Period
to 27 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 27 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
England > London
6 months to
27 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 48 24 21
Rank change year-on-year -24 -3 -5
Contract jobs citing CSS 710 2,457 3,600
As % of all contract jobs advertised in London 4.96% 6.74% 7.84%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 13.34% 18.51% 19.89%
Number of daily rates quoted 547 1,935 2,780
Median daily rate £475 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £306 £331 £325
90th Percentile £650 £650 £625
England median daily rate £439 £450 £425
% change year-on-year -2.56% +5.88% +0.83%
Number of hourly rates quoted 13 24 11
Median hourly rate £35.00 £48.75 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -28.21% +8.33% +80.94%
10th Percentile £32.98 £27.86 £31.37
90th Percentile £55.00 £122.50 £53.75
England median hourly rate £35.00 £36.70 £42.25
% change year-on-year -4.63% -13.14% +5.63%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 5,322 13,276 18,096
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in London 37.18% 36.42% 39.42%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,726 9,913 13,626
Median daily rate £525 £525 £525
10th Percentile £356 £375 £375
90th Percentile £713 £688 £675
England median daily rate £500 £500 £475
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 42 77 80
Median hourly rate £35.00 £47.50 £43.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -26.32% +9.20% +40.32%
10th Percentile £23.65 £21.70 £20.02
90th Percentile £49.85 £63.75 £72.08
Median hourly rate £35.00 £42.50 £41.53
% change year-on-year -17.65% +2.34% +3.83%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 27 October 2020.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in London over the 6 months to 27 October 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the London region over the 6 months to 27 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
Central London -13 103 £538 +7.50% 125
South London +18 41 £520 +24.18% 7
West London -7 13 £575 +41.54% 51
East London +24 8 £263 -51.39% 27
North London +6 1 £450 -2.70% 3
CSS
England

For the 6 months to 27 October 2020, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 638 (89.86%) HTML
2 536 (75.49%) JavaScript
3 322 (45.35%) Agile Software Development
4 245 (34.51%) HTML5
5 241 (33.94%) AngularJS
6 204 (28.73%) Front End Development
7 203 (28.59%) Git (software)
8 184 (25.92%) Java
9 165 (23.24%) React
10 161 (22.68%) CSS3
11 159 (22.39%) Node.js
12 147 (20.70%) User Experience
13 139 (19.58%) Finance
14 129 (18.17%) TDD
15 127 (17.89%) TypeScript
16 118 (16.62%) Sass
17 114 (16.06%) DevOps
18 113 (15.92%) REST
19 109 (15.35%) .NET
20 108 (15.21%) jQuery
21 101 (14.23%) Web Development
21 101 (14.23%) Redux
22 100 (14.08%) Python
23 97 (13.66%) C#
24 96 (13.52%) Security Cleared
25 94 (13.24%) SQL
26 91 (12.82%) Docker
27 87 (12.25%) Azure
28 86 (12.11%) Test Automation
29 84 (11.83%) AWS

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 36 (5.07%) Elasticsearch
2 23 (3.24%) Apache
3 22 (3.10%) CMS
4 16 (2.25%) Apache Solr
4 16 (2.25%) WebSphere
5 15 (2.11%) SharePoint
6 14 (1.97%) Confluence
7 13 (1.83%) WebLogic
8 11 (1.55%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 11 (1.55%) WordPress
9 10 (1.41%) Appian
10 8 (1.13%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 8 (1.13%) WebSphere Application Server
11 7 (0.99%) Apache Spark
11 7 (0.99%) IIS
12 6 (0.85%) Sitecore CMS
12 6 (0.85%) Tomcat
13 5 (0.70%) Drupal
13 5 (0.70%) Moodle
13 5 (0.70%) nginx
Applications
1 21 (2.96%) Sketch
2 17 (2.39%) Photoshop
3 12 (1.69%) Adobe Illustrator
4 11 (1.55%) Microsoft Excel
5 8 (1.13%) InVision
6 6 (0.85%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 6 (0.85%) Adobe Premiere
6 6 (0.85%) Chatbot
6 6 (0.85%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 6 (0.85%) Zeplin
7 4 (0.56%) Adobe After Effects
8 3 (0.42%) Figma
9 2 (0.28%) CINEMA 4D
10 1 (0.14%) Adobe XD
10 1 (0.14%) Camtasia
10 1 (0.14%) Flinto
10 1 (0.14%) InDesign
10 1 (0.14%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 17 (2.39%) Magento
2 8 (1.13%) Shopify
3 4 (0.56%) Oracle ERP
4 2 (0.28%) Dynamics CRM
4 2 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.28%) SAP ERP
5 1 (0.14%) NetSuite
5 1 (0.14%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.14%) Siebel CRM
Cloud Services
1 87 (12.25%) Azure
2 84 (11.83%) AWS
3 36 (5.07%) GCP
4 34 (4.79%) npm
5 32 (4.51%) GitHub
6 17 (2.39%) Serverless
7 16 (2.25%) SaaS
8 9 (1.27%) Office 365
9 8 (1.13%) Cloud Computing
9 8 (1.13%) PaaS
9 8 (1.13%) Yarn
10 7 (0.99%) Amazon EC2
10 7 (0.99%) Power Platform
11 6 (0.85%) Amazon S3
11 6 (0.85%) AWS CloudFormation
11 6 (0.85%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
12 5 (0.70%) Google Analytics
12 5 (0.70%) Logic Apps
13 4 (0.56%) AWS Lambda
14 3 (0.42%) Adobe Creative Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 11 (1.55%) HTTP
2 6 (0.85%) Intranet
3 4 (0.56%) Internet
3 4 (0.56%) Kerberos
4 3 (0.42%) DNS
5 2 (0.28%) SSL
5 2 (0.28%) WebEx
6 1 (0.14%) AMQP
6 1 (0.14%) Firewall
6 1 (0.14%) HbbTV
6 1 (0.14%) HTTPS
6 1 (0.14%) Intrusion Detection
6 1 (0.14%) Network Security
6 1 (0.14%) Remote Desktop
6 1 (0.14%) TCP/IP
6 1 (0.14%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 64 (9.01%) SQL Server
2 46 (6.48%) MySQL
3 40 (5.63%) PostgreSQL
4 33 (4.65%) MongoDB
5 32 (4.51%) NoSQL
6 16 (2.25%) Relational Database
7 14 (1.97%) Big Data
8 13 (1.83%) Cosmos DB
9 12 (1.69%) Redis
10 9 (1.27%) Data Warehouse
11 8 (1.13%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 7 (0.99%) Power BI
12 7 (0.99%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 6 (0.85%) Apache Hive
14 5 (0.70%) MariaDB
14 5 (0.70%) OLAP
14 5 (0.70%) Oracle ODI
14 5 (0.70%) RDBMS
14 5 (0.70%) Tableau
15 4 (0.56%) Sybase ASE
Development Applications
1 203 (28.59%) Git (software)
2 83 (11.69%) Jenkins
3 57 (8.03%) Grunt
4 55 (7.75%) gulp
5 52 (7.32%) Jasmine
6 50 (7.04%) JIRA
7 39 (5.49%) Subversion
7 39 (5.49%) webpack
8 32 (4.51%) Mocha
9 27 (3.80%) Selenium
10 26 (3.66%) Maven
11 24 (3.38%) Cypress.io
12 23 (3.24%) Karma Test Runner
13 22 (3.10%) git-flow
13 22 (3.10%) TeamCity
14 14 (1.97%) JUnit
14 14 (1.97%) Protractor
15 12 (1.69%) Visual Studio Team System
16 11 (1.55%) Cucumber
16 11 (1.55%) WebDriver
General
1 139 (19.58%) Finance
2 71 (10.00%) Banking
3 53 (7.46%) Public Sector
4 42 (5.92%) Marketing
5 31 (4.37%) Front Office
6 30 (4.23%) Investment Banking
7 24 (3.38%) Retail
8 13 (1.83%) Games
9 10 (1.41%) Back Office
9 10 (1.41%) Financial Institution
10 9 (1.27%) Telecoms
11 8 (1.13%) Manufacturing
12 7 (0.99%) Retail Banking
13 6 (0.85%) Advertising
13 6 (0.85%) Law
13 6 (0.85%) Legal
14 5 (0.70%) Local Government
15 4 (0.56%) Electronics
16 3 (0.42%) German Language
16 3 (0.42%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 531 (74.79%) Developer
2 141 (19.86%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 90 (12.68%) Full Stack Developer
4 84 (11.83%) React Developer
5 76 (10.70%) Angular Developer
6 56 (7.89%) JavaScript Developer
7 44 (6.20%) Senior Developer
8 38 (5.35%) Designer
9 37 (5.21%) Web Developer
10 32 (4.51%) UI Developer
11 31 (4.37%) C# Developer
12 30 (4.23%) HTML Developer
13 29 (4.08%) Architect
14 27 (3.80%) .NET Developer
14 27 (3.80%) PHP Developer
15 24 (3.38%) Java Developer
16 21 (2.96%) HTML CSS Developer
16 21 (2.96%) UX Designer
17 19 (2.68%) Python Developer
18 18 (2.54%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 638 (89.86%) HTML
2 245 (34.51%) HTML5
3 241 (33.94%) AngularJS
4 165 (23.24%) React
5 161 (22.68%) CSS3
6 159 (22.39%) Node.js
7 118 (16.62%) Sass
8 113 (15.92%) REST
9 109 (15.35%) .NET
10 108 (15.21%) jQuery
11 101 (14.23%) Redux
12 81 (11.41%) Web Services
13 74 (10.42%) RESTful
14 68 (9.58%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 57 (8.03%) Spring
16 49 (6.90%) XML
17 47 (6.62%) JSON
18 40 (5.63%) Jest
19 38 (5.35%) RxJS
20 36 (5.07%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 147 (20.70%) User Experience
2 37 (5.21%) Greenfield Project
3 33 (4.65%) Mobile App
4 28 (3.94%) Analytical Skills
5 14 (1.97%) Enterprise Software
5 14 (1.97%) Management Information System
6 13 (1.83%) Cloud Native
6 13 (1.83%) Data Structures
7 9 (1.27%) Derivative
7 9 (1.27%) Fixed Income
8 8 (1.13%) Marketing Technology
8 8 (1.13%) Mobile Payment
9 7 (0.99%) Equities
9 7 (0.99%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 7 (0.99%) Public Cloud
10 6 (0.85%) Algorithms
10 6 (0.85%) CMDB
10 6 (0.85%) Robotics
10 6 (0.85%) Self-Motivation
10 6 (0.85%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 65 (9.15%) Linux
2 30 (4.23%) Unix
3 21 (2.96%) Windows
4 19 (2.68%) Android
4 19 (2.68%) Mac OS X
5 17 (2.39%) Apple iOS
6 3 (0.42%) CentOS
6 3 (0.42%) Windows Server
7 2 (0.28%) Mac OS
7 2 (0.28%) tvOS
7 2 (0.28%) Windows 10
8 1 (0.14%) Debian
8 1 (0.14%) Solaris
8 1 (0.14%) Tizen
8 1 (0.14%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 322 (45.35%) Agile Software Development
2 204 (28.73%) Front End Development
3 129 (18.17%) TDD
4 114 (16.06%) DevOps
5 101 (14.23%) Web Development
6 86 (12.11%) Test Automation
7 72 (10.14%) Continuous Integration
8 68 (9.58%) Microservices
8 68 (9.58%) Software Engineering
9 66 (9.30%) Computer Science
10 64 (9.01%) OO
11 63 (8.87%) Problem-Solving
12 61 (8.59%) Scrum
13 59 (8.31%) MVC
14 58 (8.17%) SDLC
15 51 (7.18%) Responsive Web Design
16 48 (6.76%) Web Accessibility
17 44 (6.20%) BDD
18 41 (5.77%) E-Commerce
19 39 (5.49%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 536 (75.49%) JavaScript
2 184 (25.92%) Java
3 127 (17.89%) TypeScript
4 100 (14.08%) Python
5 97 (13.66%) C#
6 94 (13.24%) SQL
7 68 (9.58%) PHP
8 51 (7.18%) ES6
9 18 (2.54%) Kotlin
10 17 (2.39%) Scala
11 15 (2.11%) Go
12 12 (1.69%) C
13 11 (1.55%) Bash Shell
13 11 (1.55%) ES7
14 10 (1.41%) T-SQL
15 8 (1.13%) Ruby
16 7 (0.99%) PL/SQL
16 7 (0.99%) VBA
17 6 (0.85%) Java 8
18 5 (0.70%) C++
Qualifications
1 96 (13.52%) Security Cleared
2 76 (10.70%) SC Cleared
3 62 (8.73%) Degree
4 38 (5.35%) Computer Science Degree
5 6 (0.85%) BPSS Clearance
5 6 (0.85%) DBS Check
5 6 (0.85%) DV Cleared
6 5 (0.70%) Master's Degree
7 3 (0.42%) Numerate Degree
7 3 (0.42%) TOGAF Certification
8 1 (0.14%) BC Cleared
8 1 (0.14%) HNC
8 1 (0.14%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 38 (5.35%) WCAG
2 34 (4.79%) QA
3 4 (0.56%) GDPR
4 3 (0.42%) Government Security Classifications
4 3 (0.42%) WAI
5 2 (0.28%) Disclosure Scotland
5 2 (0.28%) Section 508
5 2 (0.28%) SLA
System Software
1 91 (12.82%) Docker
2 8 (1.13%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.28%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.14%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.14%) Virtual Servers
Systems Management
1 41 (5.77%) Kubernetes
2 26 (3.66%) Terraform
3 20 (2.82%) Ansible
4 10 (1.41%) Opscode Chef
5 8 (1.13%) Puppet
6 7 (0.99%) Grafana
6 7 (0.99%) Kibana
7 1 (0.14%) Capistrano
7 1 (0.14%) CFEngine
7 1 (0.14%) logstash
Vendors
1 43 (6.06%) Oracle
2 38 (5.35%) Microsoft
3 28 (3.94%) Google
4 27 (3.80%) Adobe
5 20 (2.82%) Salesforce.com
6 14 (1.97%) Splunk
7 13 (1.83%) SAP
8 11 (1.55%) Bloomberg
8 11 (1.55%) ServiceNow
9 9 (1.27%) Cloudera
10 7 (0.99%) hybris
10 7 (0.99%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
11 6 (0.85%) Cognos
11 6 (0.85%) SaltStack
11 6 (0.85%) Sitecore
12 5 (0.70%) Hortonworks
12 5 (0.70%) MuleSoft
12 5 (0.70%) Pardot
12 5 (0.70%) Tealium
13 4 (0.56%) Sybase