The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 3 months to 24 June 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England / London
3 months to
24 Jun 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 13 13 20
Rank change year-on-year 0 +7  
Contract jobs citing CSS 1806 2043 1838
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 8.83% 9.43% 7.86%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.67% 29.04% 25.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 1364 1637 1364
Median daily rate £450 £425 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +13.33%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £320 £309 £275
10% offered a daily rate of more than £575 £550 £525
UK excluding London median daily rate £375 £350 £325
% change year-on-year +7.14% +7.69%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 4 7 12
Median hourly rate £15.75 £42.60 £21.09
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -63.02% +101.96%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £14.80 £21.46 £16.04
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £20.20 £190.00 £24.92
UK excluding London median hourly rate £38.25 £29.75 £33.77
% change year-on-year +28.57% -11.90%  

CSS is in the industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills.

Contract Software Library & Framework Skills
London
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for industry standards, technical specifications and software library and framework skills 7322 7035 7321
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in London 35.82% 32.46% 31.29%
Number of daily rates quoted 5438 5395 5313
Median daily rate £480 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +6.66% +5.88%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £350 £325 £310
10% offered a daily rate of more than £600 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £398 £375 £350
% change year-on-year +6.00% +7.14%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 50 25 50
Median hourly rate £35.00 £40.00 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -12.50% +77.77%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £16.00 £20.00 £16.13
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £55.00 £190.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £36.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +18.05% -10.00%  

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

The job posting trend of jobs advertised in London citing CSS as a proportion of all contract or permanent IT jobs with a match in the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 3 months to 24 June 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 3 months to 24 June 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
City of London -1 331 £475 +11.76% 148
Croydon -5 29 £519 +18.57% 3
Uxbridge +2 9 £318 -18.06% 3
Greenwich - 4 £185 -
Twickenham +6 3 £475 -
Hammersmith -5 3 £425 -
Moorgate - 3 £550 -
Canary Wharf +3 2 £300 -36.17%
Brentford +1 2 £375 -21.05%
Wimbledon -1 2 £338 -15.62% 3
West End of London -5 2 £288 -32.35% 28
Hayes - 2 £345 -
Harrow +5 1 £425 +21.42% 1
Bromley -3 1 £225 -30.76% 2
Westminster -3 1 - - 3
Kingston Upon Thames -10 1 £450 +55.17% 2
Romford - 1 £350 -
Surbiton - 1 £425 - 2
Southwark - 1 £350 -
Feltham - 1 £351 -
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 24 June 2017, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 3172 (92.16%) HTML
2 2851 (82.83%) JavaScript
3 1587 (46.11%) HTML5
4 1540 (44.74%) Agile Software Development
5 1378 (40.03%) AngularJS
6 1270 (36.90%) CSS3
7 971 (28.21%) Front End Development
8 926 (26.90%) TDD
9 869 (25.25%) jQuery
10 808 (23.47%) React
11 779 (22.63%) Java
12 764 (22.20%) Node.js
13 681 (19.79%) Git (software)
14 615 (17.87%) User Experience
15 559 (16.24%) Finance
15 559 (16.24%) Web Development
16 556 (16.15%) Scrum
17 550 (15.98%) MVC
18 545 (15.83%) Sass
19 542 (15.75%) .NET
20 492 (14.29%) SQL
21 485 (14.09%) C#
22 478 (13.89%) OO
23 427 (12.41%) Web Services
24 398 (11.56%) BDD
25 394 (11.45%) XML
26 388 (11.27%) REST
27 344 (9.99%) Test Automation
28 337 (9.79%) RESTful
29 327 (9.50%) JSON

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 244 (7.09%) CMS
2 122 (3.54%) Confluence
3 119 (3.46%) SharePoint
4 83 (2.41%) Adobe Experience Manager
4 83 (2.41%) Drupal
5 75 (2.18%) Apache
6 72 (2.09%) Elasticsearch
6 72 (2.09%) WordPress
7 63 (1.83%) Tomcat
8 46 (1.34%) Apache Solr
9 42 (1.22%) JBoss
9 42 (1.22%) WebSphere
10 41 (1.19%) SharePoint 2013
11 40 (1.16%) IIS
12 28 (0.81%) nginx
13 24 (0.70%) WebLogic
14 23 (0.67%) EPiServer
14 23 (0.67%) SharePoint 2010
15 20 (0.58%) Umbraco
16 19 (0.55%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 165 (4.79%) Photoshop
2 64 (1.86%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 63 (1.83%) Adobe Illustrator
4 38 (1.10%) OmniGraffle
5 31 (0.90%) Microsoft Office
6 28 (0.81%) InVision
7 25 (0.73%) MS Visio
8 15 (0.44%) Microsoft Excel
9 12 (0.35%) UXPin
10 8 (0.23%) Fireworks
11 5 (0.15%) GIMP
11 5 (0.15%) InDesign
11 5 (0.15%) InfoPath
11 5 (0.15%) Pixate
12 4 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 3 (0.087%) Adobe After Effects
14 2 (0.058%) ImageReady
14 2 (0.058%) Microsoft Project
14 2 (0.058%) SPSS
15 1 (0.029%) Adobe Captivate
Business Applications
1 33 (0.96%) Magento
2 25 (0.73%) SAP Hybris
3 19 (0.55%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.23%) Payment Gateway
5 7 (0.20%) Oracle BPM
5 7 (0.20%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 6 (0.17%) Eloqua
7 4 (0.12%) FastStats
7 4 (0.12%) FastStats PeopleStage
7 4 (0.12%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 3 (0.087%) Adobe Campaign
8 3 (0.087%) Remedy ITSM
8 3 (0.087%) Revive Adserver
8 3 (0.087%) SAP CRM
8 3 (0.087%) SDL Web 8
8 3 (0.087%) Shopify
8 3 (0.087%) Unica
9 2 (0.058%) Endur
9 2 (0.058%) Oracle Applications
9 2 (0.058%) RMDS
Cloud Services
1 230 (6.68%) Amazon AWS
2 156 (4.53%) Microsoft Azure
3 113 (3.28%) GitHub
4 45 (1.31%) SaaS
5 35 (1.02%) Salesforce Service Cloud
6 32 (0.93%) Cloud Computing
7 29 (0.84%) Office 365
8 28 (0.81%) Google Analytics
9 18 (0.52%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
10 16 (0.46%) Amazon EC2
10 16 (0.46%) AWS Lambda
10 16 (0.46%) Heroku
11 14 (0.41%) Google Cloud Platform
12 13 (0.38%) PaaS
13 12 (0.35%) Amazon S3
14 10 (0.29%) AWS CloudFormation
15 9 (0.26%) Adobe Analytics
15 9 (0.26%) IaaS
16 8 (0.23%) Amazon SQS
17 7 (0.20%) Force.com
Communications & Networking
1 127 (3.69%) HTTP
2 64 (1.86%) Internet
3 26 (0.76%) TCP/IP
4 25 (0.73%) Intranet
5 19 (0.55%) SSL
6 18 (0.52%) Network Security
7 17 (0.49%) DNS
7 17 (0.49%) Extranet
8 16 (0.46%) WebEx
9 11 (0.32%) SSH
10 10 (0.29%) Firewall
11 9 (0.26%) HTTPS
12 8 (0.23%) Wireshark
13 7 (0.20%) LDAP
13 7 (0.20%) SMTP
14 5 (0.15%) SMS
14 5 (0.15%) VPN
15 4 (0.12%) Skype
15 4 (0.12%) tcpdump
16 3 (0.087%) MVNO
Database & Business Intelligence
1 296 (8.60%) SQL Server
2 218 (6.33%) MySQL
3 157 (4.56%) MongoDB
4 152 (4.42%) Relational Database
5 126 (3.66%) NoSQL
6 87 (2.53%) Big Data
6 87 (2.53%) PostgreSQL
7 61 (1.77%) SQL Server 2008
7 61 (1.77%) SQL Server 2012
8 44 (1.28%) Hadoop
9 37 (1.07%) RDBMS
10 26 (0.76%) HBase
11 24 (0.70%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 21 (0.61%) Apache Cassandra
13 20 (0.58%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 16 (0.46%) Blockchain
15 15 (0.44%) SQL Server 2005
16 14 (0.41%) Apache Hive
16 14 (0.41%) Redis
17 12 (0.35%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 681 (19.79%) Git (software)
2 281 (8.16%) gulp
3 270 (7.84%) Grunt
4 235 (6.83%) JIRA
5 234 (6.80%) Jasmine
6 206 (5.98%) Jenkins
7 163 (4.74%) Selenium
8 162 (4.71%) Subversion
8 162 (4.71%) webpack
9 139 (4.04%) Mocha
10 137 (3.98%) Maven
11 118 (3.43%) Cucumber
12 99 (2.88%) Team Foundation Server
13 94 (2.73%) Visual Studio
14 88 (2.56%) Karma Test Runner
15 87 (2.53%) JUnit
16 82 (2.38%) TeamCity
17 80 (2.32%) Axure RP
18 73 (2.12%) WebDriver
19 63 (1.83%) Babel
General
1 559 (16.24%) Finance
2 318 (9.24%) Banking
3 179 (5.20%) Marketing
4 148 (4.30%) Retail
5 128 (3.72%) Front Office
6 113 (3.28%) Investment Banking
7 55 (1.60%) Advertising
7 55 (1.60%) Publishing
8 50 (1.45%) Games
8 50 (1.45%) Telecoms
9 30 (0.87%) Legal
10 23 (0.67%) Financial Institution
10 23 (0.67%) Law
11 19 (0.55%) Pharmaceutical
12 15 (0.44%) Retail Banking
13 12 (0.35%) Back Office
14 11 (0.32%) Electronics
15 10 (0.29%) Manufacturing
16 6 (0.17%) Czech Language
16 6 (0.17%) Digital Economy
Job Titles
1 2824 (82.05%) Developer
2 778 (22.60%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 663 (19.26%) JavaScript Developer
4 381 (11.07%) Angular Developer
5 334 (9.70%) Senior Developer
6 329 (9.56%) Java Developer
7 326 (9.47%) HTML Developer
8 301 (8.74%) Full Stack Developer
9 248 (7.21%) HTML CSS Developer
10 238 (6.91%) UI Developer
11 212 (6.16%) .NET Developer
12 199 (5.78%) Web Developer
13 187 (5.43%) Designer
14 166 (4.82%) Node.js Developer
15 142 (4.13%) C# Developer
16 105 (3.05%) UX Designer
17 101 (2.93%) PHP Developer
18 85 (2.47%) Architect
19 84 (2.44%) C# .NET Developer
20 79 (2.30%) UI Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3172 (92.16%) HTML
2 1587 (46.11%) HTML5
3 1378 (40.03%) AngularJS
4 1270 (36.90%) CSS3
5 869 (25.25%) jQuery
6 808 (23.47%) React
7 764 (22.20%) Node.js
8 545 (15.83%) Sass
9 542 (15.75%) .NET
10 427 (12.41%) Web Services
11 394 (11.45%) XML
12 388 (11.27%) REST
13 337 (9.79%) RESTful
14 327 (9.50%) JSON
15 307 (8.92%) Ajax
16 290 (8.43%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 278 (8.08%) ASP.NET
18 275 (7.99%) Redux
19 252 (7.32%) Spring
20 250 (7.26%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 615 (17.87%) User Experience
2 216 (6.28%) Greenfield Project
3 133 (3.86%) Analytical Skills
4 118 (3.43%) Mobile App
5 115 (3.34%) Computer Science
6 94 (2.73%) Fintech
7 61 (1.77%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 54 (1.57%) W3C
9 53 (1.54%) Enterprise Software
10 36 (1.05%) Fixed Income
10 36 (1.05%) Virtual Team
11 35 (1.02%) Equities
12 32 (0.93%) NHS
13 31 (0.90%) Derivative
14 29 (0.84%) Data Structures
15 26 (0.76%) iPad
16 25 (0.73%) Digital Media
16 25 (0.73%) Linux Command Line
16 25 (0.73%) Social Media
17 24 (0.70%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 265 (7.70%) Linux
2 103 (2.99%) Apple iOS
3 96 (2.79%) Unix
4 88 (2.56%) Windows
5 78 (2.27%) Android
6 24 (0.70%) Mac OS X
6 24 (0.70%) Windows Server
7 20 (0.58%) CentOS
8 18 (0.52%) Ubuntu
9 14 (0.41%) Mac OS
10 9 (0.26%) Windows 10
11 7 (0.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 5 (0.15%) Windows Server 2008
13 4 (0.12%) Windows Server 2012
14 2 (0.058%) Windows Server 2003
15 1 (0.029%) Debian
15 1 (0.029%) VMS
15 1 (0.029%) webOS
15 1 (0.029%) Windows 7
15 1 (0.029%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 1540 (44.74%) Agile Software Development
2 971 (28.21%) Front End Development
3 926 (26.90%) TDD
4 559 (16.24%) Web Development
5 556 (16.15%) Scrum
6 550 (15.98%) MVC
7 478 (13.89%) OO
8 398 (11.56%) BDD
9 344 (9.99%) Test Automation
10 311 (9.04%) Responsive Web Design
11 308 (8.95%) E-Commerce
12 302 (8.77%) Continuous Integration
13 197 (5.72%) DevOps
14 188 (5.46%) Microservices
15 186 (5.40%) Unit Testing
16 179 (5.20%) Software Engineering
17 154 (4.47%) SOA
18 153 (4.45%) Web Design
19 151 (4.39%) Open Source
20 149 (4.33%) Kanban
Programming Languages
1 2851 (82.83%) JavaScript
2 779 (22.63%) Java
3 492 (14.29%) SQL
4 485 (14.09%) C#
5 291 (8.45%) PHP
6 280 (8.13%) ES6
7 242 (7.03%) Python
8 167 (4.85%) Ruby
9 156 (4.53%) TypeScript
10 118 (3.43%) Scala
11 86 (2.50%) PowerShell
12 72 (2.09%) T-SQL
13 51 (1.48%) Groovy
14 43 (1.25%) Bash Shell
15 39 (1.13%) Perl
16 38 (1.10%) Apex Code
17 36 (1.05%) SOQL
18 32 (0.93%) Apple Swift
19 31 (0.90%) ECMAScript
20 30 (0.87%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 212 (6.16%) Degree
2 128 (3.72%) Security Cleared
3 81 (2.35%) SC Cleared
4 57 (1.66%) Computer Science Degree
5 20 (0.58%) DV Cleared
6 19 (0.55%) BPSS Clearance
7 11 (0.32%) Master's Degree
8 10 (0.29%) OCPJP
9 8 (0.23%) Microsoft Certification
10 6 (0.17%) MBA
11 5 (0.15%) BC Cleared
11 5 (0.15%) CISA
11 5 (0.15%) CISM
11 5 (0.15%) CISSP
12 4 (0.12%) CTC Cleared
12 4 (0.12%) MCP
12 4 (0.12%) PMI Certification
12 4 (0.12%) PMP
13 3 (0.087%) ITIL Certification
14 2 (0.058%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 119 (3.46%) QA
2 27 (0.78%) WCAG
3 15 (0.44%) WAI
4 8 (0.23%) Disclosure Scotland
5 7 (0.20%) MiFID
5 7 (0.20%) PCI DSS
6 6 (0.17%) FATCA
6 6 (0.17%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 5 (0.15%) FedRAMP
8 3 (0.087%) Dodd-Frank
8 3 (0.087%) EMIR
8 3 (0.087%) HMG Security Policy Framework
9 2 (0.058%) Actionable Recommendations
9 2 (0.058%) COBIT
9 2 (0.058%) PMO
10 1 (0.029%) Data Quality
10 1 (0.029%) GDPR
10 1 (0.029%) SLA
System Software
1 119 (3.46%) Docker
2 12 (0.35%) Active Directory
3 6 (0.17%) Apache Flume
4 5 (0.15%) Shibboleth
5 3 (0.087%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 3 (0.087%) HDFS
5 3 (0.087%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.058%) UAG
7 1 (0.029%) Varnish
7 1 (0.029%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 59 (1.71%) Puppet
2 41 (1.19%) Opscode Chef
3 38 (1.10%) Kubernetes
4 34 (0.99%) Ansible
5 11 (0.32%) Kibana
5 11 (0.32%) Terraform
6 10 (0.29%) Piwik
7 6 (0.17%) Nagios
8 5 (0.15%) logstash
8 5 (0.15%) Mesos
9 4 (0.12%) cPanel
9 4 (0.12%) Docker Swarm
9 4 (0.12%) Graphite
9 4 (0.12%) Icinga
9 4 (0.12%) MOM
9 4 (0.12%) Salt
9 4 (0.12%) ZABBIX
10 3 (0.087%) Capistrano
11 2 (0.058%) CloudForms
12 1 (0.029%) HP Fortify
Vendors
1 222 (6.45%) Adobe
2 178 (5.17%) Microsoft
3 145 (4.21%) Oracle
4 87 (2.53%) ServiceNow
5 77 (2.24%) Google
6 57 (1.66%) Salesforce.com
7 45 (1.31%) SAP
8 32 (0.93%) hybris
9 27 (0.78%) Sitecore
10 25 (0.73%) Red Hat
11 24 (0.70%) New Relic
12 22 (0.64%) Demandware
12 22 (0.64%) IBM
13 20 (0.58%) Atlassian
14 17 (0.49%) TIBCO
15 16 (0.46%) Solace
15 16 (0.46%) Twitter
16 15 (0.44%) PagerDuty
17 14 (0.41%) Sybase
17 14 (0.41%) Zend
London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
TEKsystems
Rate: £575 - £650 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Rate: £350 per day
Posted: Yesterday
City, London
Premier IT
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
ISL
Rate: £300 - £400 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Careerwise UK Limited
Rate: £500 - £550 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
IT Talent Solutions
Rate: From £400 to £425 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Square One Resources
Rate: Unspecified
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Venturi
Rate: £450 - £475 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Mortimer Spinks
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Oscar
Rate: £300 - £340 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: £400 - £500 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
City, London
Nakama
Rate: From £400 to £440 per day Weekly pay through Nakama
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Source Technology
Rate: From £500 to £600 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Careerwise UK Limited
Rate: £475 - £500 per day
Posted: Yesterday
London
Revolution Technology
Rate: From £400 to £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
onezeero.
Rate: £500 - £600 per day + benefits
Posted: Yesterday
London
Lorien Resourcing
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Computer People
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Mortimer Spinks
Rate: £300 - £350 per annum
Posted: 4 days ago
City, London
Ashdown IT
Rate: £400 - £450 per day
Posted: 5 days ago
London
Morgan Mckinley
Posted: 4 days ago
Central London / West End
Trust In Soda
Rate: From £350 to £450 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Austin Fraser
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Montash
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Explore Group
Rate: £450 - £500 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
City, London
Coded People
Rate: £300 - £350 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
London
Verticality Ltd
Rate: £350 - £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
City, London
Haysfm
Rate: £400.00 - £450.00 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Uxbridge, Middlesex
Evolution Recruitment Solutions
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: 5 days ago