Period
to 5 March 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 5 March 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
5 Mar 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 40 39 22
Rank change year-on-year -1 -17 -5
Contract jobs citing TDD 2,434 3,459 7,137
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.01% 5.10% 7.22%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.78% 5.98% 8.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,429 2,785 5,692
Median daily rate £525 £525 £510
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.94% +3.03%
10th Percentile £381 £394 £381
90th Percentile £650 £675 £648
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £475
Number of hourly rates quoted 40 17 19
Median hourly rate £42.00 £58.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -27.59% +28.89% -
10th Percentile £27.13 £44.43 £35.00
90th Percentile £68.00 £69.50 £62.64
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £47.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year -15.79% +5.56% -

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 42,095 57,828 86,546
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.59% 85.31% 87.56%
Number of daily rates quoted 28,557 38,652 58,326
Median daily rate £475 £475 £475
10th Percentile £300 £281 £300
90th Percentile £656 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £438 £425
% change year-on-year -2.86% +2.94% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,361 1,763 2,125
Median hourly rate £26.65 £21.50 £22.40
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +23.95% -4.02% +1.82%
10th Percentile £12.06 £12.37 £11.25
90th Percentile £60.00 £53.75 £50.00
Median hourly rate £23.43 £20.00 £21.83
% change year-on-year +17.14% -8.38% +1.53%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 5 March 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 5 March 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 5 March 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 2,004 £525 - 1,199
London -5 1,414 £550 - 512
Work from Home +11 779 £515 +3.00% 271
UK excluding London -2 610 £475 - 751
North of England +8 215 £475 +2.43% 261
North West +7 104 £450 -2.70% 162
South East -33 91 £450 - 151
South West +20 87 £500 - 97
Scotland -1 87 £425 -15.00% 47
Yorkshire +8 68 £500 +2.56% 78
Midlands -21 65 £400 -13.51% 119
East of England -9 48 £500 +5.26% 56
North East +22 43 £475 +10.47% 21
West Midlands -28 32 £450 -5.26% 78
East Midlands +10 22 £351 -14.91% 39
Wales +18 11 £344 -27.63% 17
Northern Ireland +8 7 £430 +7.50% 4
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 5 March 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,617 (66.43%) Agile Software Development
2 998 (41.00%) Java
3 971 (39.89%) BDD
4 723 (29.70%) DevOps
5 721 (29.62%) JavaScript
6 694 (28.51%) Microservices
7 619 (25.43%) AWS
8 577 (23.71%) Scrum
9 576 (23.66%) Test Automation
10 547 (22.47%) Azure
11 512 (21.04%) Git (software)
12 449 (18.45%) Software Engineering
13 434 (17.83%) Docker
14 430 (17.67%) Python
14 430 (17.67%) Finance
15 424 (17.42%) React
16 423 (17.38%) Spring
17 420 (17.26%) C#
18 418 (17.17%) Continuous Integration
19 417 (17.13%) .NET
20 405 (16.64%) SQL
21 394 (16.19%) Jenkins
22 345 (14.17%) CSS
23 344 (14.13%) AngularJS
24 340 (13.97%) HTML
25 333 (13.68%) Node.js
25 333 (13.68%) Kubernetes
26 318 (13.06%) RESTful
27 307 (12.61%) REST
28 286 (11.75%) Pair Programming

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 136 (5.59%) Confluence
2 84 (3.45%) Apache Spark
3 65 (2.67%) Elasticsearch
4 45 (1.85%) Apache
5 42 (1.73%) Mule
6 38 (1.56%) Red Hat Fuse
7 37 (1.52%) JBoss
8 36 (1.48%) Cloud Foundry
9 29 (1.19%) SharePoint
10 27 (1.11%) WebSphere
11 25 (1.03%) NServiceBus
12 23 (0.94%) CMS
13 22 (0.90%) Tomcat
14 20 (0.82%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 20 (0.82%) WebLogic
15 16 (0.66%) Apache Airflow
15 16 (0.66%) Jetty
16 13 (0.53%) Oracle Service Bus
17 10 (0.41%) Apache Solr
18 9 (0.37%) MQSeries
Applications
1 7 (0.29%) Chatbot
1 7 (0.29%) Figma
2 6 (0.25%) Microsoft Excel
3 3 (0.12%) Photoshop
3 3 (0.12%) Sketch
4 2 (0.082%) Microsoft Office
4 2 (0.082%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.041%) 3ds Max
5 1 (0.041%) Adobe Illustrator
5 1 (0.041%) Blender
5 1 (0.041%) InVision
5 1 (0.041%) Maya
5 1 (0.041%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 18 (0.74%) Dynamics CRM
2 8 (0.33%) Magento
3 5 (0.21%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
4 4 (0.16%) SAP S/4HANA
4 4 (0.16%) Shopify
5 3 (0.12%) Adobe Campaign
5 3 (0.12%) Payment Gateway
5 3 (0.12%) RMDS
6 2 (0.082%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
6 2 (0.082%) SAP ERP
6 2 (0.082%) SAP Hybris
7 1 (0.041%) Dynamics AX
7 1 (0.041%) Dynamics NAV
7 1 (0.041%) Exstream
7 1 (0.041%) NetSuite
7 1 (0.041%) Salesforce.com CRM
7 1 (0.041%) thinkFolio
7 1 (0.041%) Toggl
7 1 (0.041%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 619 (25.43%) AWS
2 547 (22.47%) Azure
3 211 (8.67%) Serverless
4 136 (5.59%) GCP
5 132 (5.42%) GitHub
6 96 (3.94%) AWS Lambda
7 89 (3.66%) Power Platform
8 74 (3.04%) Azure Functions
9 71 (2.92%) PaaS
10 61 (2.51%) Logic Apps
11 46 (1.89%) Amazon S3
11 46 (1.89%) OpenShift
12 41 (1.68%) IaaS
13 39 (1.60%) SaaS
14 37 (1.52%) Cloud Computing
15 36 (1.48%) PowerApps
16 33 (1.36%) AWS CloudFormation
17 30 (1.23%) Power Automate
18 27 (1.11%) Azure Active Directory
19 26 (1.07%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 47 (1.93%) HTTP
2 25 (1.03%) TCP/IP
3 19 (0.78%) Wi-Fi
4 16 (0.66%) Internet
5 14 (0.58%) UPnP
6 13 (0.53%) DNS
6 13 (0.53%) IPv6
7 12 (0.49%) DECT
7 12 (0.49%) IPv4
8 11 (0.45%) LAN
9 10 (0.41%) ATM
9 10 (0.41%) Multicast
9 10 (0.41%) PPP
10 9 (0.37%) SMS
10 9 (0.37%) SSL
10 9 (0.37%) WAN
11 8 (0.33%) Broadband
11 8 (0.33%) SSH
12 6 (0.25%) Kerberos
13 5 (0.21%) VLAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 209 (8.59%) SQL Server
2 193 (7.93%) NoSQL
3 149 (6.12%) MongoDB
4 118 (4.85%) MySQL
5 116 (4.77%) PostgreSQL
6 114 (4.68%) Relational Database
7 106 (4.35%) Big Data
8 76 (3.12%) Hadoop
9 67 (2.75%) Data Warehouse
10 57 (2.34%) Azure SQL Database
11 52 (2.14%) Power BI
12 43 (1.77%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 41 (1.68%) BigQuery
14 40 (1.64%) Cosmos DB
15 39 (1.60%) Redis
16 34 (1.40%) Cloud Spanner
17 33 (1.36%) Bigtable
18 31 (1.27%) Amazon RDS
18 31 (1.27%) RDBMS
19 29 (1.19%) OLTP
Development Applications
1 512 (21.04%) Git (software)
2 394 (16.19%) Jenkins
3 268 (11.01%) JIRA
4 209 (8.59%) Selenium
5 183 (7.52%) Maven
6 157 (6.45%) Cucumber
7 146 (6.00%) JUnit
8 126 (5.18%) GitLab
9 75 (3.08%) Gradle
10 69 (2.83%) webpack
11 68 (2.79%) Mockito
12 65 (2.67%) Subversion
13 58 (2.38%) Jasmine
14 52 (2.14%) Cypress.io
14 52 (2.14%) Postman
15 47 (1.93%) JMeter
16 45 (1.85%) TeamCity
17 44 (1.81%) Octopus Deploy
17 44 (1.81%) Visual Studio Team System
18 42 (1.73%) Mocha
General
1 430 (17.67%) Finance
2 286 (11.75%) Banking
3 174 (7.15%) Public Sector
4 151 (6.20%) Front Office
5 102 (4.19%) Investment Banking
6 53 (2.18%) Telecoms
7 51 (2.10%) Marketing
8 41 (1.68%) Retail
9 39 (1.60%) Manufacturing
10 36 (1.48%) Electronics
11 31 (1.27%) Games
12 27 (1.11%) Retail Banking
13 19 (0.78%) Law
14 15 (0.62%) Automotive
15 14 (0.58%) Financial Institution
16 10 (0.41%) Publishing
17 6 (0.25%) Advertising
18 4 (0.16%) Pharmaceutical
19 3 (0.12%) Legal
20 2 (0.082%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 1,626 (66.80%) Developer
2 507 (20.83%) Java Developer
3 294 (12.08%) Senior Developer
4 173 (7.11%) React Developer
5 151 (6.20%) .NET Developer
6 130 (5.34%) Scala Developer
7 126 (5.18%) Software Engineer
8 123 (5.05%) Full Stack Developer
9 119 (4.89%) C# Developer
10 116 (4.77%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 116 (4.77%) Senior Java Developer
11 104 (4.27%) Python Developer
12 97 (3.99%) DevOps Engineer
13 88 (3.62%) Java Engineer
13 88 (3.62%) JavaScript Developer
14 84 (3.45%) AWS Developer
15 83 (3.41%) AWS Engineer
16 74 (3.04%) Architect
17 72 (2.96%) Software Developer
18 66 (2.71%) AWS DevOps
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 424 (17.42%) React
2 423 (17.38%) Spring
3 417 (17.13%) .NET
4 345 (14.17%) CSS
5 344 (14.13%) AngularJS
6 340 (13.97%) HTML
7 333 (13.68%) Node.js
8 318 (13.06%) RESTful
9 307 (12.61%) REST
10 231 (9.49%) Web Services
11 228 (9.37%) Spring Boot
12 199 (8.18%) HTML5
13 181 (7.44%) Kafka
14 177 (7.27%) Redux
15 166 (6.82%) .NET Core
16 143 (5.88%) JSON
17 138 (5.67%) XML
18 120 (4.93%) CSS3
19 114 (4.68%) ASP.NET
20 103 (4.23%) GraphQL
Miscellaneous
1 180 (7.40%) Greenfield Project
2 162 (6.66%) User Experience
3 86 (3.53%) Analytical Skills
4 63 (2.59%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 63 (2.59%) Mobile App
5 59 (2.42%) Cloud Native
6 54 (2.22%) Self-Motivation
7 52 (2.14%) Enterprise Software
8 46 (1.89%) Data Structures
9 44 (1.81%) Algorithms
10 40 (1.64%) Derivative
10 40 (1.64%) Fixed Income
11 33 (1.36%) Public Cloud
12 25 (1.03%) Equities
13 18 (0.74%) Market Risk
13 18 (0.74%) Virtual Team
14 17 (0.70%) Embedded Systems
15 16 (0.66%) Credit Risk
16 14 (0.58%) Data Centre
16 14 (0.58%) Hybrid Cloud
Operating Systems
1 259 (10.64%) Linux
2 127 (5.22%) Unix
3 115 (4.72%) Android
4 102 (4.19%) Apple iOS
5 62 (2.55%) Windows
6 32 (1.31%) Mac OS X
7 16 (0.66%) Mac OS
7 16 (0.66%) OpenWrt
8 15 (0.62%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 15 (0.62%) Windows 10
9 13 (0.53%) Ubuntu
10 12 (0.49%) CentOS
11 5 (0.21%) Debian
11 5 (0.21%) Embedded Linux
12 3 (0.12%) Windows Server
13 2 (0.082%) tvOS
14 1 (0.041%) Solaris
14 1 (0.041%) Tizen
14 1 (0.041%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,617 (66.43%) Agile Software Development
2 971 (39.89%) BDD
3 723 (29.70%) DevOps
4 694 (28.51%) Microservices
5 577 (23.71%) Scrum
6 576 (23.66%) Test Automation
7 449 (18.45%) Software Engineering
8 418 (17.17%) Continuous Integration
9 286 (11.75%) Pair Programming
10 231 (9.49%) Continuous Delivery
11 227 (9.33%) Problem-Solving
12 213 (8.75%) Kanban
13 188 (7.72%) OO
14 183 (7.52%) Unit Testing
15 163 (6.70%) Front End Development
16 147 (6.04%) Continuous Improvement
17 143 (5.88%) SDLC
18 142 (5.83%) Mentoring
19 134 (5.51%) Open Source
20 132 (5.42%) MVC
Programming Languages
1 998 (41.00%) Java
2 721 (29.62%) JavaScript
3 430 (17.67%) Python
4 420 (17.26%) C#
5 405 (16.64%) SQL
6 253 (10.39%) Scala
7 207 (8.50%) Java 8
8 205 (8.42%) TypeScript
9 144 (5.92%) Kotlin
10 108 (4.44%) C++
11 92 (3.78%) Ruby
12 82 (3.37%) PowerShell
13 74 (3.04%) Go
14 66 (2.71%) ES6
15 64 (2.63%) C
16 56 (2.30%) PL/SQL
17 55 (2.26%) Bash Shell
17 55 (2.26%) PHP
17 55 (2.26%) Shell Script
18 47 (1.93%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 209 (8.59%) Security Cleared
2 166 (6.82%) SC Cleared
3 130 (5.34%) Degree
4 32 (1.31%) Numerate Degree
5 20 (0.82%) BPSS Clearance
6 19 (0.78%) DV Cleared
7 11 (0.45%) Computer Science Degree
8 10 (0.41%) DBS Check
9 9 (0.37%) OCPJP
9 9 (0.37%) Sun Certification
10 7 (0.29%) AWS Certification
11 6 (0.25%) ISTQB
12 5 (0.21%) ISEB
13 4 (0.16%) BC Cleared
13 4 (0.16%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
14 2 (0.082%) Master's Degree
14 2 (0.082%) PMI Certification
14 2 (0.082%) PMP
15 1 (0.041%) HNC
15 1 (0.041%) ISEB Practitioner
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 221 (9.08%) QA
2 24 (0.99%) WCAG
3 12 (0.49%) JTAG
4 6 (0.25%) GDPR
5 5 (0.21%) Data Quality
5 5 (0.21%) PMO
6 4 (0.16%) MiFID
7 2 (0.082%) Disclosure Scotland
8 1 (0.041%) GxP
8 1 (0.041%) HL7
8 1 (0.041%) PSD2
8 1 (0.041%) SLA
System Software
1 434 (17.83%) Docker
2 39 (1.60%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.66%) HDFS
4 8 (0.33%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 4 (0.16%) Varnish
5 4 (0.16%) Virtual Machines
6 3 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
7 2 (0.082%) KVM
7 2 (0.082%) Platform Symphony
7 2 (0.082%) Postfix
7 2 (0.082%) vSphere
8 1 (0.041%) Firmware
8 1 (0.041%) Hyper-V
8 1 (0.041%) NDS
8 1 (0.041%) NetIQ eDirectory
Systems Management
1 333 (13.68%) Kubernetes
2 221 (9.08%) Terraform
3 110 (4.52%) Ansible
4 30 (1.23%) Opscode Chef
5 25 (1.03%) Grafana
6 23 (0.94%) Prometheus
6 23 (0.94%) Puppet
7 10 (0.41%) Rancher
8 9 (0.37%) Oozie
9 7 (0.29%) Salt
10 6 (0.25%) Docker Swarm
10 6 (0.25%) HP ALM
10 6 (0.25%) Kibana
10 6 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
11 5 (0.21%) Consul
11 5 (0.21%) Rundeck
12 4 (0.16%) Hadoop YARN
13 3 (0.12%) HP Quality Center
13 3 (0.12%) MIIS
14 2 (0.082%) Ambari
Vendors
1 171 (7.03%) Microsoft
2 147 (6.04%) Oracle
3 92 (3.78%) Google
4 47 (1.93%) Atlassian
5 44 (1.81%) Splunk
6 42 (1.73%) SAP
7 30 (1.23%) MuleSoft
8 29 (1.19%) Sybase
9 25 (1.03%) Databricks
10 23 (0.94%) IBM
11 18 (0.74%) Adobe
12 17 (0.70%) WSO2
13 16 (0.66%) CA Agile Central
13 16 (0.66%) Dynatrace
13 16 (0.66%) Red Hat
14 15 (0.62%) Xamarin
15 14 (0.58%) Apple
16 13 (0.53%) AppDynamics
16 13 (0.53%) Cloudera
17 12 (0.49%) ServiceNow