Period
to 30 March 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 30 March 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
30 Mar 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 38 23 16
Rank change year-on-year -15 -7 +10
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,209 6,762 8,094
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.11% 6.95% 7.92%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 6.03% 7.96% 9.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,508 5,268 6,456
Median daily rate £525 £510 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.94% +2.00% +9.89%
10th Percentile £400 £375 £350
90th Percentile £675 £638 £621
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £425
% change year-on-year - +11.76% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 37 31 32
Median hourly rate £54.00 £40.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +35.00% -11.11% +3.45%
10th Percentile £35.00 £35.00 £10.45
90th Percentile £67.12 £60.00 £49.88
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £43.75 £45.00
% change year-on-year -20.00% -2.78% +21.62%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 53,254 84,973 88,513
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 84.86% 87.31% 86.57%
Number of daily rates quoted 33,929 56,261 58,561
Median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +4.65%
10th Percentile £285 £300 £288
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £415
% change year-on-year +2.94% +2.41% +3.75%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,892 2,151 2,231
Median hourly rate £25.00 £24.33 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +2.75% +8.13% -10.00%
10th Percentile £12.50 £11.75 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.25 £50.00
Median hourly rate £22.50 £22.88 £22.50
% change year-on-year -1.64% +1.67% -10.00%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 30 March 2020.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 30 March 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 30 March 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -18 2,994 £525 +1.94% 1,367
London -3 1,973 £550 +3.29% 665
UK excluding London -21 1,172 £475 - 778
North of England -21 308 £470 -0.53% 246
South East -46 257 £463 -2.63% 180
South West -19 177 £513 +9.33% 101
Midlands -25 144 £450 -5.26% 118
North West -14 141 £470 +4.44% 137
East of England -11 129 £475 -5.00% 57
Scotland -13 127 £500 +14.29% 46
Yorkshire -13 123 £489 +2.89% 73
West Midlands -19 104 £475 +2.70% 66
Work from Home -9 84 £500 +2.56% 102
North East -19 45 £430 -6.52% 36
East Midlands -23 39 £413 -14.29% 52
Wales +18 23 £450 +5.26% 24
Northern Ireland +4 12 £400 -2.91% 6

For the 6 months to 30 March 2020, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,308 (71.92%) Agile Software Development
2 1,303 (40.60%) Java
3 1,187 (36.99%) BDD
4 1,100 (34.28%) JavaScript
5 821 (25.58%) Scrum
6 815 (25.40%) Microservices
7 732 (22.81%) C#
8 711 (22.16%) Continuous Integration
9 704 (21.94%) Git (software)
10 693 (21.60%) DevOps
11 692 (21.56%) AWS
12 684 (21.32%) .NET
13 659 (20.54%) Test Automation
14 652 (20.32%) AngularJS
15 614 (19.13%) HTML
16 600 (18.70%) React
17 580 (18.07%) SQL
18 566 (17.64%) CSS
19 559 (17.42%) Spring
19 559 (17.42%) Azure
20 512 (15.96%) Finance
21 503 (15.67%) RESTful
22 496 (15.46%) Jenkins
23 479 (14.93%) Pair Programming
24 447 (13.93%) Software Engineering
25 439 (13.68%) Node.js
26 430 (13.40%) Docker
27 426 (13.28%) Python
28 413 (12.87%) Web Services
29 385 (12.00%) Kanban

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 145 (4.52%) Confluence
2 110 (3.43%) Elasticsearch
3 77 (2.40%) Apache Spark
4 55 (1.71%) Apache
5 35 (1.09%) CMS
6 34 (1.06%) IIS
6 34 (1.06%) Oracle SOA Suite
7 30 (0.93%) Tomcat
8 28 (0.87%) Cloud Foundry
9 21 (0.65%) Mule
10 20 (0.62%) Red Hat Fuse
10 20 (0.62%) SharePoint
11 19 (0.59%) Oracle Service Bus
12 17 (0.53%) WebSphere
13 13 (0.41%) Adobe Experience Manager
13 13 (0.41%) Umbraco
14 10 (0.31%) JBoss
14 10 (0.31%) Jetty
15 9 (0.28%) Oracle Coherence
15 9 (0.28%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 12 (0.37%) Microsoft Excel
2 8 (0.25%) Photoshop
3 7 (0.22%) Microsoft Office
4 6 (0.19%) Zeplin
5 5 (0.16%) Sketch
6 2 (0.062%) Adobe Illustrator
7 1 (0.031%) Chatbot
7 1 (0.031%) Microsoft Project
7 1 (0.031%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.031%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 19 (0.59%) Dynamics CRM
2 13 (0.41%) Magento
2 13 (0.41%) SAP Oil and Gas
3 10 (0.31%) SAP Hybris
4 8 (0.25%) Payment Gateway
5 6 (0.19%) Shopify
6 4 (0.12%) BusinessWorks
6 4 (0.12%) R3 Corda
7 3 (0.093%) Oracle BPM
8 2 (0.062%) SAP ERP
9 1 (0.031%) FastStats
9 1 (0.031%) FINCAD Analytics
9 1 (0.031%) ION MarketView
9 1 (0.031%) Markit EDM
9 1 (0.031%) PolarLake
9 1 (0.031%) SAP S/4HANA
9 1 (0.031%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
Cloud Services
1 692 (21.56%) AWS
2 559 (17.42%) Azure
3 178 (5.55%) Serverless
4 174 (5.42%) GitHub
5 114 (3.55%) GCP
6 109 (3.40%) Amazon EC2
7 88 (2.74%) AWS Lambda
8 55 (1.71%) Amazon S3
9 54 (1.68%) Amazon SQS
10 48 (1.50%) Power Platform
11 44 (1.37%) PaaS
12 34 (1.06%) AWS CloudFormation
13 31 (0.97%) OpenShift
13 31 (0.97%) SaaS
14 28 (0.87%) Azure Functions
15 21 (0.65%) Amazon EMR
16 20 (0.62%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 18 (0.56%) npm
18 17 (0.53%) Dynamics 365
19 16 (0.50%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 85 (2.65%) HTTP
2 42 (1.31%) Internet
3 29 (0.90%) TCP/IP
4 28 (0.87%) DNS
5 23 (0.72%) DSL
6 18 (0.56%) SSL
7 14 (0.44%) FTP
8 10 (0.31%) AMQP
9 9 (0.28%) Skype
10 8 (0.25%) RTMP
11 7 (0.22%) HTTPS
12 6 (0.19%) Firewall
13 5 (0.16%) DHCP
13 5 (0.16%) PuTTY
13 5 (0.16%) SSH
14 3 (0.093%) IPsec
14 3 (0.093%) LAN
14 3 (0.093%) MQTT
14 3 (0.093%) Radio Access Network
14 3 (0.093%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 348 (10.84%) SQL Server
2 208 (6.48%) NoSQL
3 189 (5.89%) PostgreSQL
4 188 (5.86%) MongoDB
5 167 (5.20%) MySQL
6 157 (4.89%) Relational Database
7 87 (2.71%) Big Data
8 61 (1.90%) Amazon RDS
9 58 (1.81%) Redis
10 56 (1.75%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 51 (1.59%) Hadoop
12 48 (1.50%) Power BI
13 46 (1.43%) Apache Cassandra
13 46 (1.43%) Azure SQL Database
14 42 (1.31%) Data Warehouse
14 42 (1.31%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 38 (1.18%) HBase
15 38 (1.18%) RDBMS
16 37 (1.15%) Cosmos DB
17 34 (1.06%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 704 (21.94%) Git (software)
2 496 (15.46%) Jenkins
3 326 (10.16%) JIRA
4 227 (7.07%) Maven
5 224 (6.98%) JUnit
6 211 (6.58%) Selenium
7 172 (5.36%) Cucumber
8 121 (3.77%) TeamCity
9 118 (3.68%) GitLab
10 113 (3.52%) Mockito
11 93 (2.90%) Team Foundation Server
12 83 (2.59%) Visual Studio Team System
13 80 (2.49%) Gradle
14 77 (2.40%) Octopus Deploy
15 75 (2.34%) SonarQube
16 74 (2.31%) Subversion
17 62 (1.93%) SpecFlow
18 61 (1.90%) Bitbucket
18 61 (1.90%) Visual Studio
19 57 (1.78%) jMock
General
1 512 (15.96%) Finance
2 275 (8.57%) Banking
3 191 (5.95%) Public Sector
4 169 (5.27%) Front Office
5 88 (2.74%) Marketing
6 83 (2.59%) Retail
7 76 (2.37%) Investment Banking
8 59 (1.84%) Telecoms
9 40 (1.25%) Manufacturing
10 38 (1.18%) Electronics
11 36 (1.12%) Games
12 28 (0.87%) Automotive
13 24 (0.75%) Law
14 19 (0.59%) Military
14 19 (0.59%) Publishing
15 18 (0.56%) Financial Institution
16 17 (0.53%) Legal
17 16 (0.50%) Retail Banking
18 15 (0.47%) Advertising
19 14 (0.44%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 2,350 (73.23%) Developer
2 668 (20.82%) Java Developer
3 356 (11.09%) Senior Developer
4 350 (10.91%) .NET Developer
5 274 (8.54%) C# Developer
6 265 (8.26%) React Developer
7 244 (7.60%) Full Stack Developer
8 167 (5.20%) JavaScript Developer
9 142 (4.43%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 131 (4.08%) Senior Java Developer
11 130 (4.05%) Python Developer
12 129 (4.02%) AWS Developer
13 120 (3.74%) Angular Developer
14 119 (3.71%) Software Engineer
15 115 (3.58%) C# .NET Developer
16 96 (2.99%) Agile Developer
17 93 (2.90%) Software Developer
18 91 (2.84%) Scala Developer
19 86 (2.68%) Azure Developer
20 79 (2.46%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 684 (21.32%) .NET
2 652 (20.32%) AngularJS
3 614 (19.13%) HTML
4 600 (18.70%) React
5 566 (17.64%) CSS
6 559 (17.42%) Spring
7 503 (15.67%) RESTful
8 439 (13.68%) Node.js
9 413 (12.87%) Web Services
10 383 (11.94%) REST
11 322 (10.03%) Spring Boot
12 236 (7.35%) Kafka
13 234 (7.29%) ASP.NET
14 220 (6.86%) HTML5
15 215 (6.70%) SOAP
16 188 (5.86%) JSON
17 186 (5.80%) Redux
18 178 (5.55%) .NET Core
19 169 (5.27%) Vue.js
20 154 (4.80%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 278 (8.66%) Greenfield Project
2 172 (5.36%) Analytical Skills
3 156 (4.86%) User Experience
4 96 (2.99%) Enterprise Software
5 94 (2.93%) Mobile App
6 93 (2.90%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 69 (2.15%) Fixed Income
8 59 (1.84%) Data Structures
9 57 (1.78%) Algorithms
10 53 (1.65%) Equities
11 45 (1.40%) Hedge funds
12 41 (1.28%) Derivative
13 32 (1.00%) Linux Command Line
14 27 (0.84%) Virtual Team
15 25 (0.78%) Data Centre
15 25 (0.78%) Management Information System
16 24 (0.75%) Cloud Native
16 24 (0.75%) Public Cloud
17 23 (0.72%) Self-Motivation
18 18 (0.56%) N-Tier
Operating Systems
1 257 (8.01%) Linux
2 176 (5.48%) Unix
3 135 (4.21%) Android
4 115 (3.58%) Apple iOS
5 69 (2.15%) Windows
6 45 (1.40%) Mac OS X
7 19 (0.59%) Windows Server
8 12 (0.37%) Mac OS
8 12 (0.37%) Solaris
9 9 (0.28%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 7 (0.22%) Embedded Linux
11 4 (0.12%) CentOS
12 2 (0.062%) HPUX
12 2 (0.062%) tvOS
12 2 (0.062%) Ubuntu
12 2 (0.062%) zOS
13 1 (0.031%) AIX
13 1 (0.031%) CoreOS
13 1 (0.031%) Debian
13 1 (0.031%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,308 (71.92%) Agile Software Development
2 1,187 (36.99%) BDD
3 821 (25.58%) Scrum
4 815 (25.40%) Microservices
5 711 (22.16%) Continuous Integration
6 693 (21.60%) DevOps
7 659 (20.54%) Test Automation
8 479 (14.93%) Pair Programming
9 447 (13.93%) Software Engineering
10 385 (12.00%) Kanban
11 314 (9.78%) OO
12 310 (9.66%) MVC
13 257 (8.01%) Unit Testing
14 254 (7.92%) Front End Development
15 244 (7.60%) Continuous Delivery
16 220 (6.86%) Continuous Improvement
17 219 (6.82%) SOLID
17 219 (6.82%) User Stories
18 216 (6.73%) Open Source
19 205 (6.39%) Problem-Solving
Programming Languages
1 1,303 (40.60%) Java
2 1,100 (34.28%) JavaScript
3 732 (22.81%) C#
4 580 (18.07%) SQL
5 426 (13.28%) Python
6 323 (10.07%) Java 8
7 225 (7.01%) TypeScript
8 182 (5.67%) Ruby
9 177 (5.52%) Scala
10 136 (4.24%) ES6
11 105 (3.27%) Kotlin
12 103 (3.21%) C++
13 99 (3.09%) PHP
14 73 (2.27%) PowerShell
15 71 (2.21%) Go
16 70 (2.18%) C
17 67 (2.09%) T-SQL
18 65 (2.03%) Apple Swift
19 59 (1.84%) Groovy
20 57 (1.78%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 272 (8.48%) Security Cleared
2 180 (5.61%) SC Cleared
3 149 (4.64%) Degree
4 60 (1.87%) Computer Science Degree
5 49 (1.53%) BPSS Clearance
5 49 (1.53%) DV Cleared
6 32 (1.00%) ISTQB
7 16 (0.50%) BC Cleared
7 16 (0.50%) Master's Degree
8 14 (0.44%) ISEB
9 12 (0.37%) DBS Check
10 9 (0.28%) AWS Certification
10 9 (0.28%) Microsoft Certification
11 7 (0.22%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
12 5 (0.16%) MCSE
13 4 (0.12%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 4 (0.12%) OCP
13 4 (0.12%) Oracle Certification
14 3 (0.093%) PMI Certification
14 3 (0.093%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 178 (5.55%) QA
2 18 (0.56%) WCAG
3 11 (0.34%) GDPR
4 10 (0.31%) Data Quality
5 7 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
5 7 (0.22%) PMO
6 5 (0.16%) MiFID
7 4 (0.12%) SLA
8 2 (0.062%) EMIR
8 2 (0.062%) WAI
9 1 (0.031%) IFRS
System Software
1 430 (13.40%) Docker
2 40 (1.25%) Postfix
3 32 (1.00%) HDFS
4 24 (0.75%) Active Directory
5 12 (0.37%) VMware Infrastructure
6 11 (0.34%) Virtual Machines
7 9 (0.28%) vSphere
8 4 (0.12%) BusyBox
8 4 (0.12%) NDS
8 4 (0.12%) NetIQ eDirectory
9 3 (0.093%) Xen
10 2 (0.062%) Firmware
11 1 (0.031%) Apache Flume
11 1 (0.031%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 1 (0.031%) LXC
11 1 (0.031%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
11 1 (0.031%) Varnish
11 1 (0.031%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 275 (8.57%) Kubernetes
2 129 (4.02%) Terraform
3 83 (2.59%) Ansible
4 37 (1.15%) Puppet
5 35 (1.09%) Opscode Chef
6 27 (0.84%) Kibana
7 22 (0.69%) Hadoop YARN
8 14 (0.44%) MIIS
9 11 (0.34%) Grafana
10 10 (0.31%) Docker Swarm
11 7 (0.22%) Single Sign-On
12 6 (0.19%) Control-M
12 6 (0.19%) Prometheus
13 5 (0.16%) Consul
13 5 (0.16%) NetIQ Identity Manager
14 3 (0.093%) HP Quality Center
14 3 (0.093%) logstash
14 3 (0.093%) Rundeck
14 3 (0.093%) Tivoli
15 2 (0.062%) Netcool
Vendors
1 263 (8.20%) Microsoft
2 189 (5.89%) Oracle
3 110 (3.43%) Google
4 78 (2.43%) SAP
5 56 (1.75%) Atlassian
6 35 (1.09%) hybris
7 30 (0.93%) Tableau
8 29 (0.90%) Adobe
9 27 (0.84%) IBM
10 25 (0.78%) Remedy
11 24 (0.75%) Apple
11 24 (0.75%) Talend
12 22 (0.69%) Splunk
13 20 (0.62%) DevExpress
13 20 (0.62%) WSO2
14 17 (0.53%) Cognos
15 16 (0.50%) MicroStrategy
15 16 (0.50%) Salesforce.com
15 16 (0.50%) VMware
16 15 (0.47%) RedGate