Period
to 10 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 10 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
10 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 50 36 25
Rank change year-on-year -14 -11 -5
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,113 1,298 2,951
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 4.78% 6.07% 7.16%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.19% 16.15% 19.43%
Number of daily rates quoted 825 924 2,294
10th Percentile £334 £325 £325
25th Percentile £413 £412 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £490 £500 £480
Median % change year-on-year -2.00% +4.17% +1.05%
75th Percentile £575 £588 £569
90th Percentile £628 £671 £625
England median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 12 5 9
10th Percentile £36.25 £22.30 £25.00
25th Percentile £40.75 £23.50 £33.25
Median hourly rate £49.50 £25.68 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +92.76% -42.93% -
75th Percentile £57.50 £45.00 £53.75
90th Percentile £65.60 £51.60 "
England median hourly rate £45.00 £50.00 £50.00
% change year-on-year -10.00% - +14.29%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 8,437 8,038 15,191
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 36.25% 37.57% 36.85%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,317 6,012 11,479
10th Percentile £375 £375 £375
25th Percentile £450 £450 £450
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £530 £525
Median % change year-on-year -0.94% +0.95% +5.00%
75th Percentile £638 £625 £600
90th Percentile £700 £700 £675
England median daily rate £500 £500 £500
Number of hourly rates quoted 33 41 63
10th Percentile £19.39 £25.00 £24.11
25th Percentile £36.25 £32.75 £27.75
Median hourly rate £50.00 £55.00 £44.18
Median % change year-on-year -9.09% +24.49% +3.95%
75th Percentile £65.00 £65.54 £49.57
90th Percentile £68.00 £78.75 £55.95
England median hourly rate £45.00 £46.50 £44.96
% change year-on-year -3.23% +3.43% +7.04%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 10 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 10 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 10 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -31 118 £475 -7.32% 186
South London +6 17 £510 +7.37% 4
West London -15 17 £586 +26.76% 67
East London +8 3 £413 -0.84% 43
North London +5 2 £375 -26.83% 6
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 10 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 986 (88.59%) HTML
2 838 (75.29%) JavaScript
3 420 (37.74%) Agile Software Development
4 383 (34.41%) React
5 333 (29.92%) Front End Development
6 321 (28.84%) HTML5
7 319 (28.66%) Node.js
8 310 (27.85%) AngularJS
9 257 (23.09%) Git (software)
10 248 (22.28%) Azure
11 242 (21.74%) TypeScript
12 240 (21.56%) CSS3
13 236 (21.20%) User Experience
14 232 (20.84%) TDD
15 203 (18.24%) Redux
16 188 (16.89%) SQL
17 186 (16.71%) Java
18 185 (16.62%) DevOps
19 172 (15.45%) jQuery
20 171 (15.36%) Sass
21 165 (14.82%) REST
22 157 (14.11%) Finance
23 150 (13.48%) Social Skills
24 142 (12.76%) AWS
25 138 (12.40%) .NET
26 133 (11.95%) C#
27 130 (11.68%) Test Automation
28 129 (11.59%) Docker
29 128 (11.50%) ES6
30 127 (11.41%) Jenkins

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 79 (7.10%) CMS
2 46 (4.13%) WordPress
3 34 (3.05%) SharePoint
4 28 (2.52%) Confluence
5 18 (1.62%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 18 (1.62%) IIS
6 15 (1.35%) Drupal
7 11 (0.99%) Apache
8 10 (0.90%) Headless CMS
8 10 (0.90%) Tomcat
9 8 (0.72%) Elasticsearch
9 8 (0.72%) JBoss
10 7 (0.63%) SharePoint 2010
10 7 (0.63%) Umbraco
11 5 (0.45%) Apache Solr
11 5 (0.45%) Cloud Foundry
11 5 (0.45%) Jupyter
11 5 (0.45%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 4 (0.36%) Jetty
12 4 (0.36%) WebSphere
Applications
1 23 (2.07%) Photoshop
2 18 (1.62%) Sketch
3 9 (0.81%) Figma
3 9 (0.81%) InfoPath
4 8 (0.72%) InVision
5 7 (0.63%) Adobe Illustrator
5 7 (0.63%) Adobe XD
6 6 (0.54%) Microsoft Excel
7 4 (0.36%) Adobe After Effects
7 4 (0.36%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 4 (0.36%) OmniGraffle
8 3 (0.27%) Adobe Premiere
8 3 (0.27%) Chatbot
8 3 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.27%) Zeplin
9 1 (0.090%) Acrobat
9 1 (0.090%) Final Cut Pro
9 1 (0.090%) InDesign
9 1 (0.090%) Maya
9 1 (0.090%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 13 (1.17%) Magento
2 10 (0.90%) Shopify
3 4 (0.36%) Adobe Campaign
4 3 (0.27%) Dynamics CRM
5 2 (0.18%) Dynamics NAV
6 1 (0.090%) Distributed Ledger
6 1 (0.090%) SAP BPC
6 1 (0.090%) SAP Hybris
6 1 (0.090%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 1 (0.090%) Sentinel
6 1 (0.090%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 248 (22.28%) Azure
2 142 (12.76%) AWS
3 64 (5.75%) GitHub
4 57 (5.12%) Serverless
5 43 (3.86%) npm
6 41 (3.68%) PaaS
7 32 (2.88%) GCP
8 28 (2.52%) Power Platform
9 25 (2.25%) AWS Lambda
9 25 (2.25%) SaaS
10 24 (2.16%) Heroku
11 22 (1.98%) Microsoft 365
12 21 (1.89%) Azure Service Bus
13 19 (1.71%) Azure Logic Apps
13 19 (1.71%) IaaS
14 16 (1.44%) Google Analytics
15 15 (1.35%) Azure Functions
16 14 (1.26%) Azure Key Vault
16 14 (1.26%) PowerApps
17 13 (1.17%) Adobe Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 23 (2.07%) HTTP
2 15 (1.35%) Internet
3 11 (0.99%) HTTPS
4 5 (0.45%) SSL
5 3 (0.27%) DNS
5 3 (0.27%) Intranet
6 2 (0.18%) Broadband
6 2 (0.18%) Intrusion Detection
6 2 (0.18%) RTMP
6 2 (0.18%) VPN
7 1 (0.090%) Bluetooth
7 1 (0.090%) Extranet
7 1 (0.090%) Firewall
7 1 (0.090%) IPFS
7 1 (0.090%) LAN
7 1 (0.090%) TCP/IP
7 1 (0.090%) WAN
7 1 (0.090%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 75 (6.74%) SQL Server
2 61 (5.48%) NoSQL
3 56 (5.03%) MySQL
4 54 (4.85%) MongoDB
5 43 (3.86%) PostgreSQL
6 30 (2.70%) Relational Database
7 24 (2.16%) Azure SQL Database
8 21 (1.89%) Redis
9 16 (1.44%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 16 (1.44%) Power BI
10 15 (1.35%) Tableau
11 13 (1.17%) Big Data
12 9 (0.81%) QlikView
13 7 (0.63%) Apache Cassandra
13 7 (0.63%) RDBMS
14 6 (0.54%) Data Mining
14 6 (0.54%) Data Warehouse
14 6 (0.54%) SQL Server 2016
14 6 (0.54%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 5 (0.45%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 257 (23.09%) Git (software)
2 127 (11.41%) Jenkins
3 123 (11.05%) webpack
4 71 (6.38%) JIRA
5 56 (5.03%) Jasmine
6 52 (4.67%) gulp
7 51 (4.58%) Cypress.io
8 49 (4.40%) Maven
9 37 (3.32%) Mocha
10 31 (2.79%) SonarQube
11 28 (2.52%) Karma Test Runner
12 27 (2.43%) Visual Studio
13 24 (2.16%) Grunt
14 21 (1.89%) JUnit
15 19 (1.71%) TeamCity
16 16 (1.44%) Gradle
16 16 (1.44%) Storybook
17 15 (1.35%) Selenium
18 14 (1.26%) GitLab
19 13 (1.17%) Protractor
General
1 157 (14.11%) Finance
2 150 (13.48%) Social Skills
3 86 (7.73%) Banking
4 76 (6.83%) Analytical Skills
5 69 (6.20%) Marketing
6 37 (3.32%) Retail
7 27 (2.43%) Investment Banking
7 27 (2.43%) Public Sector
8 22 (1.98%) Front Office
9 16 (1.44%) Telecoms
10 15 (1.35%) French Language
11 13 (1.17%) Publishing
12 11 (0.99%) Games
13 10 (0.90%) German Language
13 10 (0.90%) Legal
14 9 (0.81%) Presentation Skills
15 8 (0.72%) Advertising
15 8 (0.72%) Manufacturing
16 7 (0.63%) Financial Institution
17 6 (0.54%) Influencing Skills
Job Titles
1 846 (76.01%) Developer
2 227 (20.40%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 176 (15.81%) React Developer
4 128 (11.50%) Full Stack Developer
5 122 (10.96%) Senior Developer
6 90 (8.09%) Angular Developer
7 89 (8.00%) JavaScript Developer
8 58 (5.21%) Designer
9 56 (5.03%) .NET Developer
10 54 (4.85%) Node.js Developer
11 43 (3.86%) UI Developer
12 42 (3.77%) Java Developer
13 41 (3.68%) PHP Developer
14 40 (3.59%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 38 (3.41%) Lead Developer
16 35 (3.14%) HTML Developer
16 35 (3.14%) Web Developer
17 32 (2.88%) Architect
18 28 (2.52%) ServiceNow Developer
19 27 (2.43%) HTML CSS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 986 (88.59%) HTML
2 383 (34.41%) React
3 321 (28.84%) HTML5
4 319 (28.66%) Node.js
5 310 (27.85%) AngularJS
6 240 (21.56%) CSS3
7 203 (18.24%) Redux
8 172 (15.45%) jQuery
9 171 (15.36%) Sass
10 165 (14.82%) REST
11 138 (12.40%) .NET
12 123 (11.05%) GraphQL
13 116 (10.42%) Web Services
14 112 (10.06%) RESTful
15 110 (9.88%) Jest
16 85 (7.64%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 85 (7.64%) Vue.js
17 84 (7.55%) JSON
17 84 (7.55%) Spring
18 73 (6.56%) Ajax
Miscellaneous
1 236 (21.20%) User Experience
2 80 (7.19%) Greenfield Project
3 52 (4.67%) Mobile App
4 36 (3.23%) Data Structures
5 28 (2.52%) Social Media
6 23 (2.07%) Self-Motivation
7 21 (1.89%) Hedge funds
8 20 (1.80%) Cloud Native
9 19 (1.71%) Algorithms
9 19 (1.71%) Enterprise Software
10 18 (1.62%) N-Tier
11 17 (1.53%) W3C
12 15 (1.35%) Public Cloud
13 12 (1.08%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 11 (0.99%) Graphic Design
15 9 (0.81%) Virtual Team
16 8 (0.72%) Over-the-Top Content
17 7 (0.63%) Fixed Income
17 7 (0.63%) Online Games
18 6 (0.54%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 52 (4.67%) Linux
2 38 (3.41%) Unix
3 29 (2.61%) Android
4 28 (2.52%) Apple iOS
5 20 (1.80%) Windows
6 13 (1.17%) Mac OS
7 3 (0.27%) Mac OS X
7 3 (0.27%) VMS
7 3 (0.27%) Windows 10
7 3 (0.27%) Windows Server
7 3 (0.27%) Windows Server 2012
8 2 (0.18%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 420 (37.74%) Agile Software Development
2 333 (29.92%) Front End Development
3 232 (20.84%) TDD
4 185 (16.62%) DevOps
5 130 (11.68%) Test Automation
6 126 (11.32%) Web Development
7 124 (11.14%) Scrum
8 123 (11.05%) Microservices
8 123 (11.05%) Software Engineering
9 120 (10.78%) MVC
10 104 (9.34%) Unit Testing
11 96 (8.63%) Continuous Integration
12 85 (7.64%) Problem-Solving
13 77 (6.92%) BDD
14 76 (6.83%) OO
15 65 (5.84%) Open Source
16 61 (5.48%) Computer Science
17 53 (4.76%) Analytics
17 53 (4.76%) SEO
18 52 (4.67%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 838 (75.29%) JavaScript
2 242 (21.74%) TypeScript
3 188 (16.89%) SQL
4 186 (16.71%) Java
5 133 (11.95%) C#
6 128 (11.50%) ES6
7 99 (8.89%) Python
8 95 (8.54%) PHP
9 38 (3.41%) PowerShell
10 37 (3.32%) Java 8
11 29 (2.61%) Ruby
12 26 (2.34%) PL/SQL
13 23 (2.07%) Kotlin
14 12 (1.08%) ES7
14 12 (1.08%) Go
15 11 (0.99%) C++
16 10 (0.90%) Bash Shell
17 9 (0.81%) Apex Code
18 8 (0.72%) T-SQL
19 7 (0.63%) C
Qualifications
1 69 (6.20%) Security Cleared
2 62 (5.57%) SC Cleared
3 52 (4.67%) Degree
4 24 (2.16%) Computer Science Degree
5 2 (0.18%) AWS Certification
5 2 (0.18%) DV Cleared
5 2 (0.18%) Postgraduate
6 1 (0.090%) BPSS Clearance
6 1 (0.090%) ISEB
6 1 (0.090%) ISEB Practitioner
6 1 (0.090%) ITIL Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 51 (4.58%) QA
2 16 (1.44%) WCAG
3 2 (0.18%) WAI
4 1 (0.090%) Data Quality
4 1 (0.090%) GDPR
4 1 (0.090%) GRC
4 1 (0.090%) PCI DSS
4 1 (0.090%) SLA
System Software
1 129 (11.59%) Docker
2 7 (0.63%) Active Directory
3 1 (0.090%) OpenAM
3 1 (0.090%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 72 (6.47%) Kubernetes
2 23 (2.07%) Terraform
3 11 (0.99%) Ansible
4 10 (0.90%) Single Sign-On
5 5 (0.45%) Grafana
5 5 (0.45%) Kibana
6 4 (0.36%) Puppet
7 2 (0.18%) Opscode Chef
8 1 (0.090%) Hadoop YARN
8 1 (0.090%) HP ALM
8 1 (0.090%) HP Fortify
8 1 (0.090%) Rancher
Vendors
1 71 (6.38%) Oracle
2 60 (5.39%) Microsoft
3 54 (4.85%) Adobe
4 39 (3.50%) Salesforce.com
5 32 (2.88%) Google
6 30 (2.70%) ServiceNow
7 16 (1.44%) Optimizely
8 10 (0.90%) Apple
8 10 (0.90%) DevExpress
8 10 (0.90%) Splunk
9 9 (0.81%) Nintex
9 9 (0.81%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
10 6 (0.54%) Atlassian
10 6 (0.54%) hybris
11 5 (0.45%) MEDITECH
11 5 (0.45%) QAD
11 5 (0.45%) Roku
11 5 (0.45%) SAP
11 5 (0.45%) Sitecore
11 5 (0.45%) VMware