Period
to 22 August 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for JPA skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited JPA over the 6 months to 22 August 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java Persistence API (JPA)
UK
6 months to
22 Aug 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 641 521 552
Rank change year-on-year -120 +31 +83
Contract jobs citing JPA 200 415 343
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.22% 0.41% 0.36%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 0.71% 1.17% 1.10%
Number of daily rates quoted 135 295 254
UK median daily rate £475 £480 £438
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -1.04% +9.71% +3.55%
10th Percentile £400 £363 £322
90th Percentile £595 £588 £584
UK excluding London median daily rate £474 £425 £413
% change year-on-year +11.47% +3.03% +3.13%
Number of hourly rates quoted 0 1 8
UK median hourly rate - £35.00 £52.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -33.33% +46.85%
UK excluding London median hourly rate - £35.00 £52.50
% change year-on-year - -33.33% +46.85%

JPA is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 28,354 35,337 31,053
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 31.56% 34.61% 32.37%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,727 24,944 21,442
UK median daily rate £488 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.63% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £335 £320 £306
90th Percentile £650 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +3.53% +6.25% +3.90%
Number of hourly rates quoted 313 345 385
UK median hourly rate £44.00 £41.50 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.02% +3.75% +8.84%
10th Percentile £18.56 £15.24 £15.08
90th Percentile £60.60 £57.50 £52.80
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.50 £41.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year +3.66% +2.50% +11.11%

JPA
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing JPA as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for JPA in the UK

JPA
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing JPA.

Contractor daily rate trend for JPA in the UK

JPA
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing JPA over the 6 months to 22 August 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for JPA in the UK

JPA
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing JPA.

Contractor hourly rate trend for JPA in the UK

JPA
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing JPA within the UK over the 6 months to 22 August 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -76 180 £475 -2.06% 52
London +17 104 £509 +0.49% 14
UK excluding London -94 94 £474 +11.47% 48
South East -16 30 £400 -5.88% 9
Midlands +16 20 £469 +10.29% 6
West Midlands +29 14 £475 +18.75% 2
East of England +22 12 £475 -11.63% 4
Wales - 9 £415 - 3
North of England -18 7 £484 +20.94% 11
South West -33 7 £500 -4.76% 8
East Midlands +16 6 £425 - 4
North East +6 5 £484 +20.94% 8
Scotland -35 5 £431 +7.81% 7
Northern Ireland - 4 £500 - 1
Yorkshire +22 1 £550 +25.71% 2
North West +6 1 £400 - 2

For the 6 months to 22 August 2019, IT contractor jobs citing JPA also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for JPA.

1 199 (99.50%) Java
2 153 (76.50%) Spring
3 123 (61.50%) Hibernate
4 115 (57.50%) Agile Software Development
5 100 (50.00%) Java 8
6 97 (48.50%) Jenkins
7 95 (47.50%) Git (software)
8 94 (47.00%) TDD
9 92 (46.00%) Microservices
9 92 (46.00%) Spring Boot
10 88 (44.00%) Maven
11 86 (43.00%) BDD
12 77 (38.50%) REST
13 75 (37.50%) Web Services
14 70 (35.00%) JUnit
15 68 (34.00%) Docker
16 65 (32.50%) AWS
17 64 (32.00%) RESTful
18 61 (30.50%) SQL
18 61 (30.50%) AngularJS
19 57 (28.50%) JavaScript
20 55 (27.50%) Mockito
21 54 (27.00%) Scrum
22 53 (26.50%) HTML
23 48 (24.00%) CSS
24 47 (23.50%) PostgreSQL
25 46 (23.00%) JIRA
26 42 (21.00%) Java EE
26 42 (21.00%) JSON
27 41 (20.50%) JMS

JPA
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 38 (19.00%) Confluence
2 28 (14.00%) Apache Solr
3 26 (13.00%) Apache
3 26 (13.00%) WebSphere
4 23 (11.50%) Tomcat
5 21 (10.50%) Elasticsearch
6 19 (9.50%) JBoss
7 10 (5.00%) GeoServer
8 7 (3.50%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 7 (3.50%) Jetty
8 7 (3.50%) WebLogic
9 5 (2.50%) Captiva
9 5 (2.50%) CoreMedia CMS
9 5 (2.50%) Documentum
10 4 (2.00%) Camunda
11 3 (1.50%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 2 (1.00%) Alfresco
12 2 (1.00%) Appian
12 2 (1.00%) IIS
13 1 (0.50%) nginx
Applications
1 5 (2.50%) Microsoft Excel
Business Applications
1 5 (2.50%) Dynamics CRM
1 5 (2.50%) Fredhopper
1 5 (2.50%) Magento
1 5 (2.50%) SAP Hybris
2 1 (0.50%) Payment Gateway
Cloud Services
1 65 (32.50%) AWS
2 37 (18.50%) Amazon SQS
3 30 (15.00%) Amazon EC2
4 25 (12.50%) Serverless
5 20 (10.00%) AWS Lambda
6 18 (9.00%) Amazon S3
7 16 (8.00%) Azure
8 15 (7.50%) Amazon ECS
9 14 (7.00%) OpenShift
10 13 (6.50%) GCP
11 10 (5.00%) SaaS
12 7 (3.50%) Cloud Computing
13 5 (2.50%) Algolia
14 4 (2.00%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
15 2 (1.00%) PaaS
15 2 (1.00%) Tricentis Tosca
16 1 (0.50%) CloudFront
16 1 (0.50%) GitHub
16 1 (0.50%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 6 (3.00%) Kerberos
2 1 (0.50%) HTTP
2 1 (0.50%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 47 (23.50%) PostgreSQL
2 33 (16.50%) MySQL
3 26 (13.00%) SQL Server
4 24 (12.00%) MongoDB
5 18 (9.00%) HBase
6 14 (7.00%) Amazon RDS
7 12 (6.00%) Relational Database
8 11 (5.50%) NoSQL
9 10 (5.00%) GIS
9 10 (5.00%) Oracle Database
10 8 (4.00%) Hadoop
11 6 (3.00%) Big Data
12 5 (2.50%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 5 (2.50%) Apache Cassandra
12 5 (2.50%) Crystal Reports
12 5 (2.50%) MS Access
13 4 (2.00%) Amazon Redshift
13 4 (2.00%) Blockchain
13 4 (2.00%) InterSystems Cache
13 4 (2.00%) Oracle Database 11g
Development Applications
1 97 (48.50%) Jenkins
2 95 (47.50%) Git (software)
3 88 (44.00%) Maven
4 70 (35.00%) JUnit
5 55 (27.50%) Mockito
6 46 (23.00%) JIRA
7 33 (16.50%) Cucumber
8 24 (12.00%) Selenium
9 23 (11.50%) Subversion
10 18 (9.00%) Bitbucket
10 18 (9.00%) DbUnit
11 16 (8.00%) git-flow
11 16 (8.00%) Gradle
12 15 (7.50%) JMeter
13 14 (7.00%) EasyMock
13 14 (7.00%) jMock
13 14 (7.00%) SonarQube
14 12 (6.00%) Hudson
15 11 (5.50%) Eclipse
16 8 (4.00%) GitLab
General
1 30 (15.00%) Finance
2 21 (10.50%) Banking
3 13 (6.50%) Retail
4 11 (5.50%) Public Sector
5 6 (3.00%) Front Office
6 5 (2.50%) Investment Banking
6 5 (2.50%) Military
7 4 (2.00%) Games
8 2 (1.00%) Financial Institution
9 1 (0.50%) Law
9 1 (0.50%) Manufacturing
9 1 (0.50%) Marketing
9 1 (0.50%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 180 (90.00%) Developer
2 152 (76.00%) Java Developer
3 29 (14.50%) Senior Developer
3 29 (14.50%) Senior Java Developer
4 12 (6.00%) Java Engineer
5 11 (5.50%) SC Cleared Java Developer
6 10 (5.00%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
6 10 (5.00%) Full Stack Developer
7 9 (4.50%) React Developer
8 8 (4.00%) Backend Developer
8 8 (4.00%) Scala Developer
9 6 (3.00%) AWS Developer
9 6 (3.00%) Lead Developer
9 6 (3.00%) Lead Java Developer
10 5 (2.50%) RAD Developer
10 5 (2.50%) Technical Leader
11 4 (2.00%) Angular Developer
11 4 (2.00%) AWS Engineer
11 4 (2.00%) Senior Software Engineer
11 4 (2.00%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 153 (76.50%) Spring
2 123 (61.50%) Hibernate
3 92 (46.00%) Spring Boot
4 77 (38.50%) REST
5 75 (37.50%) Web Services
6 64 (32.00%) RESTful
7 61 (30.50%) AngularJS
8 53 (26.50%) HTML
9 48 (24.00%) CSS
10 42 (21.00%) Java EE
10 42 (21.00%) JSON
11 41 (20.50%) JMS
12 35 (17.50%) HTML5
13 32 (16.00%) React
13 32 (16.00%) SOAP
14 30 (15.00%) JAX-RS
15 28 (14.00%) JDBC
16 27 (13.50%) XML
17 26 (13.00%) Apache Camel
17 26 (13.00%) Kafka
Miscellaneous
1 18 (9.00%) User Experience
2 15 (7.50%) Enterprise Software
3 9 (4.50%) Analytical Skills
4 5 (2.50%) Algorithms
4 5 (2.50%) Data Structures
5 4 (2.00%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 4 (2.00%) Greenfield Project
5 4 (2.00%) NHS
6 3 (1.50%) Self-Motivation
7 1 (0.50%) Linux Command Line
Operating Systems
1 36 (18.00%) Linux
2 14 (7.00%) Ubuntu
3 9 (4.50%) Windows
4 7 (3.50%) Mac OS
5 5 (2.50%) Android
5 5 (2.50%) Windows Mobile
6 2 (1.00%) VMS
7 1 (0.50%) Oracle Linux
7 1 (0.50%) Unix
Processes & Methodologies
1 115 (57.50%) Agile Software Development
2 94 (47.00%) TDD
3 92 (46.00%) Microservices
4 86 (43.00%) BDD
5 54 (27.00%) Scrum
6 40 (20.00%) MVC
7 32 (16.00%) Continuous Integration
8 24 (12.00%) OO
9 23 (11.50%) Front End Development
10 22 (11.00%) OOP
10 22 (11.00%) Open Source
11 20 (10.00%) Kanban
12 19 (9.50%) DevOps
12 19 (9.50%) Test Automation
13 17 (8.50%) BPMN
14 16 (8.00%) Continuous Improvement
15 14 (7.00%) Pair Programming
16 13 (6.50%) E-Commerce
16 13 (6.50%) Migration
16 13 (6.50%) Software Engineering
Programming Languages
1 199 (99.50%) Java
2 100 (50.00%) Java 8
3 61 (30.50%) SQL
4 57 (28.50%) JavaScript
5 10 (5.00%) VBA
6 8 (4.00%) ES6
6 8 (4.00%) ES7
6 8 (4.00%) Python
6 8 (4.00%) Scala
7 7 (3.50%) C
7 7 (3.50%) Groovy
7 7 (3.50%) PL/SQL
8 6 (3.00%) C#
9 5 (2.50%) COBOL
9 5 (2.50%) VB.NET
10 4 (2.00%) TypeScript
11 1 (0.50%) T-SQL
Qualifications
1 34 (17.00%) Security Cleared
2 28 (14.00%) SC Cleared
3 17 (8.50%) Degree
4 3 (1.50%) Sun Certification
5 2 (1.00%) BPSS Clearance
5 2 (1.00%) DV Cleared
5 2 (1.00%) Numerate Degree
6 1 (0.50%) DBS Check
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 5 (2.50%) QA
2 1 (0.50%) PMO
System Software
1 68 (34.00%) Docker
2 14 (7.00%) Postfix
3 1 (0.50%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 15 (7.50%) Ansible
2 12 (6.00%) Kubernetes
3 8 (4.00%) Terraform
4 6 (3.00%) Opscode Chef
4 6 (3.00%) Puppet
5 2 (1.00%) Kibana
5 2 (1.00%) logstash
6 1 (0.50%) Cobbler
Vendors
1 26 (13.00%) Oracle
2 17 (8.50%) IBM
3 13 (6.50%) Google
4 12 (6.00%) Atlassian
5 7 (3.50%) Adobe
5 7 (3.50%) OpenText
6 6 (3.00%) Microsoft
7 5 (2.50%) Elastic Path
7 5 (2.50%) hybris
7 5 (2.50%) Micro Focus
7 5 (2.50%) Salesforce.com
7 5 (2.50%) SAP
7 5 (2.50%) Telerik
8 4 (2.00%) Altova
8 4 (2.00%) MuleSoft
9 2 (1.00%) Cadence
10 1 (0.50%) Red Hat
10 1 (0.50%) StreamSets
10 1 (0.50%) VMware