Period
to 14 August 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 August 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
14 Aug 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 20 16 13
Rank change year-on-year -4 -3 +7
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,703 3,660 4,241
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 8.12% 8.60% 9.33%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.10% 23.56% 28.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,888 2,794 3,292
London median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +9.68%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £613 £600 £575
England median daily rate £425 £410 £400
% change year-on-year +3.66% +2.50% +11.11%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 8 16
London median hourly rate £45.00 £19.00 £36.30
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +136.84% -47.65% +63.89%
10th Percentile £30.67 £14.10 £19.37
90th Percentile £63.45 £63.00 £195.00
England median hourly rate £42.50 £40.00 £30.00
% change year-on-year +6.25% +33.33% -6.28%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 17,552 15,534 15,065
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 38.50% 36.49% 33.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,355 11,544 11,349
London median daily rate £513 £500 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.50% +8.11% +2.78%
10th Percentile £363 £350 £313
90th Percentile £675 £644 £625
England median daily rate £475 £450 £425
% change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 105 102 58
London median hourly rate £43.50 £40.00 £36.93
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +8.75% +8.31% -7.67%
10th Percentile £19.70 £19.03 £18.79
90th Percentile £75.50 £52.95 £57.07
England median hourly rate £41.53 £40.00 £36.50
% change year-on-year +3.83% +9.59% -1.35%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 14 August 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 14 August 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 14 August 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -6 828 £475 - 349
West London 0 153 £463 +23.33% 190
South London -3 135 £425 -2.86% 25
East London -13 59 £438 +1.74% 87
North London +1 13 £400 +45.45% 13
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 14 August 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,385 (91.41%) HTML
2 3,026 (81.72%) JavaScript
3 1,725 (46.58%) Agile Software Development
4 1,611 (43.51%) HTML5
5 1,392 (37.59%) AngularJS
6 1,239 (33.46%) CSS3
7 1,150 (31.06%) React
8 1,146 (30.95%) Front End Development
9 910 (24.57%) Node.js
10 900 (24.30%) TDD
11 898 (24.25%) Git (software)
12 773 (20.87%) Sass
13 725 (19.58%) User Experience
14 689 (18.61%) jQuery
15 604 (16.31%) Finance
16 587 (15.85%) Web Development
17 585 (15.80%) ES6
18 573 (15.47%) Redux
19 560 (15.12%) Java
19 560 (15.12%) .NET
20 531 (14.34%) C#
21 515 (13.91%) MVC
22 453 (12.23%) Scrum
23 450 (12.15%) REST
24 422 (11.40%) SQL
25 413 (11.15%) BDD
26 400 (10.80%) TypeScript
27 391 (10.56%) webpack
28 371 (10.02%) OO
29 369 (9.96%) Continuous Integration

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 214 (5.78%) CMS
2 107 (2.89%) WordPress
3 88 (2.38%) SharePoint
4 80 (2.16%) Confluence
5 76 (2.05%) Elasticsearch
6 62 (1.67%) Apache
7 49 (1.32%) Drupal
8 45 (1.22%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 45 (1.22%) IIS
9 44 (1.19%) Umbraco
10 38 (1.03%) Sitecore CMS
11 29 (0.78%) Tomcat
12 28 (0.76%) Apache Spark
13 21 (0.57%) IBM Domino
14 19 (0.51%) WebSphere
15 18 (0.49%) SharePoint 2013
16 17 (0.46%) SharePoint 2010
17 16 (0.43%) OpenStack
18 14 (0.38%) EPiServer
19 13 (0.35%) nginx
Applications
1 126 (3.40%) Photoshop
2 66 (1.78%) Adobe Creative Suite
3 64 (1.73%) InVision
4 46 (1.24%) Adobe Illustrator
5 22 (0.59%) InfoPath
5 22 (0.59%) OmniGraffle
6 18 (0.49%) Microsoft Excel
7 15 (0.41%) InDesign
8 13 (0.35%) Microsoft Office
9 9 (0.24%) MS Visio
10 8 (0.22%) Adobe After Effects
10 8 (0.22%) Microsoft Project
11 7 (0.19%) Fireworks
12 6 (0.16%) Chatbot
13 3 (0.081%) Acrobat
13 3 (0.081%) Adobe Premiere
13 3 (0.081%) HipChat
13 3 (0.081%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 3 (0.081%) UXPin
14 2 (0.054%) Flinto
Business Applications
1 37 (1.00%) Magento
2 18 (0.49%) ION MarketView
3 13 (0.35%) Payment Gateway
4 10 (0.27%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 8 (0.22%) Adobe Campaign
5 8 (0.22%) Dynamics CRM
6 6 (0.16%) Eloqua
6 6 (0.16%) SDL Web 8
7 4 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
7 4 (0.11%) Endur
8 3 (0.081%) SAP Hybris
9 2 (0.054%) Dynamics NAV
9 2 (0.054%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 2 (0.054%) Shopify
9 2 (0.054%) Unica
10 1 (0.027%) Dynamics AX
10 1 (0.027%) Oracle Applications
10 1 (0.027%) SAP PM
10 1 (0.027%) thinkFolio
10 1 (0.027%) WebTrends
Cloud Services
1 348 (9.40%) Amazon AWS
2 281 (7.59%) Microsoft Azure
3 162 (4.37%) npm
4 149 (4.02%) GitHub
5 65 (1.76%) Serverless
6 63 (1.70%) Heroku
7 57 (1.54%) SaaS
8 50 (1.35%) Google Cloud Platform
9 31 (0.84%) Office 365
10 30 (0.81%) Adobe Creative Cloud
10 30 (0.81%) PaaS
11 24 (0.65%) Amazon EC2
11 24 (0.65%) AWS Lambda
12 22 (0.59%) Amazon S3
12 22 (0.59%) Google Analytics
13 21 (0.57%) IaaS
14 16 (0.43%) BrowserStack
15 15 (0.41%) Amazon SQS
16 14 (0.38%) Firebase
17 9 (0.24%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 203 (5.48%) HTTP
2 57 (1.54%) Internet
3 37 (1.00%) DNS
3 37 (1.00%) FTP
4 35 (0.95%) Intranet
5 34 (0.92%) SSL
6 33 (0.89%) TCP/IP
7 19 (0.51%) SMS
8 12 (0.32%) Firewall
9 11 (0.30%) HTTPS
10 10 (0.27%) RTMP
11 9 (0.24%) LAN
12 5 (0.14%) Wi-Fi
13 3 (0.081%) Broadband
13 3 (0.081%) DSL
13 3 (0.081%) Kerberos
14 2 (0.054%) BIG-IP
14 2 (0.054%) Junos
14 2 (0.054%) Network Security
14 2 (0.054%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 289 (7.80%) MySQL
2 287 (7.75%) SQL Server
3 183 (4.94%) Relational Database
4 160 (4.32%) PostgreSQL
5 153 (4.13%) MongoDB
6 108 (2.92%) NoSQL
7 64 (1.73%) Big Data
8 58 (1.57%) Redis
9 55 (1.49%) SQL Server 2012
10 35 (0.95%) Blockchain
11 33 (0.89%) Apache Cassandra
12 32 (0.86%) RDBMS
13 27 (0.73%) Hadoop
14 25 (0.68%) SQL Server 2014
15 16 (0.43%) Power BI
15 16 (0.43%) SQL Server 2016
15 16 (0.43%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 15 (0.41%) SQL Server 2008
17 14 (0.38%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 14 (0.38%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 898 (24.25%) Git (software)
2 391 (10.56%) webpack
3 315 (8.51%) gulp
4 238 (6.43%) Jenkins
5 227 (6.13%) Jasmine
6 213 (5.75%) JIRA
7 204 (5.51%) Grunt
8 186 (5.02%) Selenium
9 124 (3.35%) Mocha
10 119 (3.21%) Babel
10 119 (3.21%) Karma Test Runner
11 101 (2.73%) Visual Studio
12 85 (2.30%) Subversion
13 78 (2.11%) Maven
14 74 (2.00%) TeamCity
15 73 (1.97%) Team Foundation Server
16 68 (1.84%) Cucumber
17 66 (1.78%) Axure RP
18 63 (1.70%) Protractor
19 56 (1.51%) JUnit
General
1 604 (16.31%) Finance
2 330 (8.91%) Banking
3 219 (5.91%) Retail
4 128 (3.46%) Marketing
5 97 (2.62%) Investment Banking
6 96 (2.59%) Front Office
7 54 (1.46%) Advertising
7 54 (1.46%) Games
8 37 (1.00%) Publishing
9 36 (0.97%) Legal
10 35 (0.95%) Law
11 27 (0.73%) Telecoms
12 23 (0.62%) Financial Institution
13 13 (0.35%) Back Office
14 7 (0.19%) Pharmaceutical
15 6 (0.16%) Music Industry
16 5 (0.14%) Electronics
16 5 (0.14%) Multimedia
16 5 (0.14%) Prime Brokerage
17 4 (0.11%) Digital Economy
Job Titles
1 3,060 (82.64%) Developer
2 928 (25.06%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 638 (17.23%) JavaScript Developer
4 573 (15.47%) React Developer
5 387 (10.45%) Angular Developer
6 350 (9.45%) Full Stack Developer
7 306 (8.26%) Senior Developer
8 286 (7.72%) .NET Developer
9 276 (7.45%) HTML Developer
10 243 (6.56%) UI Developer
11 217 (5.86%) HTML CSS Developer
12 208 (5.62%) Designer
13 207 (5.59%) Web Developer
14 188 (5.08%) Java Developer
15 184 (4.97%) C# Developer
16 149 (4.02%) Node.js Developer
17 142 (3.83%) PHP Developer
18 114 (3.08%) C# .NET Developer
19 111 (3.00%) UX Designer
20 101 (2.73%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,385 (91.41%) HTML
2 1,611 (43.51%) HTML5
3 1,392 (37.59%) AngularJS
4 1,239 (33.46%) CSS3
5 1,150 (31.06%) React
6 910 (24.57%) Node.js
7 773 (20.87%) Sass
8 689 (18.61%) jQuery
9 573 (15.47%) Redux
10 560 (15.12%) .NET
11 450 (12.15%) REST
12 341 (9.21%) RESTful
12 341 (9.21%) Web Services
13 314 (8.48%) LESS
14 307 (8.29%) ASP.NET
15 300 (8.10%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 288 (7.78%) XML
17 277 (7.48%) JSON
18 254 (6.86%) Ajax
19 253 (6.83%) Angular 2
Miscellaneous
1 725 (19.58%) User Experience
2 303 (8.18%) Greenfield Project
3 235 (6.35%) Mobile App
4 204 (5.51%) Fintech
5 160 (4.32%) Analytical Skills
6 127 (3.43%) Computer Science
7 98 (2.65%) Data Structures
8 80 (2.16%) Algorithms
9 62 (1.67%) Fixed Income
10 48 (1.30%) Self-Motivation
11 46 (1.24%) W3C
12 44 (1.19%) Enterprise Software
13 42 (1.13%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 38 (1.03%) Derivative
15 30 (0.81%) Linux Command Line
16 26 (0.70%) Video on Demand
17 25 (0.68%) Equity Derivative
18 24 (0.65%) Equities
19 22 (0.59%) Online Banking
20 21 (0.57%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 249 (6.72%) Linux
2 139 (3.75%) Apple iOS
3 122 (3.29%) Android
4 76 (2.05%) Windows
5 59 (1.59%) Unix
6 19 (0.51%) Windows Server
7 14 (0.38%) Mac OS X
8 7 (0.19%) VMS
9 6 (0.16%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 5 (0.14%) Mac OS
10 5 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
11 4 (0.11%) Ubuntu
11 4 (0.11%) Windows 7
11 4 (0.11%) Windows 8
12 3 (0.081%) CentOS
13 2 (0.054%) Debian
13 2 (0.054%) Windows 2000
13 2 (0.054%) Windows Server 2008
13 2 (0.054%) Windows Vista
14 1 (0.027%) Nucleus RTOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,725 (46.58%) Agile Software Development
2 1,146 (30.95%) Front End Development
3 900 (24.30%) TDD
4 587 (15.85%) Web Development
5 515 (13.91%) MVC
6 453 (12.23%) Scrum
7 413 (11.15%) BDD
8 371 (10.02%) OO
9 369 (9.96%) Continuous Integration
10 326 (8.80%) Responsive Web Design
11 322 (8.70%) Test Automation
12 314 (8.48%) DevOps
13 309 (8.34%) E-Commerce
14 283 (7.64%) Unit Testing
15 278 (7.51%) Microservices
16 269 (7.26%) Problem-Solving
17 220 (5.94%) Open Source
18 218 (5.89%) Software Engineering
19 198 (5.35%) Wireframes
20 173 (4.67%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 3,026 (81.72%) JavaScript
2 585 (15.80%) ES6
3 560 (15.12%) Java
4 531 (14.34%) C#
5 422 (11.40%) SQL
6 400 (10.80%) TypeScript
7 295 (7.97%) PHP
8 217 (5.86%) Python
9 104 (2.81%) Ruby
10 101 (2.73%) Java 8
11 89 (2.40%) ES7
12 71 (1.92%) T-SQL
13 68 (1.84%) Scala
14 49 (1.32%) PowerShell
15 36 (0.97%) Go
16 32 (0.86%) C++
17 31 (0.84%) JSX
18 24 (0.65%) PL/SQL
19 21 (0.57%) Apple Swift
19 21 (0.57%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 196 (5.29%) Degree
2 118 (3.19%) Security Cleared
3 99 (2.67%) SC Cleared
4 71 (1.92%) Computer Science Degree
5 12 (0.32%) ITIL Certification
6 10 (0.27%) Microsoft Certification
7 6 (0.16%) BPSS Clearance
7 6 (0.16%) CTC Cleared
8 3 (0.081%) DBS Check
8 3 (0.081%) Master's Degree
8 3 (0.081%) OCPJP
8 3 (0.081%) PMI Certification
9 2 (0.054%) AWS Certification
9 2 (0.054%) CISSP
9 2 (0.054%) DV Cleared
9 2 (0.054%) RHCE
9 2 (0.054%) SSCP
10 1 (0.027%) CCA
10 1 (0.027%) MCSD
10 1 (0.027%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 143 (3.86%) QA
2 19 (0.51%) WCAG
3 18 (0.49%) GDPR
4 14 (0.38%) SLA
5 13 (0.35%) Data Quality
5 13 (0.35%) MiFID
6 8 (0.22%) GCP
7 7 (0.19%) Disclosure Scotland
8 6 (0.16%) WAI
9 4 (0.11%) PMO
10 3 (0.081%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 3 (0.081%) PMBOK
11 2 (0.054%) Actionable Recommendations
11 2 (0.054%) PCI DSS
12 1 (0.027%) Section 508
System Software
1 286 (7.72%) Docker
2 8 (0.22%) HDFS
3 6 (0.16%) Active Directory
4 4 (0.11%) etcd
4 4 (0.11%) flannel
5 3 (0.081%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.054%) KVM
6 2 (0.054%) LXC
7 1 (0.027%) Firmware
7 1 (0.027%) Gluster
7 1 (0.027%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 77 (2.08%) Kubernetes
2 67 (1.81%) Ansible
3 48 (1.30%) Puppet
4 35 (0.95%) Terraform
5 31 (0.84%) Opscode Chef
6 30 (0.81%) Docker Swarm
7 16 (0.43%) Mesos
8 10 (0.27%) Kibana
8 10 (0.27%) Marathon
9 6 (0.16%) logstash
10 5 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
10 5 (0.14%) TeamSite
11 4 (0.11%) Capistrano
11 4 (0.11%) rkt
12 3 (0.081%) CA Single Sign-On
12 3 (0.081%) CASB
13 2 (0.054%) Consul
13 2 (0.054%) Nagios
13 2 (0.054%) Prometheus
13 2 (0.054%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
Vendors
1 215 (5.81%) Adobe
2 164 (4.43%) Microsoft
3 128 (3.46%) Oracle
4 95 (2.57%) Google
5 86 (2.32%) Salesforce.com
6 69 (1.86%) ServiceNow
7 51 (1.38%) Sitecore
8 36 (0.97%) SAP
9 30 (0.81%) Twitter
10 27 (0.73%) IBM
11 21 (0.57%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
12 20 (0.54%) Zend
13 19 (0.51%) hybris
14 18 (0.49%) ION Trading
15 17 (0.46%) Apple
16 16 (0.43%) Atlassian
17 15 (0.41%) Capita
17 15 (0.41%) Splunk
18 10 (0.27%) Sybase
19 9 (0.24%) Tableau