Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 29 June 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
29 Jun 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 57 57 44
Rank change year-on-year 0 -13 -17
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,638 1,241 939
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 4.17% 4.59% 5.38%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.41% 12.65% 14.04%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,251 911 668
10th Percentile £406 £350 £325
25th Percentile £463 £413 £410
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +15.00% - +2.56%
75th Percentile £675 £575 £588
90th Percentile £775 £650 £675
England median daily rate £538 £463 £450
% change year-on-year +16.22% +2.78% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 13 4
10th Percentile £25.01 £35.25 £22.10
25th Percentile £38.25 £36.25 £23.00
Median hourly rate £60.00 £45.00 £34.50
Median % change year-on-year +33.33% +30.43% -34.29%
75th Percentile £75.39 £57.50 £47.75
90th Percentile £75.75 £64.70 £52.70
England median hourly rate £55.25 £43.25 £40.00
% change year-on-year +27.75% +8.13% -20.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,213 9,812 6,690
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 31.09% 36.30% 38.32%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,427 7,292 4,968
10th Percentile £425 £394 £375
25th Percentile £505 £462 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £547 £525
Median % change year-on-year +9.64% +4.24% -
75th Percentile £719 £638 £625
90th Percentile £800 £713 £705
England median daily rate £575 £510 £500
% change year-on-year +12.75% +2.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 58 41 35
10th Percentile £29.75 £25.25 £22.50
25th Percentile £35.00 £35.25 £31.03
Median hourly rate £46.75 £45.00 £47.83
Median % change year-on-year +3.89% -5.92% -2.65%
75th Percentile £67.07 £60.97 £63.00
90th Percentile £75.39 £68.36 £67.91
England median hourly rate £52.50 £45.00 £46.00
% change year-on-year +16.67% -2.17% +2.22%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 29 June 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 29 June 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 29 June 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
Central London -8 168 £525 +5.00% 142
West London -1 21 £650 +10.87% 34
South London -17 11 £425 -20.93% 4
East London -7 5 £475 +15.15% 20
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 29 June 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,455 (88.83%) HTML
2 1,352 (82.54%) JavaScript
3 864 (52.75%) React
4 824 (50.31%) Agile
5 540 (32.97%) HTML5
6 520 (31.75%) TypeScript
7 450 (27.47%) Azure
8 441 (26.92%) AngularJS
9 406 (24.79%) SQL
10 389 (23.75%) Full Stack Development
11 386 (23.57%) C#
12 373 (22.77%) Finance
13 368 (22.47%) Node.js
14 367 (22.41%) Front End Development
15 362 (22.10%) Git (software)
16 357 (21.79%) .NET
17 345 (21.06%) User Experience
18 334 (20.39%) Java
19 324 (19.78%) CSS3
20 314 (19.17%) TDD
21 311 (18.99%) CI/CD
22 291 (17.77%) DevOps
23 287 (17.52%) AWS
24 246 (15.02%) REST
25 242 (14.77%) Redux
26 240 (14.65%) Scrum
27 238 (14.53%) Python
28 233 (14.22%) Social Skills
29 229 (13.98%) Test Automation
30 227 (13.86%) jQuery

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 66 (4.03%) SharePoint
2 59 (3.60%) CMS
3 54 (3.30%) Confluence
4 32 (1.95%) Apache
5 27 (1.65%) nginx
6 23 (1.40%) Tomcat
7 21 (1.28%) JBoss
8 20 (1.22%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 20 (1.22%) Apache Solr
9 19 (1.16%) Apache Spark
10 17 (1.04%) Drupal
10 17 (1.04%) WebLogic
11 15 (0.92%) Red Hat Fuse
12 13 (0.79%) IIS
12 13 (0.79%) WordPress
13 12 (0.73%) Cloud Foundry
14 9 (0.55%) BizTalk Server
14 9 (0.55%) Headless CMS
14 9 (0.55%) OpenEdge
14 9 (0.55%) Umbraco
Applications
1 17 (1.04%) Sketch
2 16 (0.98%) Adobe Illustrator
3 11 (0.67%) Adobe XD
3 11 (0.67%) Photoshop
4 10 (0.61%) InVision
5 6 (0.37%) Microsoft Office
5 6 (0.37%) UXPin
6 4 (0.24%) Microsoft Excel
6 4 (0.24%) Zeplin
7 3 (0.18%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 3 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 2 (0.12%) Adobe After Effects
8 2 (0.12%) InDesign
8 2 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
9 1 (0.061%) Adobe Premiere
9 1 (0.061%) Chatbot
9 1 (0.061%) FreeHand
9 1 (0.061%) InfoPath
9 1 (0.061%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 28 (1.71%) Shopify
2 14 (0.85%) Payment Gateway
3 11 (0.67%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.49%) Magento
5 6 (0.37%) Oracle Utilities
6 3 (0.18%) Oracle ERP
6 3 (0.18%) WebTrends
7 2 (0.12%) Oracle BPM
7 2 (0.12%) Oracle EBS
7 2 (0.12%) Remedy ITSM
8 1 (0.061%) Algo Collateral
Cloud Services
1 450 (27.47%) Azure
2 287 (17.52%) AWS
3 98 (5.98%) Azure DevOps
4 82 (5.01%) GitHub
5 67 (4.09%) GCP
6 65 (3.97%) Power Platform
7 60 (3.66%) Serverless
8 53 (3.24%) npm
9 48 (2.93%) Microsoft 365
10 41 (2.50%) PowerApps
11 37 (2.26%) SaaS
12 34 (2.08%) AWS Lambda
12 34 (2.08%) IaaS
13 29 (1.77%) Dynamics 365
14 28 (1.71%) PaaS
15 27 (1.65%) Amazon S3
15 27 (1.65%) Power Automate
16 18 (1.10%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 17 (1.04%) Figma
18 16 (0.98%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 31 (1.89%) HTTP
2 28 (1.71%) Internet
3 27 (1.65%) DNS
4 26 (1.59%) RTMP
5 12 (0.73%) DMZ
5 12 (0.73%) Firewall
6 10 (0.61%) HTTPS
7 8 (0.49%) SSL
8 6 (0.37%) Broadband
8 6 (0.37%) SSH
9 5 (0.31%) Intranet
10 3 (0.18%) Network Security
10 3 (0.18%) TCP/IP
11 2 (0.12%) CTI
11 2 (0.12%) DSL
11 2 (0.12%) Kerberos
11 2 (0.12%) Skype
11 2 (0.12%) SMTP
11 2 (0.12%) VPN
12 1 (0.061%) FTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 206 (12.58%) SQL Server
2 110 (6.72%) Relational Database
3 93 (5.68%) NoSQL
4 91 (5.56%) PostgreSQL
5 90 (5.49%) MongoDB
6 89 (5.43%) MySQL
7 41 (2.50%) Big Data
7 41 (2.50%) Redis
8 37 (2.26%) Power BI
9 23 (1.40%) Elasticsearch
10 19 (1.16%) DynamoDB
11 15 (0.92%) Hazelcast
12 14 (0.85%) Apache Cassandra
12 14 (0.85%) MarkLogic
13 13 (0.79%) Amazon RDS
14 12 (0.73%) DB2
14 12 (0.73%) RDBMS
15 10 (0.61%) Azure SQL Database
15 10 (0.61%) Oracle Database
16 9 (0.55%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 362 (22.10%) Git (software)
2 158 (9.65%) JIRA
3 143 (8.73%) webpack
4 130 (7.94%) Jenkins
5 120 (7.33%) Cypress.io
6 80 (4.88%) Maven
7 72 (4.40%) GitLab
8 63 (3.85%) Visual Studio
9 49 (2.99%) Grunt
9 49 (2.99%) gulp
10 46 (2.81%) TeamCity
11 44 (2.69%) Jasmine
12 40 (2.44%) Bitbucket
12 40 (2.44%) Gradle
13 38 (2.32%) Selenium
14 37 (2.26%) Eclipse
15 36 (2.20%) Mocha
16 33 (2.01%) Karma Test Runner
17 31 (1.89%) git-flow
18 29 (1.77%) Cucumber
General
1 373 (22.77%) Finance
2 233 (14.22%) Social Skills
3 189 (11.54%) Banking
4 103 (6.29%) Analytical Skills
5 99 (6.04%) Front Office
6 98 (5.98%) Investment Banking
7 81 (4.95%) Public Sector
8 50 (3.05%) Retail
9 42 (2.56%) Marketing
10 40 (2.44%) Legal
11 29 (1.77%) Presentation Skills
12 26 (1.59%) Financial Institution
13 17 (1.04%) Law
14 14 (0.85%) Manufacturing
15 13 (0.79%) Back Office
15 13 (0.79%) Documentation Skills
16 11 (0.67%) Influencing Skills
17 10 (0.61%) Telecoms
18 9 (0.55%) Automotive
18 9 (0.55%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 1,264 (77.17%) Developer
2 278 (16.97%) React Developer
3 228 (13.92%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 219 (13.37%) Full Stack Developer
5 192 (11.72%) JavaScript Developer
6 150 (9.16%) Senior Developer
7 135 (8.24%) .NET Developer
8 110 (6.72%) Java Developer
9 101 (6.17%) Python Developer
10 95 (5.80%) Angular Developer
11 83 (5.07%) C# Developer
12 78 (4.76%) UI Developer
13 74 (4.52%) Designer
14 59 (3.60%) HTML Developer
14 59 (3.60%) Software Engineer
15 45 (2.75%) C# .NET Developer
16 44 (2.69%) Software Developer
17 38 (2.32%) Web Developer
18 34 (2.08%) Lead Developer
19 32 (1.95%) UX Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,455 (88.83%) HTML
2 864 (52.75%) React
3 540 (32.97%) HTML5
4 441 (26.92%) AngularJS
5 368 (22.47%) Node.js
6 357 (21.79%) .NET
7 324 (19.78%) CSS3
8 246 (15.02%) REST
9 242 (14.77%) Redux
10 227 (13.86%) jQuery
11 226 (13.80%) Sass
12 215 (13.13%) RESTful
13 160 (9.77%) Web Services
14 159 (9.71%) Spring
15 142 (8.67%) ASP.NET
16 131 (8.00%) Jest
17 125 (7.63%) JSON
18 115 (7.02%) .NET Core
19 108 (6.59%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 106 (6.47%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 345 (21.06%) User Experience
2 71 (4.33%) Greenfield Project
3 38 (2.32%) Derivative
4 36 (2.20%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 36 (2.20%) Management Information System
5 34 (2.08%) Data Structures
6 33 (2.01%) Mobile App
7 30 (1.83%) Fixed Income
8 29 (1.77%) Cloud Native
9 24 (1.47%) Algorithms
9 24 (1.47%) Hedge funds
9 24 (1.47%) Self-Motivation
10 19 (1.16%) Enterprise Software
11 14 (0.85%) Public Cloud
11 14 (0.85%) Video\Live Streaming
12 12 (0.73%) Animation
12 12 (0.73%) Reference Data
12 12 (0.73%) Renewable Energy
12 12 (0.73%) Virtual Team
13 11 (0.67%) Legacy Systems
Operating Systems
1 107 (6.53%) Linux
2 66 (4.03%) Windows
3 32 (1.95%) Unix
4 14 (0.85%) Android
5 12 (0.73%) Apple iOS
6 5 (0.31%) Mac OS
7 4 (0.24%) Windows Server
8 3 (0.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 3 (0.18%) Solaris
8 3 (0.18%) Ubuntu
9 1 (0.061%) AIX
Processes & Methodologies
1 824 (50.31%) Agile
2 389 (23.75%) Full Stack Development
3 367 (22.41%) Front End Development
4 314 (19.17%) TDD
5 311 (18.99%) CI/CD
6 291 (17.77%) DevOps
7 240 (14.65%) Scrum
8 229 (13.98%) Test Automation
9 206 (12.58%) UX Design
10 203 (12.39%) Web Development
11 186 (11.36%) Microservices
12 185 (11.29%) Software Engineering
13 171 (10.44%) Continuous Integration
14 159 (9.71%) MVC
15 153 (9.34%) Problem-Solving
16 133 (8.12%) SDLC
17 117 (7.14%) Unit Testing
18 100 (6.11%) OO
19 98 (5.98%) Analytics
20 88 (5.37%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 1,352 (82.54%) JavaScript
2 520 (31.75%) TypeScript
3 406 (24.79%) SQL
4 386 (23.57%) C#
5 334 (20.39%) Java
6 238 (14.53%) Python
7 149 (9.10%) ES6
8 83 (5.07%) PHP
9 55 (3.36%) PowerShell
10 46 (2.81%) C
11 44 (2.69%) T-SQL
12 40 (2.44%) PL/SQL
13 36 (2.20%) Ruby
13 36 (2.20%) Shell Script
14 34 (2.08%) Scala
15 29 (1.77%) Kotlin
16 27 (1.65%) Bash
17 24 (1.47%) XAML
18 20 (1.22%) C++
18 20 (1.22%) VBA
Qualifications
1 101 (6.17%) Degree
2 84 (5.13%) Security Cleared
3 76 (4.64%) SC Cleared
4 44 (2.69%) Computer Science Degree
5 21 (1.28%) BPSS Clearance
6 15 (0.92%) DV Cleared
7 6 (0.37%) AWS Certification
7 6 (0.37%) Microsoft Certification
8 4 (0.24%) ISTQB
8 4 (0.24%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
9 2 (0.12%) CEH
9 2 (0.12%) CISSP
9 2 (0.12%) HNC
9 2 (0.12%) HND
9 2 (0.12%) ISEB
9 2 (0.12%) ITIL Certification
9 2 (0.12%) Sun Certification
10 1 (0.061%) BC Cleared
10 1 (0.061%) OCPJP
10 1 (0.061%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 121 (7.39%) Accessibility
2 66 (4.03%) QA
3 25 (1.53%) WCAG
4 18 (1.10%) GDPR
5 12 (0.73%) PCI DSS
6 2 (0.12%) WAI
7 1 (0.061%) Disclosure Scotland
7 1 (0.061%) SLA
System Software
1 181 (11.05%) Docker
2 10 (0.61%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.12%) Varnish
4 1 (0.061%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 149 (9.10%) Kubernetes
2 61 (3.72%) Terraform
3 26 (1.59%) Ansible
4 14 (0.85%) Grafana
4 14 (0.85%) Kibana
5 13 (0.79%) Puppet
6 6 (0.37%) logstash
6 6 (0.37%) Single Sign-On
7 5 (0.31%) HP Fortify
7 5 (0.31%) Netcool
7 5 (0.31%) Opscode Chef
8 2 (0.12%) Control-M
8 2 (0.12%) Prometheus
9 1 (0.061%) CA Single Sign-On
9 1 (0.061%) HP ALM
Vendors
1 182 (11.11%) Microsoft
2 121 (7.39%) Oracle
3 50 (3.05%) Adobe
4 49 (2.99%) Google
5 26 (1.59%) Salesforce.com
6 24 (1.47%) MuleSoft
7 22 (1.34%) Sitecore
8 21 (1.28%) ServiceNow
9 18 (1.10%) Atlassian
10 16 (0.98%) Red Hat
10 16 (0.98%) SAP
11 14 (0.85%) Splunk
12 12 (0.73%) PayPal
12 12 (0.73%) WorldPay
13 9 (0.55%) Progress
14 6 (0.37%) AppDynamics
14 6 (0.37%) Sybase
15 4 (0.24%) Apple
15 4 (0.24%) New Relic
15 4 (0.24%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud