Period
to 3 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 3 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
3 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 47 29 26
Rank change year-on-year -18 -3 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,021 1,757 3,078
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 5.11% 6.32% 7.13%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.99% 17.26% 18.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 915 1,330 2,431
Median daily rate £500 £500 £485
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +3.09% +2.11%
10th Percentile £328 £318 £319
90th Percentile £625 £675 £625
England median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 17 13 13
Median hourly rate £42.00 £36.70 £37.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.44% -0.81% +37.04%
10th Percentile £20.00 £25.68 £18.60
90th Percentile £57.50 £52.50 £53.75
England median hourly rate £40.50 £44.00 £41.50
% change year-on-year -7.95% +6.02% -7.78%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 7,299 10,177 16,378
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 36.52% 36.63% 37.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,395 7,570 12,394
Median daily rate £525 £525 £525
10th Percentile £363 £375 £370
90th Percentile £700 £700 £675
England median daily rate £500 £500 £500
Number of hourly rates quoted 36 58 61
Median hourly rate £44.25 £48.85 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -9.42% +22.13% +37.93%
10th Percentile £23.13 £25.33 £24.11
90th Percentile £67.25 £78.75 £53.75
Median hourly rate £45.00 £47.50 £43.50
% change year-on-year -5.26% +9.20% +8.75%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 3 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -28 102 £500 - 181
South London +23 27 £520 +15.56% 8
West London -10 19 £575 +43.75% 66
East London +13 5 £319 -25.00% 44
North London +3 2 £375 -28.57% 6
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 3 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 902 (88.34%) HTML
2 764 (74.83%) JavaScript
3 388 (38.00%) Agile Software Development
4 336 (32.91%) HTML5
5 321 (31.44%) React
6 297 (29.09%) Front End Development
7 286 (28.01%) AngularJS
8 277 (27.13%) Node.js
9 247 (24.19%) Git (software)
10 230 (22.53%) CSS3
11 229 (22.43%) Azure
12 219 (21.45%) User Experience
13 210 (20.57%) TypeScript
14 202 (19.78%) Redux
15 198 (19.39%) TDD
16 174 (17.04%) Java
17 172 (16.85%) DevOps
18 157 (15.38%) SQL
19 155 (15.18%) jQuery
19 155 (15.18%) REST
20 146 (14.30%) Finance
21 140 (13.71%) Sass
22 138 (13.52%) AWS
23 135 (13.22%) .NET
24 127 (12.44%) Web Development
25 122 (11.95%) ES6
26 119 (11.66%) webpack
27 117 (11.46%) Test Automation
28 115 (11.26%) Software Engineering
29 112 (10.97%) C#

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 70 (6.86%) CMS
2 44 (4.31%) WordPress
3 25 (2.45%) Confluence
4 23 (2.25%) SharePoint
5 18 (1.76%) Elasticsearch
6 14 (1.37%) Adobe Experience Manager
6 14 (1.37%) Drupal
7 12 (1.18%) WebSphere
8 9 (0.88%) Apache
9 8 (0.78%) Apache Solr
10 7 (0.69%) IIS
10 7 (0.69%) Umbraco
11 6 (0.59%) Appian
11 6 (0.59%) Cloud Foundry
11 6 (0.59%) Sitecore CMS
11 6 (0.59%) WebLogic
12 5 (0.49%) EPiServer
13 4 (0.39%) BizTalk Server
13 4 (0.39%) JBoss
13 4 (0.39%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 25 (2.45%) Photoshop
2 21 (2.06%) Sketch
3 13 (1.27%) Adobe Illustrator
4 10 (0.98%) InVision
5 8 (0.78%) Zeplin
6 7 (0.69%) Adobe After Effects
6 7 (0.69%) Adobe Premiere
7 6 (0.59%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 5 (0.49%) Adobe XD
8 5 (0.49%) Microsoft Excel
9 4 (0.39%) InfoPath
9 4 (0.39%) OmniGraffle
10 3 (0.29%) CINEMA 4D
11 2 (0.20%) Chatbot
11 2 (0.20%) Figma
11 2 (0.20%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 1 (0.098%) Acrobat
12 1 (0.098%) Final Cut Pro
12 1 (0.098%) Maya
Business Applications
1 16 (1.57%) Magento
2 13 (1.27%) Shopify
3 8 (0.78%) Dynamics CRM
4 2 (0.20%) Dynamics NAV
4 2 (0.20%) Payment Gateway
5 1 (0.098%) Distributed Ledger
5 1 (0.098%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.098%) SAP Hybris
5 1 (0.098%) Sentinel
5 1 (0.098%) Siebel CRM
Cloud Services
1 229 (22.43%) Azure
2 138 (13.52%) AWS
3 65 (6.37%) GitHub
4 46 (4.51%) Serverless
5 43 (4.21%) GCP
5 43 (4.21%) npm
6 39 (3.82%) PaaS
7 25 (2.45%) Logic Apps
8 20 (1.96%) Power Platform
8 20 (1.96%) SaaS
9 19 (1.86%) AWS Lambda
10 18 (1.76%) Heroku
10 18 (1.76%) Microsoft 365
11 16 (1.57%) Azure Functions
11 16 (1.57%) Google Analytics
11 16 (1.57%) IaaS
12 15 (1.47%) PowerApps
13 13 (1.27%) Adobe Analytics
14 12 (1.18%) Yarn
15 10 (0.98%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 19 (1.86%) HTTP
2 8 (0.78%) Internet
3 7 (0.69%) Intranet
4 4 (0.39%) HTTPS
4 4 (0.39%) SSL
5 3 (0.29%) Intrusion Detection
6 1 (0.098%) AMQP
6 1 (0.098%) Broadband
6 1 (0.098%) DNS
6 1 (0.098%) Extranet
6 1 (0.098%) Firewall
6 1 (0.098%) IPFS
6 1 (0.098%) LAN
6 1 (0.098%) Network Security
6 1 (0.098%) TCP/IP
6 1 (0.098%) VPN
6 1 (0.098%) WAN
6 1 (0.098%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 66 (6.46%) SQL Server
2 55 (5.39%) NoSQL
3 53 (5.19%) MySQL
4 43 (4.21%) MongoDB
5 34 (3.33%) PostgreSQL
6 24 (2.35%) Azure SQL Database
6 24 (2.35%) Relational Database
7 23 (2.25%) Cosmos DB
8 18 (1.76%) Big Data
9 17 (1.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 11 (1.08%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 10 (0.98%) Redis
11 10 (0.98%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 7 (0.69%) Power BI
12 7 (0.69%) RDBMS
13 6 (0.59%) Amazon RDS
13 6 (0.59%) SQL Server 2016
14 5 (0.49%) SQL Server 2012
14 5 (0.49%) Tableau
15 3 (0.29%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 247 (24.19%) Git (software)
2 119 (11.66%) webpack
3 97 (9.50%) Jenkins
4 65 (6.37%) JIRA
5 59 (5.78%) Jasmine
6 57 (5.58%) gulp
7 39 (3.82%) Grunt
8 35 (3.43%) Cypress.io
9 34 (3.33%) Mocha
10 31 (3.04%) Karma Test Runner
11 28 (2.74%) Selenium
11 28 (2.74%) SonarQube
12 25 (2.45%) Maven
13 23 (2.25%) JUnit
14 18 (1.76%) git-flow
15 17 (1.67%) CircleCI
15 17 (1.67%) Visual Studio
16 16 (1.57%) Protractor
16 16 (1.57%) Visual Studio Team System
17 15 (1.47%) Gradle
General
1 146 (14.30%) Finance
2 78 (7.64%) Banking
3 70 (6.86%) Marketing
4 38 (3.72%) Retail
5 33 (3.23%) Public Sector
6 30 (2.94%) Investment Banking
7 27 (2.64%) Front Office
8 15 (1.47%) Games
9 12 (1.18%) Telecoms
10 11 (1.08%) Advertising
11 10 (0.98%) Financial Institution
12 9 (0.88%) Legal
13 8 (0.78%) Manufacturing
13 8 (0.78%) Publishing
14 6 (0.59%) Back Office
14 6 (0.59%) French Language
14 6 (0.59%) Local Government
15 5 (0.49%) Pharmaceutical
15 5 (0.49%) Police
16 4 (0.39%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 779 (76.30%) Developer
2 192 (18.81%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 158 (15.48%) React Developer
4 139 (13.61%) Full Stack Developer
5 97 (9.50%) Angular Developer
6 83 (8.13%) Senior Developer
7 80 (7.84%) JavaScript Developer
8 50 (4.90%) Designer
8 50 (4.90%) Node.js Developer
9 48 (4.70%) .NET Developer
10 42 (4.11%) UI Developer
11 41 (4.02%) Web Developer
12 39 (3.82%) PHP Developer
13 37 (3.62%) HTML Developer
14 35 (3.43%) Architect
15 32 (3.13%) Java Developer
16 30 (2.94%) Lead Developer
17 29 (2.84%) ServiceNow Developer
18 27 (2.64%) HTML CSS Developer
19 25 (2.45%) Senior Front-End Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 902 (88.34%) HTML
2 336 (32.91%) HTML5
3 321 (31.44%) React
4 286 (28.01%) AngularJS
5 277 (27.13%) Node.js
6 230 (22.53%) CSS3
7 202 (19.78%) Redux
8 155 (15.18%) jQuery
8 155 (15.18%) REST
9 140 (13.71%) Sass
10 135 (13.22%) .NET
11 108 (10.58%) GraphQL
12 99 (9.70%) Web Services
13 96 (9.40%) RESTful
14 88 (8.62%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 86 (8.42%) Jest
16 74 (7.25%) Vue.js
17 72 (7.05%) XML
18 67 (6.56%) JSON
19 66 (6.46%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 219 (21.45%) User Experience
2 89 (8.72%) Greenfield Project
3 52 (5.09%) Analytical Skills
4 48 (4.70%) Mobile App
5 27 (2.64%) Cloud Native
5 27 (2.64%) Social Media
6 21 (2.06%) Data Structures
7 18 (1.76%) Hedge funds
7 18 (1.76%) Public Cloud
8 17 (1.67%) Self-Motivation
9 16 (1.57%) N-Tier
10 14 (1.37%) Algorithms
10 14 (1.37%) Enterprise Software
11 10 (0.98%) Graphic Design
11 10 (0.98%) Over-the-Top Content
11 10 (0.98%) Virtual Team
11 10 (0.98%) W3C
12 9 (0.88%) Mobile Payment
13 8 (0.78%) Marketing Technology
14 7 (0.69%) Apple TV
Operating Systems
1 48 (4.70%) Linux
2 35 (3.43%) Apple iOS
3 34 (3.33%) Android
4 24 (2.35%) Unix
5 22 (2.15%) Windows
6 8 (0.78%) Mac OS
7 5 (0.49%) Mac OS X
8 4 (0.39%) Windows Server
9 3 (0.29%) VMS
9 3 (0.29%) Windows Server 2012
10 2 (0.20%) Windows 10
11 1 (0.098%) CentOS
11 1 (0.098%) Solaris
11 1 (0.098%) Tizen
11 1 (0.098%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 388 (38.00%) Agile Software Development
2 297 (29.09%) Front End Development
3 198 (19.39%) TDD
4 172 (16.85%) DevOps
5 127 (12.44%) Web Development
6 117 (11.46%) Test Automation
7 115 (11.26%) Software Engineering
8 110 (10.77%) Microservices
9 102 (9.99%) MVC
10 99 (9.70%) OO
11 92 (9.01%) Scrum
12 79 (7.74%) BDD
13 77 (7.54%) Continuous Integration
13 77 (7.54%) Problem-Solving
14 75 (7.35%) Computer Science
15 69 (6.76%) Unit Testing
16 64 (6.27%) SDLC
17 58 (5.68%) Analytics
18 57 (5.58%) Open Source
19 53 (5.19%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 764 (74.83%) JavaScript
2 210 (20.57%) TypeScript
3 174 (17.04%) Java
4 157 (15.38%) SQL
5 122 (11.95%) ES6
6 112 (10.97%) C#
7 95 (9.30%) PHP
8 92 (9.01%) Python
9 26 (2.55%) PowerShell
10 23 (2.25%) Kotlin
11 21 (2.06%) Java 8
12 18 (1.76%) Go
13 14 (1.37%) Ruby
14 13 (1.27%) PL/SQL
15 10 (0.98%) Scala
16 9 (0.88%) C++
17 7 (0.69%) C
18 6 (0.59%) Bash Shell
18 6 (0.59%) ES7
18 6 (0.59%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 71 (6.95%) Security Cleared
2 66 (6.46%) SC Cleared
3 56 (5.48%) Degree
4 30 (2.94%) Computer Science Degree
5 5 (0.49%) BPSS Clearance
6 4 (0.39%) DV Cleared
7 3 (0.29%) Master's Degree
7 3 (0.29%) Numerate Degree
8 2 (0.20%) AWS Certification
9 1 (0.098%) DBS Check
9 1 (0.098%) ITIL Certification
9 1 (0.098%) TOGAF Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 51 (5.00%) QA
2 18 (1.76%) WCAG
3 7 (0.69%) WAI
4 5 (0.49%) GDPR
5 4 (0.39%) Section 508
6 2 (0.20%) PCI DSS
7 1 (0.098%) Government Security Classifications
7 1 (0.098%) SLA
System Software
1 107 (10.48%) Docker
2 4 (0.39%) Active Directory
Systems Management
1 69 (6.76%) Kubernetes
2 28 (2.74%) Terraform
3 14 (1.37%) Ansible
4 5 (0.49%) Opscode Chef
5 4 (0.39%) Puppet
5 4 (0.39%) Single Sign-On
6 2 (0.20%) Grafana
7 1 (0.098%) Capistrano
7 1 (0.098%) HP ALM
Vendors
1 57 (5.58%) Microsoft
2 47 (4.60%) Adobe
3 39 (3.82%) Google
3 39 (3.82%) Oracle
4 30 (2.94%) ServiceNow
5 25 (2.45%) Salesforce.com
6 15 (1.47%) Splunk
7 13 (1.27%) Apple
7 13 (1.27%) Optimizely
8 9 (0.88%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
8 9 (0.88%) Sitecore
9 7 (0.69%) Roku
10 6 (0.59%) Nintex
11 5 (0.49%) Atlassian
11 5 (0.49%) Bloomberg
11 5 (0.49%) hybris
11 5 (0.49%) MEDITECH
11 5 (0.49%) Pardot
11 5 (0.49%) VMware
12 4 (0.39%) CA