Period
to 3 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Spring skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Spring over the 6 months to 3 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Pivotal Spring Framework
UK
6 months to
3 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 65 81 75
Rank change year-on-year +16 -6 -12
Contract jobs citing Spring 2,513 1,067 2,924
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.47% 2.96% 3.18%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 11.43% 9.67% 9.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,704 779 2,006
10th Percentile £413 £400 £388
25th Percentile £463 £450 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £545 £520 £500
Median % change year-on-year +4.81% +4.00% +2.04%
75th Percentile £650 £600 £581
90th Percentile £725 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% +2.27%
Number of hourly rates quoted 32 4 9
10th Percentile £40.00 £54.15 £48.45
25th Percentile £54.31 £56.63 £52.50
Median hourly rate £65.50 £60.00 £55.00
Median % change year-on-year +9.17% +9.09% +22.22%
75th Percentile £69.25 £64.63 £60.00
90th Percentile £73.36 £67.55 "
UK excluding London median hourly rate £64.50 £58.00 £57.50
% change year-on-year +11.21% +0.87% +27.78%

Spring is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 21,988 11,035 29,392
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.37% 30.63% 31.96%
Number of daily rates quoted 15,753 7,777 20,671
10th Percentile £358 £333 £335
25th Percentile £420 £413 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £505 £500 £490
Median % change year-on-year +1.00% +2.04% +3.16%
75th Percentile £606 £594 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 200 102 277
10th Percentile £15.57 £20.50 £17.88
25th Percentile £27.50 £30.00 £26.25
Median hourly rate £45.50 £45.00 £44.92
Median % change year-on-year +1.11% +0.19% +9.55%
75th Percentile £62.06 £57.88 £52.50
90th Percentile £68.75 £66.00 £60.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £42.75 £44.00
% change year-on-year +5.26% -2.84% +10.00%

Spring
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Spring as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Spring.

Daily rate trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Spring over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Spring in the UK

Spring
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Spring.

Hourly rate trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Spring over the 6 months to 3 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Spring in the UK

Spring
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Spring within the UK over the 6 months to 3 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +16 2,034 £550 +4.76% 650
London +12 1,433 £600 +9.09% 329
UK excluding London +19 730 £475 - 387
Work from Home -12 629 £525 +5.00% 145
Scotland +41 202 £450 +5.88% 47
North of England +9 156 £500 +8.40% 117
South East +11 123 £464 -1.28% 72
South West -4 77 £488 -2.50% 42
Midlands -6 69 £473 +18.13% 45
East of England -39 65 £516 +0.73% 36
North West -3 62 £500 +11.11% 74
West Midlands -2 59 £475 +16.92% 38
North East +15 57 £550 +2.33% 15
Yorkshire -30 37 £500 +8.40% 28
Northern Ireland +13 29 £475 +10.21% 12
East Midlands -20 11 £419 +32.94% 7
Wales -20 9 £563 +21.62% 16

For the 6 months to 3 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Spring also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Spring.

1 2,413 (96.02%) Java
2 1,425 (56.71%) Spring Boot
3 1,332 (53.00%) Agile Software Development
4 1,249 (49.70%) Microservices
5 764 (30.40%) TDD
6 728 (28.97%) Jenkins
7 665 (26.46%) Java 8
8 660 (26.26%) Docker
9 659 (26.22%) SQL
10 641 (25.51%) Git (software)
11 625 (24.87%) REST
12 623 (24.79%) AWS
13 601 (23.92%) Finance
14 577 (22.96%) JavaScript
15 545 (21.69%) Maven
16 534 (21.25%) Kubernetes
17 532 (21.17%) Banking
18 506 (20.14%) DevOps
19 494 (19.66%) Scrum
20 461 (18.34%) React
21 440 (17.51%) Oracle
22 425 (16.91%) Software Engineering
23 406 (16.16%) BDD
24 395 (15.72%) RESTful
25 386 (15.36%) Hibernate
26 381 (15.16%) Full Stack Development
27 373 (14.84%) Social Skills
28 371 (14.76%) Kafka
29 370 (14.72%) AngularJS
30 368 (14.64%) Test Automation

Spring
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 140 (5.57%) Confluence
2 109 (4.34%) Tomcat
3 95 (3.78%) Mule
4 88 (3.50%) Apache
5 78 (3.10%) Elasticsearch
6 71 (2.83%) JBoss
7 68 (2.71%) Apache Spark
8 60 (2.39%) WebLogic
9 54 (2.15%) Cloud Foundry
10 45 (1.79%) Red Hat Fuse
11 36 (1.43%) WebSphere
12 26 (1.03%) CMS
13 20 (0.80%) Jetty
14 19 (0.76%) Oracle SOA Suite
15 18 (0.72%) nginx
15 18 (0.72%) Oracle Coherence
16 17 (0.68%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 17 (0.68%) OpenStack
17 15 (0.60%) GemFire
18 11 (0.44%) Mule ESB
Applications
1 5 (0.20%) Microsoft Excel
1 5 (0.20%) Microsoft Office
2 2 (0.080%) Chatbot
3 1 (0.040%) Photoshop
3 1 (0.040%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 22 (0.88%) SAP Hybris
2 8 (0.32%) Adobe Campaign
2 8 (0.32%) Oracle BPM
3 6 (0.24%) Magento
4 4 (0.16%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 3 (0.12%) ION MarketView
5 3 (0.12%) SAP CRM
6 2 (0.080%) Distributed Ledger
6 2 (0.080%) Dynamics CRM
6 2 (0.080%) R3 Corda
6 2 (0.080%) SAP S/4HANA
7 1 (0.040%) BusinessWorks
7 1 (0.040%) Payment Gateway
7 1 (0.040%) SAP ERP
7 1 (0.040%) Tesseract
Cloud Services
1 623 (24.79%) AWS
2 287 (11.42%) Azure
3 197 (7.84%) GCP
4 147 (5.85%) GitHub
5 141 (5.61%) Serverless
6 123 (4.89%) OpenShift
7 101 (4.02%) AWS Lambda
8 82 (3.26%) Amazon S3
9 51 (2.03%) AWS CloudFormation
10 49 (1.95%) PaaS
11 46 (1.83%) Amazon EC2
12 42 (1.67%) Amazon SQS
12 42 (1.67%) SaaS
13 38 (1.51%) Amazon ECS
14 29 (1.15%) Cloud Computing
15 26 (1.03%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 25 (0.99%) IaaS
17 21 (0.84%) Apigee
17 21 (0.84%) npm
17 21 (0.84%) Slack
Communications & Networking
1 45 (1.79%) HTTP
2 37 (1.47%) SSL
3 30 (1.19%) TCP/IP
4 13 (0.52%) Internet
4 13 (0.52%) LAN
5 8 (0.32%) SMS
6 6 (0.24%) DMARC
7 5 (0.20%) DNS
7 5 (0.20%) HTTPS
7 5 (0.20%) SMTP
8 3 (0.12%) AMQP
8 3 (0.12%) Broadband
8 3 (0.12%) Firewall
8 3 (0.12%) Intranet
8 3 (0.12%) Kerberos
9 2 (0.080%) DSL
9 2 (0.080%) OpenLDAP
9 2 (0.080%) Reverse Proxy
9 2 (0.080%) SWIFTNet
9 2 (0.080%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 287 (11.42%) NoSQL
2 281 (11.18%) Relational Database
3 270 (10.74%) PostgreSQL
4 231 (9.19%) MongoDB
5 153 (6.09%) MySQL
6 133 (5.29%) SQL Server
7 112 (4.46%) Redis
8 90 (3.58%) Oracle Database
9 82 (3.26%) Hazelcast
10 76 (3.02%) Apache Cassandra
11 74 (2.94%) RDBMS
12 65 (2.59%) Hadoop
13 59 (2.35%) Big Data
14 55 (2.19%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 48 (1.91%) Amazon Aurora
16 45 (1.79%) DB2
17 34 (1.35%) Amazon RDS
18 30 (1.19%) Data Warehouse
19 26 (1.03%) BusinessObjects
20 25 (0.99%) Apache Hive
Development Applications
1 728 (28.97%) Jenkins
2 641 (25.51%) Git (software)
3 545 (21.69%) Maven
4 316 (12.57%) JUnit
5 260 (10.35%) JIRA
6 237 (9.43%) Cucumber
7 145 (5.77%) Mockito
8 143 (5.69%) GitLab
9 108 (4.30%) Selenium
10 105 (4.18%) Gradle
11 102 (4.06%) Subversion
12 88 (3.50%) IntelliJ
13 80 (3.18%) SonarQube
14 74 (2.94%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 73 (2.90%) Sonatype Nexus
16 66 (2.63%) TeamCity
17 62 (2.47%) Bitbucket
18 60 (2.39%) Artifactory
19 52 (2.07%) Eclipse
20 44 (1.75%) Postman
General
1 601 (23.92%) Finance
2 532 (21.17%) Banking
3 373 (14.84%) Social Skills
4 228 (9.07%) Investment Banking
5 135 (5.37%) Public Sector
6 125 (4.97%) Front Office
7 107 (4.26%) Analytical Skills
8 75 (2.98%) Retail
9 36 (1.43%) Manufacturing
9 36 (1.43%) Marketing
10 34 (1.35%) Games
11 33 (1.31%) Documentation Skills
12 28 (1.11%) Financial Institution
13 25 (0.99%) Retail Banking
14 19 (0.76%) Presentation Skills
15 18 (0.72%) Influencing Skills
16 17 (0.68%) Electronics
17 16 (0.64%) Back Office
18 13 (0.52%) Telecoms
19 12 (0.48%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 1,848 (73.54%) Developer
2 1,442 (57.38%) Java Developer
3 312 (12.42%) Senior Developer
4 281 (11.18%) Senior Java Developer
5 211 (8.40%) Full Stack Developer
6 165 (6.57%) Java Engineer
7 129 (5.13%) Architect
8 103 (4.10%) Software Engineer
9 78 (3.10%) AWS Developer
10 72 (2.87%) Integration Developer
11 58 (2.31%) DevOps Engineer
12 57 (2.27%) Agile Developer
13 53 (2.11%) Agile Java Developer
13 53 (2.11%) Java Software Engineer
14 52 (2.07%) Software Developer
15 49 (1.95%) Consultant
16 48 (1.91%) Backend Developer
17 45 (1.79%) Lead Developer
17 45 (1.79%) Solutions Architect
18 41 (1.63%) Java Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,425 (56.71%) Spring Boot
2 625 (24.87%) REST
3 461 (18.34%) React
4 395 (15.72%) RESTful
5 386 (15.36%) Hibernate
6 371 (14.76%) Kafka
7 370 (14.72%) AngularJS
8 319 (12.69%) HTML
9 301 (11.98%) Web Services
10 251 (9.99%) CSS
11 238 (9.47%) J2EE
11 238 (9.47%) Node.js
12 197 (7.84%) JSON
13 169 (6.73%) XML
14 158 (6.29%) Apache Camel
15 153 (6.09%) JPA
16 143 (5.69%) JMS
17 141 (5.61%) SOAP
18 140 (5.57%) HTML5
19 138 (5.49%) RabbitMQ
Miscellaneous
1 119 (4.74%) User Experience
2 97 (3.86%) Greenfield Project
3 82 (3.26%) Data Structures
3 82 (3.26%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 69 (2.75%) Legacy Systems
5 67 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
6 66 (2.63%) Algorithms
7 60 (2.39%) Cloud Native
8 54 (2.15%) Derivative
9 53 (2.11%) Fixed Income
10 41 (1.63%) Data Protection Act
10 41 (1.63%) Virtual Team
11 39 (1.55%) Mobile App
12 37 (1.47%) Self-Motivation
13 33 (1.31%) Public Cloud
14 27 (1.07%) Clustering
15 25 (0.99%) Management Information System
16 24 (0.96%) Hybrid Cloud
17 22 (0.88%) Client/Server
18 17 (0.68%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 358 (14.25%) Linux
2 253 (10.07%) Unix
3 67 (2.67%) Windows
4 41 (1.63%) Android
5 17 (0.68%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 9 (0.36%) Debian
7 8 (0.32%) Apple iOS
7 8 (0.32%) VMS
8 6 (0.24%) CentOS
9 3 (0.12%) Windows Server
10 2 (0.080%) Amazon Linux
10 2 (0.080%) Mac OS
10 2 (0.080%) Ubuntu
11 1 (0.040%) MVS
11 1 (0.040%) Solaris
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,332 (53.00%) Agile Software Development
2 1,249 (49.70%) Microservices
3 764 (30.40%) TDD
4 506 (20.14%) DevOps
5 494 (19.66%) Scrum
6 425 (16.91%) Software Engineering
7 406 (16.16%) BDD
8 381 (15.16%) Full Stack Development
9 368 (14.64%) Test Automation
10 294 (11.70%) Continuous Integration
11 207 (8.24%) Multithreading
12 192 (7.64%) OO
13 188 (7.48%) Pair Programming
14 187 (7.44%) Unit Testing
15 181 (7.20%) Problem-Solving
16 175 (6.96%) Kanban
17 173 (6.88%) SDLC
18 171 (6.80%) Open Source
19 155 (6.17%) MVC
20 137 (5.45%) Event-Driven
Programming Languages
1 2,413 (96.02%) Java
2 665 (26.46%) Java 8
3 659 (26.22%) SQL
4 577 (22.96%) JavaScript
5 240 (9.55%) Java 11
6 231 (9.19%) Python
7 165 (6.57%) TypeScript
8 148 (5.89%) Scala
9 142 (5.65%) Kotlin
10 129 (5.13%) PL/SQL
11 79 (3.14%) Shell Script
12 51 (2.03%) Groovy
13 37 (1.47%) T-SQL
14 36 (1.43%) C#
15 35 (1.39%) C
16 34 (1.35%) ES6
16 34 (1.35%) Go
17 30 (1.19%) Haskell
18 25 (0.99%) Bash Shell
19 24 (0.96%) C++
Qualifications
1 185 (7.36%) Security Cleared
2 141 (5.61%) SC Cleared
3 90 (3.58%) Degree
4 33 (1.31%) Computer Science Degree
5 26 (1.03%) Sun Certification
6 24 (0.96%) OCPJP
7 19 (0.76%) BPSS Clearance
8 16 (0.64%) DV Cleared
9 15 (0.60%) Master's Degree
10 12 (0.48%) AWS Certification
11 7 (0.28%) ISTQB
12 5 (0.20%) DBS Check
12 5 (0.20%) ISEB
13 3 (0.12%) CFA
14 2 (0.080%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
15 1 (0.040%) CTC Cleared
15 1 (0.040%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 100 (3.98%) QA
2 59 (2.35%) Accessibility
3 16 (0.64%) GDPR
4 9 (0.36%) Data Quality
5 7 (0.28%) ISO 20022
6 5 (0.20%) MiFID
7 4 (0.16%) PMO
8 2 (0.080%) ISO 15022
8 2 (0.080%) SLA
9 1 (0.040%) Disclosure Scotland
9 1 (0.040%) EMIR
9 1 (0.040%) HMG Security Policy Framework
9 1 (0.040%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 1 (0.040%) PCI DSS
9 1 (0.040%) PSD2
System Software
1 660 (26.26%) Docker
2 14 (0.56%) HDFS
3 11 (0.44%) Active Directory
4 8 (0.32%) OpenAM
5 7 (0.28%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 5 (0.20%) Platform Symphony
7 4 (0.16%) VMware Infrastructure
8 3 (0.12%) Postfix
8 3 (0.12%) vSphere
9 2 (0.080%) OpenDJ
9 2 (0.080%) OpenIDM
10 1 (0.040%) RACF
10 1 (0.040%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 534 (21.25%) Kubernetes
2 157 (6.25%) Terraform
3 136 (5.41%) Ansible
4 92 (3.66%) Grafana
5 77 (3.06%) Kibana
6 35 (1.39%) Puppet
7 32 (1.27%) Prometheus
8 22 (0.88%) Opscode Chef
9 17 (0.68%) Single Sign-On
10 16 (0.64%) logstash
10 16 (0.64%) Oozie
10 16 (0.64%) Rancher
11 9 (0.36%) HP Fortify
12 7 (0.28%) Docker Swarm
13 6 (0.24%) CloudHub
13 6 (0.24%) Hadoop YARN
13 6 (0.24%) Istio
14 4 (0.16%) Graphite
15 3 (0.12%) HP ALM
15 3 (0.12%) Zipkin
Vendors
1 440 (17.51%) Oracle
2 111 (4.42%) Google
3 78 (3.10%) IBM
4 69 (2.75%) Microsoft
5 45 (1.79%) MuleSoft
6 44 (1.75%) Splunk
7 42 (1.67%) Atlassian
8 40 (1.59%) SAP
8 40 (1.59%) Sybase
9 39 (1.55%) hybris
9 39 (1.55%) Informatica
9 39 (1.55%) webMethods
10 38 (1.51%) WSO2
11 37 (1.47%) Adobe
12 35 (1.39%) Red Hat
13 32 (1.27%) BEA
14 26 (1.03%) Sun
15 23 (0.92%) AppDynamics
16 19 (0.76%) Dynatrace
17 18 (0.72%) Solace