Period
to 22 October 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 22 October 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
22 Oct 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 21 16 11
Rank change year-on-year -5 -5 +5
Contract jobs citing CSS 3,638 3,826 4,487
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 7.88% 8.49% 10.13%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 20.01% 22.89% 29.32%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,762 2,990 3,445
London median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £625 £600 £588
England median daily rate £425 £425 £400
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 6 20
London median hourly rate £39.75 £20.44 £45.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +94.52% -55.09% +105.74%
10th Percentile £30.13 £14.00 £20.72
90th Percentile £63.45 £28.75 £195.00
England median hourly rate £42.25 £40.00 £36.50
% change year-on-year +5.63% +9.59% +16.09%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 18,181 16,715 15,303
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 39.37% 37.09% 34.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 13,686 12,701 11,459
London median daily rate £525 £500 £455
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +9.89% +1.11%
10th Percentile £375 £350 £313
90th Percentile £675 £650 £625
England median daily rate £475 £450 £425
% change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +4.82%
Number of hourly rates quoted 79 86 68
London median hourly rate £43.50 £30.19 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +44.11% -28.98% +25.00%
10th Percentile £19.93 £18.25 £19.00
90th Percentile £72.12 £49.38 £82.93
England median hourly rate £41.77 £40.00 £37.50
% change year-on-year +4.41% +6.67% +1.24%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 22 October 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 22 October 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 22 October 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -7 739 £475 - 340
West London -7 149 £450 +5.88% 177
South London +2 122 £450 +2.86% 35
East London -5 70 £438 - 81
North London 0 16 £401 +14.64% 13
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 22 October 2018, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 3,353 (92.17%) HTML
2 2,993 (82.27%) JavaScript
3 1,716 (47.17%) Agile Software Development
4 1,528 (42.00%) HTML5
5 1,375 (37.80%) AngularJS
6 1,214 (33.37%) Front End Development
7 1,157 (31.80%) CSS3
8 1,146 (31.50%) React
9 916 (25.18%) Git (software)
10 902 (24.79%) TDD
11 874 (24.02%) Node.js
12 731 (20.09%) Sass
13 698 (19.19%) jQuery
14 678 (18.64%) Java
15 669 (18.39%) User Experience
16 634 (17.43%) Finance
17 553 (15.20%) Redux
18 546 (15.01%) ES6
19 527 (14.49%) Web Development
20 510 (14.02%) C#
21 498 (13.69%) .NET
22 475 (13.06%) MVC
23 474 (13.03%) REST
24 469 (12.89%) TypeScript
25 452 (12.42%) Scrum
26 447 (12.29%) SQL
27 442 (12.15%) BDD
28 418 (11.49%) Test Automation
29 379 (10.42%) OO
30 375 (10.31%) Continuous Integration

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 209 (5.74%) CMS
2 108 (2.97%) WordPress
3 90 (2.47%) Elasticsearch
4 89 (2.45%) Confluence
5 82 (2.25%) SharePoint
6 76 (2.09%) Drupal
7 58 (1.59%) Apache
8 53 (1.46%) Umbraco
9 45 (1.24%) IIS
10 38 (1.04%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 32 (0.88%) Sitecore CMS
12 30 (0.82%) Tomcat
13 26 (0.71%) Apache Spark
14 24 (0.66%) WebSphere
15 22 (0.60%) Gunicorn
16 21 (0.58%) Cloud Foundry
16 21 (0.58%) IBM Domino
16 21 (0.58%) OpenStack
17 18 (0.49%) SharePoint 2010
18 15 (0.41%) CoreMedia CMS
Applications
1 153 (4.21%) Photoshop
2 55 (1.51%) InVision
3 45 (1.24%) Adobe Illustrator
4 31 (0.85%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 27 (0.74%) Fireworks
6 15 (0.41%) InDesign
6 15 (0.41%) InfoPath
7 13 (0.36%) Adobe After Effects
8 11 (0.30%) OmniGraffle
9 8 (0.22%) Chatbot
9 8 (0.22%) Microsoft Excel
10 6 (0.16%) Microsoft Office
11 4 (0.11%) Acrobat
12 3 (0.082%) HipChat
13 2 (0.055%) Adobe Premiere
13 2 (0.055%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 2 (0.055%) MS Visio
14 1 (0.027%) GIMP
14 1 (0.027%) Microsoft Project
14 1 (0.027%) SketchUp
Business Applications
1 33 (0.91%) Magento
2 11 (0.30%) ION MarketView
3 10 (0.27%) Adobe Campaign
4 8 (0.22%) Dynamics CRM
4 8 (0.22%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 7 (0.19%) Payment Gateway
6 6 (0.16%) Shopify
7 5 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
8 4 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
8 4 (0.11%) SDL Web 8
9 3 (0.082%) Unica
10 2 (0.055%) Dynamics NAV
10 2 (0.055%) Eloqua
10 2 (0.055%) Endur
11 1 (0.027%) LatentZero
11 1 (0.027%) Minerva
11 1 (0.027%) OpenCart
11 1 (0.027%) Oracle Applications
11 1 (0.027%) ScheduALL
11 1 (0.027%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 354 (9.73%) Amazon AWS
2 301 (8.27%) Microsoft Azure
3 143 (3.93%) GitHub
4 131 (3.60%) npm
5 103 (2.83%) Serverless
6 68 (1.87%) AWS Lambda
7 64 (1.76%) Google Cloud Platform
8 60 (1.65%) Heroku
9 47 (1.29%) SaaS
10 32 (0.88%) PaaS
11 27 (0.74%) Adobe Creative Cloud
12 26 (0.71%) Office 365
13 21 (0.58%) Amazon SQS
13 21 (0.58%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
14 20 (0.55%) Amazon EC2
15 16 (0.44%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 15 (0.41%) Google Analytics
16 15 (0.41%) IaaS
17 14 (0.38%) Amazon S3
17 14 (0.38%) BrowserStack
Communications & Networking
1 178 (4.89%) HTTP
2 57 (1.57%) Internet
3 36 (0.99%) Intranet
3 36 (0.99%) SSL
4 35 (0.96%) FTP
5 33 (0.91%) TCP/IP
6 31 (0.85%) DNS
7 15 (0.41%) Firewall
8 13 (0.36%) SMS
9 11 (0.30%) HTTPS
10 7 (0.19%) LAN
10 7 (0.19%) RTMP
11 6 (0.16%) SSH
12 5 (0.14%) SMTP
13 4 (0.11%) BIG-IP
13 4 (0.11%) NetScaler
14 3 (0.082%) Kerberos
14 3 (0.082%) Network Security
15 2 (0.055%) Ethernet
15 2 (0.055%) VPN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 337 (9.26%) MySQL
2 274 (7.53%) SQL Server
3 220 (6.05%) Relational Database
4 185 (5.09%) PostgreSQL
5 174 (4.78%) MongoDB
6 132 (3.63%) NoSQL
7 61 (1.68%) Big Data
8 60 (1.65%) RDBMS
9 44 (1.21%) Redis
10 43 (1.18%) Apache Cassandra
11 36 (0.99%) SQL Server 2012
12 29 (0.80%) Hadoop
13 26 (0.71%) Couchbase
13 26 (0.71%) Oracle Database
14 22 (0.60%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 22 (0.60%) Blockchain
15 20 (0.55%) SQL Server 2014
16 17 (0.47%) HBase
16 17 (0.47%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 15 (0.41%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 916 (25.18%) Git (software)
2 287 (7.89%) webpack
3 266 (7.31%) gulp
4 254 (6.98%) JIRA
5 253 (6.95%) Jenkins
6 235 (6.46%) Selenium
7 220 (6.05%) Jasmine
8 158 (4.34%) Grunt
9 153 (4.21%) Mocha
10 127 (3.49%) Karma Test Runner
11 101 (2.78%) Maven
12 94 (2.58%) Babel
13 91 (2.50%) Cucumber
14 90 (2.47%) Visual Studio
15 82 (2.25%) Subversion
15 82 (2.25%) TeamCity
16 72 (1.98%) Team Foundation Server
17 60 (1.65%) Protractor
18 59 (1.62%) JUnit
19 57 (1.57%) Gatling
General
1 634 (17.43%) Finance
2 309 (8.49%) Banking
3 246 (6.76%) Retail
4 119 (3.27%) Marketing
5 94 (2.58%) Front Office
6 84 (2.31%) Investment Banking
7 64 (1.76%) Advertising
8 57 (1.57%) Games
9 46 (1.26%) Legal
10 43 (1.18%) Publishing
11 28 (0.77%) Law
12 27 (0.74%) Telecoms
13 24 (0.66%) Financial Institution
14 18 (0.49%) Back Office
15 7 (0.19%) Music Industry
16 6 (0.16%) Electronics
16 6 (0.16%) Manufacturing
17 5 (0.14%) Multimedia
17 5 (0.14%) Online Betting
17 5 (0.14%) Prime Brokerage
Job Titles
1 3,013 (82.82%) Developer
2 969 (26.64%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 604 (16.60%) React Developer
4 574 (15.78%) JavaScript Developer
5 349 (9.59%) Angular Developer
6 320 (8.80%) Full Stack Developer
7 306 (8.41%) Senior Developer
8 255 (7.01%) .NET Developer
9 241 (6.62%) Java Developer
10 232 (6.38%) HTML Developer
11 207 (5.69%) UI Developer
12 182 (5.00%) C# Developer
12 182 (5.00%) Designer
12 182 (5.00%) HTML CSS Developer
13 152 (4.18%) Web Developer
14 144 (3.96%) Node.js Developer
15 133 (3.66%) PHP Developer
16 106 (2.91%) C# .NET Developer
17 99 (2.72%) Lead Developer
18 89 (2.45%) UX Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,353 (92.17%) HTML
2 1,528 (42.00%) HTML5
3 1,375 (37.80%) AngularJS
4 1,157 (31.80%) CSS3
5 1,146 (31.50%) React
6 874 (24.02%) Node.js
7 731 (20.09%) Sass
8 698 (19.19%) jQuery
9 553 (15.20%) Redux
10 498 (13.69%) .NET
11 474 (13.03%) REST
12 327 (8.99%) RESTful
13 323 (8.88%) XML
14 300 (8.25%) Web Services
15 295 (8.11%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 291 (8.00%) JSON
17 284 (7.81%) ASP.NET
18 249 (6.84%) Ajax
19 239 (6.57%) Angular 2
20 238 (6.54%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 669 (18.39%) User Experience
2 252 (6.93%) Greenfield Project
3 213 (5.85%) Fintech
4 187 (5.14%) Mobile App
5 178 (4.89%) Analytical Skills
6 142 (3.90%) Computer Science
7 99 (2.72%) Data Structures
8 86 (2.36%) Algorithms
9 59 (1.62%) Fixed Income
10 55 (1.51%) Self-Motivation
11 49 (1.35%) W3C
12 45 (1.24%) Enterprise Software
13 40 (1.10%) Linux Command Line
14 36 (0.99%) Derivative
15 35 (0.96%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 33 (0.91%) Video on Demand
17 28 (0.77%) Social Media
18 25 (0.69%) Video\Live Streaming
19 23 (0.63%) Graphic Design
20 21 (0.58%) Equities
Operating Systems
1 223 (6.13%) Linux
2 128 (3.52%) Apple iOS
3 96 (2.64%) Unix
4 95 (2.61%) Android
5 83 (2.28%) Windows
6 24 (0.66%) Windows Server
7 13 (0.36%) VMS
8 11 (0.30%) Mac OS X
8 11 (0.30%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 9 (0.25%) Mac OS
10 7 (0.19%) CentOS
10 7 (0.19%) Ubuntu
11 4 (0.11%) Windows 7
11 4 (0.11%) Windows 8
11 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
11 4 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
12 1 (0.027%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,716 (47.17%) Agile Software Development
2 1,214 (33.37%) Front End Development
3 902 (24.79%) TDD
4 527 (14.49%) Web Development
5 475 (13.06%) MVC
6 452 (12.42%) Scrum
7 442 (12.15%) BDD
8 418 (11.49%) Test Automation
9 379 (10.42%) OO
10 375 (10.31%) Continuous Integration
11 307 (8.44%) DevOps
12 302 (8.30%) Microservices
13 297 (8.16%) E-Commerce
14 288 (7.92%) Responsive Web Design
15 280 (7.70%) Unit Testing
16 274 (7.53%) Problem-Solving
17 272 (7.48%) Software Engineering
18 179 (4.92%) Open Source
19 176 (4.84%) Analytics
20 172 (4.73%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 2,993 (82.27%) JavaScript
2 678 (18.64%) Java
3 546 (15.01%) ES6
4 510 (14.02%) C#
5 469 (12.89%) TypeScript
6 447 (12.29%) SQL
7 308 (8.47%) PHP
8 235 (6.46%) Python
9 120 (3.30%) Java 8
10 84 (2.31%) Ruby
11 68 (1.87%) Go
12 67 (1.84%) ES7
12 67 (1.84%) T-SQL
13 57 (1.57%) Scala
14 38 (1.04%) PL/SQL
15 33 (0.91%) PowerShell
16 27 (0.74%) C++
17 26 (0.71%) Apple Swift
18 25 (0.69%) Perl
19 22 (0.60%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 223 (6.13%) Degree
2 130 (3.57%) Security Cleared
3 108 (2.97%) SC Cleared
4 77 (2.12%) Computer Science Degree
5 16 (0.44%) ITIL Certification
6 10 (0.27%) BPSS Clearance
7 9 (0.25%) CTC Cleared
8 7 (0.19%) Microsoft Certification
9 5 (0.14%) CISSP
9 5 (0.14%) SSCP
10 4 (0.11%) Master's Degree
11 3 (0.082%) OCPJP
11 3 (0.082%) PMI Certification
12 2 (0.055%) CCSA
12 2 (0.055%) DBS Check
12 2 (0.055%) ISTQB
12 2 (0.055%) RHCE
12 2 (0.055%) Sun Certification
13 1 (0.027%) DV Cleared
13 1 (0.027%) Numerate Degree
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 163 (4.48%) QA
2 26 (0.71%) WCAG
3 15 (0.41%) Data Quality
4 12 (0.33%) GDPR
4 12 (0.33%) SLA
5 8 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
5 8 (0.22%) MiFID
6 4 (0.11%) WAI
7 3 (0.082%) PMBOK
8 2 (0.055%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 2 (0.055%) PCI DSS
8 2 (0.055%) PMO
System Software
1 300 (8.25%) Docker
2 8 (0.22%) HDFS
2 8 (0.22%) Virtual Machines
3 5 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
4 4 (0.11%) Active Directory
4 4 (0.11%) Hyper-V
4 4 (0.11%) KVM
4 4 (0.11%) LXC
4 4 (0.11%) VirtualBox
5 2 (0.055%) etcd
5 2 (0.055%) flannel
6 1 (0.027%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 1 (0.027%) Gluster
Systems Management
1 95 (2.61%) Kubernetes
2 68 (1.87%) Ansible
3 48 (1.32%) Terraform
4 46 (1.26%) Puppet
5 33 (0.91%) Docker Swarm
6 26 (0.71%) Opscode Chef
7 18 (0.49%) Kibana
8 13 (0.36%) logstash
9 11 (0.30%) Mesos
10 6 (0.16%) Capistrano
10 6 (0.16%) Single Sign-On
11 5 (0.14%) Marathon
12 4 (0.11%) Packer
13 3 (0.082%) CA Single Sign-On
13 3 (0.082%) CASB
13 3 (0.082%) Grafana
13 3 (0.082%) Prometheus
14 2 (0.055%) Consul
14 2 (0.055%) Matomo
14 2 (0.055%) rkt
Vendors
1 180 (4.95%) Adobe
2 158 (4.34%) Microsoft
3 155 (4.26%) Oracle
4 115 (3.16%) Google
5 73 (2.01%) ServiceNow
6 61 (1.68%) Salesforce.com
7 39 (1.07%) Sitecore
8 36 (0.99%) IBM
9 34 (0.93%) Splunk
10 32 (0.88%) hybris
11 27 (0.74%) SAP
12 24 (0.66%) Twitter
13 17 (0.47%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 16 (0.44%) Apple
15 15 (0.41%) Zend
16 11 (0.30%) Atlassian
16 11 (0.30%) ION Trading
16 11 (0.30%) Progress
16 11 (0.30%) Sybase
17 9 (0.25%) Citrix