Period
to 25 January 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 25 January 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
25 Jan 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 37 21 15
Rank change year-on-year -16 -6 +8
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,753 7,501 7,789
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 5.24% 7.54% 7.74%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 6.15% 8.63% 8.98%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,909 5,845 6,185
UK median daily rate £525 £511 £488
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.74% +4.82% +7.14%
10th Percentile £384 £381 £350
90th Percentile £675 £650 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £468 £425
% change year-on-year -3.74% +10.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 19 24 50
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% - +5.88%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year -22.22% - +16.85%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 61,043 86,892 86,715
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 85.24% 87.32% 86.21%
Number of daily rates quoted 39,677 57,443 57,977
UK median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £284 £300 £281
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £430 £425 £408
% change year-on-year +1.18% +4.29% +1.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,025 2,210 2,067
UK median hourly rate £23.00 £23.70 £23.08
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -2.95% +2.71% -1.14%
10th Percentile £12.35 £11.33 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.56 £50.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £22.50 £24.00
% change year-on-year -6.67% -6.25% +6.67%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 25 January 2020.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 25 January 2020.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 25 January 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -15 3,534 £525 +1.94% 1,795
London -5 2,333 £550 +2.33% 861
UK excluding London -25 1,359 £450 -3.74% 1,040
North of England -19 370 £450 - 343
South East -34 353 £450 -7.69% 252
Midlands -7 199 £450 -5.26% 121
North West -8 185 £450 - 201
South West -36 160 £488 +12.39% 119
Scotland -4 149 £500 +14.29% 63
Yorkshire -19 143 £478 +6.11% 102
West Midlands -15 128 £469 +4.17% 72
East of England -31 112 £450 -14.29% 99
East Midlands 0 71 £425 -15.00% 49
North East -17 43 £425 -9.09% 40
Wales -22 12 £475 +11.76% 35
Northern Ireland -7 9 £400 -2.91% 8

For the 6 months to 25 January 2020, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,717 (72.40%) Agile Software Development
2 1,434 (38.21%) Java
3 1,380 (36.77%) BDD
4 1,294 (34.48%) JavaScript
5 992 (26.43%) Scrum
6 941 (25.07%) C#
7 906 (24.14%) Microservices
8 864 (23.02%) Continuous Integration
9 863 (22.99%) Git (software)
10 853 (22.73%) .NET
11 792 (21.10%) AngularJS
12 780 (20.78%) HTML
13 765 (20.38%) DevOps
14 743 (19.80%) CSS
15 736 (19.61%) AWS
16 724 (19.29%) Test Automation
17 701 (18.68%) React
18 692 (18.44%) SQL
19 668 (17.80%) Spring
20 652 (17.37%) Azure
21 606 (16.15%) RESTful
22 601 (16.01%) Finance
23 568 (15.13%) Jenkins
24 530 (14.12%) Docker
25 498 (13.27%) Python
26 493 (13.14%) Node.js
27 486 (12.95%) Web Services
28 477 (12.71%) Software Engineering
29 465 (12.39%) Kanban
30 458 (12.20%) SQL Server

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 154 (4.10%) Confluence
2 143 (3.81%) Elasticsearch
3 83 (2.21%) Apache Spark
4 79 (2.10%) Apache
5 45 (1.20%) Tomcat
6 44 (1.17%) CMS
7 30 (0.80%) SharePoint
8 26 (0.69%) Cloud Foundry
8 26 (0.69%) JBoss
9 22 (0.59%) IIS
10 20 (0.53%) Umbraco
10 20 (0.53%) WebSphere
11 19 (0.51%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 17 (0.45%) Sitecore CMS
13 15 (0.40%) Jetty
14 14 (0.37%) Mule
15 10 (0.27%) Anypoint
15 10 (0.27%) nginx
15 10 (0.27%) Red Hat Fuse
16 9 (0.24%) Oracle Service Bus
Applications
1 20 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
2 7 (0.19%) Microsoft Office
2 7 (0.19%) Photoshop
3 6 (0.16%) Zeplin
4 4 (0.11%) Sketch
5 3 (0.080%) Adobe Illustrator
5 3 (0.080%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.080%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.053%) Chatbot
6 2 (0.053%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.027%) OmniGraffle
7 1 (0.027%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 26 (0.69%) Dynamics CRM
2 17 (0.45%) Magento
3 12 (0.32%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 7 (0.19%) BusinessWorks
4 7 (0.19%) Oracle BPM
5 6 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
5 6 (0.16%) Remedy ITSM
5 6 (0.16%) SAP Hybris
6 4 (0.11%) FINCAD Analytics
6 4 (0.11%) R3 Corda
6 4 (0.11%) Shopify
7 2 (0.053%) SAP ERP
8 1 (0.027%) Actimize
8 1 (0.027%) Cognos Business Intelligence
8 1 (0.027%) Dynamics AX
8 1 (0.027%) FastStats
8 1 (0.027%) ION MarketView
8 1 (0.027%) Oracle Financials
8 1 (0.027%) PolarLake
8 1 (0.027%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 736 (19.61%) AWS
2 652 (17.37%) Azure
3 186 (4.96%) GitHub
4 163 (4.34%) Serverless
5 133 (3.54%) GCP
6 112 (2.98%) Amazon EC2
7 86 (2.29%) Power Platform
8 70 (1.87%) AWS Lambda
9 66 (1.76%) Amazon SQS
10 55 (1.47%) PaaS
11 48 (1.28%) OpenShift
12 37 (0.99%) Azure Functions
13 32 (0.85%) Cloud Computing
14 28 (0.75%) npm
15 27 (0.72%) Dynamics 365
16 26 (0.69%) Azure Active Directory
17 24 (0.64%) Amazon S3
18 20 (0.53%) SaaS
19 19 (0.51%) AWS CloudFormation
19 19 (0.51%) Azure Data Factory
Communications & Networking
1 93 (2.48%) HTTP
2 54 (1.44%) Internet
3 40 (1.07%) DNS
4 37 (0.99%) TCP/IP
5 23 (0.61%) DSL
6 22 (0.59%) SSL
7 18 (0.48%) SSH
8 17 (0.45%) AMQP
8 17 (0.45%) FTP
9 11 (0.29%) HTTPS
10 8 (0.21%) Multicast
11 7 (0.19%) Firewall
12 6 (0.16%) Skype
12 6 (0.16%) Wi-Fi
13 5 (0.13%) DHCP
14 4 (0.11%) Kerberos
14 4 (0.11%) PuTTY
15 3 (0.080%) IPsec
15 3 (0.080%) RTMP
15 3 (0.080%) Software-Defined Networking
Database & Business Intelligence
1 458 (12.20%) SQL Server
2 264 (7.03%) NoSQL
3 239 (6.37%) PostgreSQL
4 218 (5.81%) MongoDB
5 210 (5.60%) Relational Database
6 203 (5.41%) MySQL
7 106 (2.82%) Big Data
8 86 (2.29%) Power BI
9 85 (2.26%) Data Warehouse
10 73 (1.95%) Hadoop
11 70 (1.87%) Azure SQL Database
12 68 (1.81%) Amazon RDS
13 64 (1.71%) Redis
14 61 (1.63%) Apache Cassandra
15 60 (1.60%) Cosmos DB
16 57 (1.52%) SQL Server Integration Services
17 54 (1.44%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 50 (1.33%) Amazon DynamoDB
19 47 (1.25%) RDBMS
20 39 (1.04%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 863 (22.99%) Git (software)
2 568 (15.13%) Jenkins
3 339 (9.03%) JIRA
4 262 (6.98%) JUnit
5 254 (6.77%) Maven
6 253 (6.74%) Selenium
7 203 (5.41%) Cucumber
8 161 (4.29%) Mockito
9 143 (3.81%) TeamCity
10 113 (3.01%) Team Foundation Server
11 103 (2.74%) Visual Studio Team System
12 102 (2.72%) SonarQube
13 95 (2.53%) GitLab
14 89 (2.37%) Visual Studio
15 86 (2.29%) Gradle
16 85 (2.26%) Octopus Deploy
17 78 (2.08%) jMock
18 77 (2.05%) Jasmine
19 75 (2.00%) NUnit
20 73 (1.95%) DbUnit
General
1 601 (16.01%) Finance
2 318 (8.47%) Banking
3 178 (4.74%) Public Sector
4 171 (4.56%) Front Office
5 109 (2.90%) Retail
6 97 (2.58%) Marketing
7 89 (2.37%) Investment Banking
8 50 (1.33%) Telecoms
9 49 (1.31%) Games
10 39 (1.04%) Law
11 38 (1.01%) Military
12 35 (0.93%) Manufacturing
13 30 (0.80%) Electronics
14 27 (0.72%) Publishing
15 21 (0.56%) Advertising
16 20 (0.53%) Financial Institution
17 19 (0.51%) Retail Banking
18 17 (0.45%) Automotive
19 16 (0.43%) Legal
20 12 (0.32%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 2,820 (75.14%) Developer
2 770 (20.52%) Java Developer
3 437 (11.64%) .NET Developer
4 421 (11.22%) Senior Developer
5 325 (8.66%) React Developer
6 324 (8.63%) C# Developer
7 277 (7.38%) Full Stack Developer
8 208 (5.54%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 189 (5.04%) JavaScript Developer
10 178 (4.74%) Python Developer
11 152 (4.05%) Angular Developer
12 150 (4.00%) Software Engineer
13 149 (3.97%) Senior Java Developer
14 136 (3.62%) AWS Developer
14 136 (3.62%) C# .NET Developer
15 117 (3.12%) Software Developer
16 112 (2.98%) Agile Developer
17 111 (2.96%) Scala Developer
18 105 (2.80%) Azure Developer
19 96 (2.56%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 853 (22.73%) .NET
2 792 (21.10%) AngularJS
3 780 (20.78%) HTML
4 743 (19.80%) CSS
5 701 (18.68%) React
6 668 (17.80%) Spring
7 606 (16.15%) RESTful
8 493 (13.14%) Node.js
9 486 (12.95%) Web Services
10 452 (12.04%) REST
11 350 (9.33%) Spring Boot
12 300 (7.99%) ASP.NET
13 292 (7.78%) HTML5
14 286 (7.62%) Kafka
15 268 (7.14%) .NET Core
16 251 (6.69%) SOAP
17 224 (5.97%) JSON
18 223 (5.94%) Redux
19 179 (4.77%) Vue.js
20 176 (4.69%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 331 (8.82%) Greenfield Project
2 211 (5.62%) Analytical Skills
3 199 (5.30%) User Experience
4 114 (3.04%) Enterprise Software
5 106 (2.82%) Mobile App
6 81 (2.16%) Algorithms
7 78 (2.08%) Equities
7 78 (2.08%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 71 (1.89%) Hedge funds
9 49 (1.31%) Derivative
9 49 (1.31%) Linux Command Line
10 42 (1.12%) Data Structures
11 35 (0.93%) Fixed Income
12 30 (0.80%) Cloud Native
13 28 (0.75%) Self-Motivation
14 27 (0.72%) Management Information System
15 25 (0.67%) Data Centre
15 25 (0.67%) Public Cloud
16 24 (0.64%) Virtual Team
17 21 (0.56%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 306 (8.15%) Linux
2 191 (5.09%) Unix
3 139 (3.70%) Android
4 130 (3.46%) Apple iOS
5 84 (2.24%) Windows
6 32 (0.85%) Mac OS X
7 15 (0.40%) AIX
8 14 (0.37%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 14 (0.37%) tvOS
9 13 (0.35%) Mac OS
10 8 (0.21%) Embedded Linux
10 8 (0.21%) Solaris
11 7 (0.19%) Windows Server
12 5 (0.13%) CentOS
13 4 (0.11%) Ubuntu
14 2 (0.053%) Windows 10
15 1 (0.027%) HPUX
15 1 (0.027%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
15 1 (0.027%) Windows Server 2008
15 1 (0.027%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,717 (72.40%) Agile Software Development
2 1,380 (36.77%) BDD
3 992 (26.43%) Scrum
4 906 (24.14%) Microservices
5 864 (23.02%) Continuous Integration
6 765 (20.38%) DevOps
7 724 (19.29%) Test Automation
8 477 (12.71%) Software Engineering
9 465 (12.39%) Kanban
10 450 (11.99%) Pair Programming
11 396 (10.55%) OO
12 372 (9.91%) MVC
13 350 (9.33%) Front End Development
14 317 (8.45%) Unit Testing
15 285 (7.59%) Continuous Delivery
16 271 (7.22%) SOLID
17 270 (7.19%) Open Source
18 253 (6.74%) User Stories
19 249 (6.63%) Problem-Solving
20 228 (6.08%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 1,434 (38.21%) Java
2 1,294 (34.48%) JavaScript
3 941 (25.07%) C#
4 692 (18.44%) SQL
5 498 (13.27%) Python
6 363 (9.67%) Java 8
7 219 (5.84%) Scala
8 217 (5.78%) Ruby
9 215 (5.73%) TypeScript
10 177 (4.72%) ES6
11 129 (3.44%) C++
12 117 (3.12%) PHP
13 113 (3.01%) Kotlin
14 105 (2.80%) C
15 93 (2.48%) PowerShell
16 83 (2.21%) T-SQL
17 75 (2.00%) Apple Swift
18 70 (1.87%) Go
19 67 (1.79%) Bash Shell
20 59 (1.57%) Groovy
Qualifications
1 290 (7.73%) Security Cleared
2 213 (5.68%) SC Cleared
3 188 (5.01%) Degree
4 63 (1.68%) Computer Science Degree
5 48 (1.28%) BPSS Clearance
6 47 (1.25%) DV Cleared
7 31 (0.83%) ISTQB
8 17 (0.45%) BC Cleared
8 17 (0.45%) ISEB
9 16 (0.43%) Master's Degree
10 14 (0.37%) DBS Check
11 13 (0.35%) Microsoft Certification
12 9 (0.24%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 8 (0.21%) MCSE
14 6 (0.16%) IIBA
15 4 (0.11%) AWS Certification
16 3 (0.080%) CISA
16 3 (0.080%) CISM
16 3 (0.080%) CRISC
16 3 (0.080%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 197 (5.25%) QA
2 25 (0.67%) WCAG
3 15 (0.40%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.21%) Disclosure Scotland
5 7 (0.19%) GDPR
5 7 (0.19%) PCI DSS
6 5 (0.13%) MiFID
7 4 (0.11%) EMIR
7 4 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 2 (0.053%) PMO
System Software
1 530 (14.12%) Docker
2 52 (1.39%) Postfix
3 47 (1.25%) Active Directory
4 32 (0.85%) VMware Infrastructure
5 27 (0.72%) HDFS
6 24 (0.64%) vSphere
7 16 (0.43%) Virtual Machines
8 15 (0.40%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
9 9 (0.24%) NDS
10 7 (0.19%) NetIQ eDirectory
11 3 (0.080%) Varnish
11 3 (0.080%) Xen
12 2 (0.053%) Apache ZooKeeper
12 2 (0.053%) BusyBox
12 2 (0.053%) Firmware
12 2 (0.053%) vCloud
13 1 (0.027%) Apache Flume
13 1 (0.027%) LXC
13 1 (0.027%) Microsoft App-V
13 1 (0.027%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 312 (8.31%) Kubernetes
2 123 (3.28%) Ansible
3 119 (3.17%) Terraform
4 47 (1.25%) Puppet
5 35 (0.93%) Kibana
6 31 (0.83%) Opscode Chef
7 20 (0.53%) MIIS
8 19 (0.51%) NetIQ Identity Manager
9 18 (0.48%) Hadoop YARN
10 17 (0.45%) Tivoli
11 16 (0.43%) Grafana
12 11 (0.29%) Docker Swarm
12 11 (0.29%) Prometheus
13 10 (0.27%) logstash
14 9 (0.24%) Control-M
15 8 (0.21%) Consul
15 8 (0.21%) Packer
16 7 (0.19%) Oracle Identity Manager
16 7 (0.19%) Single Sign-On
17 6 (0.16%) Cobbler
Vendors
1 366 (9.75%) Microsoft
2 183 (4.88%) Oracle
3 133 (3.54%) Google
4 67 (1.79%) SAP
5 54 (1.44%) Atlassian
6 48 (1.28%) Apple
7 44 (1.17%) Tableau
8 43 (1.15%) IBM
9 39 (1.04%) Remedy
9 39 (1.04%) VMware
10 31 (0.83%) hybris
11 30 (0.80%) Splunk
12 28 (0.75%) Adobe
13 27 (0.72%) Salesforce.com
14 26 (0.69%) Cognos
15 25 (0.67%) MuleSoft
16 23 (0.61%) NetIQ
16 23 (0.61%) Xamarin
17 22 (0.59%) MicroStrategy
18 20 (0.53%) Sitecore