Period
to 17 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 17 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
17 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 49 45 30
Rank change year-on-year -4 -15 -10
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,898 1,510 5,055
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.69% 4.89% 5.94%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.26% 5.62% 6.81%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,887 1,169 3,927
10th Percentile £410 £356 £400
25th Percentile £463 £431 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £523 £525
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% -0.48% +5.00%
75th Percentile £638 £580 £600
90th Percentile £713 £650 £700
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 50 1 6
10th Percentile £59.90 " £24.68
25th Percentile £61.75 £48.06 £36.39
Median hourly rate £65.50 £48.12 £40.37
Median % change year-on-year +36.13% +19.19% -3.89%
75th Percentile £71.38 £48.17 £59.25
90th Percentile £73.45 " £69.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £65.00 £48.12 £38.12
% change year-on-year +35.09% +26.23% -10.31%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 74,089 26,880 74,281
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.09% 87.11% 87.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 51,464 18,196 49,739
10th Percentile £320 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £378 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £510 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +7.37% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £613 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £668 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £458 £445 £438
% change year-on-year +2.81% +1.71% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,676 767 2,169
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.75 £11.50
25th Percentile £14.50 £15.50 £14.85
Median hourly rate £24.90 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -0.40% +11.11% +15.38%
75th Percentile £49.63 £45.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £63.75 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.55 £22.50 £22.34
% change year-on-year -8.67% +0.74% +17.55%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 17 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 17 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -4 3,233 £550 +4.76% 1,461
London +1 2,155 £600 +9.09% 735
UK excluding London 0 1,091 £475 - 811
Work from Home -5 1,086 £525 +2.94% 380
North of England -14 297 £475 -8.65% 260
South East +33 249 £478 +0.53% 192
Scotland +18 151 £450 - 51
North West -7 148 £475 -9.09% 143
South West -12 139 £475 -5.00% 74
East of England -2 127 £520 +9.76% 59
Yorkshire -17 121 £475 -5.00% 56
Midlands -65 80 £444 +4.83% 138
West Midlands -46 65 £463 -1.07% 79
North East -4 32 £475 -9.52% 61
Wales -7 30 £440 +17.33% 34
Northern Ireland +6 22 £475 +10.47% 3
East Midlands -48 14 £403 +8.34% 58

For the 6 months to 17 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,753 (70.63%) Agile Software Development
2 1,656 (42.48%) Java
3 1,422 (36.48%) BDD
4 1,172 (30.07%) JavaScript
5 1,156 (29.66%) Microservices
6 1,027 (26.35%) DevOps
7 1,007 (25.83%) Scrum
8 998 (25.60%) AWS
9 948 (24.32%) Test Automation
10 911 (23.37%) Git (software)
11 850 (21.81%) Spring
12 823 (21.11%) Continuous Integration
13 808 (20.73%) Software Engineering
14 796 (20.42%) Azure
15 791 (20.29%) Docker
16 757 (19.42%) SQL
17 715 (18.34%) React
18 708 (18.16%) Jenkins
19 691 (17.73%) C#
20 629 (16.14%) Kubernetes
21 615 (15.78%) .NET
22 611 (15.67%) Social Skills
23 587 (15.06%) Pair Programming
24 574 (14.73%) Finance
25 540 (13.85%) CSS
25 540 (13.85%) Spring Boot
26 537 (13.78%) HTML
27 527 (13.52%) AngularJS
28 523 (13.42%) Python
29 517 (13.26%) Node.js

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 233 (5.98%) Confluence
2 84 (2.15%) Apache Spark
3 79 (2.03%) Elasticsearch
4 57 (1.46%) Apache
5 44 (1.13%) CMS
6 42 (1.08%) Tomcat
7 37 (0.95%) JBoss
8 30 (0.77%) Cloud Foundry
8 30 (0.77%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 24 (0.62%) SharePoint
10 23 (0.59%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 23 (0.59%) Mule
11 22 (0.56%) Red Hat Fuse
12 21 (0.54%) WebSphere
13 19 (0.49%) Apache Airflow
13 19 (0.49%) WordPress
14 18 (0.46%) nginx
14 18 (0.46%) WebLogic
15 17 (0.44%) Oracle Coherence
16 15 (0.38%) IIS
Applications
1 14 (0.36%) Microsoft Excel
2 8 (0.21%) Microsoft Office
2 8 (0.21%) Photoshop
3 3 (0.077%) MS Visio
4 2 (0.051%) Adobe XD
4 2 (0.051%) Chatbot
5 1 (0.026%) Figma
5 1 (0.026%) InDesign
5 1 (0.026%) InVision
5 1 (0.026%) Simulink
5 1 (0.026%) Sketch
5 1 (0.026%) S-PLUS
Business Applications
1 11 (0.28%) Magento
2 8 (0.21%) Shopify
3 6 (0.15%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 5 (0.13%) Dynamics CRM
4 5 (0.13%) SAP S/4HANA
5 4 (0.10%) SAP Hybris
6 3 (0.077%) IBM Planning Analytics
6 3 (0.077%) Oracle BPM
6 3 (0.077%) SAP BRIM
7 2 (0.051%) Adobe Campaign
7 2 (0.051%) BusinessWorks
8 1 (0.026%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
8 1 (0.026%) Payment Gateway
8 1 (0.026%) Primavera
8 1 (0.026%) Quorum
8 1 (0.026%) RMDS
8 1 (0.026%) SAP ERP
8 1 (0.026%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 998 (25.60%) AWS
2 796 (20.42%) Azure
3 313 (8.03%) Serverless
4 245 (6.29%) GCP
5 178 (4.57%) GitHub
6 165 (4.23%) AWS Lambda
7 97 (2.49%) PaaS
8 72 (1.85%) Amazon S3
8 72 (1.85%) AWS CloudFormation
9 63 (1.62%) SaaS
10 60 (1.54%) OpenShift
11 58 (1.49%) IaaS
12 52 (1.33%) Amazon SQS
12 52 (1.33%) npm
13 42 (1.08%) Azure Functions
14 40 (1.03%) Amazon EC2
15 38 (0.97%) Amazon ECS
15 38 (0.97%) Azure Service Bus
16 37 (0.95%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 32 (0.82%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 99 (2.54%) HTTP
2 24 (0.62%) Internet
2 24 (0.62%) RTMP
3 19 (0.49%) LAN
4 16 (0.41%) TCP/IP
5 12 (0.31%) Broadband
6 9 (0.23%) DNS
7 8 (0.21%) UPnP
7 8 (0.21%) Wi-Fi
8 7 (0.18%) IPv4
8 7 (0.18%) IPv6
8 7 (0.18%) MQTT
9 6 (0.15%) DECT
9 6 (0.15%) Multicast
9 6 (0.15%) PPP
10 5 (0.13%) SSL
10 5 (0.13%) WAN
11 4 (0.10%) Kerberos
12 3 (0.077%) FTP
12 3 (0.077%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 348 (8.93%) NoSQL
2 270 (6.93%) SQL Server
3 243 (6.23%) Relational Database
4 231 (5.93%) MongoDB
5 204 (5.23%) MySQL
6 175 (4.49%) PostgreSQL
7 105 (2.69%) Oracle Database
8 102 (2.62%) Big Data
9 75 (1.92%) Apache Cassandra
10 59 (1.51%) Data Warehouse
11 58 (1.49%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 58 (1.49%) RDBMS
12 46 (1.18%) Azure SQL Database
13 44 (1.13%) Hadoop
14 42 (1.08%) Data Lake
14 42 (1.08%) Redis
15 41 (1.05%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 33 (0.85%) BigQuery
17 32 (0.82%) Amazon Aurora
17 32 (0.82%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 911 (23.37%) Git (software)
2 708 (18.16%) Jenkins
3 443 (11.36%) JIRA
4 357 (9.16%) Cucumber
5 284 (7.29%) JUnit
6 263 (6.75%) Selenium
7 259 (6.64%) Maven
8 160 (4.10%) Mockito
9 156 (4.00%) TeamCity
10 153 (3.93%) GitLab
11 112 (2.87%) Gradle
12 108 (2.77%) Jasmine
13 84 (2.15%) Subversion
14 80 (2.05%) Visual Studio
15 75 (1.92%) Bitbucket
16 74 (1.90%) SonarQube
17 69 (1.77%) Cypress.io
17 69 (1.77%) Postman
17 69 (1.77%) SpecFlow
18 61 (1.56%) Artifactory
General
1 611 (15.67%) Social Skills
2 574 (14.73%) Finance
3 428 (10.98%) Banking
4 230 (5.90%) Public Sector
5 168 (4.31%) Front Office
6 158 (4.05%) Investment Banking
7 122 (3.13%) Analytical Skills
8 116 (2.98%) Retail
9 97 (2.49%) Games
10 70 (1.80%) Manufacturing
11 48 (1.23%) Marketing
12 37 (0.95%) Influencing Skills
13 36 (0.92%) Automotive
13 36 (0.92%) Telecoms
14 28 (0.72%) Publishing
15 27 (0.69%) Law
16 26 (0.67%) Documentation Skills
17 21 (0.54%) Retail Banking
18 16 (0.41%) Electronics
18 16 (0.41%) Legal
Job Titles
1 2,644 (67.83%) Developer
2 835 (21.42%) Java Developer
3 449 (11.52%) Senior Developer
4 284 (7.29%) C# Developer
5 268 (6.88%) Full Stack Developer
6 248 (6.36%) .NET Developer
7 221 (5.67%) React Developer
8 217 (5.57%) Software Engineer
9 180 (4.62%) Scala Developer
10 168 (4.31%) Senior Java Developer
11 166 (4.26%) JavaScript Developer
12 151 (3.87%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
13 135 (3.46%) Software Developer
14 118 (3.03%) DevOps Engineer
15 115 (2.95%) Python Developer
16 114 (2.92%) Java Engineer
17 108 (2.77%) C# .NET Developer
18 80 (2.05%) Architect
18 80 (2.05%) Node.js Developer
19 79 (2.03%) AWS Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 850 (21.81%) Spring
2 715 (18.34%) React
3 615 (15.78%) .NET
4 540 (13.85%) CSS
4 540 (13.85%) Spring Boot
5 537 (13.78%) HTML
6 527 (13.52%) AngularJS
7 517 (13.26%) Node.js
8 503 (12.90%) REST
9 501 (12.85%) RESTful
10 348 (8.93%) Web Services
11 339 (8.70%) Kafka
12 249 (6.39%) HTML5
13 227 (5.82%) .NET Core
14 216 (5.54%) Redux
15 170 (4.36%) JSON
16 163 (4.18%) GraphQL
17 155 (3.98%) XML
18 150 (3.85%) .NET Framework
19 133 (3.41%) Hibernate
Miscellaneous
1 228 (5.85%) Greenfield Project
2 202 (5.18%) User Experience
3 116 (2.98%) Mobile App
4 115 (2.95%) Data Protection Act
5 99 (2.54%) Cloud Native
6 81 (2.08%) Derivative
7 78 (2.00%) Fixed Income
8 73 (1.87%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
9 64 (1.64%) Algorithms
10 63 (1.62%) Client/Server
11 61 (1.56%) Enterprise Software
12 55 (1.41%) Data Structures
13 52 (1.33%) Self-Motivation
14 51 (1.31%) Legacy Systems
15 46 (1.18%) Hybrid Cloud
16 42 (1.08%) Credit Risk
17 36 (0.92%) Management Information System
18 34 (0.87%) Public Cloud
18 34 (0.87%) Virtual Team
19 32 (0.82%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 370 (9.49%) Linux
2 178 (4.57%) Unix
3 133 (3.41%) Apple iOS
4 128 (3.28%) Android
5 78 (2.00%) Windows
6 35 (0.90%) Mac OS X
7 25 (0.64%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 12 (0.31%) Mac OS
9 9 (0.23%) Windows Server
10 8 (0.21%) OpenWrt
10 8 (0.21%) tvOS
10 8 (0.21%) Windows Server 2016
11 6 (0.15%) CentOS
11 6 (0.15%) VMS
12 5 (0.13%) Debian
13 4 (0.10%) Solaris
14 3 (0.077%) Amazon Linux
15 2 (0.051%) Embedded Linux
15 2 (0.051%) Kali Linux
15 2 (0.051%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,753 (70.63%) Agile Software Development
2 1,422 (36.48%) BDD
3 1,156 (29.66%) Microservices
4 1,027 (26.35%) DevOps
5 1,007 (25.83%) Scrum
6 948 (24.32%) Test Automation
7 823 (21.11%) Continuous Integration
8 808 (20.73%) Software Engineering
9 587 (15.06%) Pair Programming
10 498 (12.78%) Full Stack Development
11 439 (11.26%) Unit Testing
12 365 (9.36%) Continuous Delivery
13 361 (9.26%) Kanban
14 332 (8.52%) Problem-Solving
15 300 (7.70%) OO
16 290 (7.44%) MVC
17 256 (6.57%) Continuous Improvement
18 247 (6.34%) User Stories
19 246 (6.31%) SDLC
20 231 (5.93%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 1,656 (42.48%) Java
2 1,172 (30.07%) JavaScript
3 757 (19.42%) SQL
4 691 (17.73%) C#
5 523 (13.42%) Python
6 494 (12.67%) TypeScript
7 343 (8.80%) Scala
8 342 (8.77%) Java 8
9 248 (6.36%) Java 11
10 171 (4.39%) Kotlin
11 131 (3.36%) C++
12 117 (3.00%) PHP
13 86 (2.21%) Ruby
14 81 (2.08%) Go
15 74 (1.90%) ES6
16 72 (1.85%) Apple Swift
17 69 (1.77%) Bash Shell
17 69 (1.77%) PL/SQL
18 62 (1.59%) Groovy
19 57 (1.46%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 254 (6.52%) Security Cleared
2 222 (5.70%) SC Cleared
3 138 (3.54%) Degree
4 43 (1.10%) BPSS Clearance
5 41 (1.05%) Computer Science Degree
6 40 (1.03%) Sun Certification
7 35 (0.90%) OCPJP
8 32 (0.82%) ISTQB
9 18 (0.46%) ISEB
10 17 (0.44%) DBS Check
11 13 (0.33%) AWS Certification
12 12 (0.31%) Numerate Degree
13 11 (0.28%) DV Cleared
13 11 (0.28%) Master's Degree
14 10 (0.26%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
15 6 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
16 5 (0.13%) PMI Certification
17 3 (0.077%) SAFe Agilist
17 3 (0.077%) TOGAF Certification
18 2 (0.051%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 218 (5.59%) QA
2 148 (3.80%) Accessibility
3 16 (0.41%) WCAG
4 15 (0.38%) Data Quality
5 8 (0.21%) PMO
6 7 (0.18%) GDPR
7 6 (0.15%) JTAG
8 5 (0.13%) MiFID
9 3 (0.077%) ISO 20022
9 3 (0.077%) SEPA
10 2 (0.051%) Disclosure Scotland
10 2 (0.051%) IFRS
11 1 (0.026%) PCI DSS
11 1 (0.026%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 1 (0.026%) Solvency II
System Software
1 791 (20.29%) Docker
2 35 (0.90%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.26%) Varnish
4 8 (0.21%) vSphere
5 7 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 4 (0.10%) NDS
6 4 (0.10%) NetIQ eDirectory
7 3 (0.077%) Firmware
7 3 (0.077%) Platform Symphony
7 3 (0.077%) Postfix
7 3 (0.077%) Squid
7 3 (0.077%) VirtualBox
7 3 (0.077%) VMware Infrastructure
8 2 (0.051%) Virtual Machines
9 1 (0.026%) HDFS
Systems Management
1 629 (16.14%) Kubernetes
2 328 (8.41%) Terraform
3 174 (4.46%) Ansible
4 126 (3.23%) Grafana
5 100 (2.57%) Prometheus
6 43 (1.10%) Kibana
7 28 (0.72%) Puppet
8 19 (0.49%) Docker Swarm
9 16 (0.41%) Opscode Chef
10 14 (0.36%) MIIS
11 13 (0.33%) ZABBIX
12 9 (0.23%) Istio
12 9 (0.23%) ITRS Geneos
12 9 (0.23%) logstash
12 9 (0.23%) Packer
13 6 (0.15%) Netcool
14 5 (0.13%) vCenter Server
15 4 (0.10%) Rancher
16 3 (0.077%) Nagios
16 3 (0.077%) NetIQ Identity Manager
Vendors
1 295 (7.57%) Oracle
2 171 (4.39%) Microsoft
3 105 (2.69%) Google
4 67 (1.72%) Splunk
5 50 (1.28%) Atlassian
5 50 (1.28%) CA Agile Central
6 42 (1.08%) Databricks
7 35 (0.90%) Sun
8 32 (0.82%) CA
9 31 (0.80%) New Relic
10 29 (0.74%) Adobe
11 28 (0.72%) SAP
12 27 (0.69%) TIBCO
13 26 (0.67%) IBM
14 25 (0.64%) Red Hat
15 24 (0.62%) Xamarin
16 22 (0.56%) Salesforce.com
17 21 (0.54%) MuleSoft
17 21 (0.54%) Sybase
18 17 (0.44%) Apple