Period
to 3 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Spring skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Spring over the 6 months to 3 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Pivotal Spring Framework
UK
6 months to
3 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 68 79 62
Rank change year-on-year +11 -17 0
Contract jobs citing Spring 1,559 1,872 3,785
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 3.23% 2.80% 3.89%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 10.61% 9.29% 11.58%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,382 1,379 2,727
Median daily rate £509 £513 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -0.73% +2.50% +5.26%
10th Percentile £360 £400 £375
90th Percentile £688 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £475 £450
% change year-on-year -5.26% +5.56% +4.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 24 4 10
Median hourly rate £44.00 £56.50 £43.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.12% +31.40% -4.44%
10th Percentile £40.00 £52.50 £31.35
90th Percentile £58.00 £66.05 £53.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £58.00 £43.00
% change year-on-year -27.59% +34.88% -4.44%

Spring is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 14,687 20,149 32,682
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 30.42% 30.10% 33.56%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,365 14,161 23,320
Median daily rate £490 £500 £488
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.10% +2.56% +4.84%
10th Percentile £325 £330 £325
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £450 £435
% change year-on-year -5.56% +3.45% +8.75%
Number of hourly rates quoted 185 181 262
Median hourly rate £45.00 £47.50 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -5.26% +11.76% +6.25%
10th Percentile £24.40 £19.71 £17.55
90th Percentile £63.55 £78.75 £60.00
Median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +3.66%

Spring
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Spring as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Spring.

Daily rate trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Spring over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Spring in the UK

Spring
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Spring.

Hourly rate trend for Spring in the UK

Spring
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Spring over the 6 months to 3 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Spring in the UK

Spring
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Spring within the UK over the 6 months to 3 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +11 1,254 £525 +0.96% 452
London +4 862 £550 - 220
UK excluding London +26 491 £450 -5.26% 291
Work from Home -19 398 £495 -10.00% 130
Scotland +41 135 £400 -15.34% 43
North of England +4 110 £475 - 84
South East -1 70 £450 -5.26% 63
South West +29 69 £454 -9.25% 29
East of England +74 46 £500 - 14
North West +14 40 £475 -5.00% 39
Midlands -22 39 £428 -4.89% 40
Yorkshire -3 37 £450 -7.69% 32
North East +21 33 £500 +17.65% 13
West Midlands -30 21 £428 -6.19% 28
East Midlands +18 17 £419 +4.69% 12
Northern Ireland +7 16 £431 +2.93% 6
Wales -8 5 £375 -25.00% 12
Channel Islands +9 1 - -

For the 6 months to 3 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Spring also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Spring.

1 1,474 (94.55%) Java
2 826 (52.98%) Agile Software Development
3 818 (52.47%) Spring Boot
4 791 (50.74%) Microservices
5 485 (31.11%) Java 8
6 454 (29.12%) Jenkins
7 424 (27.20%) TDD
8 412 (26.43%) Docker
9 409 (26.23%) Git (software)
10 407 (26.11%) REST
11 400 (25.66%) JavaScript
12 388 (24.89%) Kubernetes
13 380 (24.37%) AWS
13 380 (24.37%) SQL
14 370 (23.73%) Finance
15 342 (21.94%) Banking
16 339 (21.74%) Maven
17 323 (20.72%) DevOps
18 294 (18.86%) Scrum
19 264 (16.93%) Continuous Integration
20 263 (16.87%) AngularJS
21 255 (16.36%) Hibernate
21 255 (16.36%) HTML
22 251 (16.10%) BDD
23 247 (15.84%) Linux
24 235 (15.07%) React
25 232 (14.88%) Web Services
26 226 (14.50%) RESTful
26 226 (14.50%) Kafka
27 224 (14.37%) Software Engineering

Spring
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 122 (7.83%) Mule
2 104 (6.67%) Confluence
3 96 (6.16%) Red Hat Fuse
4 71 (4.55%) Apache
5 70 (4.49%) JBoss
6 68 (4.36%) Cloud Foundry
7 66 (4.23%) Tomcat
8 57 (3.66%) WebSphere
9 55 (3.53%) Elasticsearch
10 46 (2.95%) WebLogic
11 26 (1.67%) Camunda
12 21 (1.35%) Apache Spark
13 19 (1.22%) Jetty
14 15 (0.96%) Oracle Coherence
15 12 (0.77%) BizTalk Server
16 11 (0.71%) Apache Solr
17 10 (0.64%) Apache ServiceMix
17 10 (0.64%) WebSphere Application Server
18 9 (0.58%) CMS
19 8 (0.51%) Mule ESB
Applications
1 7 (0.45%) Microsoft Excel
2 2 (0.13%) Microsoft Office
3 1 (0.064%) Chatbot
3 1 (0.064%) MS Visio
3 1 (0.064%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 7 (0.45%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
2 6 (0.38%) Temenos T24
3 4 (0.26%) Oracle BPM
3 4 (0.26%) Payment Gateway
4 3 (0.19%) Adobe Campaign
4 3 (0.19%) SAP Hybris
5 2 (0.13%) BusinessWorks
5 2 (0.13%) Dynamics AX
5 2 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
5 2 (0.13%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
5 2 (0.13%) RMDS
6 1 (0.064%) Exstream
6 1 (0.064%) ION MarketView
6 1 (0.064%) Maximo
6 1 (0.064%) Minerva
6 1 (0.064%) SAP ERP
6 1 (0.064%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 380 (24.37%) AWS
2 174 (11.16%) Azure
3 89 (5.71%) GCP
4 84 (5.39%) GitHub
5 81 (5.20%) OpenShift
6 55 (3.53%) Serverless
7 49 (3.14%) PaaS
8 36 (2.31%) Amazon S3
8 36 (2.31%) Apigee
8 36 (2.31%) AWS CloudFormation
9 33 (2.12%) Amazon ECS
10 32 (2.05%) AWS Lambda
11 29 (1.86%) SaaS
12 28 (1.80%) IaaS
12 28 (1.80%) Slack
13 22 (1.41%) Cloud Computing
14 20 (1.28%) Amazon ElastiCache
15 18 (1.15%) Amazon EC2
16 15 (0.96%) Amazon Kinesis
17 14 (0.90%) Boomi
Communications & Networking
1 43 (2.76%) HTTP
2 20 (1.28%) SSL
3 15 (0.96%) Internet
4 8 (0.51%) Kerberos
4 8 (0.51%) SMS
5 7 (0.45%) DNS
5 7 (0.45%) SSH
6 6 (0.38%) HTTPS
7 5 (0.32%) AMQP
8 4 (0.26%) FTP
9 3 (0.19%) DMARC
9 3 (0.19%) Reverse Proxy
9 3 (0.19%) SMTP
9 3 (0.19%) TCP/IP
9 3 (0.19%) WebEx
10 2 (0.13%) LAN
10 2 (0.13%) Network Security
10 2 (0.13%) PuTTY
11 1 (0.064%) DHCP
11 1 (0.064%) Ethernet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 185 (11.87%) Relational Database
2 163 (10.46%) NoSQL
3 133 (8.53%) PostgreSQL
4 109 (6.99%) MongoDB
5 107 (6.86%) MySQL
6 61 (3.91%) SQL Server
7 47 (3.01%) RDBMS
8 45 (2.89%) Oracle Database
9 34 (2.18%) Redis
10 33 (2.12%) Hadoop
11 30 (1.92%) Apache Cassandra
11 30 (1.92%) Hazelcast
12 25 (1.60%) DB2
13 22 (1.41%) Big Data
14 21 (1.35%) Amazon Aurora
15 15 (0.96%) Apache Hive
16 13 (0.83%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 11 (0.71%) Amazon RDS
18 9 (0.58%) Data Warehouse
18 9 (0.58%) Oracle Database 11g
Development Applications
1 454 (29.12%) Jenkins
2 409 (26.23%) Git (software)
3 339 (21.74%) Maven
4 186 (11.93%) JUnit
5 177 (11.35%) JIRA
6 123 (7.89%) Cucumber
7 91 (5.84%) Gradle
8 90 (5.77%) GitLab
9 87 (5.58%) Mockito
10 77 (4.94%) Subversion
11 75 (4.81%) Sonatype Nexus
12 72 (4.62%) Selenium
13 60 (3.85%) SonarQube
14 51 (3.27%) Atlassian Bamboo
15 43 (2.76%) IntelliJ
16 41 (2.63%) Artifactory
17 37 (2.37%) Eclipse
18 30 (1.92%) JMeter
19 28 (1.80%) Ant
20 27 (1.73%) Jasmine
General
1 370 (23.73%) Finance
2 342 (21.94%) Banking
3 104 (6.67%) Front Office
3 104 (6.67%) Investment Banking
4 97 (6.22%) Public Sector
5 39 (2.50%) Retail
6 38 (2.44%) Retail Banking
7 21 (1.35%) Marketing
8 20 (1.28%) Games
9 14 (0.90%) Telecoms
10 10 (0.64%) Manufacturing
11 9 (0.58%) Advertising
11 9 (0.58%) Financial Institution
12 7 (0.45%) Back Office
12 7 (0.45%) Electronics
13 5 (0.32%) Corporate Banking
13 5 (0.32%) Publishing
14 4 (0.26%) Legal
15 3 (0.19%) Military
16 2 (0.13%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 1,186 (76.07%) Developer
2 909 (58.31%) Java Developer
3 221 (14.18%) Senior Developer
4 190 (12.19%) Senior Java Developer
5 120 (7.70%) Full Stack Developer
6 101 (6.48%) Java Engineer
7 93 (5.97%) Architect
8 76 (4.87%) AWS Developer
9 73 (4.68%) Software Engineer
10 72 (4.62%) Integration Developer
11 51 (3.27%) Java Software Engineer
12 47 (3.01%) React Developer
13 45 (2.89%) Lead Developer
14 43 (2.76%) Angular Developer
15 39 (2.50%) SC Cleared Java Developer
16 37 (2.37%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
17 34 (2.18%) Solutions Architect
18 32 (2.05%) Software Developer
19 31 (1.99%) Lead Java Developer
20 29 (1.86%) Backend Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 818 (52.47%) Spring Boot
2 407 (26.11%) REST
3 263 (16.87%) AngularJS
4 255 (16.36%) Hibernate
4 255 (16.36%) HTML
5 235 (15.07%) React
6 232 (14.88%) Web Services
7 226 (14.50%) Kafka
7 226 (14.50%) RESTful
8 187 (11.99%) CSS
9 175 (11.23%) Apache Camel
10 168 (10.78%) Node.js
11 165 (10.58%) Middleware
12 161 (10.33%) JSON
13 155 (9.94%) HTML5
14 139 (8.92%) XML
15 122 (7.83%) J2EE
16 116 (7.44%) Spring Integration
17 109 (6.99%) SOAP
18 108 (6.93%) JMS
Miscellaneous
1 88 (5.64%) Enterprise Software
2 84 (5.39%) Mobile App
3 60 (3.85%) User Experience
4 57 (3.66%) Analytical Skills
5 52 (3.34%) Data Structures
6 44 (2.82%) Clustering
7 40 (2.57%) Fixed Income
8 36 (2.31%) Greenfield Project
9 32 (2.05%) Self-Motivation
10 27 (1.73%) Public Cloud
11 26 (1.67%) Cloud Native
12 24 (1.54%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 23 (1.48%) Algorithms
13 23 (1.48%) Virtual Team
14 18 (1.15%) Linux Command Line
15 16 (1.03%) Credit Risk
16 14 (0.90%) Derivative
16 14 (0.90%) Equities
17 12 (0.77%) Mobile Payment
18 11 (0.71%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 247 (15.84%) Linux
2 173 (11.10%) Unix
3 46 (2.95%) Android
4 38 (2.44%) Windows
5 35 (2.25%) Apple iOS
6 21 (1.35%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 10 (0.64%) Mac OS X
8 9 (0.58%) CentOS
9 7 (0.45%) Ubuntu
10 5 (0.32%) Debian
11 3 (0.19%) Windows Server
12 2 (0.13%) Amazon Linux
12 2 (0.13%) Solaris
12 2 (0.13%) Windows 10
12 2 (0.13%) Windows Server 2016
13 1 (0.064%) AIX
13 1 (0.064%) Mac OS
13 1 (0.064%) OpenVMS
13 1 (0.064%) OpenWrt
13 1 (0.064%) Oracle Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 826 (52.98%) Agile Software Development
2 791 (50.74%) Microservices
3 424 (27.20%) TDD
4 323 (20.72%) DevOps
5 294 (18.86%) Scrum
6 264 (16.93%) Continuous Integration
7 251 (16.10%) BDD
8 224 (14.37%) Software Engineering
9 193 (12.38%) Test Automation
10 151 (9.69%) Unit Testing
11 145 (9.30%) Continuous Delivery
12 141 (9.04%) OO
13 138 (8.85%) SDLC
14 134 (8.60%) Multithreading
15 107 (6.86%) Web Development
16 102 (6.54%) Open Source
17 101 (6.48%) Kanban
18 94 (6.03%) Problem-Solving
19 92 (5.90%) MVC
20 85 (5.45%) Front End Development
Programming Languages
1 1,474 (94.55%) Java
2 485 (31.11%) Java 8
3 400 (25.66%) JavaScript
4 380 (24.37%) SQL
5 167 (10.71%) Python
6 110 (7.06%) Kotlin
7 86 (5.52%) Scala
8 70 (4.49%) PL/SQL
9 69 (4.43%) TypeScript
10 52 (3.34%) Shell Script
11 34 (2.18%) Bash Shell
12 33 (2.12%) Groovy
13 27 (1.73%) C#
13 27 (1.73%) Go
14 26 (1.67%) Apple Swift
14 26 (1.67%) Perl
15 25 (1.60%) ES6
16 20 (1.28%) C++
17 18 (1.15%) T-SQL
18 15 (0.96%) C
Qualifications
1 168 (10.78%) Security Cleared
2 134 (8.60%) SC Cleared
3 61 (3.91%) Degree
4 33 (2.12%) Computer Science Degree
5 29 (1.86%) DV Cleared
6 16 (1.03%) AWS Certification
7 13 (0.83%) Master's Degree
8 9 (0.58%) OCPJP
8 9 (0.58%) Sun Certification
9 6 (0.38%) BPSS Clearance
9 6 (0.38%) CTC Cleared
10 5 (0.32%) ISEB
10 5 (0.32%) ISTQB
10 5 (0.32%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 1 (0.064%) CCNA
11 1 (0.064%) CCNP
11 1 (0.064%) Cisco Certification
11 1 (0.064%) HNC
11 1 (0.064%) MCSE
11 1 (0.064%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 36 (2.31%) QA
2 10 (0.64%) MiFID
3 9 (0.58%) WCAG
4 8 (0.51%) GDPR
5 4 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
5 4 (0.26%) PMO
6 3 (0.19%) Data Quality
6 3 (0.19%) SLA
7 2 (0.13%) PCI DSS
8 1 (0.064%) IFRS
8 1 (0.064%) IFRS 9
8 1 (0.064%) ISO 15022
8 1 (0.064%) ISO 20022
8 1 (0.064%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 1 (0.064%) JTAG
8 1 (0.064%) NCSC
System Software
1 412 (26.43%) Docker
2 9 (0.58%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 8 (0.51%) HDFS
4 7 (0.45%) Active Directory
5 4 (0.26%) Platform Symphony
6 2 (0.13%) Postfix
6 2 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
6 2 (0.13%) vSphere
7 1 (0.064%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.064%) KVM
7 1 (0.064%) NDS
7 1 (0.064%) NetIQ eDirectory
7 1 (0.064%) Oracle RAC
Systems Management
1 388 (24.89%) Kubernetes
2 87 (5.58%) Terraform
3 64 (4.11%) Ansible
4 46 (2.95%) Prometheus
5 27 (1.73%) Grafana
6 23 (1.48%) Puppet
7 12 (0.77%) Kibana
8 9 (0.58%) Opscode Chef
9 7 (0.45%) Salt
10 6 (0.38%) CloudHub
10 6 (0.38%) HP ALM
10 6 (0.38%) Rancher
10 6 (0.38%) Zipkin
11 5 (0.32%) Rundeck
11 5 (0.32%) Single Sign-On
12 4 (0.26%) Oozie
13 3 (0.19%) logstash
13 3 (0.19%) vRealize
14 2 (0.13%) Docker Swarm
14 2 (0.13%) vRealize Orchestrator
Vendors
1 210 (13.47%) Oracle
2 76 (4.87%) Splunk
3 69 (4.43%) MuleSoft
4 55 (3.53%) AppDynamics
5 42 (2.69%) Microsoft
6 41 (2.63%) Red Hat
7 38 (2.44%) Google
7 38 (2.44%) Sybase
8 32 (2.05%) webMethods
9 29 (1.86%) IBM
10 27 (1.73%) Atlassian
11 20 (1.28%) TIBCO
12 19 (1.22%) SAP
13 18 (1.15%) Confluent
13 18 (1.15%) Salesforce.com
14 15 (0.96%) Axway
14 15 (0.96%) BEA
14 15 (0.96%) Talend
15 12 (0.77%) Adobe
16 11 (0.71%) Murex