Period
to 20 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
20 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 26 22 17
Rank change year-on-year -4 -5 -6
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,384 3,562 3,857
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 6.66% 7.68% 8.26%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 18.47% 19.54% 22.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,813 2,706 3,036
London median daily rate £495 £475 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.21% - +11.76%
10th Percentile £337 £325 £313
90th Percentile £658 £625 £613
England median daily rate £450 £435 £425
% change year-on-year +3.45% +2.35% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 12 10
London median hourly rate £47.50 £41.00 £27.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +15.85% +51.85% -38.35%
10th Percentile £25.68 £20.24 £20.50
90th Percentile £122.50 £53.75 £29.00
England median hourly rate £36.70 £42.25 £41.25
% change year-on-year -13.14% +2.42% +14.58%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,904 18,225 17,415
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 36.05% 39.30% 37.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,583 13,750 13,299
London median daily rate £525 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.00% +7.53%
10th Percentile £375 £372 £350
90th Percentile £693 £675 £650
England median daily rate £500 £475 £463
% change year-on-year +5.26% +2.70% +8.82%
Number of hourly rates quoted 86 81 104
London median hourly rate £47.83 £40.00 £30.19
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +19.58% +32.52% -24.54%
10th Percentile £19.38 £19.25 £19.13
90th Percentile £78.75 £63.75 £49.63
England median hourly rate £42.50 £41.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year +2.41% +3.75% +6.67%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 20 November 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 20 November 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 20 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -4 516 £500 +5.26% 306
West London -7 95 £400 -11.11% 139
South London +14 79 £425 -5.56% 25
East London +1 32 £500 +11.11% 57
North London +2 8 £450 +12.50% 12
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 20 November 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,174 (91.19%) HTML
2 1,838 (77.10%) JavaScript
3 1,108 (46.48%) Agile Software Development
4 799 (33.52%) React
5 793 (33.26%) AngularJS
6 749 (31.42%) HTML5
7 730 (30.62%) Front End Development
8 606 (25.42%) TDD
9 555 (23.28%) CSS3
10 530 (22.23%) Node.js
11 483 (20.26%) C#
12 479 (20.09%) Git (software)
13 463 (19.42%) .NET
14 438 (18.37%) User Experience
15 399 (16.74%) Finance
16 377 (15.81%) Redux
17 373 (15.65%) Java
18 367 (15.39%) SQL
19 366 (15.35%) Sass
20 355 (14.89%) jQuery
21 350 (14.68%) TypeScript
22 310 (13.00%) SQL Server
23 302 (12.67%) Continuous Integration
24 285 (11.95%) MVC
25 276 (11.58%) Scrum
26 274 (11.49%) Azure
26 274 (11.49%) Web Development
27 263 (11.03%) ES6
28 252 (10.57%) DevOps
29 244 (10.23%) Test Automation

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 175 (7.34%) CMS
2 73 (3.06%) Confluence
2 73 (3.06%) SharePoint
3 57 (2.39%) WordPress
4 50 (2.10%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 44 (1.85%) Drupal
6 42 (1.76%) Apache
7 40 (1.68%) Elasticsearch
7 40 (1.68%) IIS
8 28 (1.17%) Umbraco
9 22 (0.92%) Sitecore CMS
10 18 (0.76%) WebSphere
11 16 (0.67%) Apache Solr
11 16 (0.67%) JBoss
12 14 (0.59%) Moodle
13 13 (0.55%) Magnolia
14 11 (0.46%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 10 (0.42%) EPiServer
15 10 (0.42%) nginx
15 10 (0.42%) Totara
Applications
1 97 (4.07%) Photoshop
2 70 (2.94%) Sketch
3 58 (2.43%) Adobe Illustrator
4 26 (1.09%) InVision
5 25 (1.05%) Adobe XD
6 23 (0.96%) Zeplin
7 22 (0.92%) Microsoft Excel
8 20 (0.84%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 19 (0.80%) Microsoft Office
10 15 (0.63%) InDesign
11 13 (0.55%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 12 (0.50%) Marvel
13 9 (0.38%) Adobe After Effects
14 7 (0.29%) MS Visio
15 5 (0.21%) SketchUp
16 4 (0.17%) Chatbot
16 4 (0.17%) Figma
16 4 (0.17%) UXPin
17 2 (0.084%) InfoPath
18 1 (0.042%) Acrobat
Business Applications
1 26 (1.09%) Magento
2 17 (0.71%) Adobe Campaign
3 15 (0.63%) Shopify
4 14 (0.59%) Dynamics CRM
5 8 (0.34%) Eloqua
6 6 (0.25%) NetSuite
7 4 (0.17%) Distributed Ledger
7 4 (0.17%) R3 Corda
8 3 (0.13%) Visualfiles
9 2 (0.084%) SAP Hybris
10 1 (0.042%) Dynamics AX
10 1 (0.042%) OpenCart
10 1 (0.042%) Payment Gateway
10 1 (0.042%) SDL Web 8
10 1 (0.042%) SessionCam
10 1 (0.042%) WebTrends
10 1 (0.042%) Zen Cart
Cloud Services
1 274 (11.49%) Azure
2 239 (10.03%) AWS
3 111 (4.66%) npm
4 82 (3.44%) GCP
5 78 (3.27%) GitHub
6 65 (2.73%) Serverless
7 45 (1.89%) AWS Lambda
8 43 (1.80%) Power Platform
9 36 (1.51%) Office 365
10 31 (1.30%) Amazon S3
11 28 (1.17%) SaaS
12 27 (1.13%) Adobe Analytics
13 25 (1.05%) Yarn
14 23 (0.96%) Google Analytics
14 23 (0.96%) PaaS
15 20 (0.84%) Amazon SQS
16 18 (0.76%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 18 (0.76%) Amazon EC2
17 13 (0.55%) Cloud Computing
17 13 (0.55%) Heroku
Communications & Networking
1 55 (2.31%) HTTP
2 16 (0.67%) Internet
3 13 (0.55%) Intranet
4 8 (0.34%) SSL
5 7 (0.29%) FTP
6 6 (0.25%) HTTPS
7 5 (0.21%) Firewall
7 5 (0.21%) Reverse Proxy
7 5 (0.21%) SSH
7 5 (0.21%) TCP/IP
8 4 (0.17%) Network Security
8 4 (0.17%) SMTP
9 3 (0.13%) Intrusion Detection
9 3 (0.13%) SMS
9 3 (0.13%) VPN
10 2 (0.084%) DNS
11 1 (0.042%) Cisco ASA
11 1 (0.042%) Cisco ISE
11 1 (0.042%) Extranet
11 1 (0.042%) Unified Communications
Database & Business Intelligence
1 310 (13.00%) SQL Server
2 156 (6.54%) MySQL
3 103 (4.32%) Relational Database
4 102 (4.28%) NoSQL
5 85 (3.57%) PostgreSQL
6 52 (2.18%) MongoDB
7 34 (1.43%) Power BI
8 33 (1.38%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 27 (1.13%) Flink
10 26 (1.09%) QlikView
10 26 (1.09%) SQL Server Analysis Services
11 24 (1.01%) Big Data
12 22 (0.92%) OLAP
13 21 (0.88%) Apache Cassandra
14 19 (0.80%) RDBMS
15 18 (0.76%) Oracle Database
16 15 (0.63%) Blockchain
17 14 (0.59%) Azure SQL Database
17 14 (0.59%) SQL Server 2008
18 13 (0.55%) HBase
Development Applications
1 479 (20.09%) Git (software)
2 203 (8.52%) webpack
3 188 (7.89%) JIRA
4 167 (7.01%) Jenkins
5 148 (6.21%) gulp
6 108 (4.53%) Visual Studio
7 90 (3.78%) Grunt
8 83 (3.48%) Selenium
9 80 (3.36%) Jasmine
10 76 (3.19%) TeamCity
11 66 (2.77%) Team Foundation Server
12 63 (2.64%) Babel
13 54 (2.27%) Karma Test Runner
14 50 (2.10%) Octopus Deploy
15 48 (2.01%) Mocha
16 47 (1.97%) Axure RP
17 41 (1.72%) Cucumber
18 40 (1.68%) Subversion
19 37 (1.55%) Moq
20 33 (1.38%) Maven
General
1 399 (16.74%) Finance
2 177 (7.42%) Marketing
3 137 (5.75%) Retail
4 113 (4.74%) Banking
5 85 (3.57%) Front Office
6 76 (3.19%) Public Sector
7 46 (1.93%) Advertising
7 46 (1.93%) Games
8 44 (1.85%) Investment Banking
9 38 (1.59%) Law
10 28 (1.17%) Publishing
11 23 (0.96%) Telecoms
12 17 (0.71%) Electronics
12 17 (0.71%) Legal
12 17 (0.71%) Police
13 15 (0.63%) Manufacturing
14 8 (0.34%) Multimedia
15 6 (0.25%) Automotive
15 6 (0.25%) Back Office
15 6 (0.25%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 1,889 (79.24%) Developer
2 501 (21.02%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 410 (17.20%) React Developer
4 276 (11.58%) Full Stack Developer
5 257 (10.78%) JavaScript Developer
6 218 (9.14%) Angular Developer
7 196 (8.22%) Senior Developer
8 160 (6.71%) C# Developer
9 136 (5.70%) Designer
10 132 (5.54%) UI Developer
11 123 (5.16%) .NET Developer
12 114 (4.78%) HTML Developer
13 107 (4.49%) Java Developer
14 89 (3.73%) UX Designer
15 88 (3.69%) Node.js Developer
16 86 (3.61%) Web Developer
17 83 (3.48%) HTML CSS Developer
18 66 (2.77%) PHP Developer
19 58 (2.43%) Architect
19 58 (2.43%) UI Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,174 (91.19%) HTML
2 799 (33.52%) React
3 793 (33.26%) AngularJS
4 749 (31.42%) HTML5
5 555 (23.28%) CSS3
6 530 (22.23%) Node.js
7 463 (19.42%) .NET
8 377 (15.81%) Redux
9 366 (15.35%) Sass
10 355 (14.89%) jQuery
11 240 (10.07%) Twitter Bootstrap
12 236 (9.90%) RESTful
13 234 (9.82%) ASP.NET
14 224 (9.40%) REST
15 222 (9.31%) Vue.js
16 179 (7.51%) Web Services
17 170 (7.13%) JSON
18 148 (6.21%) XML
19 143 (6.00%) Spring
20 131 (5.49%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 438 (18.37%) User Experience
2 165 (6.92%) Analytical Skills
3 121 (5.08%) Greenfield Project
4 97 (4.07%) Hedge funds
5 84 (3.52%) Mobile App
6 65 (2.73%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 62 (2.60%) W3C
8 57 (2.39%) Equities
9 46 (1.93%) Enterprise Software
10 28 (1.17%) Social Media
11 25 (1.05%) Data Structures
11 25 (1.05%) Virtual Team
12 23 (0.96%) Digital Media
13 22 (0.92%) Algorithms
14 21 (0.88%) e-Learning
14 21 (0.88%) Linux Command Line
15 18 (0.76%) Derivative
15 18 (0.76%) Fixed Income
16 17 (0.71%) Graphic Design
16 17 (0.71%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 138 (5.79%) Linux
2 61 (2.56%) Windows
3 40 (1.68%) Unix
4 36 (1.51%) Apple iOS
5 25 (1.05%) Android
6 12 (0.50%) Mac OS
7 10 (0.42%) Mac OS X
7 10 (0.42%) Windows 10
8 7 (0.29%) Ubuntu
8 7 (0.29%) Windows Server
9 5 (0.21%) Windows Server 2012
10 3 (0.13%) CentOS
10 3 (0.13%) Windows Server 2008
11 2 (0.084%) Solaris
11 2 (0.084%) VMS
12 1 (0.042%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 1 (0.042%) tvOS
12 1 (0.042%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,108 (46.48%) Agile Software Development
2 730 (30.62%) Front End Development
3 606 (25.42%) TDD
4 302 (12.67%) Continuous Integration
5 285 (11.95%) MVC
6 276 (11.58%) Scrum
7 274 (11.49%) Web Development
8 252 (10.57%) DevOps
9 244 (10.23%) Test Automation
10 217 (9.10%) OO
11 214 (8.98%) Microservices
12 211 (8.85%) BDD
13 203 (8.52%) E-Commerce
14 155 (6.50%) Problem-Solving
15 145 (6.08%) Analytics
16 131 (5.49%) Unit Testing
17 128 (5.37%) Wireframes
18 116 (4.87%) Responsive Web Design
19 112 (4.70%) Software Engineering
20 109 (4.57%) OOP
Programming Languages
1 1,838 (77.10%) JavaScript
2 483 (20.26%) C#
3 373 (15.65%) Java
4 367 (15.39%) SQL
5 350 (14.68%) TypeScript
6 263 (11.03%) ES6
7 188 (7.89%) Python
8 159 (6.67%) PHP
9 131 (5.49%) Ruby
10 66 (2.77%) PowerShell
11 56 (2.35%) Scala
12 43 (1.80%) Java 8
13 37 (1.55%) T-SQL
14 35 (1.47%) ES7
15 16 (0.67%) Go
15 16 (0.67%) Perl
15 16 (0.67%) PL/SQL
16 15 (0.63%) Kotlin
17 14 (0.59%) C++
18 12 (0.50%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 131 (5.49%) Degree
2 113 (4.74%) Security Cleared
3 84 (3.52%) SC Cleared
4 32 (1.34%) Computer Science Degree
5 17 (0.71%) Master's Degree
6 13 (0.55%) BPSS Clearance
7 6 (0.25%) DBS Check
8 4 (0.17%) A+ Certification
8 4 (0.17%) BC Cleared
8 4 (0.17%) Microsoft Certification
9 3 (0.13%) CTC Cleared
10 2 (0.084%) Cisco Certification
10 2 (0.084%) DV Cleared
11 1 (0.042%) CCIE
11 1 (0.042%) CCNP
11 1 (0.042%) ITIL Certification
11 1 (0.042%) MCSD
11 1 (0.042%) MCSE
11 1 (0.042%) PMI Certification
11 1 (0.042%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 92 (3.86%) WCAG
2 90 (3.78%) QA
3 6 (0.25%) GDPR
4 5 (0.21%) WAI
5 3 (0.13%) PMO
5 3 (0.13%) SLA
6 2 (0.084%) MiFID
6 2 (0.084%) Section 508
7 1 (0.042%) Data Quality
7 1 (0.042%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.042%) PCI DSS
7 1 (0.042%) PSD2
System Software
1 168 (7.05%) Docker
2 14 (0.59%) Virtual Machines
3 8 (0.34%) Active Directory
4 2 (0.084%) HDFS
5 1 (0.042%) GridGain
5 1 (0.042%) VMware Infrastructure
5 1 (0.042%) XenApp
5 1 (0.042%) zsh
Systems Management
1 76 (3.19%) Kubernetes
2 21 (0.88%) Terraform
3 16 (0.67%) Ansible
4 9 (0.38%) Puppet
5 6 (0.25%) Docker Swarm
5 6 (0.25%) Kibana
5 6 (0.25%) MIIS
5 6 (0.25%) Opscode Chef
5 6 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
6 5 (0.21%) Hadoop YARN
7 4 (0.17%) Grafana
8 2 (0.084%) Control-M
8 2 (0.084%) HP Quality Center
9 1 (0.042%) Matomo
9 1 (0.042%) McAfee ePO
9 1 (0.042%) SCCM
9 1 (0.042%) TeamSite
Vendors
1 209 (8.77%) Microsoft
2 128 (5.37%) Adobe
3 97 (4.07%) Oracle
4 93 (3.90%) Google
5 45 (1.89%) Atlassian
6 40 (1.68%) Sitecore
7 38 (1.59%) ServiceNow
8 32 (1.34%) Remedy
9 27 (1.13%) Tableau
10 26 (1.09%) MicroStrategy
11 25 (1.05%) hybris
12 24 (1.01%) Cognos
12 24 (1.01%) Salesforce.com
13 22 (0.92%) IBM
14 19 (0.80%) Vermilion
15 18 (0.76%) SAP
16 14 (0.59%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 11 (0.46%) Optimizely
18 8 (0.34%) HubSpot
18 8 (0.34%) Perforce