Period
to 27 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 27 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
27 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 53 53 29
Rank change year-on-year 0 -24 -3
Contract jobs citing CSS 1,663 865 1,946
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 4.42% 4.82% 6.54%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.69% 13.35% 18.36%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,295 604 1,444
10th Percentile £363 £314 £338
25th Percentile £456 £406 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £475 £500
Median % change year-on-year +15.79% -5.00% +4.17%
75th Percentile £675 £575 £575
90th Percentile £750 £650 £675
England median daily rate £513 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +13.89% - -
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 11 17
10th Percentile £38.75 £32.48 £25.41
25th Percentile £52.38 £35.63 £25.68
Median hourly rate £63.75 £42.00 £36.70
Median % change year-on-year +51.79% +14.44% -9.38%
75th Percentile £69.93 £49.50 £52.50
90th Percentile £74.26 £54.00 -
England median hourly rate £55.00 £38.25 £36.70
% change year-on-year +43.79% +4.22% -11.35%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,149 6,478 10,598
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 32.31% 36.13% 35.62%
Number of daily rates quoted 9,366 4,845 7,939
10th Percentile £413 £360 £375
25th Percentile £500 £425 £440
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +14.29% - -
75th Percentile £695 £613 £613
90th Percentile £775 £700 £700
England median daily rate £550 £488 £500
% change year-on-year +12.82% -2.50% +1.01%
Number of hourly rates quoted 65 28 52
10th Percentile £20.89 £23.88 £25.68
25th Percentile £35.00 £32.03 £36.70
Median hourly rate £55.00 £45.00 £48.34
Median % change year-on-year +22.22% -6.91% +20.85%
75th Percentile £71.00 £54.25 £53.83
90th Percentile £80.50 £62.65 £78.75
England median hourly rate £49.75 £45.00 £46.40
% change year-on-year +10.56% -3.02% +10.68%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 27 January 2022.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 27 January 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 27 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
Central London +9 203 £525 +5.00% 175
South London -17 23 £500 +8.11% 14
West London -21 19 £500 -11.11% 55
East London -10 3 £400 +39.13% 52
North London +1 2 £475 +26.67% 7
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 27 January 2022, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 1,455 (87.49%) HTML
2 1,349 (81.12%) JavaScript
3 777 (46.72%) React
4 773 (46.48%) Agile Software Development
5 513 (30.85%) HTML5
6 507 (30.49%) AngularJS
6 507 (30.49%) TypeScript
7 455 (27.36%) Front End Development
8 388 (23.33%) CSS3
9 358 (21.53%) Node.js
10 353 (21.23%) Finance
11 351 (21.11%) Git (software)
12 347 (20.87%) Full Stack Development
13 337 (20.26%) C#
14 332 (19.96%) .NET
15 330 (19.84%) CI/CD
16 327 (19.66%) DevOps
17 326 (19.60%) User Experience
18 315 (18.94%) Azure
19 310 (18.64%) Java
20 301 (18.10%) TDD
21 296 (17.80%) Social Skills
22 286 (17.20%) SQL
23 282 (16.96%) Sass
24 250 (15.03%) REST
25 239 (14.37%) Scrum
26 228 (13.71%) AWS
27 219 (13.17%) Web Development
27 219 (13.17%) Redux
28 212 (12.75%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 120 (7.22%) CMS
2 52 (3.13%) SharePoint
3 40 (2.41%) Confluence
4 38 (2.29%) Elasticsearch
5 35 (2.10%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 35 (2.10%) IIS
6 21 (1.26%) Apache
6 21 (1.26%) WordPress
7 19 (1.14%) Drupal
8 17 (1.02%) Headless CMS
9 15 (0.90%) Tomcat
10 13 (0.78%) SharePoint 2013
11 11 (0.66%) Sitecore CMS
11 11 (0.66%) Umbraco
12 10 (0.60%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 9 (0.54%) JBoss
14 8 (0.48%) Appian
15 7 (0.42%) EPiServer
15 7 (0.42%) WebLogic
16 6 (0.36%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 36 (2.16%) Sketch
2 21 (1.26%) InVision
3 15 (0.90%) Adobe XD
3 15 (0.90%) Photoshop
4 14 (0.84%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 10 (0.60%) Adobe Illustrator
6 8 (0.48%) Zeplin
7 5 (0.30%) OmniGraffle
8 4 (0.24%) Chatbot
8 4 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
9 2 (0.12%) Microsoft Excel
9 2 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
9 2 (0.12%) MS Visio
9 2 (0.12%) Notepad++
10 1 (0.060%) Adobe After Effects
10 1 (0.060%) Adobe Premiere
10 1 (0.060%) GIMP
10 1 (0.060%) InDesign
10 1 (0.060%) Microsoft Project
10 1 (0.060%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 29 (1.74%) Shopify
2 11 (0.66%) Magento
3 10 (0.60%) Payment Gateway
4 9 (0.54%) Dynamics CRM
5 4 (0.24%) Oracle ERP
6 3 (0.18%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.18%) Temenos T24
7 2 (0.12%) Adobe Campaign
7 2 (0.12%) WebTrends
8 1 (0.060%) Dynamics AX
8 1 (0.060%) Eloqua
8 1 (0.060%) Oracle Applications
8 1 (0.060%) Oracle BPM
8 1 (0.060%) Oracle EBS
8 1 (0.060%) SAP CRM
8 1 (0.060%) SAP Oil and Gas
8 1 (0.060%) Social Studio
Cloud Services
1 315 (18.94%) Azure
2 228 (13.71%) AWS
3 112 (6.73%) GitHub
4 89 (5.35%) npm
5 56 (3.37%) Serverless
6 51 (3.07%) SaaS
7 50 (3.01%) Power Platform
8 48 (2.89%) PaaS
9 41 (2.47%) GCP
10 38 (2.29%) Yarn
11 35 (2.10%) Google Analytics
12 30 (1.80%) Azure Active Directory
13 29 (1.74%) IaaS
14 25 (1.50%) PowerApps
15 24 (1.44%) Azure Functions
15 24 (1.44%) Microsoft 365
16 23 (1.38%) AWS Lambda
17 22 (1.32%) Azure Service Bus
17 22 (1.32%) Figma
18 21 (1.26%) Power Automate
Communications & Networking
1 37 (2.22%) Internet
2 34 (2.04%) HTTP
3 28 (1.68%) RTMP
4 18 (1.08%) DNS
5 16 (0.96%) Intranet
6 12 (0.72%) HTTPS
7 9 (0.54%) Firewall
8 8 (0.48%) DMZ
9 7 (0.42%) Broadband
10 5 (0.30%) TCP/IP
11 4 (0.24%) Network Security
12 3 (0.18%) SSL
13 2 (0.12%) Extranet
13 2 (0.12%) SSH
13 2 (0.12%) VPN
14 1 (0.060%) BGP
14 1 (0.060%) EIGRP
14 1 (0.060%) MPLS
14 1 (0.060%) OSPF
14 1 (0.060%) RTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 188 (11.30%) SQL Server
2 125 (7.52%) Relational Database
3 103 (6.19%) MySQL
4 67 (4.03%) MongoDB
4 67 (4.03%) NoSQL
5 66 (3.97%) PostgreSQL
6 26 (1.56%) Power BI
7 24 (1.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 22 (1.32%) Redis
9 18 (1.08%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 16 (0.96%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 15 (0.90%) RDBMS
12 13 (0.78%) Data Warehouse
13 12 (0.72%) Big Data
14 11 (0.66%) SQL Server 2016
15 10 (0.60%) Oracle Database
16 9 (0.54%) Amazon RDS
16 9 (0.54%) Azure SQL Database
16 9 (0.54%) Couchbase
16 9 (0.54%) SQL Server 2019
Development Applications
1 351 (21.11%) Git (software)
2 151 (9.08%) webpack
3 146 (8.78%) Jenkins
4 121 (7.28%) JIRA
5 68 (4.09%) Jasmine
6 63 (3.79%) Maven
6 63 (3.79%) Selenium
7 62 (3.73%) Bitbucket
8 60 (3.61%) Grunt
8 60 (3.61%) TeamCity
9 59 (3.55%) Cypress.io
10 58 (3.49%) gulp
11 57 (3.43%) Mocha
12 52 (3.13%) GitLab
13 50 (3.01%) Cucumber
14 36 (2.16%) JUnit
14 36 (2.16%) Karma Test Runner
15 33 (1.98%) Storybook
16 26 (1.56%) SonarQube
17 25 (1.50%) rollup.js
General
1 353 (21.23%) Finance
2 296 (17.80%) Social Skills
3 186 (11.18%) Banking
4 107 (6.43%) Front Office
5 98 (5.89%) Investment Banking
6 95 (5.71%) Analytical Skills
7 84 (5.05%) Marketing
8 59 (3.55%) Public Sector
9 53 (3.19%) Retail
10 47 (2.83%) Presentation Skills
11 28 (1.68%) Publishing
12 21 (1.26%) Pharmaceutical
13 15 (0.90%) Documentation Skills
13 15 (0.90%) Games
13 15 (0.90%) Telecoms
14 12 (0.72%) Advertising
14 12 (0.72%) Financial Institution
14 12 (0.72%) Manufacturing
15 11 (0.66%) Back Office
15 11 (0.66%) Organisational Skills
Job Titles
1 1,265 (76.07%) Developer
2 311 (18.70%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 234 (14.07%) React Developer
4 188 (11.30%) Full Stack Developer
5 172 (10.34%) JavaScript Developer
6 170 (10.22%) Senior Developer
7 119 (7.16%) Angular Developer
8 96 (5.77%) .NET Developer
9 93 (5.59%) UI Developer
10 87 (5.23%) Java Developer
11 76 (4.57%) HTML Developer
12 74 (4.45%) Designer
13 58 (3.49%) Python Developer
14 53 (3.19%) Lead Developer
14 53 (3.19%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 52 (3.13%) C# Developer
16 47 (2.83%) PHP Developer
17 44 (2.65%) Architect
17 44 (2.65%) Software Engineer
18 38 (2.29%) UX Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,455 (87.49%) HTML
2 777 (46.72%) React
3 513 (30.85%) HTML5
4 507 (30.49%) AngularJS
5 388 (23.33%) CSS3
6 358 (21.53%) Node.js
7 332 (19.96%) .NET
8 282 (16.96%) Sass
9 250 (15.03%) REST
10 219 (13.17%) Redux
11 212 (12.75%) Web Services
12 185 (11.12%) RESTful
13 156 (9.38%) jQuery
14 155 (9.32%) JSON
15 144 (8.66%) Vue.js
16 127 (7.64%) XML
17 117 (7.04%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 108 (6.49%) .NET Core
18 108 (6.49%) Jest
19 99 (5.95%) LESS
Miscellaneous
1 326 (19.60%) User Experience
2 71 (4.27%) Greenfield Project
3 59 (3.55%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 44 (2.65%) Mobile App
5 37 (2.22%) Enterprise Software
6 35 (2.10%) Data Protection Act
7 33 (1.98%) Cloud Native
8 28 (1.68%) Data Structures
9 27 (1.62%) Equities
10 23 (1.38%) Algorithms
11 22 (1.32%) Virtual Team
12 20 (1.20%) Derivative
12 20 (1.20%) Public Cloud
13 18 (1.08%) Social Media
14 17 (1.02%) Self-Motivation
15 16 (0.96%) Management Information System
16 11 (0.66%) Animation
16 11 (0.66%) e-Learning
16 11 (0.66%) Fixed Income
16 11 (0.66%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 101 (6.07%) Linux
2 80 (4.81%) Unix
3 54 (3.25%) Windows
4 16 (0.96%) Android
4 16 (0.96%) Mac OS
5 14 (0.84%) Apple iOS
5 14 (0.84%) Windows Server
6 11 (0.66%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 5 (0.30%) Ubuntu
8 3 (0.18%) Solaris
9 2 (0.12%) AIX
9 2 (0.12%) Fedora
9 2 (0.12%) Windows Server 2008
10 1 (0.060%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 773 (46.48%) Agile Software Development
2 455 (27.36%) Front End Development
3 347 (20.87%) Full Stack Development
4 330 (19.84%) CI/CD
5 327 (19.66%) DevOps
6 301 (18.10%) TDD
7 239 (14.37%) Scrum
8 219 (13.17%) Web Development
9 211 (12.69%) Problem-Solving
10 202 (12.15%) Test Automation
11 182 (10.94%) Microservices
12 176 (10.58%) Software Engineering
13 166 (9.98%) Continuous Integration
14 146 (8.78%) UX Design
15 143 (8.60%) SDLC
16 139 (8.36%) MVC
17 136 (8.18%) Unit Testing
18 129 (7.76%) Analytics
19 120 (7.22%) OO
20 118 (7.10%) Responsive Web Design
Programming Languages
1 1,349 (81.12%) JavaScript
2 507 (30.49%) TypeScript
3 337 (20.26%) C#
4 310 (18.64%) Java
5 286 (17.20%) SQL
6 196 (11.79%) Python
7 168 (10.10%) ES6
8 129 (7.76%) PHP
9 54 (3.25%) Ruby
10 32 (1.92%) PowerShell
11 30 (1.80%) T-SQL
12 28 (1.68%) Java 8
12 28 (1.68%) Scala
12 28 (1.68%) XAML
13 21 (1.26%) Bash
14 18 (1.08%) Java 11
15 17 (1.02%) C
16 13 (0.78%) Kotlin
16 13 (0.78%) Shell Script
17 11 (0.66%) Go
Qualifications
1 99 (5.95%) Degree
2 47 (2.83%) Security Cleared
3 39 (2.35%) SC Cleared
4 35 (2.10%) Computer Science Degree
5 10 (0.60%) BPSS Clearance
6 8 (0.48%) Master's Degree
7 7 (0.42%) DV Cleared
8 4 (0.24%) ISTQB
8 4 (0.24%) Numerate Degree
9 3 (0.18%) AWS Certification
9 3 (0.18%) Sun Certification
10 2 (0.12%) TOGAF Certification
11 1 (0.060%) ISEB
11 1 (0.060%) ITIL Certification
11 1 (0.060%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
11 1 (0.060%) Tableau Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 163 (9.80%) Accessibility
2 98 (5.89%) QA
3 31 (1.86%) WCAG
4 8 (0.48%) PCI DSS
5 7 (0.42%) Data Quality
6 5 (0.30%) GDPR
6 5 (0.30%) WAI
7 4 (0.24%) SLA
8 1 (0.060%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.060%) PMO
System Software
1 162 (9.74%) Docker
2 39 (2.35%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.12%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 114 (6.86%) Kubernetes
2 76 (4.57%) Terraform
3 34 (2.04%) Ansible
4 23 (1.38%) Puppet
5 17 (1.02%) Netcool
6 11 (0.66%) Kibana
7 9 (0.54%) Opscode Chef
8 8 (0.48%) logstash
9 7 (0.42%) Single Sign-On
10 3 (0.18%) Grafana
10 3 (0.18%) Kubeflow
10 3 (0.18%) Nagios
11 2 (0.12%) Automic
11 2 (0.12%) HP Fortify
12 1 (0.060%) CA Single Sign-On
12 1 (0.060%) Cisco Prime
12 1 (0.060%) HP SiteScope
12 1 (0.060%) OPNET
12 1 (0.060%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 143 (8.60%) Microsoft
2 98 (5.89%) Adobe
3 88 (5.29%) Oracle
4 66 (3.97%) Google
5 39 (2.35%) Salesforce.com
6 29 (1.74%) ServiceNow
7 27 (1.62%) Splunk
8 21 (1.26%) AppDynamics
9 18 (1.08%) Sitecore
10 16 (0.96%) New Relic
11 14 (0.84%) SAP
12 12 (0.72%) Nintex
13 11 (0.66%) hybris
13 11 (0.66%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
14 10 (0.60%) Apple
14 10 (0.60%) OutSystems
14 10 (0.60%) Zend
15 8 (0.48%) Atlassian
15 8 (0.48%) PayPal
15 8 (0.48%) WorldPay