Period
to 18 July 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 18 July 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
18 Jul 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 25 19 15
Rank change year-on-year -6 -4 -2
Contract jobs citing CSS 2,912 3,748 3,579
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 7.12% 8.11% 8.56%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.25% 21.47% 23.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,214 2,926 2,721
London median daily rate £488 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.63% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £343 £325 £310
90th Percentile £625 £613 £600
England median daily rate £450 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +1.27%
Number of hourly rates quoted 17 10 11
London median hourly rate £52.50 £45.00 £22.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +16.67% +104.55% -26.67%
10th Percentile £34.60 £24.60 £14.25
90th Percentile £122.50 £63.31 £122.50
England median hourly rate £50.00 £42.50 £40.00
% change year-on-year +17.65% +6.25% +25.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 15,124 17,457 14,971
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 36.97% 37.78% 35.82%
Number of daily rates quoted 11,311 13,280 11,147
London median daily rate £525 £513 £490
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.44% +4.59% +5.38%
10th Percentile £375 £363 £338
90th Percentile £675 £675 £650
England median daily rate £500 £475 £450
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 78 117 98
London median hourly rate £44.96 £43.50 £38.75
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.35% +12.26% +33.62%
10th Percentile £22.25 £18.45 £18.40
90th Percentile £85.75 £71.38 £54.38
England median hourly rate £44.00 £41.53 £40.50
% change year-on-year +5.95% +2.54% +8.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram in London

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 18 July 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS in London.

Contractor hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram in London

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 18 July 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 18 July 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -4 654 £500 +5.26% 266
South London +7 129 £446 +4.94% 27
West London -12 96 £438 -5.41% 128
East London -2 51 £519 +18.57% 77
North London +3 21 £425 +6.25% 9
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 18 July 2019, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 2,650 (91.00%) HTML
2 2,338 (80.29%) JavaScript
3 1,438 (49.38%) Agile Software Development
4 1,121 (38.50%) HTML5
5 1,002 (34.41%) AngularJS
6 928 (31.87%) Front End Development
7 924 (31.73%) React
8 752 (25.82%) CSS3
9 681 (23.39%) TDD
10 640 (21.98%) Git (software)
11 615 (21.12%) Node.js
12 537 (18.44%) Finance
13 536 (18.41%) jQuery
14 533 (18.30%) Java
15 517 (17.75%) User Experience
16 509 (17.48%) Sass
17 503 (17.27%) C#
18 502 (17.24%) .NET
19 491 (16.86%) SQL
20 482 (16.55%) TypeScript
21 429 (14.73%) Scrum
22 416 (14.29%) Redux
23 408 (14.01%) Web Development
24 391 (13.43%) MVC
25 373 (12.81%) DevOps
26 371 (12.74%) REST
27 341 (11.71%) ES6
28 335 (11.50%) Test Automation
29 324 (11.13%) Microsoft Azure
30 323 (11.09%) Amazon AWS

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 217 (7.45%) CMS
2 113 (3.88%) Adobe Experience Manager
3 99 (3.40%) Apache
4 87 (2.99%) Confluence
5 79 (2.71%) Elasticsearch
6 73 (2.51%) WordPress
7 56 (1.92%) Drupal
8 48 (1.65%) SharePoint
9 36 (1.24%) WebSphere
10 34 (1.17%) Apache Solr
11 31 (1.06%) Umbraco
12 29 (1.00%) IIS
12 29 (1.00%) JBoss
13 24 (0.82%) Tomcat
14 22 (0.76%) Magnolia
15 16 (0.55%) Apache Spark
16 14 (0.48%) Sitecore CMS
17 13 (0.45%) Moodle
18 12 (0.41%) nginx
19 11 (0.38%) EPiServer
Applications
1 114 (3.91%) Photoshop
2 83 (2.85%) Sketch
3 64 (2.20%) Adobe Illustrator
4 34 (1.17%) InVision
5 21 (0.72%) Microsoft Excel
6 19 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 19 (0.65%) Microsoft Office
6 19 (0.65%) Zeplin
7 14 (0.48%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 11 (0.38%) Adobe After Effects
9 10 (0.34%) Adobe XD
9 10 (0.34%) Chatbot
10 7 (0.24%) Marvel
10 7 (0.24%) MS Visio
10 7 (0.24%) UXPin
11 4 (0.14%) InDesign
12 3 (0.10%) FreeHand
13 2 (0.069%) Acrobat
13 2 (0.069%) Adobe Premiere
13 2 (0.069%) Fireworks
Business Applications
1 32 (1.10%) Magento
2 24 (0.82%) Adobe Campaign
3 9 (0.31%) Dynamics CRM
3 9 (0.31%) Shopify
4 7 (0.24%) Eloqua
4 7 (0.24%) NetSuite
4 7 (0.24%) Payment Gateway
5 6 (0.21%) Distributed Ledger
5 6 (0.21%) R3 Corda
6 3 (0.10%) WebTrends
7 2 (0.069%) Oracle BPM
7 2 (0.069%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 1 (0.034%) BigMachines
8 1 (0.034%) Endur
8 1 (0.034%) OpenCart
8 1 (0.034%) SAP Hybris
8 1 (0.034%) SDL Web 8
8 1 (0.034%) SessionCam
8 1 (0.034%) Unit4 Business World
8 1 (0.034%) Zen Cart
Cloud Services
1 324 (11.13%) Microsoft Azure
2 323 (11.09%) Amazon AWS
3 113 (3.88%) npm
4 112 (3.85%) GitHub
5 85 (2.92%) Serverless
6 67 (2.30%) Google Cloud Platform
7 59 (2.03%) AWS Lambda
8 55 (1.89%) SaaS
9 50 (1.72%) PaaS
10 49 (1.68%) Adobe Analytics
11 40 (1.37%) Amazon SQS
12 38 (1.30%) Google Analytics
13 31 (1.06%) Power Platform
14 28 (0.96%) Amazon EC2
14 28 (0.96%) Amazon S3
15 27 (0.93%) Yarn
16 22 (0.76%) Office 365
17 21 (0.72%) Adobe Creative Cloud
18 17 (0.58%) Amazon ECS
18 17 (0.58%) Heroku
Communications & Networking
1 56 (1.92%) HTTP
2 21 (0.72%) SSL
3 19 (0.65%) TCP/IP
4 18 (0.62%) Internet
5 15 (0.52%) FTP
6 14 (0.48%) DNS
7 7 (0.24%) Intranet
8 6 (0.21%) SMS
9 4 (0.14%) Firewall
9 4 (0.14%) RTMP
9 4 (0.14%) VPN
10 3 (0.10%) Ethernet
10 3 (0.10%) Reverse Proxy
10 3 (0.10%) SNMP
10 3 (0.10%) SSH
11 2 (0.069%) Intrusion Detection
11 2 (0.069%) LAN
11 2 (0.069%) MVNO
11 2 (0.069%) Network Security
11 2 (0.069%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 297 (10.20%) SQL Server
2 240 (8.24%) MySQL
3 158 (5.43%) PostgreSQL
4 141 (4.84%) Relational Database
5 134 (4.60%) NoSQL
6 102 (3.50%) MongoDB
7 49 (1.68%) Big Data
8 38 (1.30%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 38 (1.30%) Apache Cassandra
9 31 (1.06%) RDBMS
10 27 (0.93%) Azure SQL Database
11 26 (0.89%) Blockchain
12 24 (0.82%) Redis
13 20 (0.69%) Amazon RDS
14 19 (0.65%) Cosmos DB
14 19 (0.65%) SQL Server Reporting Services
15 18 (0.62%) Hadoop
15 18 (0.62%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 16 (0.55%) Power BI
17 13 (0.45%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 640 (21.98%) Git (software)
2 251 (8.62%) Jenkins
3 221 (7.59%) JIRA
4 195 (6.70%) webpack
5 180 (6.18%) gulp
6 145 (4.98%) Jasmine
7 144 (4.95%) Grunt
8 129 (4.43%) Selenium
9 92 (3.16%) Karma Test Runner
9 92 (3.16%) Subversion
10 88 (3.02%) Maven
11 83 (2.85%) Visual Studio
12 77 (2.64%) Mocha
13 68 (2.34%) Cucumber
13 68 (2.34%) TeamCity
14 63 (2.16%) Visual Studio Team System
15 56 (1.92%) JUnit
16 51 (1.75%) Babel
17 49 (1.68%) Bitbucket
17 49 (1.68%) GitLab
General
1 537 (18.44%) Finance
2 245 (8.41%) Marketing
3 184 (6.32%) Banking
4 157 (5.39%) Retail
5 112 (3.85%) Front Office
6 57 (1.96%) Investment Banking
7 47 (1.61%) Publishing
8 41 (1.41%) Legal
9 33 (1.13%) Advertising
10 30 (1.03%) Games
11 22 (0.76%) Law
12 18 (0.62%) Telecoms
13 16 (0.55%) French Language
14 15 (0.52%) Manufacturing
15 12 (0.41%) Electronics
16 11 (0.38%) Financial Institution
17 9 (0.31%) German Language
18 8 (0.27%) Automotive
18 8 (0.27%) Retail Banking
19 5 (0.17%) Spanish Language
Job Titles
1 2,351 (80.73%) Developer
2 614 (21.09%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 544 (18.68%) React Developer
4 426 (14.63%) JavaScript Developer
5 317 (10.89%) Full Stack Developer
6 286 (9.82%) Angular Developer
7 243 (8.34%) Senior Developer
8 190 (6.52%) .NET Developer
9 173 (5.94%) UI Developer
10 158 (5.43%) Java Developer
11 156 (5.36%) Designer
12 124 (4.26%) HTML Developer
13 121 (4.16%) C# Developer
14 111 (3.81%) Web Developer
15 107 (3.67%) Node.js Developer
16 88 (3.02%) UX Designer
17 87 (2.99%) HTML CSS Developer
18 86 (2.95%) Architect
18 86 (2.95%) PHP Developer
19 61 (2.09%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,650 (91.00%) HTML
2 1,121 (38.50%) HTML5
3 1,002 (34.41%) AngularJS
4 924 (31.73%) React
5 752 (25.82%) CSS3
6 615 (21.12%) Node.js
7 536 (18.41%) jQuery
8 509 (17.48%) Sass
9 502 (17.24%) .NET
10 416 (14.29%) Redux
11 371 (12.74%) REST
12 316 (10.85%) RESTful
13 306 (10.51%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 281 (9.65%) JSON
15 278 (9.55%) Web Services
16 258 (8.86%) ASP.NET
17 237 (8.14%) XML
18 207 (7.11%) Vue.js
19 194 (6.66%) Ajax
19 194 (6.66%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 517 (17.75%) User Experience
2 184 (6.32%) Analytical Skills
3 172 (5.91%) Greenfield Project
4 164 (5.63%) Mobile App
5 80 (2.75%) Hedge funds
6 59 (2.03%) Virtual Team
7 53 (1.82%) Social Media
8 52 (1.79%) Enterprise Software
9 51 (1.75%) Algorithms
10 50 (1.72%) Data Structures
11 46 (1.58%) W3C
12 40 (1.37%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 36 (1.24%) Linux Command Line
14 35 (1.20%) Self-Motivation
15 34 (1.17%) Equities
15 34 (1.17%) Fixed Income
16 25 (0.86%) Data Protection Act
16 25 (0.86%) Graphic Design
17 19 (0.65%) Derivative
18 17 (0.58%) Marketing Technology
Operating Systems
1 252 (8.65%) Linux
2 77 (2.64%) Windows
3 63 (2.16%) Unix
4 50 (1.72%) Apple iOS
5 44 (1.51%) Android
6 17 (0.58%) Mac OS X
7 13 (0.45%) Ubuntu
7 13 (0.45%) VMS
8 7 (0.24%) CentOS
8 7 (0.24%) Mac OS
9 6 (0.21%) Fedora
10 5 (0.17%) Windows 10
10 5 (0.17%) Windows Server
11 3 (0.10%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 3 (0.10%) Solaris
12 2 (0.069%) Debian
12 2 (0.069%) tvOS
12 2 (0.069%) Windows Server 2012
13 1 (0.034%) Android TV
13 1 (0.034%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,438 (49.38%) Agile Software Development
2 928 (31.87%) Front End Development
3 681 (23.39%) TDD
4 429 (14.73%) Scrum
5 408 (14.01%) Web Development
6 391 (13.43%) MVC
7 373 (12.81%) DevOps
8 335 (11.50%) Test Automation
9 287 (9.86%) BDD
10 269 (9.24%) Microservices
11 257 (8.83%) Continuous Integration
12 251 (8.62%) OO
13 227 (7.80%) Responsive Web Design
14 212 (7.28%) E-Commerce
15 204 (7.01%) Analytics
16 201 (6.90%) Problem-Solving
17 197 (6.77%) Software Engineering
18 177 (6.08%) Unit Testing
19 169 (5.80%) SDLC
20 148 (5.08%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 2,338 (80.29%) JavaScript
2 533 (18.30%) Java
3 503 (17.27%) C#
4 491 (16.86%) SQL
5 482 (16.55%) TypeScript
6 341 (11.71%) ES6
7 234 (8.04%) PHP
8 193 (6.63%) Python
9 137 (4.70%) Ruby
10 109 (3.74%) Java 8
11 69 (2.37%) T-SQL
12 57 (1.96%) PowerShell
13 50 (1.72%) Scala
14 41 (1.41%) ES7
15 26 (0.89%) Perl
16 24 (0.82%) Apex Code
17 23 (0.79%) PHP 7
18 21 (0.72%) Go
19 18 (0.62%) SOQL
20 16 (0.55%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 149 (5.12%) Degree
2 114 (3.91%) Security Cleared
3 90 (3.09%) SC Cleared
4 50 (1.72%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (0.89%) BPSS Clearance
6 21 (0.72%) DBS Check
7 11 (0.38%) Master's Degree
8 6 (0.21%) ITIL Certification
9 5 (0.17%) CISSP
9 5 (0.17%) SSCP
10 3 (0.10%) Numerate Degree
11 2 (0.069%) AWS Certification
11 2 (0.069%) BC Cleared
11 2 (0.069%) ISTQB
11 2 (0.069%) Microsoft Certification
11 2 (0.069%) PRINCE2 Certification
12 1 (0.034%) CTC Cleared
12 1 (0.034%) MBA
12 1 (0.034%) PMI Certification
12 1 (0.034%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 155 (5.32%) QA
2 17 (0.58%) WCAG
3 8 (0.27%) Data Quality
4 7 (0.24%) GDPR
5 4 (0.14%) ISO 15022
5 4 (0.14%) ISO 20022
5 4 (0.14%) WAI
6 3 (0.10%) PSD2
6 3 (0.10%) SLA
7 2 (0.069%) MiFID
8 1 (0.034%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.034%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 1 (0.034%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 249 (8.55%) Docker
2 18 (0.62%) Active Directory
3 7 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
4 3 (0.10%) VMware Infrastructure
5 1 (0.034%) HDFS
5 1 (0.034%) KVM
5 1 (0.034%) LXC
5 1 (0.034%) Varnish
5 1 (0.034%) Xen
5 1 (0.034%) XenApp
5 1 (0.034%) zsh
Systems Management
1 109 (3.74%) Kubernetes
2 38 (1.30%) Ansible
3 29 (1.00%) Terraform
4 24 (0.82%) Puppet
5 18 (0.62%) Kibana
6 12 (0.41%) Docker Swarm
6 12 (0.41%) Grafana
7 9 (0.31%) Opscode Chef
7 9 (0.31%) Single Sign-On
8 6 (0.21%) logstash
9 2 (0.069%) Hadoop YARN
9 2 (0.069%) Nagios
9 2 (0.069%) NetBackup
9 2 (0.069%) Packer
9 2 (0.069%) Prometheus
9 2 (0.069%) SCCM
9 2 (0.069%) Tivoli
10 1 (0.034%) HP Quality Center
10 1 (0.034%) Tivoli NetView
10 1 (0.034%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 227 (7.80%) Adobe
2 154 (5.29%) Microsoft
3 122 (4.19%) Oracle
4 113 (3.88%) Google
5 65 (2.23%) Salesforce.com
6 58 (1.99%) ServiceNow
7 41 (1.41%) Atlassian
8 28 (0.96%) hybris
9 27 (0.93%) Sitecore
10 24 (0.82%) MuleSoft
11 20 (0.69%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
12 18 (0.62%) Splunk
13 17 (0.58%) IBM
14 15 (0.52%) Optimizely
15 14 (0.48%) Cypress Semiconductor
15 14 (0.48%) SAP
16 12 (0.41%) Perforce
16 12 (0.41%) Red Hat
16 12 (0.41%) Sybase
17 11 (0.38%) TIBCO