Period
to 21 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 21 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
21 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 32 19 14
Rank change year-on-year -13 -5 +14
Contract jobs citing TDD 4,748 8,133 7,955
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 5.71% 7.81% 7.71%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 6.64% 8.99% 8.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 3,695 6,337 6,231
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £488
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +2.56% +8.33%
10th Percentile £394 £375 £350
90th Percentile £700 £644 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £425
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 9 26 59
UK median hourly rate £42.00 £41.25 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +1.82% -8.33% +5.88%
10th Percentile £33.80 £21.38 £36.00
90th Percentile £82.55 £65.63 £63.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £36.87 £43.75 £45.00
% change year-on-year -15.73% -2.78% +21.56%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 71,510 90,455 88,870
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 85.95% 86.91% 86.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 46,824 59,878 59,072
UK median daily rate £475 £463 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.70% +2.78% +5.88%
10th Percentile £294 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £435 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.35% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,277 2,338 2,136
UK median hourly rate £23.50 £22.00 £23.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.82% -4.35% +2.22%
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.25 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.75 £50.50 £49.63
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.50 £21.00 £23.32
% change year-on-year +7.14% -9.95% +3.64%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 21 November 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 21 November 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 21 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -8 4,507 £525 +3.96% 1,687
London -3 2,949 £550 +4.76% 770
UK excluding London -21 1,737 £450 - 1,021
South East -21 520 £450 -7.02% 239
North of England -22 438 £450 +5.88% 323
Midlands -11 234 £456 +1.39% 147
North West -21 225 £450 - 181
South West -34 184 £455 +7.06% 110
East of England -24 175 £450 -14.29% 98
Yorkshire -20 170 £475 +11.76% 98
Scotland -2 169 £475 +8.57% 80
West Midlands -15 149 £475 +5.56% 87
East Midlands -1 79 £425 - 60
North East -14 42 £425 +7.59% 44
Wales -42 12 £425 - 21
Northern Ireland -16 9 £453 +9.95% 4

For the 6 months to 21 November 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 3,459 (72.85%) Agile Software Development
2 1,800 (37.91%) BDD
3 1,798 (37.87%) Java
4 1,736 (36.56%) JavaScript
5 1,242 (26.16%) C#
6 1,238 (26.07%) Scrum
7 1,126 (23.72%) Continuous Integration
7 1,126 (23.72%) Microservices
8 1,124 (23.67%) .NET
9 1,012 (21.31%) HTML
10 1,003 (21.12%) Git (software)
11 989 (20.83%) AngularJS
12 975 (20.53%) CSS
13 958 (20.18%) React
14 933 (19.65%) AWS
15 913 (19.23%) Test Automation
16 895 (18.85%) DevOps
17 883 (18.60%) SQL
18 859 (18.09%) Azure
19 809 (17.04%) Finance
20 801 (16.87%) Spring
21 715 (15.06%) Jenkins
22 699 (14.72%) Node.js
23 684 (14.41%) RESTful
24 667 (14.05%) Docker
25 650 (13.69%) Python
26 615 (12.95%) REST
27 576 (12.13%) SQL Server
28 568 (11.96%) Web Services
29 550 (11.58%) Kanban

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 191 (4.02%) Confluence
2 183 (3.85%) Elasticsearch
3 115 (2.42%) Apache
4 101 (2.13%) Apache Spark
5 82 (1.73%) CMS
6 64 (1.35%) Tomcat
7 51 (1.07%) JBoss
8 40 (0.84%) SharePoint
9 34 (0.72%) Cloud Foundry
10 33 (0.70%) WebSphere
11 25 (0.53%) IIS
11 25 (0.53%) Jetty
11 25 (0.53%) Sitecore CMS
12 22 (0.46%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 22 (0.46%) Umbraco
13 19 (0.40%) OpenStack
14 18 (0.38%) WebLogic
15 17 (0.36%) Apache Solr
16 14 (0.29%) nginx
17 12 (0.25%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 22 (0.46%) Microsoft Excel
2 12 (0.25%) Photoshop
3 8 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
4 7 (0.15%) Chatbot
5 6 (0.13%) Adobe Illustrator
6 5 (0.11%) Zeplin
7 4 (0.084%) InVision
8 3 (0.063%) Adobe XD
8 3 (0.063%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 3 (0.063%) Microsoft Project
8 3 (0.063%) Sketch
9 2 (0.042%) MS Visio
10 1 (0.021%) Adobe Premiere
10 1 (0.021%) OmniGraffle
10 1 (0.021%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 27 (0.57%) Dynamics CRM
2 24 (0.51%) Magento
3 13 (0.27%) Remedy ITSM
4 8 (0.17%) BusinessWorks
5 6 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
6 4 (0.084%) Dynamics AX
6 4 (0.084%) FINCAD Analytics
6 4 (0.084%) R3 Corda
6 4 (0.084%) SAP Hybris
6 4 (0.084%) Shopify
7 3 (0.063%) SAP ERP
8 2 (0.042%) Oracle Cash Management
8 2 (0.042%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 2 (0.042%) SAP FI
9 1 (0.021%) Distributed Ledger
9 1 (0.021%) Oracle Financials
9 1 (0.021%) Oracle Retail
9 1 (0.021%) Payment Gateway
9 1 (0.021%) PeopleSoft Financials
9 1 (0.021%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
Cloud Services
1 933 (19.65%) AWS
2 859 (18.09%) Azure
3 223 (4.70%) Serverless
4 179 (3.77%) GitHub
5 173 (3.64%) GCP
6 137 (2.89%) Amazon EC2
7 120 (2.53%) AWS Lambda
8 91 (1.92%) Power Platform
9 86 (1.81%) Amazon SQS
10 59 (1.24%) PaaS
11 55 (1.16%) npm
12 52 (1.10%) Amazon S3
12 52 (1.10%) OpenShift
13 46 (0.97%) Azure Functions
14 41 (0.86%) Cloud Computing
15 35 (0.74%) AWS CloudFormation
16 31 (0.65%) Dynamics 365
16 31 (0.65%) SaaS
17 30 (0.63%) Amazon ECS
18 29 (0.61%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 110 (2.32%) HTTP
2 66 (1.39%) Internet
3 44 (0.93%) TCP/IP
4 40 (0.84%) DNS
5 28 (0.59%) AMQP
6 24 (0.51%) SSH
7 23 (0.48%) SSL
8 21 (0.44%) DSL
9 18 (0.38%) FTP
10 15 (0.32%) Firewall
11 9 (0.19%) HTTPS
11 9 (0.19%) Skype
12 8 (0.17%) Multicast
13 7 (0.15%) Wi-Fi
14 6 (0.13%) Bluetooth
14 6 (0.13%) NFC
15 4 (0.084%) DHCP
15 4 (0.084%) Kerberos
15 4 (0.084%) OpenLDAP
15 4 (0.084%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 576 (12.13%) SQL Server
2 353 (7.43%) NoSQL
3 306 (6.44%) MongoDB
4 280 (5.90%) PostgreSQL
5 272 (5.73%) MySQL
6 269 (5.67%) Relational Database
7 142 (2.99%) Big Data
8 107 (2.25%) Hadoop
9 91 (1.92%) Power BI
10 89 (1.87%) Data Warehouse
11 85 (1.79%) Redis
12 82 (1.73%) Cosmos DB
13 81 (1.71%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 80 (1.68%) Amazon RDS
15 75 (1.58%) Azure SQL Database
16 72 (1.52%) Apache Cassandra
17 59 (1.24%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 56 (1.18%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 52 (1.10%) Oracle Database
20 51 (1.07%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 1,003 (21.12%) Git (software)
2 715 (15.06%) Jenkins
3 381 (8.02%) JIRA
4 343 (7.22%) Selenium
5 309 (6.51%) JUnit
6 279 (5.88%) Maven
7 263 (5.54%) Cucumber
8 201 (4.23%) TeamCity
9 186 (3.92%) Mockito
10 139 (2.93%) Team Foundation Server
11 123 (2.59%) webpack
12 119 (2.51%) SonarQube
13 116 (2.44%) Visual Studio
14 111 (2.34%) Gradle
15 100 (2.11%) Octopus Deploy
16 98 (2.06%) Jasmine
16 98 (2.06%) WebDriver
17 90 (1.90%) NUnit
18 83 (1.75%) gulp
19 80 (1.68%) Bitbucket
General
1 809 (17.04%) Finance
2 468 (9.86%) Banking
3 212 (4.47%) Front Office
4 183 (3.85%) Public Sector
5 151 (3.18%) Investment Banking
6 141 (2.97%) Retail
7 108 (2.27%) Marketing
8 82 (1.73%) Games
9 55 (1.16%) Telecoms
10 53 (1.12%) Law
11 40 (0.84%) Publishing
12 39 (0.82%) Military
13 29 (0.61%) Advertising
14 27 (0.57%) Retail Banking
15 26 (0.55%) Financial Institution
16 25 (0.53%) Manufacturing
17 21 (0.44%) Electronics
18 18 (0.38%) Legal
19 12 (0.25%) Automotive
20 10 (0.21%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 3,554 (74.85%) Developer
2 981 (20.66%) Java Developer
3 565 (11.90%) Senior Developer
4 561 (11.82%) .NET Developer
5 478 (10.07%) React Developer
6 431 (9.08%) C# Developer
7 407 (8.57%) Full Stack Developer
8 288 (6.07%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 273 (5.75%) JavaScript Developer
10 231 (4.87%) Python Developer
11 206 (4.34%) Senior Java Developer
12 205 (4.32%) Angular Developer
13 202 (4.25%) C# .NET Developer
14 167 (3.52%) Software Engineer
15 160 (3.37%) Scala Developer
16 152 (3.20%) AWS Developer
17 145 (3.05%) Agile Developer
18 140 (2.95%) Architect
18 140 (2.95%) Lead Developer
19 137 (2.89%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,124 (23.67%) .NET
2 1,012 (21.31%) HTML
3 989 (20.83%) AngularJS
4 975 (20.53%) CSS
5 958 (20.18%) React
6 801 (16.87%) Spring
7 699 (14.72%) Node.js
8 684 (14.41%) RESTful
9 615 (12.95%) REST
10 568 (11.96%) Web Services
11 433 (9.12%) ASP.NET
12 413 (8.70%) Spring Boot
13 403 (8.49%) HTML5
14 372 (7.83%) .NET Core
15 337 (7.10%) Kafka
16 334 (7.03%) Redux
17 305 (6.42%) JSON
18 295 (6.21%) SOAP
19 289 (6.09%) ASP.NET Web API
20 278 (5.86%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 450 (9.48%) Greenfield Project
2 290 (6.11%) User Experience
3 223 (4.70%) Analytical Skills
4 151 (3.18%) Mobile App
5 135 (2.84%) Enterprise Software
6 117 (2.46%) Algorithms
7 101 (2.13%) Equities
8 98 (2.06%) Hedge funds
9 96 (2.02%) Derivative
10 89 (1.87%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
11 70 (1.47%) Data Structures
12 62 (1.31%) Linux Command Line
13 49 (1.03%) Self-Motivation
14 46 (0.97%) Public Cloud
15 43 (0.91%) Fixed Income
16 40 (0.84%) Cloud Native
17 32 (0.67%) Equity Derivative
17 32 (0.67%) Video\Live Streaming
18 31 (0.65%) Management Information System
19 29 (0.61%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 447 (9.41%) Linux
2 261 (5.50%) Unix
3 173 (3.64%) Android
4 167 (3.52%) Apple iOS
5 121 (2.55%) Windows
6 42 (0.88%) Mac OS X
7 39 (0.82%) CentOS
8 34 (0.72%) Mac OS
9 29 (0.61%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 26 (0.55%) tvOS
11 15 (0.32%) AIX
12 14 (0.29%) Ubuntu
13 8 (0.17%) Embedded Linux
14 5 (0.11%) Windows Server
15 4 (0.084%) Debian
15 4 (0.084%) Solaris
16 2 (0.042%) Windows 10
17 1 (0.021%) HPUX
17 1 (0.021%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
17 1 (0.021%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,459 (72.85%) Agile Software Development
2 1,800 (37.91%) BDD
3 1,238 (26.07%) Scrum
4 1,126 (23.72%) Continuous Integration
4 1,126 (23.72%) Microservices
5 913 (19.23%) Test Automation
6 895 (18.85%) DevOps
7 550 (11.58%) Kanban
8 531 (11.18%) Software Engineering
9 522 (10.99%) OO
10 521 (10.97%) Pair Programming
11 509 (10.72%) MVC
12 490 (10.32%) Front End Development
13 465 (9.79%) Unit Testing
14 381 (8.02%) Continuous Delivery
15 371 (7.81%) SOLID
16 327 (6.89%) E-Commerce
17 302 (6.36%) Open Source
18 296 (6.23%) Problem-Solving
19 283 (5.96%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 1,798 (37.87%) Java
2 1,736 (36.56%) JavaScript
3 1,242 (26.16%) C#
4 883 (18.60%) SQL
5 650 (13.69%) Python
6 496 (10.45%) Java 8
7 336 (7.08%) TypeScript
8 291 (6.13%) Scala
9 262 (5.52%) Ruby
10 246 (5.18%) ES6
11 150 (3.16%) C++
12 145 (3.05%) PHP
13 144 (3.03%) Kotlin
14 119 (2.51%) C
15 97 (2.04%) PowerShell
16 93 (1.96%) Go
16 93 (1.96%) Shell Script
17 91 (1.92%) Bash Shell
17 91 (1.92%) T-SQL
18 88 (1.85%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 336 (7.08%) Security Cleared
2 257 (5.41%) SC Cleared
3 198 (4.17%) Degree
4 63 (1.33%) Computer Science Degree
5 59 (1.24%) BPSS Clearance
6 58 (1.22%) DV Cleared
7 43 (0.91%) ISTQB
8 30 (0.63%) ISEB
9 21 (0.44%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 20 (0.42%) DBS Check
11 16 (0.34%) Master's Degree
12 13 (0.27%) AWS Certification
13 11 (0.23%) CTC Cleared
14 9 (0.19%) OCPJP
14 9 (0.19%) Sun Certification
15 7 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
16 6 (0.13%) IIBA
17 4 (0.084%) CISA
17 4 (0.084%) CISM
17 4 (0.084%) CISSP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 262 (5.52%) QA
2 20 (0.42%) WCAG
3 13 (0.27%) Data Quality
4 12 (0.25%) Disclosure Scotland
4 12 (0.25%) MiFID
5 9 (0.19%) PCI DSS
6 7 (0.15%) EMIR
6 7 (0.15%) GDPR
7 5 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 3 (0.063%) PMO
9 2 (0.042%) PSD2
10 1 (0.021%) Dodd-Frank
10 1 (0.021%) HL7
10 1 (0.021%) NCSC
10 1 (0.021%) NIST
System Software
1 667 (14.05%) Docker
2 55 (1.16%) Active Directory
3 41 (0.86%) VMware Infrastructure
4 40 (0.84%) Postfix
5 33 (0.70%) vSphere
6 23 (0.48%) Virtual Machines
7 18 (0.38%) HDFS
8 15 (0.32%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
9 9 (0.19%) NDS
10 7 (0.15%) NetIQ eDirectory
10 7 (0.15%) Varnish
11 5 (0.11%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 5 (0.11%) Virtual Servers
12 4 (0.084%) vCloud
13 3 (0.063%) Microsoft App-V
14 2 (0.042%) BusyBox
14 2 (0.042%) Firmware
14 2 (0.042%) Xen
15 1 (0.021%) Apache Flume
15 1 (0.021%) LXC
Systems Management
1 375 (7.90%) Kubernetes
2 163 (3.43%) Terraform
3 161 (3.39%) Ansible
4 57 (1.20%) Puppet
5 32 (0.67%) Kibana
6 31 (0.65%) Opscode Chef
7 22 (0.46%) NetIQ Identity Manager
8 21 (0.44%) Grafana
8 21 (0.44%) Prometheus
9 20 (0.42%) MIIS
10 17 (0.36%) Tivoli
11 16 (0.34%) Mesos
12 14 (0.29%) ITRS Geneos
13 13 (0.27%) Docker Swarm
14 12 (0.25%) Control-M
15 11 (0.23%) Hadoop YARN
15 11 (0.23%) HP Quality Center
15 11 (0.23%) logstash
15 11 (0.23%) ZABBIX
16 10 (0.21%) Cobbler
Vendors
1 417 (8.78%) Microsoft
2 262 (5.52%) Oracle
3 194 (4.09%) Google
4 74 (1.56%) Atlassian
5 64 (1.35%) Apple
6 52 (1.10%) Splunk
7 50 (1.05%) VMware
8 45 (0.95%) Tableau
9 44 (0.93%) IBM
10 42 (0.88%) Remedy
11 41 (0.86%) SAP
12 38 (0.80%) Salesforce.com
13 30 (0.63%) MuleSoft
13 30 (0.63%) Red Hat
14 28 (0.59%) Cognos
15 27 (0.57%) MicroStrategy
15 27 (0.57%) Sitecore
16 26 (0.55%) Adobe
16 26 (0.55%) NetIQ
17 25 (0.53%) Cypress Semiconductor