.23%) SSCP
10 6 (0.20%) ITIL Certification
11 3 (0.099%) CTC Cleared
11 3 (0.099%) ISTQB
11 3 (0.099%) Sun Certification
12 2 (0.066%) Microsoft Certification
13 1 (0.033%) MBA
13 1 (0.033%) MCAD
13 1 (0.033%) MCP
13 1 (0.033%) MCSD
13 1 (0.033%) PRINCE2 Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 140 (4.62%) QA
2 34 (1.12%) WCAG
3 11 (0.36%) Data Quality
4 5 (0.17%) GDPR
4 5 (0.17%) WAI
5 4 (0.13%) ISO 15022
5 4 (0.13%) ISO 20022
6 3 (0.099%) Disclosure Scotland
6 3 (0.099%) Section 508
7 1 (0.033%) PMO
7 1 (0.033%) SLA
System Software
1 276 (9.11%) Docker
2 11 (0.36%) Active Directory
3 7 (0.23%) Virtual Machines
4 5 (0.17%) VMware Infrastructure
5 3 (0.099%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 3 (0.099%) VirtualBox
6 2 (0.066%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.033%) KVM
7 1 (0.033%) LXC
7 1 (0.033%) Shibboleth
7 1 (0.033%) Varnish
7 1 (0.033%) Xen
7 1 (0.033%) zsh
Systems Management
1 127 (4.19%) Kubernetes
2 65 (2.15%) Ansible
3 43 (1.42%) Puppet
3 43 (1.42%) Terraform
4 30 (0.99%) Kibana
5 20 (0.66%) Docker Swarm
5 20 (0.66%) Grafana
5 20 (0.66%) Opscode Chef
6 13 (0.43%) logstash
7 5 (0.17%) Consul
8 4 (0.13%) Control-M
8 4 (0.13%) Graphite
8 4 (0.13%) Single Sign-On
8 4 (0.13%) ZABBIX
9 3 (0.099%) ITRS Geneos
9 3 (0.099%) Packer
9 3 (0.099%) Prometheus
10 2 (0.066%) Capistrano
10 2 (0.066%) NetBackup
10 2 (0.066%) TeamSite
Vendors
1 175 (5.78%) Microsoft
2 164 (5.41%) Adobe
3 146 (4.82%) Oracle
4 114 (3.76%) Google
5 81 (2.67%) ServiceNow
6 55 (1.82%) Salesforce.com
7 37 (1.22%) Splunk
8 32 (1.06%) Sitecore
9 25 (0.83%) hybris
10 16 (0.53%) SAP
10 16 (0.53%) Xerox
11 14 (0.46%) Atlassian
11 14 (0.46%) IBM
12 12 (0.40%) Cypress Semiconductor
12 12 (0.40%) Red Hat
12 12 (0.40%) Twitter
13 11 (0.36%) Optimizely
14 9 (0.30%) TIBCO
15 8 (0.26%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
16 7 (0.23%) Nintex