Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 12 August 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
12 Aug 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 55 48 44
Rank change year-on-year -7 -4 -14
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,646 3,625 1,713
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.11% 4.90% 4.96%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 4.59% 5.49% 5.69%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,678 2,702 1,298
10th Percentile £419 £406 £388
25th Percentile £500 £460 £456
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £600 £550 £525
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% -
75th Percentile £688 £625 £600
90th Percentile £775 £699 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £525 £475 £495
% change year-on-year +10.53% -4.04% +10.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 49 50 15
10th Percentile £55.20 £58.95 £49.63
25th Percentile £65.00 £61.75 £55.25
Median hourly rate £70.50 £65.50 £62.00
Median % change year-on-year +7.63% +5.65% +60.06%
75th Percentile £77.00 £69.00 £65.39
90th Percentile £77.94 £73.44 £69.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £70.50 £64.50 £53.06
% change year-on-year +9.30% +21.57% +39.19%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 79,509 66,061 30,126
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.67% 89.37% 87.16%
Number of daily rates quoted 55,850 45,517 20,122
10th Percentile £350 £313 £300
25th Percentile £450 £410 £398
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £650 £600 £576
90th Percentile £750 £689 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +2.86%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,680 1,694 868
10th Percentile £13.25 £12.00 £12.35
25th Percentile £17.00 £14.55 £16.25
Median hourly rate £30.75 £23.13 £25.00
Median % change year-on-year +32.97% -7.50% +11.11%
75th Percentile £57.50 £46.53 £46.00
90th Percentile £69.53 £62.00 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £25.00 £20.50 £22.50
% change year-on-year +21.95% -8.89% -

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 12 August 2022.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 12 August 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 12 August 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -7 3,054 £600 +9.09% 795
London -15 2,057 £625 +8.70% 404
Work from Home -1 1,980 £575 +12.52% 472
UK excluding London -31 902 £525 +10.53% 431
North of England +16 357 £525 +10.53% 137
North West +31 262 £525 +10.53% 87
South East -46 168 £513 +12.51% 87
Scotland -28 117 £500 +12.36% 37
Midlands -17 97 £525 +16.67% 52
South West -29 87 £550 +15.79% 68
East of England -18 78 £629 +25.07% 41
Yorkshire -24 77 £550 +15.79% 36
West Midlands -12 74 £525 +13.51% 35
North East -22 23 £500 +5.26% 14
East Midlands +3 22 £525 +26.51% 17
Wales -27 6 £450 +1.12% 3
Northern Ireland -10 5 £540 +13.68% 7

For the 6 months to 12 August 2022, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,500 (68.57%) Agile
2 1,585 (43.47%) Java
3 1,321 (36.23%) BDD
4 1,249 (34.26%) Microservices
5 1,199 (32.89%) CI/CD
6 1,088 (29.84%) JavaScript
7 1,024 (28.09%) Scrum
8 885 (24.27%) Test Automation
9 878 (24.08%) DevOps
10 855 (23.45%) AWS
11 837 (22.96%) Azure
12 834 (22.87%) Git (software)
13 729 (19.99%) C#
14 727 (19.94%) SQL
15 714 (19.58%) .NET
16 700 (19.20%) Docker
17 695 (19.06%) React
18 685 (18.79%) Continuous Integration
19 677 (18.57%) Social Skills
20 676 (18.54%) Spring
21 674 (18.49%) Kubernetes
22 657 (18.02%) Jenkins
23 632 (17.33%) Finance
24 618 (16.95%) Software Engineering
25 613 (16.81%) REST
26 589 (16.15%) Python
27 567 (15.55%) TypeScript
28 565 (15.50%) HTML
29 508 (13.93%) Full Stack Development
30 490 (13.44%) CSS

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 187 (5.13%) Confluence
2 116 (3.18%) Apache Spark
3 73 (2.00%) Cloud Foundry
4 51 (1.40%) CMS
5 39 (1.07%) Apache
5 39 (1.07%) Mule
6 31 (0.85%) SharePoint
7 30 (0.82%) JBoss
8 29 (0.80%) Apache Airflow
9 28 (0.77%) nginx
10 26 (0.71%) WebSphere
11 20 (0.55%) Sitecore CMS
11 20 (0.55%) Tomcat
12 19 (0.52%) Drupal
13 18 (0.49%) Red Hat Fuse
13 18 (0.49%) uWSGI
14 16 (0.44%) WebSphere Application Server
15 14 (0.38%) Headless CMS
16 10 (0.27%) Apache Solr
16 10 (0.27%) Camunda
Applications
1 12 (0.33%) Microsoft Office
2 11 (0.30%) Microsoft Excel
3 4 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
3 4 (0.11%) MS Visio
4 3 (0.082%) Photoshop
5 1 (0.027%) Adobe Illustrator
5 1 (0.027%) Chatbot
5 1 (0.027%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 8 (0.22%) Payment Gateway
1 8 (0.22%) SAP Hybris
2 6 (0.16%) Dynamics CRM
2 6 (0.16%) Endur
2 6 (0.16%) Shopify
3 5 (0.14%) SAP S/4HANA
4 4 (0.11%) BondVision
4 4 (0.11%) Finacle
5 3 (0.082%) Magento
5 3 (0.082%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
5 3 (0.082%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 3 (0.082%) SAP FI
5 3 (0.082%) SAP IS-U
6 2 (0.055%) HFM
6 2 (0.055%) IBM Planning Analytics
7 1 (0.027%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.027%) Eikon
7 1 (0.027%) Oracle Financials
7 1 (0.027%) SAP CO
7 1 (0.027%) Temenos T24
Cloud Services
1 855 (23.45%) AWS
2 837 (22.96%) Azure
3 351 (9.63%) GitHub
4 241 (6.61%) GCP
5 233 (6.39%) Serverless
6 182 (4.99%) Azure DevOps
7 167 (4.58%) AWS Lambda
8 107 (2.93%) OpenShift
9 88 (2.41%) Amazon S3
10 76 (2.08%) AWS CloudFormation
11 66 (1.81%) PaaS
12 65 (1.78%) Azure Service Bus
13 57 (1.56%) Amazon EC2
13 57 (1.56%) Azure AKS
14 55 (1.51%) npm
14 55 (1.51%) Power Platform
14 55 (1.51%) SaaS
15 52 (1.43%) Azure Cosmos DB
16 51 (1.40%) Amazon EKS
16 51 (1.40%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 52 (1.43%) HTTP
2 38 (1.04%) TCP/IP
3 31 (0.85%) HTTPS
4 30 (0.82%) Ethernet
5 27 (0.74%) MQTT
6 19 (0.52%) RTMP
7 13 (0.36%) Internet
8 8 (0.22%) DNS
8 8 (0.22%) Firewall
9 7 (0.19%) 4G
10 6 (0.16%) FIX Connectivity
10 6 (0.16%) FTP
10 6 (0.16%) Intrusion Detection
10 6 (0.16%) LTE
11 5 (0.14%) ATM
11 5 (0.14%) Bluetooth
11 5 (0.14%) Modbus
11 5 (0.14%) RS-422
11 5 (0.14%) RS-485
12 4 (0.11%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 369 (10.12%) SQL Server
2 328 (9.00%) NoSQL
3 297 (8.15%) MongoDB
4 289 (7.93%) PostgreSQL
5 231 (6.34%) Relational Database
6 140 (3.84%) MySQL
7 130 (3.57%) Big Data
8 95 (2.61%) Elasticsearch
9 88 (2.41%) DynamoDB
10 85 (2.33%) Redis
11 71 (1.95%) RDBMS
12 46 (1.26%) Amazon Aurora
13 42 (1.15%) Oracle Database
14 41 (1.12%) Azure SQL Database
15 39 (1.07%) Amazon RDS
16 37 (1.01%) Data Lake
17 33 (0.91%) Data Warehouse
18 32 (0.88%) Power BI
19 30 (0.82%) BigQuery
20 29 (0.80%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 834 (22.87%) Git (software)
2 657 (18.02%) Jenkins
3 420 (11.52%) JIRA
4 314 (8.61%) Maven
5 257 (7.05%) JUnit
6 224 (6.14%) Cucumber
7 212 (5.81%) GitLab
8 196 (5.38%) Gradle
9 173 (4.74%) Selenium
10 139 (3.81%) Mockito
11 138 (3.78%) TeamCity
12 112 (3.07%) Cypress.io
13 100 (2.74%) Bitbucket
14 98 (2.69%) Artifactory
15 90 (2.47%) Eclipse
16 89 (2.44%) Visual Studio
17 74 (2.03%) IntelliJ
18 71 (1.95%) Postman
19 70 (1.92%) SonarQube
20 64 (1.76%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 677 (18.57%) Social Skills
2 632 (17.33%) Finance
3 392 (10.75%) Public Sector
4 381 (10.45%) Banking
5 188 (5.16%) Front Office
6 166 (4.55%) Analytical Skills
7 144 (3.95%) Investment Banking
8 104 (2.85%) Games
9 52 (1.43%) Retail
10 50 (1.37%) Presentation Skills
11 47 (1.29%) Legal
12 45 (1.23%) Publishing
13 37 (1.01%) Automotive
14 28 (0.77%) Financial Institution
14 28 (0.77%) Law
15 27 (0.74%) Marketing
15 27 (0.74%) Telecoms
16 25 (0.69%) Influencing Skills
17 23 (0.63%) Military
18 22 (0.60%) Police
Job Titles
1 2,506 (68.73%) Developer
2 847 (23.23%) Java Developer
3 462 (12.67%) Senior Developer
4 330 (9.05%) .NET Developer
5 231 (6.34%) Full Stack Developer
6 216 (5.92%) Senior Java Developer
7 209 (5.73%) C# Developer
8 204 (5.60%) Software Engineer
9 196 (5.38%) Python Developer
10 144 (3.95%) React Developer
11 135 (3.70%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
12 131 (3.59%) Scala Developer
13 92 (2.52%) Java Engineer
13 92 (2.52%) Lead Developer
14 91 (2.50%) Software Developer
15 88 (2.41%) Data Engineer
16 86 (2.36%) C# .NET Developer
17 81 (2.22%) JavaScript Developer
18 77 (2.11%) Architect
19 66 (1.81%) Android Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 714 (19.58%) .NET
2 695 (19.06%) React
3 676 (18.54%) Spring
4 613 (16.81%) REST
5 565 (15.50%) HTML
6 490 (13.44%) CSS
7 468 (12.84%) Spring Boot
8 430 (11.79%) RESTful
9 423 (11.60%) Node.js
10 364 (9.98%) Kafka
11 354 (9.71%) AngularJS
12 251 (6.88%) Web Services
13 249 (6.83%) .NET Core
14 217 (5.95%) JSON
15 211 (5.79%) HTML5
16 178 (4.88%) ASP.NET
17 175 (4.80%) .NET Framework
18 155 (4.25%) Hibernate
19 141 (3.87%) ASP.NET Web API
20 134 (3.68%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 239 (6.56%) User Experience
2 157 (4.31%) Greenfield Project
3 134 (3.68%) Fixed Income
4 108 (2.96%) Mobile App
5 105 (2.88%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 95 (2.61%) Cloud Native
7 81 (2.22%) Derivative
8 75 (2.06%) Hedge funds
9 70 (1.92%) Data Protection Act
10 66 (1.81%) Video\Live Streaming
11 64 (1.76%) Legacy Systems
12 53 (1.45%) Algorithms
13 52 (1.43%) Equities
13 52 (1.43%) Media Streaming
14 51 (1.40%) iPad
15 46 (1.26%) Legacy Code
16 45 (1.23%) Public Cloud
17 42 (1.15%) IoT
18 39 (1.07%) Management Information System
19 38 (1.04%) Self-Motivation
Operating Systems
1 363 (9.96%) Linux
2 166 (4.55%) Unix
3 129 (3.54%) Android
4 127 (3.48%) Apple iOS
5 106 (2.91%) Windows
6 50 (1.37%) Mac OS X
7 12 (0.33%) Windows Server
8 10 (0.27%) CentOS
9 8 (0.22%) Ubuntu
10 6 (0.16%) Windows 10
11 5 (0.14%) Mac OS
12 3 (0.082%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 3 (0.082%) Windows Server 2016
13 2 (0.055%) Solaris
13 2 (0.055%) tvOS
13 2 (0.055%) Windows Server 2019
14 1 (0.027%) Debian
14 1 (0.027%) Tizen
14 1 (0.027%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,500 (68.57%) Agile
2 1,321 (36.23%) BDD
3 1,249 (34.26%) Microservices
4 1,199 (32.89%) CI/CD
5 1,024 (28.09%) Scrum
6 885 (24.27%) Test Automation
7 878 (24.08%) DevOps
8 685 (18.79%) Continuous Integration
9 618 (16.95%) Software Engineering
10 508 (13.93%) Full Stack Development
11 489 (13.41%) Pair Programming
12 360 (9.87%) Kanban
13 336 (9.22%) OO
14 333 (9.13%) Unit Testing
15 332 (9.11%) Continuous Delivery
16 322 (8.83%) Mentoring
17 309 (8.48%) Problem-Solving
18 302 (8.28%) Front End Development
19 296 (8.12%) MVC
20 262 (7.19%) SOLID
Programming Languages
1 1,585 (43.47%) Java
2 1,088 (29.84%) JavaScript
3 729 (19.99%) C#
4 727 (19.94%) SQL
5 589 (16.15%) Python
6 567 (15.55%) TypeScript
7 224 (6.14%) Scala
8 205 (5.62%) Kotlin
9 103 (2.83%) Go
10 96 (2.63%) Ruby
11 93 (2.55%) PowerShell
12 92 (2.52%) C++
13 73 (2.00%) PL/SQL
14 69 (1.89%) Apple Swift
15 63 (1.73%) C
16 54 (1.48%) ES6
17 48 (1.32%) PHP
18 40 (1.10%) Shell Script
19 37 (1.01%) Groovy
20 35 (0.96%) Bash
Qualifications
1 368 (10.09%) Security Cleared
2 314 (8.61%) SC Cleared
3 156 (4.28%) Degree
4 52 (1.43%) Computer Science Degree
5 42 (1.15%) BPSS Clearance
6 18 (0.49%) ISTQB
7 17 (0.47%) ISEB
8 15 (0.41%) Microsoft Certification
9 12 (0.33%) DV Cleared
10 9 (0.25%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 8 (0.22%) MCSA
12 7 (0.19%) Master's Degree
12 7 (0.19%) MCAD
13 6 (0.16%) AWS Certification
13 6 (0.16%) CISM
13 6 (0.16%) CISSP
13 6 (0.16%) HNC
13 6 (0.16%) MCSE
13 6 (0.16%) OCA
13 6 (0.16%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 245 (6.72%) QA
2 165 (4.53%) Accessibility
3 36 (0.99%) WCAG
4 21 (0.58%) GDPR
5 9 (0.25%) Data Quality
6 6 (0.16%) HL7
6 6 (0.16%) MiFID
7 4 (0.11%) EMIR
8 3 (0.082%) Disclosure Scotland
9 1 (0.027%) Cyber Essentials
9 1 (0.027%) ISO 20022
9 1 (0.027%) ISO/IEC 27001
9 1 (0.027%) PMBOK
9 1 (0.027%) PMO
9 1 (0.027%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.027%) WAI
System Software
1 700 (19.20%) Docker
2 13 (0.36%) HDFS
3 12 (0.33%) VMware Infrastructure
4 11 (0.30%) Active Directory
4 11 (0.30%) Postfix
5 6 (0.16%) VirtualBox
6 5 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
7 4 (0.11%) vSphere
8 3 (0.082%) zsh
9 2 (0.055%) OpenAM
10 1 (0.027%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 1 (0.027%) NDS
10 1 (0.027%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 1 (0.027%) OpenDJ
Systems Management
1 674 (18.49%) Kubernetes
2 330 (9.05%) Terraform
3 215 (5.90%) Ansible
4 79 (2.17%) Grafana
5 60 (1.65%) Puppet
6 52 (1.43%) Prometheus
7 39 (1.07%) Kibana
8 25 (0.69%) Istio
9 21 (0.58%) Opscode Chef
10 11 (0.30%) AirWatch
10 11 (0.30%) logstash
11 10 (0.27%) MIIS
12 9 (0.25%) Docker Swarm
13 7 (0.19%) Active Directory Federation Services
13 7 (0.19%) Packer
14 6 (0.16%) Argo
14 6 (0.16%) PowerCLI
14 6 (0.16%) Single Sign-On
14 6 (0.16%) vCenter Server
15 5 (0.14%) Rancher
Vendors
1 324 (8.89%) Microsoft
2 253 (6.94%) Oracle
3 122 (3.35%) Google
4 97 (2.66%) Databricks
5 62 (1.70%) DevExpress
5 62 (1.70%) Telerik
6 51 (1.40%) Salesforce.com
7 49 (1.34%) IBM
8 47 (1.29%) Mercator
9 46 (1.26%) Sybase
10 42 (1.15%) AppDynamics
11 39 (1.07%) Splunk
12 33 (0.91%) Apple
12 33 (0.91%) Atlassian
13 31 (0.85%) SAP
14 26 (0.71%) Sitecore
15 18 (0.49%) Adobe
15 18 (0.49%) MuleSoft
16 15 (0.41%) New Relic
17 14 (0.38%) Xamarin