Period
to 15 September 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 15 September 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
15 Sep 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 29 20 17
Rank change year-on-year -9 -3 +13
Contract jobs citing TDD 5,444 8,044 7,346
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 6.18% 7.88% 7.46%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 7.14% 9.07% 8.67%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,130 6,267 5,713
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £475
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £394 £363 £340
90th Percentile £688 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £420
% change year-on-year - +7.14% -1.18%
Number of hourly rates quoted 7 25 55
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% +5.88% +3.29%
10th Percentile £26.30 £21.30 £35.00
90th Percentile £54.40 £71.22 £63.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £42.50
% change year-on-year -22.22% +5.88% +6.25%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 76,299 88,654 84,735
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.57% 86.83% 86.08%
Number of daily rates quoted 50,040 58,400 55,691
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £278
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,273 2,439 2,111
UK median hourly rate £24.12 £20.50 £24.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +17.66% -16.33% +6.52%
10th Percentile £11.80 £11.17 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.96 £20.00 £25.00
% change year-on-year +19.78% -20.00% +6.38%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 15 September 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 15 September 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 15 September 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 5,227 £525 +5.00% 1,613
London -3 3,308 £550 +4.76% 732
UK excluding London -12 2,076 £450 - 988
South East -8 664 £463 -2.63% 215
North of England -24 488 £450 +7.14% 317
East of England -2 286 £450 -14.29% 99
Midlands -13 265 £450 +2.86% 145
North West -16 259 £433 +2.98% 194
South West -20 207 £450 +5.88% 105
Yorkshire -27 183 £488 +14.71% 97
West Midlands -13 168 £463 +2.78% 89
Scotland -14 149 £475 +11.76% 75
East Midlands -17 82 £419 +2.13% 55
North East -18 45 £425 +13.33% 26
Wales -51 11 £438 +2.94% 28
Northern Ireland -17 8 £475 +10.14% 6
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 15 September 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 4,047 (74.34%) Agile Software Development
2 2,147 (39.44%) BDD
3 2,145 (39.40%) Java
4 1,960 (36.00%) JavaScript
5 1,411 (25.92%) Scrum
6 1,366 (25.09%) C#
7 1,257 (23.09%) Microservices
8 1,238 (22.74%) Continuous Integration
9 1,231 (22.61%) .NET
10 1,206 (22.15%) Git (software)
11 1,152 (21.16%) HTML
12 1,115 (20.48%) AngularJS
13 1,113 (20.44%) AWS
14 1,097 (20.15%) CSS
15 1,079 (19.82%) Test Automation
16 1,009 (18.53%) React
17 997 (18.31%) Azure
18 987 (18.13%) DevOps
19 938 (17.23%) SQL
20 924 (16.97%) Finance
21 874 (16.05%) Jenkins
22 862 (15.83%) Spring
23 838 (15.39%) Docker
24 784 (14.40%) Node.js
25 777 (14.27%) RESTful
26 749 (13.76%) Python
27 727 (13.35%) REST
28 701 (12.88%) Web Services
29 642 (11.79%) Java 8
30 633 (11.63%) Linux

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 250 (4.59%) Confluence
2 228 (4.19%) Elasticsearch
3 153 (2.81%) Apache Spark
4 128 (2.35%) Apache
5 90 (1.65%) CMS
6 65 (1.19%) Tomcat
7 58 (1.07%) JBoss
8 57 (1.05%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 56 (1.03%) Apache Solr
10 49 (0.90%) Mule
11 46 (0.84%) WebSphere
12 37 (0.68%) Oracle Service Bus
13 35 (0.64%) SharePoint
14 29 (0.53%) Sitecore CMS
15 26 (0.48%) Cloud Foundry
16 25 (0.46%) Jetty
17 22 (0.40%) IIS
18 21 (0.39%) OpenStack
18 21 (0.39%) WordPress
19 19 (0.35%) nginx
Applications
1 23 (0.42%) Microsoft Excel
2 12 (0.22%) Photoshop
3 11 (0.20%) Chatbot
4 8 (0.15%) Adobe Illustrator
4 8 (0.15%) Microsoft Office
5 7 (0.13%) InVision
6 6 (0.11%) MS Visio
7 5 (0.092%) Zeplin
8 4 (0.073%) Adobe XD
9 3 (0.055%) Microsoft Project
10 2 (0.037%) Adobe Premiere
10 2 (0.037%) Sketch
11 1 (0.018%) GIMP
11 1 (0.018%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 36 (0.66%) Magento
2 34 (0.62%) Dynamics CRM
3 17 (0.31%) Remedy ITSM
4 8 (0.15%) BusinessWorks
5 6 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
6 5 (0.092%) Dynamics AX
6 5 (0.092%) Fredhopper
7 4 (0.073%) Payment Gateway
7 4 (0.073%) Summit
8 3 (0.055%) Distributed Ledger
8 3 (0.055%) Oracle BPM
8 3 (0.055%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 3 (0.055%) SAP FI
9 2 (0.037%) NetSuite
9 2 (0.037%) Oracle Cash Management
9 2 (0.037%) Oracle Financials
9 2 (0.037%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
10 1 (0.018%) Oracle Assets
10 1 (0.018%) Oracle Retail
10 1 (0.018%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 1,113 (20.44%) AWS
2 997 (18.31%) Azure
3 228 (4.19%) Serverless
4 209 (3.84%) GitHub
5 159 (2.92%) GCP
6 141 (2.59%) Amazon EC2
7 113 (2.08%) AWS Lambda
8 104 (1.91%) Amazon SQS
9 77 (1.41%) Amazon S3
9 77 (1.41%) PaaS
10 70 (1.29%) npm
11 63 (1.16%) Power Platform
12 58 (1.07%) SaaS
13 52 (0.96%) Cloud Computing
14 49 (0.90%) AWS CloudFormation
15 48 (0.88%) Azure Functions
16 45 (0.83%) Azure Active Directory
17 42 (0.77%) Amazon ECS
17 42 (0.77%) OpenShift
18 37 (0.68%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 139 (2.55%) HTTP
2 55 (1.01%) Internet
3 46 (0.84%) TCP/IP
4 40 (0.73%) DNS
5 25 (0.46%) AMQP
6 23 (0.42%) SSL
7 18 (0.33%) FTP
7 18 (0.33%) SSH
8 16 (0.29%) Firewall
9 15 (0.28%) Skype
10 10 (0.18%) MQTT
11 9 (0.17%) Bluetooth
11 9 (0.17%) NFC
12 6 (0.11%) DSL
12 6 (0.11%) H.323
12 6 (0.11%) HTTPS
12 6 (0.11%) MPLS
12 6 (0.11%) Multicast
12 6 (0.11%) OpenLDAP
13 5 (0.092%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 567 (10.42%) SQL Server
2 440 (8.08%) NoSQL
3 387 (7.11%) MongoDB
4 339 (6.23%) MySQL
5 326 (5.99%) PostgreSQL
6 294 (5.40%) Relational Database
7 193 (3.55%) Big Data
8 169 (3.10%) Hadoop
9 129 (2.37%) Redis
10 105 (1.93%) Data Warehouse
11 91 (1.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 89 (1.63%) Cosmos DB
13 88 (1.62%) Azure SQL Database
14 87 (1.60%) Amazon RDS
14 87 (1.60%) Apache Cassandra
15 73 (1.34%) Oracle Database
16 67 (1.23%) HBase
17 64 (1.18%) RDBMS
18 63 (1.16%) Power BI
19 45 (0.83%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 1,206 (22.15%) Git (software)
2 874 (16.05%) Jenkins
3 497 (9.13%) JIRA
4 421 (7.73%) Selenium
5 317 (5.82%) Cucumber
6 300 (5.51%) Maven
7 293 (5.38%) JUnit
8 240 (4.41%) Mockito
9 225 (4.13%) TeamCity
10 161 (2.96%) webpack
11 138 (2.53%) Jasmine
12 136 (2.50%) Gradle
13 130 (2.39%) Visual Studio
14 123 (2.26%) gulp
15 122 (2.24%) Bitbucket
16 118 (2.17%) Subversion
17 117 (2.15%) Team Foundation Server
18 116 (2.13%) SonarQube
19 110 (2.02%) Visual Studio Team System
20 107 (1.97%) NUnit
General
1 924 (16.97%) Finance
2 550 (10.10%) Banking
3 238 (4.37%) Public Sector
4 197 (3.62%) Front Office
5 168 (3.09%) Retail
6 152 (2.79%) Investment Banking
7 126 (2.31%) Marketing
8 123 (2.26%) Games
9 100 (1.84%) Telecoms
10 63 (1.16%) Manufacturing
11 57 (1.05%) Electronics
12 52 (0.96%) Financial Institution
13 42 (0.77%) Publishing
14 33 (0.61%) Law
14 33 (0.61%) Retail Banking
15 29 (0.53%) Advertising
16 24 (0.44%) Legal
16 24 (0.44%) Military
17 11 (0.20%) Back Office
18 10 (0.18%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 4,054 (74.47%) Developer
2 1,209 (22.21%) Java Developer
3 635 (11.66%) Senior Developer
4 590 (10.84%) .NET Developer
5 539 (9.90%) React Developer
6 446 (8.19%) Full Stack Developer
7 440 (8.08%) C# Developer
8 395 (7.26%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 334 (6.14%) JavaScript Developer
10 275 (5.05%) Senior Java Developer
11 236 (4.34%) Angular Developer
12 234 (4.30%) Python Developer
13 225 (4.13%) C# .NET Developer
14 174 (3.20%) Lead Developer
15 170 (3.12%) Scala Developer
16 167 (3.07%) Architect
17 157 (2.88%) Software Engineer
18 156 (2.87%) Software Developer
19 153 (2.81%) AWS Developer
20 145 (2.66%) Agile Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,231 (22.61%) .NET
2 1,152 (21.16%) HTML
3 1,115 (20.48%) AngularJS
4 1,097 (20.15%) CSS
5 1,009 (18.53%) React
6 862 (15.83%) Spring
7 784 (14.40%) Node.js
8 777 (14.27%) RESTful
9 727 (13.35%) REST
10 701 (12.88%) Web Services
11 514 (9.44%) HTML5
12 512 (9.40%) ASP.NET
13 443 (8.14%) Redux
14 427 (7.84%) Spring Boot
15 417 (7.66%) .NET Core
16 380 (6.98%) ASP.NET Web API
17 371 (6.81%) SOAP
18 361 (6.63%) JSON
19 356 (6.54%) Kafka
20 325 (5.97%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 546 (10.03%) Greenfield Project
2 356 (6.54%) User Experience
3 188 (3.45%) Analytical Skills
4 162 (2.98%) Mobile App
5 158 (2.90%) Enterprise Software
6 106 (1.95%) Derivative
7 103 (1.89%) Algorithms
8 77 (1.41%) Hedge funds
9 75 (1.38%) Public Cloud
10 73 (1.34%) Equities
11 72 (1.32%) Data Structures
12 64 (1.18%) Linux Command Line
12 64 (1.18%) Virtual Team
13 63 (1.16%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 61 (1.12%) Self-Motivation
15 46 (0.84%) Equity Derivative
15 46 (0.84%) Fixed Income
15 46 (0.84%) Video on Demand
16 44 (0.81%) Video\Live Streaming
17 41 (0.75%) Animation
Operating Systems
1 633 (11.63%) Linux
2 349 (6.41%) Unix
3 178 (3.27%) Apple iOS
4 169 (3.10%) Android
5 142 (2.61%) Windows
6 122 (2.24%) Mac OS X
7 71 (1.30%) CentOS
8 39 (0.72%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 36 (0.66%) tvOS
10 33 (0.61%) Mac OS
11 22 (0.40%) Ubuntu
12 11 (0.20%) VMS
12 11 (0.20%) Windows Server
13 8 (0.15%) AIX
14 6 (0.11%) Debian
15 3 (0.055%) Solaris
15 3 (0.055%) Windows 10
16 1 (0.018%) Embedded Linux
16 1 (0.018%) Oracle Linux
16 1 (0.018%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,047 (74.34%) Agile Software Development
2 2,147 (39.44%) BDD
3 1,411 (25.92%) Scrum
4 1,257 (23.09%) Microservices
5 1,238 (22.74%) Continuous Integration
6 1,079 (19.82%) Test Automation
7 987 (18.13%) DevOps
8 598 (10.98%) MVC
9 589 (10.82%) Front End Development
10 588 (10.80%) Pair Programming
11 583 (10.71%) Kanban
12 572 (10.51%) OO
13 562 (10.32%) Software Engineering
14 528 (9.70%) Unit Testing
15 446 (8.19%) Continuous Delivery
16 424 (7.79%) SOLID
17 392 (7.20%) E-Commerce
18 370 (6.80%) Problem-Solving
19 359 (6.59%) SDLC
19 359 (6.59%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 2,145 (39.40%) Java
2 1,960 (36.00%) JavaScript
3 1,366 (25.09%) C#
4 938 (17.23%) SQL
5 749 (13.76%) Python
6 642 (11.79%) Java 8
7 391 (7.18%) TypeScript
8 387 (7.11%) Scala
9 331 (6.08%) Ruby
10 273 (5.01%) ES6
11 168 (3.09%) PHP
12 135 (2.48%) C++
13 132 (2.42%) Kotlin
14 117 (2.15%) C
15 108 (1.98%) PowerShell
16 105 (1.93%) Shell Script
17 92 (1.69%) Apple Swift
17 92 (1.69%) T-SQL
18 89 (1.63%) Bash Shell
19 86 (1.58%) Go
Qualifications
1 344 (6.32%) Security Cleared
2 273 (5.01%) SC Cleared
3 229 (4.21%) Degree
4 62 (1.14%) BPSS Clearance
5 57 (1.05%) Computer Science Degree
6 49 (0.90%) ISTQB
7 46 (0.84%) DV Cleared
8 41 (0.75%) ISEB
9 28 (0.51%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 21 (0.39%) DBS Check
11 17 (0.31%) Sun Certification
12 16 (0.29%) AWS Certification
12 16 (0.29%) OCPJP
13 13 (0.24%) CTC Cleared
14 11 (0.20%) Master's Degree
15 7 (0.13%) IIBA
16 6 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
17 5 (0.092%) BC Cleared
18 4 (0.073%) CISA
18 4 (0.073%) CISM
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 313 (5.75%) QA
2 19 (0.35%) WCAG
3 12 (0.22%) MiFID
4 11 (0.20%) PCI DSS
5 10 (0.18%) Disclosure Scotland
6 9 (0.17%) Data Quality
7 7 (0.13%) EMIR
8 6 (0.11%) GDPR
9 5 (0.092%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 4 (0.073%) PMO
10 4 (0.073%) PSD2
11 2 (0.037%) Dodd-Frank
11 2 (0.037%) HL7
11 2 (0.037%) IFRS
12 1 (0.018%) GAMP
12 1 (0.018%) GxP
12 1 (0.018%) NCSC
12 1 (0.018%) NIST
12 1 (0.018%) WAI
System Software
1 838 (15.39%) Docker
2 70 (1.29%) Active Directory
3 30 (0.55%) HDFS
4 28 (0.51%) Postfix
5 27 (0.50%) VMware Infrastructure
6 22 (0.40%) vSphere
7 16 (0.29%) Virtual Machines
8 14 (0.26%) Apache Flume
9 12 (0.22%) Apache ZooKeeper
10 8 (0.15%) NDS
10 8 (0.15%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
11 6 (0.11%) NetIQ eDirectory
12 5 (0.092%) Varnish
12 5 (0.092%) Virtual Servers
13 4 (0.073%) vCloud
14 3 (0.055%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
14 3 (0.055%) Microsoft App-V
15 2 (0.037%) VirtualBox
16 1 (0.018%) Virtual Desktop
16 1 (0.018%) VMware NSX
Systems Management
1 442 (8.12%) Kubernetes
2 195 (3.58%) Ansible
3 175 (3.21%) Terraform
4 87 (1.60%) Puppet
5 69 (1.27%) Opscode Chef
6 27 (0.50%) Hadoop YARN
6 27 (0.50%) Kibana
7 24 (0.44%) Control-M
8 20 (0.37%) Mesos
8 20 (0.37%) NetIQ Identity Manager
9 19 (0.35%) Prometheus
10 18 (0.33%) logstash
11 17 (0.31%) Docker Swarm
11 17 (0.31%) Grafana
12 16 (0.29%) Marathon
12 16 (0.29%) ZABBIX
13 14 (0.26%) Nagios
14 13 (0.24%) ITRS Geneos
14 13 (0.24%) Tivoli
15 11 (0.20%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 381 (7.00%) Microsoft
2 322 (5.91%) Oracle
3 199 (3.66%) Google
4 125 (2.30%) Atlassian
5 80 (1.47%) SAP
6 66 (1.21%) Red Hat
7 57 (1.05%) Apple
8 53 (0.97%) WSO2
9 52 (0.96%) IBM
9 52 (0.96%) Splunk
10 50 (0.92%) Salesforce.com
11 42 (0.77%) MuleSoft
12 36 (0.66%) VMware
13 33 (0.61%) Sitecore
14 31 (0.57%) Adobe
15 30 (0.55%) Cadence
15 30 (0.55%) Cypress Semiconductor
15 30 (0.55%) Tableau
16 29 (0.53%) Talend
16 29 (0.53%) Xamarin