Period
to 18 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 18 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
18 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 51 46 37
Rank change year-on-year -5 -9 -15
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,915 1,969 3,833
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.48% 4.85% 5.30%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.03% 5.58% 6.15%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,937 1,536 3,005
10th Percentile £406 £363 £381
25th Percentile £463 £425 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £550 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% - +2.44%
75th Percentile £653 £600 £600
90th Percentile £738 £650 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £475 £450
% change year-on-year - +5.56% -2.70%
Number of hourly rates quoted 43 11 8
10th Percentile £35.00 £42.00 £39.79
25th Percentile £64.25 £45.00 £44.43
Median hourly rate £70.00 £58.00 £48.18
Median % change year-on-year +20.69% +20.39% +7.06%
75th Percentile £77.34 £61.00 £56.21
90th Percentile £80.40 £68.00 £67.40
UK excluding London median hourly rate £65.50 £54.00 £47.50
% change year-on-year +21.30% +13.68% +5.56%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 77,834 35,308 62,368
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.03% 86.95% 86.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 54,668 24,059 41,734
10th Percentile £325 £300 £281
25th Percentile £421 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +10.53% - -
75th Percentile £625 £575 £575
90th Percentile £713 £650 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £425 £431
% change year-on-year +11.76% -1.42% +1.44%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,610 1,157 1,914
10th Percentile £12.24 £11.75 £11.97
25th Percentile £15.07 £15.75 £15.00
Median hourly rate £25.50 £27.00 £21.00
Median % change year-on-year -5.56% +28.57% -3.49%
75th Percentile £49.50 £47.50 £45.00
90th Percentile £64.01 £60.00 £53.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £24.00 £19.75
% change year-on-year -12.50% +21.50% -5.94%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 January 2022.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 January 2022.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 18 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -8 3,163 £568 +8.10% 1,400
London -10 2,110 £605 +10.00% 682
Work from Home -9 1,246 £550 +6.80% 344
UK excluding London +3 1,043 £475 - 803
North of England +5 365 £450 -5.26% 254
South East +25 214 £500 +5.26% 176
North West +16 193 £450 - 154
Yorkshire -2 144 £475 - 66
Scotland +12 130 £496 +18.15% 68
South West -26 116 £500 - 84
Midlands -35 101 £430 -6.32% 131
East of England -7 97 £528 +5.50% 59
West Midlands -29 77 £437 -6.53% 84
North East +1 34 £438 -12.50% 34
East Midlands -27 22 £425 +21.08% 46
Wales -14 19 £425 +17.24% 23
Northern Ireland -7 7 £475 +11.24% 9

For the 6 months to 18 January 2022, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,772 (70.80%) Agile Software Development
2 1,545 (39.46%) Java
3 1,433 (36.60%) BDD
4 1,172 (29.94%) Microservices
5 1,123 (28.68%) JavaScript
6 992 (25.34%) Test Automation
7 967 (24.70%) DevOps
8 919 (23.47%) Scrum
9 912 (23.30%) AWS
10 864 (22.07%) Software Engineering
11 847 (21.63%) Git (software)
12 795 (20.31%) Continuous Integration
13 780 (19.92%) Azure
14 750 (19.16%) Docker
15 745 (19.03%) C#
16 734 (18.75%) .NET
17 711 (18.16%) SQL
18 690 (17.62%) Kubernetes
19 687 (17.55%) Jenkins
20 646 (16.50%) React
21 632 (16.14%) Python
22 627 (16.02%) Spring
23 608 (15.53%) Social Skills
24 606 (15.48%) Finance
25 581 (14.84%) Pair Programming
26 548 (14.00%) HTML
27 546 (13.95%) CSS
28 476 (12.16%) REST
29 473 (12.08%) TypeScript
30 472 (12.06%) Full Stack Development

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 197 (5.03%) Confluence
2 105 (2.68%) Apache Spark
3 84 (2.15%) Apache
4 83 (2.12%) Elasticsearch
5 53 (1.35%) Apache Airflow
5 53 (1.35%) CMS
6 35 (0.89%) Cloud Foundry
7 33 (0.84%) IIS
8 31 (0.79%) Tomcat
9 28 (0.72%) JBoss
10 26 (0.66%) SharePoint
11 25 (0.64%) nginx
12 22 (0.56%) Red Hat Fuse
13 21 (0.54%) Mule
14 15 (0.38%) Gunicorn
15 14 (0.36%) WebSphere
16 13 (0.33%) BizTalk Server
17 12 (0.31%) Drupal
17 12 (0.31%) OpenStack
18 11 (0.28%) WebLogic
Applications
1 19 (0.49%) Microsoft Excel
2 14 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
3 2 (0.051%) Adobe XD
4 1 (0.026%) InDesign
4 1 (0.026%) InVision
4 1 (0.026%) MS Visio
4 1 (0.026%) Simulink
4 1 (0.026%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 9 (0.23%) Shopify
2 7 (0.18%) Magento
3 6 (0.15%) Dynamics CRM
4 5 (0.13%) Distributed Ledger
4 5 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 4 (0.10%) Primavera
5 4 (0.10%) SAP ERP
5 4 (0.10%) SAP S/4HANA
6 3 (0.077%) SAP BRIM
6 3 (0.077%) SAP Hybris
7 2 (0.051%) IBM Planning Analytics
7 2 (0.051%) Oracle BPM
8 1 (0.026%) BusinessWorks
8 1 (0.026%) Dynamics NAV
8 1 (0.026%) Payment Gateway
8 1 (0.026%) Quorum
8 1 (0.026%) RMDS
Cloud Services
1 912 (23.30%) AWS
2 780 (19.92%) Azure
3 237 (6.05%) Serverless
4 217 (5.54%) GCP
5 182 (4.65%) GitHub
6 122 (3.12%) AWS Lambda
7 107 (2.73%) PaaS
8 72 (1.84%) AWS CloudFormation
9 69 (1.76%) SaaS
10 67 (1.71%) Amazon S3
11 54 (1.38%) Amazon SQS
11 54 (1.38%) Azure Service Bus
11 54 (1.38%) IaaS
12 49 (1.25%) Azure Active Directory
13 44 (1.12%) Azure Cosmos DB
13 44 (1.12%) Power Platform
14 42 (1.07%) Amazon ECS
14 42 (1.07%) Azure Functions
15 41 (1.05%) Amazon EKS
16 40 (1.02%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 99 (2.53%) HTTP
2 25 (0.64%) RTMP
3 22 (0.56%) MQTT
4 19 (0.49%) Internet
4 19 (0.49%) TCP/IP
5 10 (0.26%) HTTPS
6 8 (0.20%) 5G
6 8 (0.20%) Ethernet
7 7 (0.18%) DNS
8 6 (0.15%) 2G
8 6 (0.15%) VPN
9 5 (0.13%) Firewall
9 5 (0.13%) IPv4
9 5 (0.13%) IPv6
9 5 (0.13%) LAN
9 5 (0.13%) UPnP
9 5 (0.13%) Wi-Fi
10 4 (0.10%) Broadband
10 4 (0.10%) DECT
10 4 (0.10%) PPP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 370 (9.45%) NoSQL
2 360 (9.20%) SQL Server
3 248 (6.33%) MongoDB
4 246 (6.28%) Relational Database
5 210 (5.36%) MySQL
6 201 (5.13%) PostgreSQL
7 121 (3.09%) Big Data
8 84 (2.15%) Oracle Database
9 64 (1.63%) Azure SQL Database
10 61 (1.56%) Apache Cassandra
10 61 (1.56%) Redis
11 55 (1.40%) RDBMS
12 54 (1.38%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 48 (1.23%) Data Lake
14 42 (1.07%) Amazon RDS
15 40 (1.02%) Hadoop
16 39 (1.00%) Amazon Redshift
17 36 (0.92%) Power BI
18 35 (0.89%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 34 (0.87%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 847 (21.63%) Git (software)
2 687 (17.55%) Jenkins
3 411 (10.50%) JIRA
4 270 (6.90%) Selenium
5 261 (6.67%) Cucumber
6 231 (5.90%) Maven
7 197 (5.03%) JUnit
8 152 (3.88%) GitLab
9 133 (3.40%) TeamCity
10 131 (3.35%) Mockito
11 107 (2.73%) Gradle
12 85 (2.17%) SonarQube
13 82 (2.09%) Bitbucket
14 80 (2.04%) Jasmine
15 71 (1.81%) Artifactory
16 69 (1.76%) Cypress.io
17 61 (1.56%) SpecFlow
17 61 (1.56%) WebDriver
18 58 (1.48%) Sonatype Nexus
19 54 (1.38%) Gatling
General
1 608 (15.53%) Social Skills
2 606 (15.48%) Finance
3 344 (8.79%) Banking
4 252 (6.44%) Public Sector
5 172 (4.39%) Front Office
6 145 (3.70%) Games
7 127 (3.24%) Investment Banking
8 104 (2.66%) Analytical Skills
9 96 (2.45%) Retail
10 63 (1.61%) Marketing
11 59 (1.51%) Telecoms
12 41 (1.05%) Publishing
13 38 (0.97%) Manufacturing
14 37 (0.95%) Influencing Skills
15 33 (0.84%) Back Office
16 30 (0.77%) Presentation Skills
17 25 (0.64%) Law
18 24 (0.61%) Electronics
19 19 (0.49%) Automotive
20 18 (0.46%) Documentation Skills
Job Titles
1 2,577 (65.82%) Developer
2 830 (21.20%) Java Developer
3 489 (12.49%) Senior Developer
4 304 (7.77%) .NET Developer
5 253 (6.46%) Software Engineer
6 242 (6.18%) Full Stack Developer
7 230 (5.87%) C# Developer
8 190 (4.85%) Senior Java Developer
9 172 (4.39%) React Developer
10 169 (4.32%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 167 (4.27%) Python Developer
12 166 (4.24%) Scala Developer
13 137 (3.50%) JavaScript Developer
14 129 (3.30%) DevOps Engineer
15 120 (3.07%) Software Developer
16 107 (2.73%) Data Engineer
17 100 (2.55%) Java Engineer
18 94 (2.40%) C# .NET Developer
19 76 (1.94%) AWS Engineer
20 74 (1.89%) Scrum Master
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 734 (18.75%) .NET
2 646 (16.50%) React
3 627 (16.02%) Spring
4 548 (14.00%) HTML
5 546 (13.95%) CSS
6 476 (12.16%) REST
7 466 (11.90%) RESTful
8 458 (11.70%) Node.js
9 445 (11.37%) Spring Boot
10 422 (10.78%) AngularJS
11 336 (8.58%) Kafka
12 295 (7.54%) Web Services
13 223 (5.70%) Redux
14 222 (5.67%) .NET Core
15 221 (5.64%) HTML5
16 189 (4.83%) JSON
17 177 (4.52%) .NET Framework
18 144 (3.68%) XML
19 139 (3.55%) ASP.NET
20 133 (3.40%) Sass
Miscellaneous
1 261 (6.67%) Greenfield Project
2 202 (5.16%) User Experience
3 127 (3.24%) Cloud Native
4 94 (2.40%) Mobile App
5 87 (2.22%) Data Protection Act
6 83 (2.12%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 62 (1.58%) Data Structures
8 61 (1.56%) Enterprise Software
9 58 (1.48%) Self-Motivation
10 56 (1.43%) Derivative
11 51 (1.30%) Hedge funds
12 50 (1.28%) Client/Server
12 50 (1.28%) Fixed Income
12 50 (1.28%) Legacy Code
13 49 (1.25%) Algorithms
14 45 (1.15%) iPad
15 38 (0.97%) Hybrid Cloud
15 38 (0.97%) Virtual Team
16 37 (0.95%) Legacy Systems
17 36 (0.92%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 446 (11.39%) Linux
2 223 (5.70%) Unix
3 101 (2.58%) Android
4 93 (2.38%) Apple iOS
5 89 (2.27%) Windows
6 60 (1.53%) Mac OS X
7 38 (0.97%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 10 (0.26%) Mac OS
9 7 (0.18%) Windows Server
10 6 (0.15%) OpenWrt
11 5 (0.13%) tvOS
12 4 (0.10%) Mesosphere
13 3 (0.077%) Amazon Linux
13 3 (0.077%) CentOS
14 2 (0.051%) Kali Linux
14 2 (0.051%) MVS
14 2 (0.051%) openSUSE
14 2 (0.051%) VMS
15 1 (0.026%) DC/OS
15 1 (0.026%) Embedded Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,772 (70.80%) Agile Software Development
2 1,433 (36.60%) BDD
3 1,172 (29.94%) Microservices
4 992 (25.34%) Test Automation
5 967 (24.70%) DevOps
6 919 (23.47%) Scrum
7 864 (22.07%) Software Engineering
8 795 (20.31%) Continuous Integration
9 581 (14.84%) Pair Programming
10 472 (12.06%) Full Stack Development
11 401 (10.24%) Unit Testing
12 371 (9.48%) Problem-Solving
13 362 (9.25%) OO
14 345 (8.81%) Continuous Delivery
15 330 (8.43%) Kanban
16 271 (6.92%) Front End Development
17 270 (6.90%) SOLID
18 248 (6.33%) MVC
19 246 (6.28%) SDLC
20 244 (6.23%) Continuous Improvement
Programming Languages
1 1,545 (39.46%) Java
2 1,123 (28.68%) JavaScript
3 745 (19.03%) C#
4 711 (18.16%) SQL
5 632 (16.14%) Python
6 473 (12.08%) TypeScript
7 339 (8.66%) Scala
8 289 (7.38%) Java 8
9 244 (6.23%) Java 11
10 162 (4.14%) Kotlin
11 128 (3.27%) PHP
12 121 (3.09%) Go
13 117 (2.99%) Ruby
14 99 (2.53%) VB.NET
15 93 (2.38%) C++
16 86 (2.20%) Groovy
17 79 (2.02%) Bash
18 68 (1.74%) Shell Script
19 64 (1.63%) ES6
20 53 (1.35%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 276 (7.05%) Security Cleared
2 241 (6.16%) SC Cleared
3 128 (3.27%) Degree
4 57 (1.46%) BPSS Clearance
5 34 (0.87%) Computer Science Degree
6 29 (0.74%) Sun Certification
7 28 (0.72%) ISTQB
8 27 (0.69%) OCPJP
9 14 (0.36%) DBS Check
9 14 (0.36%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 13 (0.33%) ISEB
11 11 (0.28%) AWS Certification
11 11 (0.28%) Master's Degree
12 9 (0.23%) DV Cleared
13 5 (0.13%) PMI Certification
14 4 (0.10%) AAT
15 3 (0.077%) ITIL Certification
15 3 (0.077%) Microsoft Certification
15 3 (0.077%) Numerate Degree
16 2 (0.051%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 226 (5.77%) QA
2 121 (3.09%) Accessibility
3 16 (0.41%) WCAG
4 15 (0.38%) Data Quality
5 5 (0.13%) GDPR
6 4 (0.10%) JTAG
6 4 (0.10%) PMO
7 3 (0.077%) Disclosure Scotland
7 3 (0.077%) SLA
8 2 (0.051%) MiFID
9 1 (0.026%) IFRS
9 1 (0.026%) ISO 9000
9 1 (0.026%) PCI DSS
9 1 (0.026%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.026%) Solvency II
System Software
1 750 (19.16%) Docker
2 49 (1.25%) Active Directory
3 5 (0.13%) Apache Flume
3 5 (0.13%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 5 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
4 4 (0.10%) Virtual Desktop
5 2 (0.051%) Postfix
5 2 (0.051%) Varnish
6 1 (0.026%) Firmware
6 1 (0.026%) HDFS
6 1 (0.026%) NDS
6 1 (0.026%) NetIQ eDirectory
6 1 (0.026%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 690 (17.62%) Kubernetes
2 378 (9.66%) Terraform
3 166 (4.24%) Ansible
4 115 (2.94%) Grafana
5 96 (2.45%) Prometheus
6 56 (1.43%) Puppet
7 34 (0.87%) Kibana
8 27 (0.69%) Docker Swarm
9 23 (0.59%) Netcool
10 18 (0.46%) Opscode Chef
11 16 (0.41%) logstash
12 10 (0.26%) Istio
13 6 (0.15%) Packer
14 3 (0.077%) Active Directory Federation Services
14 3 (0.077%) Automic
14 3 (0.077%) Consul
14 3 (0.077%) ITRS Geneos
14 3 (0.077%) Nagios
14 3 (0.077%) ZABBIX
15 2 (0.051%) Business Desktop Deployment
Vendors
1 250 (6.39%) Oracle
2 242 (6.18%) Microsoft
3 65 (1.66%) Splunk
4 63 (1.61%) Google
5 60 (1.53%) Databricks
6 41 (1.05%) Red Hat
7 40 (1.02%) Atlassian
8 37 (0.95%) Salesforce.com
9 35 (0.89%) SAP
10 28 (0.72%) CA Agile Central
11 27 (0.69%) Sun
12 25 (0.64%) AppDynamics
13 24 (0.61%) Hortonworks
14 23 (0.59%) New Relic
15 21 (0.54%) MuleSoft
16 17 (0.43%) CA
16 17 (0.43%) Sybase
16 17 (0.43%) Xamarin
17 15 (0.38%) Adobe
17 15 (0.38%) Apple