Period
to 18 February 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 18 February 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
18 Feb 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 21 16 24
Rank change year-on-year -5 +8 +6
Contract jobs citing TDD 7,316 7,714 6,292
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.43% 7.72% 6.61%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 8.53% 8.99% 7.77%
Number of daily rates quoted 5,655 6,087 4,902
UK median daily rate £510 £488 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +4.62% +5.41% +2.78%
10th Percentile £376 £350 £325
90th Percentile £650 £625 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +11.76% - +8.28%
Number of hourly rates quoted 28 43 24
UK median hourly rate £42.00 £45.00 £43.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -6.67% +4.05% +7.45%
10th Percentile £35.00 £32.50 £35.83
90th Percentile £64.48 £63.75 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £37.01
% change year-on-year - +21.59% -5.10%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 85,725 85,847 81,011
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 87.07% 85.94% 85.09%
Number of daily rates quoted 56,631 57,281 53,517
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% -
10th Percentile £300 £281 £263
90th Percentile £650 £638 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £413 £400
% change year-on-year +3.03% +3.13% +2.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,232 2,094 2,333
UK median hourly rate £23.86 £24.00 £24.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.59% - -
10th Percentile £11.25 £11.25 £11.22
90th Percentile £50.00 £50.25 £49.70
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.50 £24.00 £22.90
% change year-on-year -6.25% +4.80% -8.40%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 February 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 18 February 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 18 February 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 6,946 £515 +3.00% 2,235
London -5 4,232 £538 +4.62% 1,082
UK excluding London -1 3,022 £475 +11.76% 1,258
South East +2 1,020 £475 +11.76% 303
North of England -7 739 £450 +12.50% 383
Midlands -4 421 £475 +18.75% 181
Yorkshire -9 333 £463 +8.82% 163
West Midlands -5 298 £463 +15.63% 102
North West -12 294 £450 +15.38% 180
South West +1 292 £450 +9.09% 138
East of England -24 240 £513 +5.67% 148
Scotland -1 234 £433 +8.13% 62
East Midlands -1 115 £500 +28.21% 79
North East +10 112 £450 +5.88% 40
Wales +2 55 £425 - 37
Northern Ireland -6 25 £412 -4.19% 6
Channel Islands - 2 - -

For the 6 months to 18 February 2019, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 5,370 (73.40%) Agile Software Development
2 3,176 (43.41%) Java
3 3,032 (41.44%) BDD
4 2,714 (37.10%) JavaScript
5 2,013 (27.52%) Git (software)
6 1,951 (26.67%) Continuous Integration
7 1,921 (26.26%) Microservices
8 1,855 (25.36%) Scrum
9 1,723 (23.55%) HTML
10 1,665 (22.76%) CSS
11 1,631 (22.29%) C#
12 1,623 (22.18%) Test Automation
13 1,543 (21.09%) .NET
14 1,533 (20.95%) AngularJS
15 1,519 (20.76%) Spring
16 1,510 (20.64%) Amazon AWS
17 1,482 (20.26%) Jenkins
18 1,370 (18.73%) REST
19 1,269 (17.35%) RESTful
20 1,250 (17.09%) Finance
21 1,247 (17.04%) React
22 1,246 (17.03%) SQL
23 1,229 (16.80%) Docker
24 1,210 (16.54%) DevOps
25 1,186 (16.21%) Microsoft Azure
26 1,184 (16.18%) Web Services
27 1,153 (15.76%) Node.js
28 1,000 (13.67%) Java 8
29 960 (13.12%) MVC
30 929 (12.70%) Greenfield Project

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 496 (6.78%) Confluence
2 289 (3.95%) Elasticsearch
3 236 (3.23%) Tomcat
4 210 (2.87%) WebSphere
5 192 (2.62%) Apache Spark
6 186 (2.54%) CMS
7 184 (2.52%) WebLogic
8 176 (2.41%) Apache
9 136 (1.86%) OpenStack
10 127 (1.74%) JBoss
11 90 (1.23%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 83 (1.13%) Mule
13 59 (0.81%) Jetty
14 56 (0.77%) Oracle Service Bus
15 53 (0.72%) Cloud Foundry
16 50 (0.68%) SharePoint
17 49 (0.67%) MQSeries
18 45 (0.62%) Apache Solr
19 44 (0.60%) nginx
19 44 (0.60%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 36 (0.49%) Microsoft Excel
2 19 (0.26%) Photoshop
2 19 (0.26%) Spreadsheet
3 12 (0.16%) InVision
4 9 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
5 8 (0.11%) MS Visio
6 5 (0.068%) Microsoft Office
7 2 (0.027%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 2 (0.027%) Snapchat
8 1 (0.014%) Chatbot
8 1 (0.014%) InfoPath
8 1 (0.014%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 59 (0.81%) Dynamics CRM
2 18 (0.25%) Magento
3 12 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
4 6 (0.082%) Distributed Ledger
4 6 (0.082%) Unit4 Business World
5 4 (0.055%) Markit EDM
6 3 (0.041%) SAP Hybris
7 2 (0.027%) Oracle Financials
7 2 (0.027%) SAP FI
7 2 (0.027%) Unica
8 1 (0.014%) Endur
8 1 (0.014%) Exstream
8 1 (0.014%) Loan IQ
8 1 (0.014%) Oracle General Ledger
8 1 (0.014%) Oracle Retail
8 1 (0.014%) PeopleSoft Financials
8 1 (0.014%) PolarLake
8 1 (0.014%) Remedy ITSM
8 1 (0.014%) Shopify
8 1 (0.014%) thinkFolio
Cloud Services
1 1,510 (20.64%) Amazon AWS
2 1,186 (16.21%) Microsoft Azure
3 308 (4.21%) GitHub
4 236 (3.23%) Serverless
5 156 (2.13%) Google Cloud Platform
6 133 (1.82%) AWS Lambda
7 132 (1.80%) PaaS
8 130 (1.78%) Amazon EC2
9 108 (1.48%) SaaS
10 79 (1.08%) npm
10 79 (1.08%) OpenShift
11 71 (0.97%) Cloud Computing
12 56 (0.77%) AWS CloudFormation
13 52 (0.71%) Amazon S3
14 49 (0.67%) Slack
15 47 (0.64%) Amazon SQS
16 46 (0.63%) Azure Functions
16 46 (0.63%) Heroku
17 42 (0.57%) IaaS
18 35 (0.48%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 245 (3.35%) HTTP
2 91 (1.24%) Internet
3 56 (0.77%) TCP/IP
4 51 (0.70%) AMQP
5 34 (0.46%) SSL
6 28 (0.38%) FTP
7 25 (0.34%) DNS
8 19 (0.26%) SSH
9 13 (0.18%) Skype
10 11 (0.15%) Kerberos
11 10 (0.14%) Broadband
11 10 (0.14%) Firewall
11 10 (0.14%) Reverse Proxy
12 9 (0.12%) SMTP
12 9 (0.12%) VPN
13 8 (0.11%) HTTPS
14 7 (0.096%) Bluetooth
15 6 (0.082%) 3GPP
15 6 (0.082%) Wi-Fi
15 6 (0.082%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 844 (11.54%) SQL Server
2 757 (10.35%) NoSQL
3 598 (8.17%) PostgreSQL
4 564 (7.71%) MongoDB
5 519 (7.09%) MySQL
6 444 (6.07%) Relational Database
7 284 (3.88%) Apache Cassandra
8 262 (3.58%) Big Data
9 258 (3.53%) Hadoop
10 188 (2.57%) Redis
11 120 (1.64%) HBase
12 87 (1.19%) RDBMS
13 86 (1.18%) Data Warehouse
14 80 (1.09%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 77 (1.05%) Azure SQL Database
16 70 (0.96%) Apache Hive
17 65 (0.89%) Cosmos DB
18 61 (0.83%) Data Lake
19 59 (0.81%) Couchbase
20 58 (0.79%) Impala
Development Applications
1 2,013 (27.52%) Git (software)
2 1,482 (20.26%) Jenkins
3 818 (11.18%) JIRA
4 657 (8.98%) Maven
5 654 (8.94%) Selenium
6 570 (7.79%) Cucumber
7 547 (7.48%) JUnit
8 395 (5.40%) Subversion
9 324 (4.43%) TeamCity
10 256 (3.50%) Mockito
11 242 (3.31%) webpack
12 237 (3.24%) Gradle
13 235 (3.21%) Visual Studio
14 233 (3.18%) NUnit
15 210 (2.87%) Team Foundation Server
16 193 (2.64%) gulp
17 188 (2.57%) Jasmine
18 185 (2.53%) Mocha
19 182 (2.49%) Bitbucket
20 180 (2.46%) WebDriver
General
1 1,250 (17.09%) Finance
2 584 (7.98%) Banking
3 236 (3.23%) Front Office
4 212 (2.90%) Retail
5 170 (2.32%) Marketing
6 169 (2.31%) Investment Banking
7 163 (2.23%) Telecoms
8 125 (1.71%) Games
9 104 (1.42%) Manufacturing
10 97 (1.33%) Electronics
11 57 (0.78%) Publishing
12 56 (0.77%) Advertising
13 48 (0.66%) Back Office
13 48 (0.66%) Law
14 41 (0.56%) Financial Institution
15 34 (0.46%) Automotive
16 28 (0.38%) Legal
17 10 (0.14%) Pharmaceutical
17 10 (0.14%) Retail Banking
18 9 (0.12%) Billing
Job Titles
1 5,590 (76.41%) Developer
2 1,825 (24.95%) Java Developer
3 894 (12.22%) Senior Developer
4 768 (10.50%) .NET Developer
5 601 (8.21%) React Developer
6 584 (7.98%) C# Developer
7 525 (7.18%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
8 495 (6.77%) Full Stack Developer
9 479 (6.55%) JavaScript Developer
10 335 (4.58%) Agile Developer
11 334 (4.57%) Angular Developer
12 316 (4.32%) Senior Java Developer
13 278 (3.80%) AWS Developer
14 271 (3.70%) C# .NET Developer
15 253 (3.46%) Software Engineer
16 247 (3.38%) Scala Developer
17 242 (3.31%) Lead Developer
18 217 (2.97%) Python Developer
19 186 (2.54%) Software Developer
20 185 (2.53%) Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,723 (23.55%) HTML
2 1,665 (22.76%) CSS
3 1,543 (21.09%) .NET
4 1,533 (20.95%) AngularJS
5 1,519 (20.76%) Spring
6 1,370 (18.73%) REST
7 1,269 (17.35%) RESTful
8 1,247 (17.04%) React
9 1,184 (16.18%) Web Services
10 1,153 (15.76%) Node.js
11 874 (11.95%) Spring Boot
12 834 (11.40%) HTML5
13 715 (9.77%) JSON
14 619 (8.46%) ASP.NET
15 522 (7.14%) Hibernate
16 515 (7.04%) SOAP
17 487 (6.66%) ASP.NET Web API
18 471 (6.44%) CSS3
19 461 (6.30%) Redux
20 454 (6.21%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 929 (12.70%) Greenfield Project
2 416 (5.69%) User Experience
3 314 (4.29%) Fintech
4 271 (3.70%) Mobile App
5 257 (3.51%) Analytical Skills
6 119 (1.63%) Algorithms
7 116 (1.59%) Enterprise Software
8 105 (1.44%) Data Structures
9 104 (1.42%) Self-Motivation
10 95 (1.30%) Derivative
10 95 (1.30%) Fixed Income
11 85 (1.16%) Virtual Team
12 69 (0.94%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 67 (0.92%) Hedge funds
14 55 (0.75%) Linux Command Line
15 52 (0.71%) Equities
16 43 (0.59%) Cloud Native
17 40 (0.55%) Video on Demand
18 38 (0.52%) iPad
18 38 (0.52%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 748 (10.22%) Linux
2 380 (5.19%) Unix
3 276 (3.77%) Android
4 239 (3.27%) Apple iOS
5 218 (2.98%) Windows
6 89 (1.22%) Mac OS X
7 66 (0.90%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 42 (0.57%) Windows Server
9 32 (0.44%) VMS
10 23 (0.31%) Mac OS
11 18 (0.25%) CentOS
12 11 (0.15%) Solaris
13 9 (0.12%) Embedded Linux
14 8 (0.11%) Ubuntu
15 6 (0.082%) tvOS
16 4 (0.055%) Windows 10
17 3 (0.041%) Windows Server 2003
18 2 (0.027%) Debian
18 2 (0.027%) Oracle Linux
18 2 (0.027%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,370 (73.40%) Agile Software Development
2 3,032 (41.44%) BDD
3 1,951 (26.67%) Continuous Integration
4 1,921 (26.26%) Microservices
5 1,855 (25.36%) Scrum
6 1,623 (22.18%) Test Automation
7 1,210 (16.54%) DevOps
8 960 (13.12%) MVC
9 913 (12.48%) OO
10 864 (11.81%) Kanban
11 858 (11.73%) Software Engineering
12 771 (10.54%) Pair Programming
13 766 (10.47%) Unit Testing
14 728 (9.95%) Front End Development
15 613 (8.38%) Continuous Delivery
16 522 (7.14%) Open Source
17 500 (6.83%) Problem-Solving
18 472 (6.45%) E-Commerce
19 463 (6.33%) Web Development
20 454 (6.21%) SOA
Programming Languages
1 3,176 (43.41%) Java
2 2,714 (37.10%) JavaScript
3 1,631 (22.29%) C#
4 1,246 (17.03%) SQL
5 1,000 (13.67%) Java 8
6 778 (10.63%) Python
7 510 (6.97%) Scala
8 382 (5.22%) ES6
9 372 (5.08%) TypeScript
10 328 (4.48%) Ruby
11 297 (4.06%) PHP
12 155 (2.12%) Kotlin
13 148 (2.02%) Apple Swift
14 139 (1.90%) Bash Shell
15 118 (1.61%) C++
16 115 (1.57%) T-SQL
17 113 (1.54%) Groovy
17 113 (1.54%) Shell Script
18 110 (1.50%) Go
19 99 (1.35%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 393 (5.37%) Degree
2 365 (4.99%) Security Cleared
3 286 (3.91%) SC Cleared
4 141 (1.93%) BPSS Clearance
5 82 (1.12%) Computer Science Degree
6 44 (0.60%) ISTQB
7 38 (0.52%) DBS Check
8 33 (0.45%) ISEB
9 26 (0.36%) Numerate Degree
10 25 (0.34%) DV Cleared
11 16 (0.22%) Sun Certification
12 14 (0.19%) PhD
13 11 (0.15%) Master's Degree
14 9 (0.12%) PMI Certification
15 7 (0.096%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
16 6 (0.082%) CTC Cleared
16 6 (0.082%) OCPJP
17 5 (0.068%) AWS Certification
18 4 (0.055%) BC Cleared
18 4 (0.055%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 468 (6.40%) QA
2 46 (0.63%) WCAG
3 39 (0.53%) Data Quality
4 29 (0.40%) Disclosure Scotland
5 11 (0.15%) PMO
6 10 (0.14%) GDPR
6 10 (0.14%) MiFID
7 6 (0.082%) PSD2
8 5 (0.068%) EMIR
8 5 (0.068%) HL7
9 4 (0.055%) Dodd-Frank
10 3 (0.041%) ECSS
10 3 (0.041%) MIL-STD-1553
10 3 (0.041%) SLA
11 2 (0.027%) Government Security Classifications
11 2 (0.027%) PCI DSS
12 1 (0.014%) ISO 20022
12 1 (0.014%) WAI
System Software
1 1,229 (16.80%) Docker
2 77 (1.05%) HDFS
3 74 (1.01%) VMware Infrastructure
4 67 (0.92%) vSphere
5 49 (0.67%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 21 (0.29%) Active Directory
7 16 (0.22%) Apache Flume
8 13 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
9 6 (0.082%) VirtualBox
10 5 (0.068%) Firmware
10 5 (0.068%) Microsoft App-V
11 4 (0.055%) VMware Workstation
12 2 (0.027%) KVM
12 2 (0.027%) OpenAM
12 2 (0.027%) VMware NSX
13 1 (0.014%) Hyper-V
13 1 (0.014%) Xen
Systems Management
1 491 (6.71%) Ansible
2 459 (6.27%) Kubernetes
3 345 (4.72%) Puppet
4 288 (3.94%) Opscode Chef
5 235 (3.21%) Terraform
6 94 (1.28%) Kibana
7 69 (0.94%) Hadoop YARN
8 55 (0.75%) Grafana
9 52 (0.71%) logstash
10 44 (0.60%) Cobbler
11 38 (0.52%) Rancher
12 29 (0.40%) ZABBIX
13 27 (0.37%) Mesos
13 27 (0.37%) Prometheus
14 22 (0.30%) Graphite
15 20 (0.27%) Packer
15 20 (0.27%) Single Sign-On
16 16 (0.22%) Docker Swarm
17 13 (0.18%) Oozie
18 10 (0.14%) HockeyApp
Vendors
1 585 (8.00%) Oracle
2 479 (6.55%) Microsoft
3 277 (3.79%) Google
4 113 (1.54%) Atlassian
5 111 (1.52%) Splunk
6 101 (1.38%) WSO2
7 100 (1.37%) SAP
8 94 (1.28%) VMware
9 72 (0.98%) Red Hat
10 62 (0.85%) IBM
11 57 (0.78%) Apple
12 53 (0.72%) Sitecore
13 44 (0.60%) Adobe
14 41 (0.56%) Cloudera
15 38 (0.52%) Sybase
15 38 (0.52%) Talend
16 33 (0.45%) Xamarin
17 29 (0.40%) Cypress Semiconductor
17 29 (0.40%) Salesforce.com
18 28 (0.38%) DevExpress