Period
to 3 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 3 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
3 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 32 25 20
Rank change year-on-year -7 -5 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,551 3,008 3,517
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 6.16% 7.07% 7.55%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 16.48% 19.01% 20.99%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,121 2,374 2,821
Median daily rate £500 £480 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.17% +1.05% +11.76%
10th Percentile £319 £325 £319
90th Percentile £675 £625 £600
England median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 11 15 14
Median hourly rate £50.00 £37.50 £27.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +33.33% +38.89% -24.34%
10th Percentile £25.68 £22.20 £21.04
90th Percentile £56.00 £53.75 £47.50
England median hourly rate £35.00 £41.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year -15.66% -7.78% +22.45%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 9,412 15,821 16,755
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 37.39% 37.20% 35.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,778 11,882 12,900
Median daily rate £525 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £375 £370 £363
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
England median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +7.95%
Number of hourly rates quoted 77 80 119
Median hourly rate £47.83 £35.75 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +33.79% -4.67% -15.25%
10th Percentile £25.72 £24.11 £20.67
90th Percentile £78.75 £53.75 £57.50
Median hourly rate £35.85 £42.50 £41.00
% change year-on-year -15.65% +3.66% +1.23%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 3 April 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 3 April 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 3 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -1 343 £500 - 171
West London +4 75 £425 - 70
South London +3 63 £450 - 15
East London +4 14 £396 -20.90% 42
North London +2 7 £525 +31.25% 11
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 3 April 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,350 (87.04%) HTML
2 1,205 (77.69%) JavaScript
3 736 (47.45%) Agile Software Development
4 483 (31.14%) React
5 475 (30.63%) HTML5
6 441 (28.43%) AngularJS
7 406 (26.18%) Front End Development
8 383 (24.69%) Git (software)
9 328 (21.15%) CSS3
10 326 (21.02%) Node.js
11 322 (20.76%) TDD
12 295 (19.02%) User Experience
13 288 (18.57%) .NET
14 279 (17.99%) Finance
15 276 (17.79%) Java
16 269 (17.34%) C#
17 257 (16.57%) SQL
18 241 (15.54%) TypeScript
19 235 (15.15%) Test Automation
20 229 (14.76%) Sass
21 228 (14.70%) Redux
22 202 (13.02%) Continuous Integration
23 195 (12.57%) DevOps
24 192 (12.38%) Scrum
25 185 (11.93%) SQL Server
25 185 (11.93%) RESTful
26 181 (11.67%) Web Development
27 174 (11.22%) jQuery
28 165 (10.64%) Web Services
29 158 (10.19%) Azure

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 95 (6.13%) CMS
2 36 (2.32%) Elasticsearch
3 29 (1.87%) Confluence
4 27 (1.74%) WordPress
5 25 (1.61%) Apache
6 24 (1.55%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 24 (1.55%) SharePoint
6 24 (1.55%) WebLogic
7 23 (1.48%) Drupal
7 23 (1.48%) WebSphere
8 17 (1.10%) Umbraco
9 13 (0.84%) IIS
9 13 (0.84%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 13 (0.84%) Sitecore CMS
10 10 (0.64%) Mendix
10 10 (0.64%) Tomcat
11 8 (0.52%) Kentico
12 6 (0.39%) EPiServer
12 6 (0.39%) Headless CMS
13 5 (0.32%) nginx
Applications
1 61 (3.93%) Sketch
2 43 (2.77%) InVision
3 36 (2.32%) Photoshop
4 28 (1.81%) Zeplin
5 24 (1.55%) Adobe XD
6 21 (1.35%) Microsoft Excel
7 18 (1.16%) Adobe Illustrator
8 13 (0.84%) Adobe After Effects
9 11 (0.71%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 5 (0.32%) InDesign
10 5 (0.32%) Lectora
11 3 (0.19%) Microsoft Office
11 3 (0.19%) SketchUp
12 2 (0.13%) Adobe Premiere
12 2 (0.13%) Figma
12 2 (0.13%) InfoPath
12 2 (0.13%) UXPin
13 1 (0.064%) Marvel
13 1 (0.064%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 1 (0.064%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 21 (1.35%) Magento
2 11 (0.71%) Shopify
3 6 (0.39%) Payment Gateway
4 5 (0.32%) SAP Hybris
5 4 (0.26%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 4 (0.26%) Visualfiles
6 3 (0.19%) Dynamics CRM
7 2 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
8 1 (0.064%) Adobe Campaign
8 1 (0.064%) JDE OneWorld
8 1 (0.064%) NetSuite
8 1 (0.064%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 158 (10.19%) Azure
2 147 (9.48%) AWS
3 105 (6.77%) GitHub
4 50 (3.22%) GCP
5 43 (2.77%) npm
6 24 (1.55%) Heroku
7 22 (1.42%) PaaS
7 22 (1.42%) Power Platform
8 20 (1.29%) Serverless
9 19 (1.23%) Adobe Creative Cloud
10 16 (1.03%) SaaS
11 12 (0.77%) Amazon S3
11 12 (0.77%) Slack
12 10 (0.64%) AWS CloudFormation
12 10 (0.64%) Google Analytics
13 9 (0.58%) Office 365
14 8 (0.52%) AWS Lambda
14 8 (0.52%) Azure Functions
14 8 (0.52%) IaaS
15 7 (0.45%) CloudFront
Communications & Networking
1 38 (2.45%) HTTP
2 11 (0.71%) SSL
3 9 (0.58%) Internet
4 7 (0.45%) Firewall
5 5 (0.32%) Intranet
6 4 (0.26%) RTMP
6 4 (0.26%) TCP/IP
7 3 (0.19%) AMQP
7 3 (0.19%) FTP
7 3 (0.19%) HTTPS
7 3 (0.19%) Reverse Proxy
8 2 (0.13%) Intrusion Detection
8 2 (0.13%) Network Security
9 1 (0.064%) Cisco ASA
9 1 (0.064%) Cisco ISE
9 1 (0.064%) DNS
9 1 (0.064%) SMS
9 1 (0.064%) SMTP
9 1 (0.064%) SSH
9 1 (0.064%) Unified Communications
Database & Business Intelligence
1 185 (11.93%) SQL Server
2 87 (5.61%) MySQL
3 73 (4.71%) NoSQL
4 63 (4.06%) PostgreSQL
4 63 (4.06%) Relational Database
5 39 (2.51%) MongoDB
6 23 (1.48%) OLAP
7 21 (1.35%) RDBMS
8 18 (1.16%) Power BI
8 18 (1.16%) QlikView
9 17 (1.10%) Oracle Database
9 17 (1.10%) Redis
9 17 (1.10%) SQL Server Analysis Services
10 16 (1.03%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 15 (0.97%) Flink
12 14 (0.90%) Apache Cassandra
13 11 (0.71%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 10 (0.64%) Azure SQL Database
15 9 (0.58%) Data Warehouse
16 8 (0.52%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 383 (24.69%) Git (software)
2 142 (9.16%) Jenkins
3 126 (8.12%) JIRA
4 108 (6.96%) webpack
5 68 (4.38%) gulp
6 55 (3.55%) Selenium
7 52 (3.35%) Visual Studio
8 42 (2.71%) git-flow
8 42 (2.71%) Grunt
8 42 (2.71%) Team Foundation Server
9 34 (2.19%) TeamCity
10 32 (2.06%) JUnit
11 31 (2.00%) Babel
12 30 (1.93%) Octopus Deploy
13 29 (1.87%) RSpec
14 28 (1.81%) Jasmine
14 28 (1.81%) Travis CI
15 26 (1.68%) Cypress.io
16 24 (1.55%) Axure RP
16 24 (1.55%) Cucumber
General
1 279 (17.99%) Finance
2 124 (7.99%) Banking
3 83 (5.35%) Marketing
4 54 (3.48%) Public Sector
5 49 (3.16%) Front Office
6 45 (2.90%) Games
6 45 (2.90%) Investment Banking
7 43 (2.77%) Retail
8 25 (1.61%) Publishing
9 16 (1.03%) Law
10 11 (0.71%) Telecoms
11 10 (0.64%) Back Office
12 8 (0.52%) Advertising
12 8 (0.52%) Electronics
13 7 (0.45%) Financial Institution
14 6 (0.39%) Legal
14 6 (0.39%) Local Government
15 5 (0.32%) Manufacturing
16 4 (0.26%) Music Industry
16 4 (0.26%) Police
Job Titles
1 1,234 (79.56%) Developer
2 285 (18.38%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 232 (14.96%) React Developer
4 196 (12.64%) Full Stack Developer
5 151 (9.74%) JavaScript Developer
6 142 (9.16%) Senior Developer
7 112 (7.22%) Angular Developer
8 111 (7.16%) C# Developer
9 99 (6.38%) Designer
10 92 (5.93%) Java Developer
11 88 (5.67%) .NET Developer
11 88 (5.67%) HTML Developer
12 80 (5.16%) UI Developer
13 64 (4.13%) HTML CSS Developer
14 54 (3.48%) Node.js Developer
15 49 (3.16%) Web Developer
16 48 (3.09%) C# .NET Developer
17 47 (3.03%) Ruby on Rails Developer
18 46 (2.97%) UX Designer
19 44 (2.84%) Senior React Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,350 (87.04%) HTML
2 483 (31.14%) React
3 475 (30.63%) HTML5
4 441 (28.43%) AngularJS
5 328 (21.15%) CSS3
6 326 (21.02%) Node.js
7 288 (18.57%) .NET
8 229 (14.76%) Sass
9 228 (14.70%) Redux
10 185 (11.93%) RESTful
11 174 (11.22%) jQuery
12 165 (10.64%) Web Services
13 141 (9.09%) ASP.NET
14 135 (8.70%) REST
15 122 (7.87%) Vue.js
16 116 (7.48%) JSON
17 108 (6.96%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 97 (6.25%) Jest
19 95 (6.13%) GraphQL
20 94 (6.06%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 295 (19.02%) User Experience
2 109 (7.03%) Analytical Skills
3 76 (4.90%) Mobile App
4 73 (4.71%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 60 (3.87%) Greenfield Project
6 53 (3.42%) W3C
7 45 (2.90%) Data Structures
8 42 (2.71%) Hedge funds
9 36 (2.32%) Enterprise Software
10 24 (1.55%) Virtual Team
11 23 (1.48%) Algorithms
11 23 (1.48%) Equities
12 19 (1.23%) Self-Motivation
13 16 (1.03%) BYOD
13 16 (1.03%) Mobile Payment
14 13 (0.84%) Social Media
15 11 (0.71%) Derivative
16 9 (0.58%) Learning Management System
16 9 (0.58%) Management Information System
16 9 (0.58%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 69 (4.45%) Linux
2 37 (2.39%) Windows
3 30 (1.93%) Android
4 27 (1.74%) Unix
5 21 (1.35%) Apple iOS
6 8 (0.52%) Mac OS X
7 5 (0.32%) Mac OS
8 3 (0.19%) VMS
8 3 (0.19%) Windows Server 2012
9 2 (0.13%) CentOS
9 2 (0.13%) Windows Server
10 1 (0.064%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 1 (0.064%) Ubuntu
10 1 (0.064%) Windows 10
10 1 (0.064%) Windows 7
10 1 (0.064%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 736 (47.45%) Agile Software Development
2 406 (26.18%) Front End Development
3 322 (20.76%) TDD
4 235 (15.15%) Test Automation
5 202 (13.02%) Continuous Integration
6 195 (12.57%) DevOps
7 192 (12.38%) Scrum
8 181 (11.67%) Web Development
9 151 (9.74%) MVC
10 145 (9.35%) Microservices
11 133 (8.58%) E-Commerce
12 132 (8.51%) Problem-Solving
13 122 (7.87%) OO
14 107 (6.90%) Wireframes
15 106 (6.83%) BDD
16 101 (6.51%) Software Engineering
17 96 (6.19%) SDLC
18 86 (5.54%) Computer Science
19 82 (5.29%) Open Source
20 71 (4.58%) Unit Testing
Programming Languages
1 1,205 (77.69%) JavaScript
2 276 (17.79%) Java
3 269 (17.34%) C#
4 257 (16.57%) SQL
5 241 (15.54%) TypeScript
6 146 (9.41%) ES6
7 113 (7.29%) Ruby
8 103 (6.64%) Python
9 92 (5.93%) PHP
10 37 (2.39%) Scala
11 33 (2.13%) Kotlin
12 31 (2.00%) PowerShell
13 26 (1.68%) PL/SQL
13 26 (1.68%) VBA
14 25 (1.61%) T-SQL
15 20 (1.29%) Java 8
16 18 (1.16%) C++
17 17 (1.10%) Bash Shell
17 17 (1.10%) ES7
18 11 (0.71%) C
Qualifications
1 101 (6.51%) Security Cleared
2 94 (6.06%) Degree
3 65 (4.19%) SC Cleared
4 37 (2.39%) Computer Science Degree
5 19 (1.23%) BC Cleared
6 10 (0.64%) BPSS Clearance
6 10 (0.64%) CTC Cleared
7 8 (0.52%) DV Cleared
7 8 (0.52%) Master's Degree
8 5 (0.32%) Numerate Degree
9 4 (0.26%) DBS Check
10 3 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
11 2 (0.13%) Cisco Certification
12 1 (0.064%) A+ Certification
12 1 (0.064%) CCIE
12 1 (0.064%) CCNP
12 1 (0.064%) MCSD
12 1 (0.064%) MCSE
12 1 (0.064%) PMI Certification
12 1 (0.064%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 69 (4.45%) QA
2 58 (3.74%) WCAG
3 10 (0.64%) GDPR
4 4 (0.26%) PMO
4 4 (0.26%) SLA
5 3 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.13%) ISO 20022
6 2 (0.13%) PCI DSS
6 2 (0.13%) Section 508
7 1 (0.064%) Actionable Recommendations
7 1 (0.064%) PSD2
7 1 (0.064%) WAI
System Software
1 102 (6.58%) Docker
2 5 (0.32%) Active Directory
2 5 (0.32%) zsh
3 4 (0.26%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.064%) HDFS
4 1 (0.064%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 61 (3.93%) Kubernetes
2 40 (2.58%) Terraform
3 13 (0.84%) Ansible
4 11 (0.71%) Kibana
4 11 (0.71%) Opscode Chef
5 6 (0.39%) Puppet
6 3 (0.19%) Grafana
7 2 (0.13%) Control-M
7 2 (0.13%) Docker Swarm
8 1 (0.064%) McAfee ePO
8 1 (0.064%) MIIS
8 1 (0.064%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 88 (5.67%) Microsoft
2 83 (5.35%) Adobe
3 79 (5.09%) Oracle
4 48 (3.09%) Google
5 28 (1.81%) hybris
5 28 (1.81%) Salesforce.com
6 23 (1.48%) Cognos
6 23 (1.48%) Remedy
7 20 (1.29%) SAP
7 20 (1.29%) Sitecore
8 18 (1.16%) IBM
8 18 (1.16%) Tableau
9 15 (0.97%) MicroStrategy
10 14 (0.90%) Atlassian
11 11 (0.71%) Vermilion
12 9 (0.58%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
13 8 (0.52%) Demandware
14 7 (0.45%) Cloudera
14 7 (0.45%) Facebook
14 7 (0.45%) Twitter