Period
to 21 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 21 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
21 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 56 53 27
Rank change year-on-year -3 -26 -5
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,510 648 2,614
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 4.48% 4.89% 6.79%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 12.93% 12.73% 18.77%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,125 443 1,999
10th Percentile £358 £306 £340
25th Percentile £425 £400 £410
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £485 £490
Median % change year-on-year +8.25% -1.02% +3.16%
75th Percentile £623 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £649 £650
England median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 6 15
10th Percentile £35.25 £22.50 £28.18
25th Percentile £39.00 £25.74 £34.98
Median hourly rate £68.40 £39.98 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year +71.11% -20.05% +11.11%
75th Percentile £75.05 £52.50 £122.50
90th Percentile £81.50 £55.50 "
England median hourly rate £48.26 £44.00 £50.00
% change year-on-year +9.68% -12.00% +17.65%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 11,677 5,089 13,926
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 34.66% 38.42% 36.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 8,746 3,751 10,473
10th Percentile £400 £363 £375
25th Percentile £465 £425 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +1.45%
75th Percentile £656 £631 £613
90th Percentile £725 £713 £688
England median daily rate £525 £500 £500
% change year-on-year +5.00% - +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 25 57
10th Percentile £22.85 £21.90 £15.35
25th Percentile £35.00 £25.00 £33.25
Median hourly rate £49.00 £37.50 £50.00
Median % change year-on-year +30.67% -25.00% +14.61%
75th Percentile £65.00 £48.00 £55.00
90th Percentile £71.00 £55.60 £70.45
England median hourly rate £49.00 £44.50 £46.40
% change year-on-year +10.11% -4.09% +10.68%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 21 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 21 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 21 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -3 187 £474 -8.01% 221
West London -11 19 £586 +11.67% 71
South London -17 15 £520 - 10
East London -11 5 £400 +52.38% 54
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 21 September 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,334 (88.34%) HTML
2 1,193 (79.01%) JavaScript
3 692 (45.83%) React
4 630 (41.72%) Agile Software Development
5 503 (33.31%) AngularJS
6 439 (29.07%) HTML5
7 378 (25.03%) TypeScript
8 372 (24.64%) Front End Development
9 364 (24.11%) Node.js
10 352 (23.31%) Java
11 338 (22.38%) CSS3
11 338 (22.38%) Full Stack Development
12 322 (21.32%) Git (software)
13 301 (19.93%) Social Skills
14 293 (19.40%) DevOps
15 291 (19.27%) TDD
16 275 (18.21%) Finance
17 265 (17.55%) Azure
18 250 (16.56%) SQL
19 246 (16.29%) REST
20 245 (16.23%) AWS
21 238 (15.76%) C#
22 237 (15.70%) User Experience
23 236 (15.63%) Sass
24 231 (15.30%) .NET
25 215 (14.24%) Web Services
26 202 (13.38%) Problem-Solving
27 200 (13.25%) RESTful
28 198 (13.11%) Docker
29 195 (12.91%) Scrum

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 105 (6.95%) CMS
2 48 (3.18%) SharePoint
3 47 (3.11%) Confluence
4 44 (2.91%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 33 (2.19%) Apache
6 28 (1.85%) Elasticsearch
7 23 (1.52%) WordPress
8 21 (1.39%) IIS
9 20 (1.32%) nginx
9 20 (1.32%) Tomcat
10 17 (1.13%) Headless CMS
11 14 (0.93%) Drupal
12 10 (0.66%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 10 (0.66%) SharePoint 2010
13 9 (0.60%) Moodle
13 9 (0.60%) Umbraco
14 8 (0.53%) JBoss
15 7 (0.46%) Jupyter
16 6 (0.40%) WebLogic
17 5 (0.33%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 29 (1.92%) Sketch
2 26 (1.72%) Photoshop
3 14 (0.93%) Figma
3 14 (0.93%) InVision
4 10 (0.66%) Adobe XD
5 9 (0.60%) Microsoft Excel
6 8 (0.53%) InfoPath
7 7 (0.46%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 6 (0.40%) Adobe Illustrator
8 6 (0.40%) Chatbot
9 5 (0.33%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 4 (0.26%) Zeplin
11 3 (0.20%) GIMP
11 3 (0.20%) Microsoft Office
11 3 (0.20%) OmniGraffle
12 2 (0.13%) Spreadsheet
13 1 (0.066%) Adobe Premiere
13 1 (0.066%) InDesign
13 1 (0.066%) Microsoft Project
13 1 (0.066%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 12 (0.79%) Adobe Campaign
1 12 (0.79%) Shopify
2 11 (0.73%) Magento
3 7 (0.46%) Temenos T24
4 5 (0.33%) Dynamics CRM
4 5 (0.33%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.20%) Oracle ERP
6 2 (0.13%) Oracle Applications
6 2 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.13%) SAP CRM
6 2 (0.13%) SAP Oil and Gas
7 1 (0.066%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.066%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.066%) SAP BPC
7 1 (0.066%) Social Studio
7 1 (0.066%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 265 (17.55%) Azure
2 245 (16.23%) AWS
3 93 (6.16%) npm
4 88 (5.83%) GitHub
5 74 (4.90%) Serverless
6 59 (3.91%) AWS Lambda
7 55 (3.64%) SaaS
8 40 (2.65%) GCP
9 39 (2.58%) Yarn
10 36 (2.38%) Power Platform
11 32 (2.12%) PaaS
12 29 (1.92%) Amazon EC2
12 29 (1.92%) Microsoft 365
13 28 (1.85%) Amazon S3
13 28 (1.85%) Google Analytics
14 21 (1.39%) Amazon ECS
15 20 (1.32%) Amazon EKS
16 19 (1.26%) Amazon SQS
16 19 (1.26%) Route 53
17 17 (1.13%) Adobe Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 36 (2.38%) HTTP
2 26 (1.72%) Internet
3 20 (1.32%) RTMP
4 18 (1.19%) AMQP
5 10 (0.66%) Intranet
6 9 (0.60%) DNS
7 5 (0.33%) HTTPS
8 3 (0.20%) Kerberos
8 3 (0.20%) Network Security
9 2 (0.13%) PuTTY
9 2 (0.13%) TCP/IP
9 2 (0.13%) VPN
10 1 (0.066%) Bluetooth
10 1 (0.066%) Cisco ASA
10 1 (0.066%) Ethernet
10 1 (0.066%) LAN
10 1 (0.066%) RIP
10 1 (0.066%) VoIP
10 1 (0.066%) WAAS
10 1 (0.066%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 148 (9.80%) SQL Server
2 78 (5.17%) Relational Database
3 74 (4.90%) MongoDB
4 73 (4.83%) MySQL
5 59 (3.91%) NoSQL
6 54 (3.58%) PostgreSQL
7 35 (2.32%) Redis
8 31 (2.05%) Power BI
9 21 (1.39%) Tableau
10 18 (1.19%) RDBMS
11 17 (1.13%) Big Data
12 16 (1.06%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 16 (1.06%) SQL Server 2016
13 13 (0.86%) Data Warehouse
14 11 (0.73%) Metadata
15 9 (0.60%) Amazon RDS
15 9 (0.60%) Oracle Database
15 9 (0.60%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 9 (0.60%) SQL Server Reporting Services
16 8 (0.53%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 322 (21.32%) Git (software)
2 169 (11.19%) Jenkins
3 138 (9.14%) webpack
4 110 (7.28%) JIRA
5 81 (5.36%) Jasmine
6 77 (5.10%) Maven
7 65 (4.30%) Cypress.io
7 65 (4.30%) Mocha
8 56 (3.71%) gulp
9 48 (3.18%) Karma Test Runner
10 47 (3.11%) Bitbucket
11 44 (2.91%) TeamCity
12 42 (2.78%) Grunt
13 35 (2.32%) Cucumber
14 30 (1.99%) GitLab
15 29 (1.92%) JUnit
15 29 (1.92%) Storybook
16 27 (1.79%) Selenium
17 25 (1.66%) Protractor
18 19 (1.26%) Visual Studio
General
1 301 (19.93%) Social Skills
2 275 (18.21%) Finance
3 112 (7.42%) Banking
4 100 (6.62%) Analytical Skills
5 93 (6.16%) Marketing
6 55 (3.64%) Retail
7 53 (3.51%) Presentation Skills
8 49 (3.25%) Front Office
9 45 (2.98%) Public Sector
10 37 (2.45%) Investment Banking
11 27 (1.79%) Publishing
12 22 (1.46%) Telecoms
13 21 (1.39%) Documentation Skills
14 18 (1.19%) German Language
14 18 (1.19%) Manufacturing
15 16 (1.06%) French Language
16 15 (0.99%) Advertising
17 13 (0.86%) Games
18 11 (0.73%) Financial Institution
19 9 (0.60%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 1,076 (71.26%) Developer
2 230 (15.23%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 188 (12.45%) React Developer
4 178 (11.79%) Senior Developer
5 169 (11.19%) Full Stack Developer
6 144 (9.54%) Angular Developer
7 101 (6.69%) JavaScript Developer
8 89 (5.89%) Java Developer
9 75 (4.97%) .NET Developer
10 72 (4.77%) UI Developer
11 65 (4.30%) Designer
12 56 (3.71%) Python Developer
13 49 (3.25%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 45 (2.98%) HTML Developer
14 45 (2.98%) PHP Developer
15 43 (2.85%) Lead Developer
16 42 (2.78%) Architect
17 41 (2.72%) UX Designer
18 40 (2.65%) Software Engineer
19 38 (2.52%) C# Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,334 (88.34%) HTML
2 692 (45.83%) React
3 503 (33.31%) AngularJS
4 439 (29.07%) HTML5
5 364 (24.11%) Node.js
6 338 (22.38%) CSS3
7 246 (16.29%) REST
8 236 (15.63%) Sass
9 231 (15.30%) .NET
10 215 (14.24%) Web Services
11 200 (13.25%) RESTful
12 185 (12.25%) Redux
13 157 (10.40%) jQuery
14 141 (9.34%) Jest
15 127 (8.41%) Vue.js
16 126 (8.34%) JSON
17 123 (8.15%) Spring
18 121 (8.01%) GraphQL
19 94 (6.23%) XML
20 86 (5.70%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 237 (15.70%) User Experience
2 75 (4.97%) Mobile App
3 72 (4.77%) Greenfield Project
4 50 (3.31%) Data Structures
5 43 (2.85%) Data Protection Act
5 43 (2.85%) Enterprise Software
6 31 (2.05%) Algorithms
7 30 (1.99%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 21 (1.39%) Social Media
9 16 (1.06%) Self-Motivation
10 15 (0.99%) Cloud Native
11 14 (0.93%) Fixed Income
12 13 (0.86%) Hedge funds
12 13 (0.86%) Virtual Team
13 12 (0.79%) N-Tier
13 12 (0.79%) W3C
14 10 (0.66%) Public Cloud
15 9 (0.60%) Market Risk
15 9 (0.60%) Marketing Technology
16 8 (0.53%) SCORM
Operating Systems
1 79 (5.23%) Linux
2 76 (5.03%) Unix
3 46 (3.05%) Windows
4 26 (1.72%) Apple iOS
5 22 (1.46%) Android
6 10 (0.66%) Windows Server
7 7 (0.46%) Mac OS
8 4 (0.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 4 (0.26%) Windows 10
9 2 (0.13%) Windows Server 2019
10 1 (0.066%) Windows Server 2012
10 1 (0.066%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 630 (41.72%) Agile Software Development
2 372 (24.64%) Front End Development
3 338 (22.38%) Full Stack Development
4 293 (19.40%) DevOps
5 291 (19.27%) TDD
6 202 (13.38%) Problem-Solving
7 195 (12.91%) Scrum
8 191 (12.65%) Microservices
9 171 (11.32%) Web Development
10 160 (10.60%) Test Automation
11 156 (10.33%) Continuous Integration
12 142 (9.40%) Unit Testing
13 140 (9.27%) Software Engineering
14 127 (8.41%) MVC
15 117 (7.75%) SDLC
16 106 (7.02%) Analytics
17 103 (6.82%) BDD
18 93 (6.16%) Computer Science
19 92 (6.09%) Continuous Improvement
20 85 (5.63%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 1,193 (79.01%) JavaScript
2 378 (25.03%) TypeScript
3 352 (23.31%) Java
4 250 (16.56%) SQL
5 238 (15.76%) C#
6 182 (12.05%) Python
7 147 (9.74%) ES6
8 109 (7.22%) PHP
9 57 (3.77%) Java 8
10 39 (2.58%) Kotlin
10 39 (2.58%) PowerShell
11 33 (2.19%) Ruby
12 28 (1.85%) Bash Shell
12 28 (1.85%) Scala
13 26 (1.72%) Java 11
14 21 (1.39%) XAML
15 18 (1.19%) Apex Code
15 18 (1.19%) Shell Script
16 17 (1.13%) C
17 16 (1.06%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 119 (7.88%) Degree
2 56 (3.71%) Security Cleared
3 42 (2.78%) Computer Science Degree
4 36 (2.38%) SC Cleared
5 10 (0.66%) Master's Degree
6 8 (0.53%) AWS Certification
6 8 (0.53%) Numerate Degree
7 6 (0.40%) DV Cleared
8 4 (0.26%) ISTQB
8 4 (0.26%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 3 (0.20%) BPSS Clearance
10 2 (0.13%) ISEB
10 2 (0.13%) ITIL Certification
10 2 (0.13%) Microsoft Certification
10 2 (0.13%) Postgraduate
11 1 (0.066%) ISEB Practitioner
11 1 (0.066%) Sun Certification
11 1 (0.066%) Tableau Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 168 (11.13%) Accessibility
2 72 (4.77%) QA
3 27 (1.79%) WCAG
4 25 (1.66%) Data Quality
5 9 (0.60%) WAI
6 4 (0.26%) GDPR
7 2 (0.13%) SLA
8 1 (0.066%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.066%) HL7
8 1 (0.066%) PMO
8 1 (0.066%) Section 508
System Software
1 198 (13.11%) Docker
2 27 (1.79%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 123 (8.15%) Kubernetes
2 32 (2.12%) Terraform
3 30 (1.99%) Ansible
4 14 (0.93%) Puppet
5 12 (0.79%) Kibana
6 11 (0.73%) Single Sign-On
7 9 (0.60%) Grafana
8 8 (0.53%) Opscode Chef
9 4 (0.26%) logstash
9 4 (0.26%) Netcool
10 3 (0.20%) Kubeflow
11 2 (0.13%) Rancher
12 1 (0.066%) Cisco Prime
12 1 (0.066%) Hadoop YARN
12 1 (0.066%) HP Fortify
12 1 (0.066%) HP SiteScope
12 1 (0.066%) Nagios
12 1 (0.066%) OPNET
12 1 (0.066%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 115 (7.62%) Adobe
2 96 (6.36%) Oracle
3 92 (6.09%) Microsoft
4 71 (4.70%) Salesforce.com
5 52 (3.44%) Google
6 23 (1.52%) SAP
7 18 (1.19%) Splunk
8 17 (1.13%) ServiceNow
9 13 (0.86%) Apple
9 13 (0.86%) CA
10 12 (0.79%) hybris
10 12 (0.79%) Telerik
11 10 (0.66%) Atlassian
11 10 (0.66%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
12 9 (0.60%) ESRI
12 9 (0.60%) Marketo
12 9 (0.60%) New Relic
12 9 (0.60%) Nintex
12 9 (0.60%) Sitecore
13 7 (0.46%) Temenos