Period
to 14 August 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 14 August 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
14 Aug 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 44 24 20
Rank change year-on-year -20 -4 -4
Contract jobs citing CSS 773 2,818 3,703
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 5.22% 7.07% 8.12%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.67% 19.34% 21.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 565 2,194 2,936
Median daily rate £488 £488 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.63% +5.56%
10th Percentile £309 £350 £325
90th Percentile £650 £638 £613
England median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +4.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 5 13 10
Median hourly rate £45.00 £52.50 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -14.29% +16.67% +136.84%
10th Percentile £22.30 £37.75 £30.67
90th Percentile £56.00 £122.50 £63.45
England median hourly rate £35.00 £50.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year -30.00% +17.65% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 5,655 14,569 17,550
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 38.15% 36.56% 38.49%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,987 10,893 13,350
Median daily rate £525 £525 £513
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.44% +2.50%
10th Percentile £363 £375 £363
90th Percentile £716 £676 £675
England median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 50 75 105
Median hourly rate £35.00 £47.50 £43.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -26.32% +9.20% +8.75%
10th Percentile £24.85 £16.75 £19.70
90th Percentile £65.28 £102.70 £75.50
Median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £41.53
% change year-on-year -22.22% +8.36% +3.83%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 14 August 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 14 August 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 14 August 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -14 136 £515 +3.00% 79
South London +3 47 £525 +16.67% 5
West London +20 33 £494 +16.18% 27
East London +7 5 £383 -28.74% 21
North London +3 2 £450 - 3
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 14 August 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 671 (86.80%) HTML
2 598 (77.36%) JavaScript
3 368 (47.61%) Agile Software Development
4 232 (30.01%) HTML5
5 227 (29.37%) AngularJS
5 227 (29.37%) Front End Development
6 218 (28.20%) React
7 212 (27.43%) Git (software)
8 195 (25.23%) Node.js
9 165 (21.35%) Finance
10 159 (20.57%) Java
11 158 (20.44%) User Experience
12 151 (19.53%) CSS3
13 145 (18.76%) TDD
14 137 (17.72%) TypeScript
15 130 (16.82%) .NET
16 127 (16.43%) SQL
16 127 (16.43%) Sass
17 115 (14.88%) Redux
18 114 (14.75%) DevOps
19 113 (14.62%) C#
20 106 (13.71%) jQuery
21 104 (13.45%) Test Automation
22 102 (13.20%) Security Cleared
23 97 (12.55%) Docker
24 93 (12.03%) Web Development
25 92 (11.90%) Scrum
25 92 (11.90%) REST
26 86 (11.13%) Continuous Integration
27 83 (10.74%) Jenkins

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 36 (4.66%) Elasticsearch
2 24 (3.10%) Apache
3 22 (2.85%) CMS
4 18 (2.33%) SharePoint
5 15 (1.94%) Apache Solr
6 14 (1.81%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 14 (1.81%) WebLogic
7 13 (1.68%) Tomcat
8 12 (1.55%) Confluence
9 9 (1.16%) Apache Spark
9 9 (1.16%) WordPress
10 7 (0.91%) IIS
10 7 (0.91%) WebSphere
11 6 (0.78%) Tornado
12 5 (0.65%) Appian
12 5 (0.65%) Drupal
12 5 (0.65%) EPiServer
12 5 (0.65%) nginx
13 4 (0.52%) JBoss
13 4 (0.52%) Moodle
Applications
1 37 (4.79%) Sketch
2 26 (3.36%) InVision
3 17 (2.20%) Zeplin
4 13 (1.68%) Photoshop
5 11 (1.42%) Microsoft Excel
6 9 (1.16%) Adobe Illustrator
7 7 (0.91%) Adobe After Effects
8 6 (0.78%) Chatbot
9 4 (0.52%) Adobe XD
9 4 (0.52%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 3 (0.39%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 3 (0.39%) InDesign
10 3 (0.39%) Microsoft Office
11 2 (0.26%) Adobe Premiere
12 1 (0.13%) Camtasia
12 1 (0.13%) Figma
12 1 (0.13%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 13 (1.68%) Magento
2 8 (1.03%) Oracle ERP
3 7 (0.91%) Shopify
4 2 (0.26%) Dynamics CRM
5 1 (0.13%) NetSuite
5 1 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
5 1 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
5 1 (0.13%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 74 (9.57%) Azure
2 63 (8.15%) AWS
3 31 (4.01%) GCP
4 28 (3.62%) GitHub
5 23 (2.98%) npm
6 19 (2.46%) SaaS
7 14 (1.81%) Serverless
8 13 (1.68%) Adobe Creative Cloud
8 13 (1.68%) PaaS
9 9 (1.16%) AWS CloudFormation
10 6 (0.78%) Amazon ECS
10 6 (0.78%) Cloud Computing
10 6 (0.78%) Google Analytics
11 5 (0.65%) Amazon EC2
11 5 (0.65%) Power Platform
11 5 (0.65%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
12 4 (0.52%) Amazon EKS
12 4 (0.52%) Amazon S3
12 4 (0.52%) Heroku
13 3 (0.39%) AWS CodePipeline
Communications & Networking
1 6 (0.78%) HTTP
1 6 (0.78%) Internet
2 4 (0.52%) Kerberos
3 3 (0.39%) DNS
3 3 (0.39%) Firewall
3 3 (0.39%) Intranet
4 2 (0.26%) RTMP
4 2 (0.26%) SSL
4 2 (0.26%) WebEx
5 1 (0.13%) HbbTV
5 1 (0.13%) HTTPS
5 1 (0.13%) Intrusion Detection
5 1 (0.13%) Remote Desktop
5 1 (0.13%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 71 (9.18%) SQL Server
2 43 (5.56%) MySQL
3 36 (4.66%) PostgreSQL
4 27 (3.49%) NoSQL
5 25 (3.23%) Relational Database
6 22 (2.85%) MongoDB
7 17 (2.20%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 16 (2.07%) Data Warehouse
9 14 (1.81%) Big Data
10 13 (1.68%) OLAP
11 11 (1.42%) Redis
12 7 (0.91%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 6 (0.78%) Apache Hive
14 5 (0.65%) Oracle ODI
14 5 (0.65%) Power BI
15 4 (0.52%) MariaDB
15 4 (0.52%) RDBMS
15 4 (0.52%) Sybase ASE
16 3 (0.39%) ArangoDB
16 3 (0.39%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 212 (27.43%) Git (software)
2 83 (10.74%) Jenkins
3 45 (5.82%) gulp
4 42 (5.43%) Grunt
4 42 (5.43%) webpack
5 37 (4.79%) Subversion
6 36 (4.66%) Jasmine
7 33 (4.27%) JIRA
8 32 (4.14%) git-flow
9 28 (3.62%) Cypress.io
10 23 (2.98%) Mocha
10 23 (2.98%) Selenium
11 22 (2.85%) Maven
12 18 (2.33%) TeamCity
13 15 (1.94%) Protractor
14 13 (1.68%) Postman
15 12 (1.55%) Axure RP
15 12 (1.55%) JUnit
16 11 (1.42%) Babel
16 11 (1.42%) Cucumber
General
1 165 (21.35%) Finance
2 81 (10.48%) Banking
3 47 (6.08%) Public Sector
4 34 (4.40%) Marketing
5 33 (4.27%) Investment Banking
6 32 (4.14%) Front Office
7 18 (2.33%) Retail
8 15 (1.94%) Games
9 11 (1.42%) Publishing
10 8 (1.03%) Financial Institution
11 7 (0.91%) Back Office
11 7 (0.91%) Law
11 7 (0.91%) Retail Banking
12 6 (0.78%) Telecoms
13 5 (0.65%) Electronics
13 5 (0.65%) Manufacturing
14 4 (0.52%) International Banking
14 4 (0.52%) Local Government
15 3 (0.39%) Corporate Banking
15 3 (0.39%) Police
Job Titles
1 583 (75.42%) Developer
2 161 (20.83%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 107 (13.84%) React Developer
4 87 (11.25%) Full Stack Developer
5 77 (9.96%) JavaScript Developer
6 62 (8.02%) Senior Developer
7 60 (7.76%) Angular Developer
8 56 (7.24%) Designer
9 45 (5.82%) C# Developer
10 41 (5.30%) UI Developer
11 37 (4.79%) .NET Developer
12 35 (4.53%) HTML Developer
13 34 (4.40%) Java Developer
14 30 (3.88%) Web Developer
15 27 (3.49%) Node.js Developer
16 26 (3.36%) Software Engineer
17 25 (3.23%) UX Designer
18 24 (3.10%) Architect
18 24 (3.10%) HTML CSS Developer
19 22 (2.85%) SQL Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 671 (86.80%) HTML
2 232 (30.01%) HTML5
3 227 (29.37%) AngularJS
4 218 (28.20%) React
5 195 (25.23%) Node.js
6 151 (19.53%) CSS3
7 130 (16.82%) .NET
8 127 (16.43%) Sass
9 115 (14.88%) Redux
10 106 (13.71%) jQuery
11 92 (11.90%) REST
12 77 (9.96%) Web Services
13 63 (8.15%) RESTful
13 63 (8.15%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 46 (5.95%) Jest
15 45 (5.82%) JSON
15 45 (5.82%) XML
16 42 (5.43%) ASP.NET
17 41 (5.30%) Spring
18 40 (5.17%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 158 (20.44%) User Experience
2 40 (5.17%) Mobile App
3 39 (5.05%) Analytical Skills
4 34 (4.40%) Greenfield Project
5 21 (2.72%) Data Structures
6 16 (2.07%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 14 (1.81%) Fixed Income
8 12 (1.55%) Self-Motivation
9 11 (1.42%) Algorithms
9 11 (1.42%) Management Information System
10 10 (1.29%) Mobile Payment
10 10 (1.29%) Virtual Team
11 9 (1.16%) W3C
12 8 (1.03%) Derivative
12 8 (1.03%) Enterprise Software
13 7 (0.91%) Cloud Native
13 7 (0.91%) Credit Risk
13 7 (0.91%) Equities
13 7 (0.91%) Public Cloud
14 6 (0.78%) Robotics
Operating Systems
1 59 (7.63%) Linux
2 24 (3.10%) Unix
3 21 (2.72%) Windows
4 20 (2.59%) Android
5 17 (2.20%) Mac OS X
6 12 (1.55%) Apple iOS
7 3 (0.39%) CentOS
7 3 (0.39%) tvOS
7 3 (0.39%) Windows Server
8 2 (0.26%) Mac OS
9 1 (0.13%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 368 (47.61%) Agile Software Development
2 227 (29.37%) Front End Development
3 145 (18.76%) TDD
4 114 (14.75%) DevOps
5 104 (13.45%) Test Automation
6 93 (12.03%) Web Development
7 92 (11.90%) Scrum
8 86 (11.13%) Continuous Integration
9 80 (10.35%) Microservices
10 79 (10.22%) Problem-Solving
11 65 (8.41%) Software Engineering
12 59 (7.63%) Computer Science
13 55 (7.12%) SDLC
14 54 (6.99%) BDD
14 54 (6.99%) MVC
14 54 (6.99%) Responsive Web Design
15 51 (6.60%) OO
16 44 (5.69%) Web Accessibility
17 43 (5.56%) Wireframes
18 42 (5.43%) Unit Testing
Programming Languages
1 598 (77.36%) JavaScript
2 159 (20.57%) Java
3 137 (17.72%) TypeScript
4 127 (16.43%) SQL
5 113 (14.62%) C#
6 82 (10.61%) Python
7 60 (7.76%) ES6
8 59 (7.63%) PHP
9 20 (2.59%) Kotlin
9 20 (2.59%) VBA
10 17 (2.20%) Ruby
10 17 (2.20%) Scala
10 17 (2.20%) T-SQL
11 15 (1.94%) PL/SQL
12 12 (1.55%) ES7
12 12 (1.55%) Go
13 11 (1.42%) C
14 8 (1.03%) Java 8
15 7 (0.91%) Bash Shell
15 7 (0.91%) C++
Qualifications
1 102 (13.20%) Security Cleared
2 81 (10.48%) SC Cleared
3 58 (7.50%) Degree
4 27 (3.49%) Computer Science Degree
5 8 (1.03%) BPSS Clearance
6 7 (0.91%) DBS Check
7 4 (0.52%) DV Cleared
8 3 (0.39%) Master's Degree
9 2 (0.26%) TOGAF Certification
10 1 (0.13%) BC Cleared
10 1 (0.13%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 38 (4.92%) WCAG
2 34 (4.40%) QA
3 4 (0.52%) GDPR
4 3 (0.39%) Disclosure Scotland
4 3 (0.39%) Government Security Classifications
5 2 (0.26%) SLA
6 1 (0.13%) Actionable Recommendations
6 1 (0.13%) PCI DSS
6 1 (0.13%) WAI
System Software
1 97 (12.55%) Docker
2 7 (0.91%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.26%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.13%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.13%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 43 (5.56%) Kubernetes
2 34 (4.40%) Terraform
3 18 (2.33%) Ansible
4 10 (1.29%) Opscode Chef
5 8 (1.03%) Kibana
5 8 (1.03%) Puppet
6 6 (0.78%) Grafana
7 1 (0.13%) CFEngine
7 1 (0.13%) logstash
7 1 (0.13%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 55 (7.12%) Oracle
2 39 (5.05%) Adobe
3 32 (4.14%) Microsoft
4 29 (3.75%) Google
5 14 (1.81%) Cognos
6 13 (1.68%) Salesforce.com
7 12 (1.55%) SAP
8 10 (1.29%) ServiceNow
9 6 (0.78%) Bloomberg
9 6 (0.78%) Cloudera
9 6 (0.78%) Hortonworks
9 6 (0.78%) hybris
9 6 (0.78%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
9 6 (0.78%) SaltStack
10 5 (0.65%) Pardot
10 5 (0.65%) Sitecore
10 5 (0.65%) Tealium
11 4 (0.52%) Sybase
12 3 (0.39%) MicroStrategy
12 3 (0.39%) Tableau