Period
to 12 December 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 12 December 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
12 Dec 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 22 19 12
Rank change year-on-year -3 -7 +1
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,532 3,770 4,376
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 7.51% 7.93% 9.79%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.19% 21.42% 28.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,710 2,983 3,294
London median daily rate £475 £469 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.39% +10.24% +6.25%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £308
90th Percentile £625 £606 £588
England median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 11 20
London median hourly rate £34.50 £27.00 £43.80
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +27.78% -38.35% +92.03%
10th Percentile £18.60 £21.25 £20.72
90th Percentile £53.75 £29.00 £59.27
England median hourly rate £41.25 £42.50 £35.69
% change year-on-year -2.94% +19.10% +18.95%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 18,404 17,604 15,538
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 39.12% 37.02% 34.76%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,918 13,476 11,577
London median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £375 £350 £321
90th Percentile £675 £650 £625
England median daily rate £480 £470 £425
% change year-on-year +2.13% +10.59% +2.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 85 100 71
London median hourly rate £37.50 £29.31 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +27.94% -26.73% +14.29%
10th Percentile £21.71 £19.00 £19.23
90th Percentile £61.27 £47.83 £57.50
England median hourly rate £41.53 £40.00 £39.60
% change year-on-year +3.83% +1.01% +5.60%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 12 December 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 12 December 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 12 December 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -1 740 £500 +5.26% 293
West London -13 158 £425 -5.56% 232
South London -6 99 £450 +2.27% 17
East London -3 68 £500 +11.11% 88
North London -6 11 £400 +10.34% 13
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 12 December 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,224 (91.28%) HTML
2 2,872 (81.31%) JavaScript
3 1,645 (46.57%) Agile Software Development
4 1,465 (41.48%) HTML5
5 1,376 (38.96%) AngularJS
6 1,196 (33.86%) Front End Development
7 1,179 (33.38%) React
8 1,070 (30.29%) CSS3
9 923 (26.13%) TDD
10 890 (25.20%) Git (software)
11 873 (24.72%) Node.js
12 669 (18.94%) Sass
13 667 (18.88%) Java
14 663 (18.77%) jQuery
15 607 (17.19%) Finance
16 604 (17.10%) User Experience
17 534 (15.12%) ES6
18 507 (14.35%) Redux
19 488 (13.82%) TypeScript
20 485 (13.73%) .NET
21 481 (13.62%) BDD
22 478 (13.53%) C#
23 472 (13.36%) Web Development
24 466 (13.19%) REST
25 455 (12.88%) Test Automation
26 453 (12.83%) SQL
27 451 (12.77%) MVC
28 414 (11.72%) Scrum
29 369 (10.45%) Continuous Integration
30 362 (10.25%) Amazon AWS

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 210 (5.95%) CMS
2 102 (2.89%) WordPress
3 99 (2.80%) Elasticsearch
4 89 (2.52%) SharePoint
5 86 (2.43%) Drupal
6 82 (2.32%) Confluence
7 55 (1.56%) Apache
8 40 (1.13%) Umbraco
9 39 (1.10%) IIS
10 37 (1.05%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 27 (0.76%) Gunicorn
12 26 (0.74%) WebSphere
13 25 (0.71%) Tomcat
14 24 (0.68%) Apache Spark
15 23 (0.65%) Sitecore CMS
16 17 (0.48%) CoreMedia CMS
16 17 (0.48%) SharePoint 2013
17 16 (0.45%) Cloud Foundry
18 15 (0.42%) Commerce Server
18 15 (0.42%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 147 (4.16%) Photoshop
2 53 (1.50%) InVision
3 47 (1.33%) Adobe Illustrator
4 28 (0.79%) Fireworks
5 24 (0.68%) Microsoft Excel
6 19 (0.54%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 17 (0.48%) InfoPath
8 12 (0.34%) InDesign
9 11 (0.31%) Adobe After Effects
10 8 (0.23%) Chatbot
11 7 (0.20%) OmniGraffle
12 4 (0.11%) Acrobat
12 4 (0.11%) Microsoft Office
13 2 (0.057%) GIMP
13 2 (0.057%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 1 (0.028%) HipChat
14 1 (0.028%) SketchUp
14 1 (0.028%) UserZoom
14 1 (0.028%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 22 (0.62%) Magento
2 9 (0.25%) Adobe Campaign
3 8 (0.23%) Dynamics CRM
3 8 (0.23%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 7 (0.20%) Payment Gateway
4 7 (0.20%) Shopify
5 6 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.085%) Distributed Ledger
6 3 (0.085%) Dynamics AX
6 3 (0.085%) SDL Web 8
6 3 (0.085%) Unica
7 2 (0.057%) Eloqua
8 1 (0.028%) Endur
8 1 (0.028%) NetSuite
8 1 (0.028%) Northgate Housing
8 1 (0.028%) OpenCart
8 1 (0.028%) Oracle Applications
8 1 (0.028%) Remedy ITSM
8 1 (0.028%) ScheduALL
8 1 (0.028%) Social Studio
Cloud Services
1 362 (10.25%) Amazon AWS
2 300 (8.49%) Microsoft Azure
3 131 (3.71%) GitHub
4 123 (3.48%) Serverless
5 91 (2.58%) npm
6 83 (2.35%) AWS Lambda
7 79 (2.24%) Google Cloud Platform
8 59 (1.67%) Heroku
9 44 (1.25%) SaaS
10 32 (0.91%) OpenShift
11 25 (0.71%) PaaS
12 24 (0.68%) Adobe Creative Cloud
12 24 (0.68%) Office 365
13 21 (0.59%) Amazon CloudWatch
14 17 (0.48%) Amazon SQS
14 17 (0.48%) Azure Functions
14 17 (0.48%) Google Analytics
15 15 (0.42%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
16 14 (0.40%) AWS CloudFormation
16 14 (0.40%) Firebase
Communications & Networking
1 151 (4.28%) HTTP
2 57 (1.61%) Internet
3 40 (1.13%) FTP
3 40 (1.13%) TCP/IP
4 36 (1.02%) SSL
5 33 (0.93%) DNS
6 28 (0.79%) Intranet
7 15 (0.42%) Firewall
8 14 (0.40%) SSH
9 13 (0.37%) SMTP
10 7 (0.20%) HTTPS
10 7 (0.20%) LAN
10 7 (0.20%) SMS
11 4 (0.11%) BIG-IP
11 4 (0.11%) Kerberos
11 4 (0.11%) NetScaler
11 4 (0.11%) SNMP
12 3 (0.085%) IMAP
12 3 (0.085%) RTMP
13 2 (0.057%) IPFS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 339 (9.60%) MySQL
2 290 (8.21%) SQL Server
3 226 (6.40%) Relational Database
4 178 (5.04%) MongoDB
5 171 (4.84%) PostgreSQL
6 152 (4.30%) NoSQL
7 70 (1.98%) RDBMS
8 66 (1.87%) Apache Cassandra
9 49 (1.39%) Big Data
10 43 (1.22%) Redis
11 35 (0.99%) Hadoop
12 29 (0.82%) Couchbase
13 27 (0.76%) SQL Server 2012
14 24 (0.68%) Oracle Database
15 23 (0.65%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 18 (0.51%) Blockchain
17 17 (0.48%) Cosmos DB
17 17 (0.48%) SQL Server 2014
17 17 (0.48%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 16 (0.45%) HBase
Development Applications
1 890 (25.20%) Git (software)
2 287 (8.13%) Jenkins
3 250 (7.08%) webpack
4 244 (6.91%) gulp
4 244 (6.91%) Selenium
5 239 (6.77%) JIRA
6 198 (5.61%) Jasmine
7 165 (4.67%) Mocha
8 126 (3.57%) Grunt
9 113 (3.20%) Karma Test Runner
9 113 (3.20%) Maven
10 91 (2.58%) Cucumber
11 80 (2.27%) Visual Studio
12 77 (2.18%) TeamCity
13 75 (2.12%) Babel
14 74 (2.10%) Subversion
14 74 (2.10%) Visual Studio Team System
15 70 (1.98%) Team Foundation Server
16 68 (1.93%) Gradle
17 64 (1.81%) Gatling
General
1 607 (17.19%) Finance
2 258 (7.30%) Banking
3 217 (6.14%) Retail
4 117 (3.31%) Marketing
5 89 (2.52%) Front Office
6 61 (1.73%) Advertising
6 61 (1.73%) Publishing
7 59 (1.67%) Investment Banking
8 54 (1.53%) Games
9 45 (1.27%) Legal
10 26 (0.74%) Telecoms
11 23 (0.65%) Financial Institution
12 20 (0.57%) Law
13 14 (0.40%) Back Office
14 11 (0.31%) Automotive
15 8 (0.23%) Manufacturing
16 7 (0.20%) Electronics
17 6 (0.17%) Online Betting
18 5 (0.14%) Digital Economy
18 5 (0.14%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 2,918 (82.62%) Developer
2 935 (26.47%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 628 (17.78%) React Developer
4 566 (16.02%) JavaScript Developer
5 360 (10.19%) Angular Developer
6 336 (9.51%) Full Stack Developer
7 288 (8.15%) Senior Developer
8 253 (7.16%) Java Developer
9 239 (6.77%) .NET Developer
10 213 (6.03%) HTML Developer
11 170 (4.81%) C# Developer
12 168 (4.76%) UI Developer
13 164 (4.64%) Designer
14 159 (4.50%) HTML CSS Developer
15 156 (4.42%) Node.js Developer
16 130 (3.68%) PHP Developer
17 126 (3.57%) Web Developer
18 93 (2.63%) Lead Developer
19 86 (2.43%) C# .NET Developer
20 78 (2.21%) UX Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,224 (91.28%) HTML
2 1,465 (41.48%) HTML5
3 1,376 (38.96%) AngularJS
4 1,179 (33.38%) React
5 1,070 (30.29%) CSS3
6 873 (24.72%) Node.js
7 669 (18.94%) Sass
8 663 (18.77%) jQuery
9 507 (14.35%) Redux
10 485 (13.73%) .NET
11 466 (13.19%) REST
12 333 (9.43%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 312 (8.83%) RESTful
14 303 (8.58%) XML
15 276 (7.81%) Web Services
16 267 (7.56%) ASP.NET
17 265 (7.50%) JSON
18 259 (7.33%) Spring
19 223 (6.31%) Ajax
20 196 (5.55%) Angular 2
Miscellaneous
1 604 (17.10%) User Experience
2 223 (6.31%) Greenfield Project
3 213 (6.03%) Analytical Skills
4 207 (5.86%) Fintech
5 160 (4.53%) Mobile App
6 89 (2.52%) Data Structures
7 81 (2.29%) Algorithms
8 64 (1.81%) Self-Motivation
9 45 (1.27%) Enterprise Software
9 45 (1.27%) Fixed Income
10 44 (1.25%) W3C
11 40 (1.13%) Linux Command Line
12 34 (0.96%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 33 (0.93%) Video on Demand
14 27 (0.76%) Graphic Design
14 27 (0.76%) Video\Live Streaming
15 26 (0.74%) Derivative
16 25 (0.71%) Equities
17 23 (0.65%) Fat Client
17 23 (0.65%) Thin Client
Operating Systems
1 210 (5.95%) Linux
2 108 (3.06%) Unix
3 99 (2.80%) Apple iOS
4 89 (2.52%) Windows
5 69 (1.95%) Android
6 23 (0.65%) Windows Server
7 19 (0.54%) VMS
8 11 (0.31%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 10 (0.28%) Mac OS X
10 8 (0.23%) CentOS
10 8 (0.23%) Ubuntu
11 6 (0.17%) Mac OS
12 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
12 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
13 2 (0.057%) Debian
13 2 (0.057%) Windows Phone
14 1 (0.028%) FreeBSD
14 1 (0.028%) Windows 7
14 1 (0.028%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,645 (46.57%) Agile Software Development
2 1,196 (33.86%) Front End Development
3 923 (26.13%) TDD
4 481 (13.62%) BDD
5 472 (13.36%) Web Development
6 455 (12.88%) Test Automation
7 451 (12.77%) MVC
8 414 (11.72%) Scrum
9 369 (10.45%) Continuous Integration
10 358 (10.14%) OO
11 341 (9.65%) Microservices
12 338 (9.57%) DevOps
13 296 (8.38%) Responsive Web Design
14 281 (7.96%) E-Commerce
15 277 (7.84%) Unit Testing
16 251 (7.11%) Software Engineering
17 245 (6.94%) Problem-Solving
18 167 (4.73%) Kanban
19 159 (4.50%) Analytics
20 148 (4.19%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 2,872 (81.31%) JavaScript
2 667 (18.88%) Java
3 534 (15.12%) ES6
4 488 (13.82%) TypeScript
5 478 (13.53%) C#
6 453 (12.83%) SQL
7 297 (8.41%) PHP
8 216 (6.12%) Python
9 143 (4.05%) Java 8
10 81 (2.29%) Go
11 78 (2.21%) Ruby
11 78 (2.21%) T-SQL
12 56 (1.59%) Scala
13 53 (1.50%) ES7
14 44 (1.25%) PL/SQL
15 29 (0.82%) PowerShell
16 28 (0.79%) Bash Shell
17 22 (0.62%) C++
18 21 (0.59%) Perl
19 18 (0.51%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 224 (6.34%) Degree
2 92 (2.60%) Security Cleared
3 70 (1.98%) SC Cleared
4 66 (1.87%) Computer Science Degree
5 21 (0.59%) Numerate Degree
6 9 (0.25%) BPSS Clearance
7 8 (0.23%) ITIL Certification
8 7 (0.20%) Master's Degree
9 6 (0.17%) Microsoft Certification
10 5 (0.14%) CISSP
10 5 (0.14%) SSCP
10 5 (0.14%) Sun Certification
11 3 (0.085%) CTC Cleared
11 3 (0.085%) OCPJP
12 2 (0.057%) ISTQB
13 1 (0.028%) DBS Check
13 1 (0.028%) DV Cleared
13 1 (0.028%) PRINCE2 Certification
13 1 (0.028%) RHCE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 138 (3.91%) QA
2 37 (1.05%) WCAG
3 10 (0.28%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.23%) SLA
5 7 (0.20%) MiFID
6 5 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
6 5 (0.14%) GDPR
7 3 (0.085%) Section 508
7 3 (0.085%) WAI
8 2 (0.057%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 2 (0.057%) PMO
System Software
1 311 (8.81%) Docker
2 7 (0.20%) Virtual Machines
3 6 (0.17%) Active Directory
4 4 (0.11%) HDFS
4 4 (0.11%) Hyper-V
4 4 (0.11%) KVM
4 4 (0.11%) LXC
4 4 (0.11%) VirtualBox
4 4 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
5 3 (0.085%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 1 (0.028%) Gluster
Systems Management
1 108 (3.06%) Kubernetes
2 93 (2.63%) Ansible
3 60 (1.70%) Terraform
4 44 (1.25%) Puppet
5 33 (0.93%) Docker Swarm
6 30 (0.85%) Opscode Chef
7 25 (0.71%) Kibana
8 19 (0.54%) logstash
9 8 (0.23%) Grafana
10 7 (0.20%) Single Sign-On
11 6 (0.17%) Capistrano
11 6 (0.17%) Consul
12 5 (0.14%) Graphite
12 5 (0.14%) Prometheus
13 4 (0.11%) Control-M
13 4 (0.11%) Mesos
13 4 (0.11%) Packer
13 4 (0.11%) ZABBIX
14 3 (0.085%) ITRS Geneos
14 3 (0.085%) Marathon
Vendors
1 184 (5.21%) Microsoft
2 180 (5.10%) Oracle
3 146 (4.13%) Adobe
4 134 (3.79%) Google
5 73 (2.07%) ServiceNow
6 51 (1.44%) Salesforce.com
7 40 (1.13%) Splunk
8 36 (1.02%) IBM
9 30 (0.85%) Sitecore
10 25 (0.71%) hybris
11 22 (0.62%) SAP
12 17 (0.48%) Twitter
13 14 (0.40%) Sybase
14 11 (0.31%) Apple
14 11 (0.31%) Atlassian
14 11 (0.31%) Progress
14 11 (0.31%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
15 10 (0.28%) Nintex
16 9 (0.25%) Citrix
16 9 (0.25%) New Relic