Period
to 18 June 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 18 June 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
18 Jun 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 25 19 23
Rank change year-on-year -6 +4 +8
Contract jobs citing TDD 6,060 7,695 6,436
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 6.68% 7.73% 7.08%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 7.68% 8.93% 8.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 4,600 5,967 5,007
UK median daily rate £525 £500 £470
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.00% +6.38% +4.44%
10th Percentile £388 £360 £325
90th Percentile £650 £625 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £470 £425 £414
% change year-on-year +10.59% +2.72% +3.44%
Number of hourly rates quoted 18 30 26
UK median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £40.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.22% +11.11% -5.81%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £45.00 £40.50
% change year-on-year -22.22% +11.11% -1.57%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 78,934 86,202 77,730
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 87.06% 86.60% 85.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 51,876 56,800 50,921
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £438
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +2.86% +2.94%
10th Percentile £305 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £420 £400
% change year-on-year +4.17% +5.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,188 2,341 2,107
UK median hourly rate £25.00 £21.78 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.78% -12.88% -
10th Percentile £11.85 £11.17 £11.47
90th Percentile £52.50 £50.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.00 £20.04 £25.00
% change year-on-year +19.76% -19.84% -7.41%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 June 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 June 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 18 June 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -4 5,813 £525 +5.00% 737
London -3 3,541 £538 +2.38% 331
UK excluding London -5 2,453 £470 +10.59% 449
South East +3 788 £463 +2.78% 108
North of England -12 642 £450 +8.76% 132
Midlands -13 300 £450 +5.88% 63
East of England -1 295 £475 -7.32% 60
Yorkshire -19 276 £490 +15.29% 39
North West -9 266 £425 +4.94% 82
South West +4 242 £484 +20.94% 46
West Midlands -19 188 £465 +7.83% 46
Scotland -9 165 £450 +12.50% 23
North East +22 99 £450 +12.50% 11
East Midlands -18 92 £450 +9.76% 17
Wales -58 14 £430 - 11
Northern Ireland -21 10 £475 +5.56% 9
Channel Islands - 3 - -

For the 6 months to 18 June 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 4,512 (74.46%) Agile Software Development
2 2,566 (42.34%) Java
3 2,439 (40.25%) BDD
4 2,207 (36.42%) JavaScript
5 1,617 (26.68%) Scrum
6 1,599 (26.39%) Git (software)
7 1,529 (25.23%) Microservices
8 1,438 (23.73%) C#
9 1,400 (23.10%) HTML
9 1,400 (23.10%) Continuous Integration
10 1,374 (22.67%) .NET
11 1,350 (22.28%) Amazon AWS
12 1,290 (21.29%) CSS
13 1,272 (20.99%) Test Automation
14 1,267 (20.91%) AngularJS
15 1,106 (18.25%) Jenkins
16 1,069 (17.64%) Spring
17 1,061 (17.51%) Microsoft Azure
18 1,059 (17.48%) DevOps
19 1,053 (17.38%) React
20 1,028 (16.96%) Finance
21 1,023 (16.88%) RESTful
22 1,006 (16.60%) SQL
23 976 (16.11%) Docker
24 934 (15.41%) REST
25 913 (15.07%) Web Services
26 905 (14.93%) Node.js
27 832 (13.73%) Java 8
28 779 (12.85%) Linux
29 752 (12.41%) Python

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 337 (5.56%) Confluence
2 233 (3.84%) Elasticsearch
3 189 (3.12%) Apache Spark
4 158 (2.61%) Apache
5 125 (2.06%) CMS
6 103 (1.70%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 103 (1.70%) Tomcat
7 86 (1.42%) WebSphere
8 84 (1.39%) Mule
9 71 (1.17%) Oracle Service Bus
10 68 (1.12%) JBoss
11 55 (0.91%) Apache Solr
12 39 (0.64%) nginx
13 36 (0.59%) SharePoint
14 31 (0.51%) OpenStack
15 29 (0.48%) Sitecore CMS
15 29 (0.48%) WebLogic
16 27 (0.45%) Jetty
17 25 (0.41%) IIS
18 23 (0.38%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 22 (0.36%) Microsoft Excel
2 15 (0.25%) InVision
3 14 (0.23%) Photoshop
4 13 (0.21%) MS Visio
5 12 (0.20%) Adobe XD
6 10 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
7 9 (0.15%) Adobe Illustrator
8 7 (0.12%) Zeplin
9 6 (0.099%) Chatbot
10 2 (0.033%) Adobe Premiere
10 2 (0.033%) OmniGraffle
10 2 (0.033%) Sketch
11 1 (0.017%) GIMP
11 1 (0.017%) Microsoft Project
11 1 (0.017%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 48 (0.79%) Dynamics CRM
2 31 (0.51%) Magento
3 9 (0.15%) Payment Gateway
3 9 (0.15%) Remedy ITSM
4 7 (0.12%) SAP FI
5 6 (0.099%) Dynamics AX
5 6 (0.099%) SAP Hybris
6 5 (0.083%) Fredhopper
7 4 (0.066%) BusinessWorks
7 4 (0.066%) NetSuite
7 4 (0.066%) Summit
8 3 (0.050%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 2 (0.033%) Distributed Ledger
9 2 (0.033%) Infor M3
9 2 (0.033%) Oracle BPM
9 2 (0.033%) Oracle Cash Management
9 2 (0.033%) Unit4 Business World
10 1 (0.017%) Oracle Financials
10 1 (0.017%) SDL Web 8
10 1 (0.017%) Unica
Cloud Services
1 1,350 (22.28%) Amazon AWS
2 1,061 (17.51%) Microsoft Azure
3 237 (3.91%) Serverless
4 212 (3.50%) GitHub
5 167 (2.76%) Amazon EC2
6 143 (2.36%) Google Cloud Platform
7 119 (1.96%) PaaS
8 117 (1.93%) AWS Lambda
9 114 (1.88%) Amazon SQS
9 114 (1.88%) SaaS
10 92 (1.52%) Amazon S3
11 81 (1.34%) AWS CloudFormation
12 68 (1.12%) npm
13 62 (1.02%) Azure Functions
14 53 (0.87%) IaaS
15 47 (0.78%) Amazon CloudWatch
16 45 (0.74%) Amazon Kinesis
17 41 (0.68%) Azure Active Directory
18 40 (0.66%) Cloud Computing
18 40 (0.66%) Virtual Private Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 185 (3.05%) HTTP
2 58 (0.96%) Internet
3 51 (0.84%) TCP/IP
4 39 (0.64%) AMQP
5 28 (0.46%) DNS
6 25 (0.41%) SSL
7 23 (0.38%) FTP
8 18 (0.30%) Skype
9 13 (0.21%) MQTT
10 12 (0.20%) Firewall
11 11 (0.18%) Reverse Proxy
11 11 (0.18%) SSH
11 11 (0.18%) Wireless
12 9 (0.15%) 3GPP
12 9 (0.15%) 5G
12 9 (0.15%) LTE
13 8 (0.13%) Bluetooth
13 8 (0.13%) Intranet
14 7 (0.12%) Broadband
14 7 (0.12%) H.323
Database & Business Intelligence
1 596 (9.83%) SQL Server
2 508 (8.38%) NoSQL
3 477 (7.87%) MongoDB
4 383 (6.32%) PostgreSQL
5 351 (5.79%) MySQL
6 345 (5.69%) Relational Database
7 242 (3.99%) Big Data
8 207 (3.42%) Hadoop
9 179 (2.95%) Redis
10 173 (2.85%) Apache Cassandra
11 97 (1.60%) Data Warehouse
12 94 (1.55%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 89 (1.47%) Amazon RDS
14 80 (1.32%) Cosmos DB
15 79 (1.30%) HBase
16 77 (1.27%) Azure SQL Database
17 73 (1.20%) RDBMS
18 72 (1.19%) Oracle Database
19 61 (1.01%) Neo4j
20 50 (0.83%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 1,599 (26.39%) Git (software)
2 1,106 (18.25%) Jenkins
3 626 (10.33%) JIRA
4 463 (7.64%) Selenium
5 421 (6.95%) Maven
6 402 (6.63%) JUnit
7 397 (6.55%) Cucumber
8 302 (4.98%) Mockito
9 233 (3.84%) TeamCity
10 230 (3.80%) Subversion
11 207 (3.42%) Visual Studio
12 204 (3.37%) webpack
13 178 (2.94%) Visual Studio Team System
14 172 (2.84%) Jasmine
15 158 (2.61%) Bitbucket
16 148 (2.44%) Team Foundation Server
17 146 (2.41%) gulp
18 142 (2.34%) Gradle
19 130 (2.15%) SonarQube
20 126 (2.08%) NUnit
General
1 1,028 (16.96%) Finance
2 507 (8.37%) Banking
3 194 (3.20%) Marketing
4 188 (3.10%) Retail
5 165 (2.72%) Telecoms
6 162 (2.67%) Front Office
7 149 (2.46%) Investment Banking
8 123 (2.03%) Manufacturing
9 113 (1.86%) Electronics
10 107 (1.77%) Games
11 53 (0.87%) Financial Institution
12 45 (0.74%) Publishing
13 34 (0.56%) Advertising
14 28 (0.46%) Legal
15 27 (0.45%) Law
16 26 (0.43%) Retail Banking
17 23 (0.38%) Back Office
18 12 (0.20%) Automotive
19 6 (0.099%) Online Betting
20 4 (0.066%) Prime Brokerage
Job Titles
1 4,543 (74.97%) Developer
2 1,460 (24.09%) Java Developer
3 743 (12.26%) Senior Developer
4 630 (10.40%) .NET Developer
5 526 (8.68%) React Developer
6 504 (8.32%) Full Stack Developer
7 456 (7.52%) C# Developer
8 405 (6.68%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
9 371 (6.12%) JavaScript Developer
10 325 (5.36%) Senior Java Developer
11 257 (4.24%) Angular Developer
12 250 (4.13%) C# .NET Developer
13 213 (3.51%) Python Developer
14 212 (3.50%) Lead Developer
15 198 (3.27%) AWS Developer
16 196 (3.23%) Agile Developer
16 196 (3.23%) Architect
17 186 (3.07%) Software Developer
18 174 (2.87%) Scala Developer
19 157 (2.59%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,400 (23.10%) HTML
2 1,374 (22.67%) .NET
3 1,290 (21.29%) CSS
4 1,267 (20.91%) AngularJS
5 1,069 (17.64%) Spring
6 1,053 (17.38%) React
7 1,023 (16.88%) RESTful
8 934 (15.41%) REST
9 913 (15.07%) Web Services
10 905 (14.93%) Node.js
11 635 (10.48%) HTML5
12 587 (9.69%) ASP.NET
13 555 (9.16%) Spring Boot
14 497 (8.20%) SOAP
15 491 (8.10%) JSON
16 465 (7.67%) Redux
17 423 (6.98%) ASP.NET Web API
18 416 (6.86%) .NET Core
19 395 (6.52%) Kafka
20 373 (6.16%) CSS3
Miscellaneous
1 659 (10.87%) Greenfield Project
2 337 (5.56%) User Experience
3 182 (3.00%) Analytical Skills
4 165 (2.72%) Mobile App
5 154 (2.54%) Enterprise Software
6 108 (1.78%) Algorithms
7 102 (1.68%) Virtual Team
8 97 (1.60%) Data Structures
9 87 (1.44%) Derivative
10 77 (1.27%) Self-Motivation
11 74 (1.22%) Public Cloud
12 61 (1.01%) Hedge funds
13 60 (0.99%) Linux Command Line
14 57 (0.94%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 53 (0.87%) Data Protection Act
16 52 (0.86%) Equity Derivative
16 52 (0.86%) Fixed Income
17 45 (0.74%) Equities
18 44 (0.73%) Video on Demand
19 41 (0.68%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 779 (12.85%) Linux
2 429 (7.08%) Unix
3 167 (2.76%) Android
4 162 (2.67%) Mac OS X
5 156 (2.57%) Apple iOS
6 130 (2.15%) Windows
7 72 (1.19%) CentOS
8 29 (0.48%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 27 (0.45%) Mac OS
10 21 (0.35%) VMS
11 20 (0.33%) Windows Server
12 18 (0.30%) tvOS
12 18 (0.30%) Ubuntu
13 4 (0.066%) Debian
14 2 (0.033%) Windows Server 2003
14 2 (0.033%) Windows XP
15 1 (0.017%) Oracle Linux
15 1 (0.017%) Solaris
15 1 (0.017%) Windows 10
15 1 (0.017%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,512 (74.46%) Agile Software Development
2 2,439 (40.25%) BDD
3 1,617 (26.68%) Scrum
4 1,529 (25.23%) Microservices
5 1,400 (23.10%) Continuous Integration
6 1,272 (20.99%) Test Automation
7 1,059 (17.48%) DevOps
8 721 (11.90%) MVC
9 711 (11.73%) Kanban
10 621 (10.25%) OO
11 620 (10.23%) Pair Programming
12 604 (9.97%) Software Engineering
13 592 (9.77%) Unit Testing
14 588 (9.70%) Front End Development
15 529 (8.73%) Continuous Delivery
16 458 (7.56%) Web Development
17 451 (7.44%) SOLID
18 408 (6.73%) Open Source
19 397 (6.55%) Problem-Solving
20 396 (6.53%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 2,566 (42.34%) Java
2 2,207 (36.42%) JavaScript
3 1,438 (23.73%) C#
4 1,006 (16.60%) SQL
5 832 (13.73%) Java 8
6 752 (12.41%) Python
7 421 (6.95%) Scala
8 389 (6.42%) TypeScript
9 385 (6.35%) Ruby
10 319 (5.26%) ES6
11 200 (3.30%) PHP
12 162 (2.67%) Bash Shell
13 126 (2.08%) Kotlin
14 120 (1.98%) C++
15 113 (1.86%) Shell Script
16 102 (1.68%) C
17 96 (1.58%) T-SQL
18 92 (1.52%) Go
19 81 (1.34%) Apple Swift
20 80 (1.32%) PowerShell
Qualifications
1 360 (5.94%) Security Cleared
2 267 (4.41%) SC Cleared
3 249 (4.11%) Degree
4 121 (2.00%) BPSS Clearance
5 54 (0.89%) Computer Science Degree
6 50 (0.83%) ISTQB
7 47 (0.78%) DBS Check
8 44 (0.73%) ISEB
9 28 (0.46%) CTC Cleared
10 26 (0.43%) DV Cleared
11 25 (0.41%) Sun Certification
12 24 (0.40%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 20 (0.33%) OCPJP
14 10 (0.17%) AWS Certification
15 9 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
16 5 (0.083%) BC Cleared
16 5 (0.083%) Master's Degree
17 4 (0.066%) PMI Certification
17 4 (0.066%) TOGAF Certification
18 3 (0.050%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 375 (6.19%) QA
2 40 (0.66%) WCAG
3 37 (0.61%) Data Quality
4 25 (0.41%) Disclosure Scotland
5 11 (0.18%) GDPR
6 10 (0.17%) MiFID
7 7 (0.12%) PSD2
8 4 (0.066%) HL7
9 3 (0.050%) EMIR
9 3 (0.050%) PMO
10 2 (0.033%) Dodd-Frank
10 2 (0.033%) IFRS
10 2 (0.033%) PCI DSS
10 2 (0.033%) WAI
11 1 (0.017%) GAMP
11 1 (0.017%) Government Security Classifications
11 1 (0.017%) GxP
11 1 (0.017%) NCSC
11 1 (0.017%) NIST
11 1 (0.017%) SLA
System Software
1 976 (16.11%) Docker
2 66 (1.09%) Active Directory
3 48 (0.79%) HDFS
3 48 (0.79%) VMware Infrastructure
4 45 (0.74%) vSphere
5 24 (0.40%) Apache Flume
6 22 (0.36%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 17 (0.28%) Postfix
7 17 (0.28%) Virtual Machines
8 6 (0.099%) NDS
8 6 (0.099%) NetIQ eDirectory
9 5 (0.083%) VirtualBox
10 4 (0.066%) Varnish
10 4 (0.066%) VMware Workstation
11 3 (0.050%) Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
11 3 (0.050%) Virtual Servers
11 3 (0.050%) VMware NSX
11 3 (0.050%) Xen
12 2 (0.033%) vCloud
13 1 (0.017%) Hyper-V
Systems Management
1 494 (8.15%) Kubernetes
2 278 (4.59%) Ansible
3 189 (3.12%) Terraform
4 139 (2.29%) Puppet
5 119 (1.96%) Opscode Chef
6 39 (0.64%) Hadoop YARN
7 31 (0.51%) Kibana
8 27 (0.45%) Rancher
9 22 (0.36%) Mesos
10 21 (0.35%) logstash
11 20 (0.33%) Control-M
11 20 (0.33%) ZABBIX
12 16 (0.26%) Docker Swarm
13 13 (0.21%) Prometheus
14 12 (0.20%) Grafana
14 12 (0.20%) Marathon
14 12 (0.20%) Oozie
15 11 (0.18%) Nagios
16 10 (0.17%) Cobbler
16 10 (0.17%) HP Quality Center
Vendors
1 401 (6.62%) Microsoft
2 392 (6.47%) Oracle
3 211 (3.48%) Google
4 143 (2.36%) Atlassian
5 136 (2.24%) SAP
6 95 (1.57%) WSO2
7 84 (1.39%) Red Hat
8 79 (1.30%) Splunk
9 64 (1.06%) VMware
10 58 (0.96%) IBM
11 45 (0.74%) Talend
12 37 (0.61%) Sitecore
13 34 (0.56%) MuleSoft
14 33 (0.54%) Adobe
15 31 (0.51%) Cypress Semiconductor
15 31 (0.51%) Salesforce.com
16 26 (0.43%) Cadence
17 24 (0.40%) Apple
17 24 (0.40%) hybris
17 24 (0.40%) Xamarin