Period
to 24 November 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 24 November 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
24 Nov 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 41 33 19
Rank change year-on-year -8 -14 -3
Contract jobs citing TDD 1,761 4,625 8,060
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.84% 5.67% 7.82%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.63% 6.58% 8.97%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,496 3,672 6,414
Median daily rate £525 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.00% +2.56%
10th Percentile £350 £388 £375
90th Percentile £650 £700 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £450
Number of hourly rates quoted 15 8 26
Median hourly rate £35.00 £45.43 £41.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -22.95% +10.12% -8.33%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £38.74 £43.75
% change year-on-year -9.64% -11.46% -2.78%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 31,273 70,274 89,860
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.03% 86.16% 87.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 19,569 45,910 59,487
Median daily rate £475 £475 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +2.70% +2.78%
10th Percentile £298 £294 £300
90th Percentile £660 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £430 £438 £425
% change year-on-year -1.71% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,178 2,254 2,327
Median hourly rate £35.00 £24.00 £22.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +45.83% +9.09% -4.35%
10th Percentile £12.50 £12.00 £11.25
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.75 £50.50
Median hourly rate £27.50 £22.50 £21.09
% change year-on-year +22.22% +6.69% -10.26%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 24 November 2020.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 24 November 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 24 November 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -12 1,566 £525 - 1,010
London -11 1,066 £550 - 460
UK excluding London -11 502 £450 - 606
Work from Home -4 389 £500 - 208
North of England +7 194 £470 +4.44% 234
North West -3 95 £450 - 135
South West +30 82 £500 +11.11% 49
Yorkshire -4 71 £450 -5.76% 70
Midlands -14 71 £424 -8.43% 87
South East -47 66 £450 - 136
West Midlands -13 46 £435 -8.42% 53
East of England -7 44 £473 +5.00% 42
Scotland -27 32 £450 -5.26% 35
North East +29 28 £516 +20.76% 29
East Midlands -2 21 £351 -17.41% 34
Wales +36 8 £369 -13.24% 18
Northern Ireland +12 7 £424 -6.40% 5

For the 6 months to 24 November 2020, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,179 (66.95%) Agile Software Development
2 812 (46.11%) Java
3 727 (41.28%) BDD
4 532 (30.21%) JavaScript
5 497 (28.22%) DevOps
6 492 (27.94%) AWS
7 483 (27.43%) Test Automation
8 471 (26.75%) Microservices
9 422 (23.96%) Scrum
10 389 (22.09%) Git (software)
11 382 (21.69%) Azure
12 341 (19.36%) Docker
13 336 (19.08%) Spring
14 316 (17.94%) React
15 306 (17.38%) Continuous Integration
16 294 (16.70%) Python
17 293 (16.64%) SQL
18 290 (16.47%) HTML
19 288 (16.35%) Node.js
20 285 (16.18%) Finance
21 274 (15.56%) AngularJS
22 272 (15.45%) .NET
23 267 (15.16%) CSS
24 265 (15.05%) Software Engineering
25 256 (14.54%) C#
26 250 (14.20%) Jenkins
27 249 (14.14%) Linux
28 243 (13.80%) Kubernetes
29 241 (13.69%) REST
30 222 (12.61%) Security Cleared

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 122 (6.93%) Confluence
2 76 (4.32%) Elasticsearch
3 59 (3.35%) Mule
4 52 (2.95%) Red Hat Fuse
5 49 (2.78%) Apache Spark
6 46 (2.61%) JBoss
7 43 (2.44%) WebLogic
8 26 (1.48%) Cloud Foundry
8 26 (1.48%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 19 (1.08%) Oracle Service Bus
10 18 (1.02%) Apache Solr
11 16 (0.91%) Apache
11 16 (0.91%) CMS
12 15 (0.85%) Tomcat
13 14 (0.80%) MQSeries
13 14 (0.80%) WebSphere
14 13 (0.74%) SAS
15 12 (0.68%) Jetty
16 11 (0.62%) NServiceBus
17 10 (0.57%) Oracle Self-Service HR
Applications
1 16 (0.91%) Microsoft Excel
2 5 (0.28%) Chatbot
2 5 (0.28%) Figma
2 5 (0.28%) Microsoft Office
3 4 (0.23%) Photoshop
4 1 (0.057%) 3ds Max
4 1 (0.057%) Adobe Illustrator
4 1 (0.057%) Blender
4 1 (0.057%) GIMP
4 1 (0.057%) InVision
4 1 (0.057%) Maya
4 1 (0.057%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 1 (0.057%) MS Visio
4 1 (0.057%) Sketch
4 1 (0.057%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 10 (0.57%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
2 8 (0.45%) Magento
3 4 (0.23%) Salesforce.com CRM
3 4 (0.23%) Shopify
4 3 (0.17%) Dynamics CRM
4 3 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
5 2 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
5 2 (0.11%) SAP ERP
5 2 (0.11%) SAP FI-CA
5 2 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
6 1 (0.057%) Exstream
6 1 (0.057%) ION MarketView
6 1 (0.057%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
6 1 (0.057%) RMDS
6 1 (0.057%) thinkFolio
6 1 (0.057%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 492 (27.94%) AWS
2 382 (21.69%) Azure
3 125 (7.10%) Serverless
4 91 (5.17%) GitHub
5 71 (4.03%) GCP
6 65 (3.69%) AWS Lambda
7 48 (2.73%) PaaS
8 38 (2.16%) Azure Functions
9 36 (2.04%) Logic Apps
9 36 (2.04%) Power Platform
10 35 (1.99%) OpenShift
11 31 (1.76%) IaaS
11 31 (1.76%) SaaS
12 27 (1.53%) Slack
13 25 (1.42%) Amazon S3
13 25 (1.42%) AWS CloudFormation
14 24 (1.36%) Amazon EC2
15 23 (1.31%) Amazon ECS
16 22 (1.25%) Power Automate
16 22 (1.25%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 43 (2.44%) HTTP
2 18 (1.02%) TCP/IP
3 12 (0.68%) SSL
4 11 (0.62%) SSH
5 10 (0.57%) Internet
6 6 (0.34%) Wi-Fi
7 5 (0.28%) FIX Connectivity
8 4 (0.23%) DNS
8 4 (0.23%) DSL
8 4 (0.23%) DVB
8 4 (0.23%) HTTPS
8 4 (0.23%) LAN
8 4 (0.23%) UPnP
8 4 (0.23%) WAN
9 3 (0.17%) FTP
9 3 (0.17%) IPv6
9 3 (0.17%) Kerberos
9 3 (0.17%) Skype
9 3 (0.17%) SMS
10 2 (0.11%) PPP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 172 (9.77%) SQL Server
2 156 (8.86%) MongoDB
3 133 (7.55%) NoSQL
4 117 (6.64%) MySQL
5 100 (5.68%) PostgreSQL
6 93 (5.28%) Relational Database
7 57 (3.24%) Big Data
8 53 (3.01%) Hadoop
9 38 (2.16%) Azure SQL Database
10 37 (2.10%) Data Warehouse
11 30 (1.70%) Oracle Database
12 29 (1.65%) Amazon RDS
13 27 (1.53%) Cosmos DB
14 22 (1.25%) Apache Cassandra
15 21 (1.19%) OLTP
15 21 (1.19%) RDBMS
16 19 (1.08%) Redis
17 14 (0.80%) Power BI
18 13 (0.74%) DataStage
18 13 (0.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 389 (22.09%) Git (software)
2 250 (14.20%) Jenkins
3 208 (11.81%) JIRA
4 172 (9.77%) Cucumber
5 169 (9.60%) Selenium
6 147 (8.35%) Maven
7 113 (6.42%) JUnit
8 93 (5.28%) GitLab
9 88 (5.00%) Subversion
10 73 (4.15%) Jasmine
11 58 (3.29%) JMeter
12 54 (3.07%) Grunt
13 51 (2.90%) gulp
13 51 (2.90%) Mockito
14 47 (2.67%) Gradle
15 45 (2.56%) Mocha
16 44 (2.50%) Atlassian Bamboo
17 39 (2.21%) TeamCity
18 36 (2.04%) SoapUI
19 35 (1.99%) Postman
General
1 285 (16.18%) Finance
2 217 (12.32%) Banking
3 180 (10.22%) Public Sector
4 131 (7.44%) Front Office
5 96 (5.45%) Investment Banking
6 44 (2.50%) Marketing
7 42 (2.39%) Telecoms
8 40 (2.27%) Manufacturing
9 39 (2.21%) Electronics
10 23 (1.31%) Games
11 15 (0.85%) Law
11 15 (0.85%) Retail
12 14 (0.80%) Financial Institution
13 11 (0.62%) Advertising
14 7 (0.40%) Retail Banking
15 6 (0.34%) Social Housing
16 5 (0.28%) Legal
17 4 (0.23%) Automotive
18 2 (0.11%) Back Office
18 2 (0.11%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 1,144 (64.96%) Developer
2 383 (21.75%) Java Developer
3 188 (10.68%) Senior Developer
4 136 (7.72%) React Developer
5 112 (6.36%) .NET Developer
5 112 (6.36%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
6 98 (5.57%) Senior Java Developer
7 95 (5.39%) Full Stack Developer
8 90 (5.11%) JavaScript Developer
9 89 (5.05%) C# Developer
10 80 (4.54%) Architect
10 80 (4.54%) AWS Engineer
11 74 (4.20%) Software Engineer
12 72 (4.09%) Java Engineer
13 70 (3.98%) DevOps Engineer
14 62 (3.52%) Python Developer
15 52 (2.95%) Test Engineer
16 50 (2.84%) AWS Developer
16 50 (2.84%) Tester
17 48 (2.73%) Scala Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 336 (19.08%) Spring
2 316 (17.94%) React
3 290 (16.47%) HTML
4 288 (16.35%) Node.js
5 274 (15.56%) AngularJS
6 272 (15.45%) .NET
7 267 (15.16%) CSS
8 241 (13.69%) REST
9 209 (11.87%) RESTful
10 202 (11.47%) Web Services
11 189 (10.73%) HTML5
12 183 (10.39%) Spring Boot
13 129 (7.33%) XML
14 125 (7.10%) JSON
15 111 (6.30%) Redux
16 108 (6.13%) SOAP
17 97 (5.51%) Kafka
18 94 (5.34%) CSS3
19 88 (5.00%) Sass
20 82 (4.66%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 157 (8.92%) User Experience
2 97 (5.51%) Greenfield Project
3 62 (3.52%) Analytical Skills
4 55 (3.12%) Mobile App
5 54 (3.07%) Fixed Income
6 46 (2.61%) Derivative
7 30 (1.70%) Enterprise Software
8 25 (1.42%) Algorithms
9 23 (1.31%) Cloud Native
9 23 (1.31%) Equities
9 23 (1.31%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 20 (1.14%) Data Centre
10 20 (1.14%) Self-Motivation
11 19 (1.08%) Public Cloud
12 14 (0.80%) Data Structures
13 13 (0.74%) Credit Risk
13 13 (0.74%) Market Risk
14 12 (0.68%) Client/Server
15 10 (0.57%) Management Information System
15 10 (0.57%) NHS
Operating Systems
1 249 (14.14%) Linux
2 151 (8.57%) Unix
3 83 (4.71%) Android
4 73 (4.15%) Apple iOS
5 59 (3.35%) Mac OS X
6 54 (3.07%) Windows
7 17 (0.97%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 16 (0.91%) Ubuntu
9 14 (0.80%) CentOS
10 11 (0.62%) Mac OS
11 10 (0.57%) Debian
12 5 (0.28%) tvOS
13 4 (0.23%) Windows Server
14 3 (0.17%) Embedded Linux
14 3 (0.17%) OpenWrt
15 1 (0.057%) Solaris
15 1 (0.057%) Tizen
15 1 (0.057%) webOS
15 1 (0.057%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,179 (66.95%) Agile Software Development
2 727 (41.28%) BDD
3 497 (28.22%) DevOps
4 483 (27.43%) Test Automation
5 471 (26.75%) Microservices
6 422 (23.96%) Scrum
7 306 (17.38%) Continuous Integration
8 265 (15.05%) Software Engineering
9 202 (11.47%) Pair Programming
10 187 (10.62%) Continuous Delivery
11 185 (10.51%) Kanban
12 160 (9.09%) Problem-Solving
13 153 (8.69%) OO
14 151 (8.57%) Front End Development
15 125 (7.10%) Unit Testing
16 119 (6.76%) Continuous Deployment
17 115 (6.53%) Open Source
18 110 (6.25%) SDLC
19 100 (5.68%) MVC
20 98 (5.57%) User Stories
Programming Languages
1 812 (46.11%) Java
2 532 (30.21%) JavaScript
3 294 (16.70%) Python
4 293 (16.64%) SQL
5 256 (14.54%) C#
6 189 (10.73%) Java 8
7 148 (8.40%) Scala
8 122 (6.93%) TypeScript
9 104 (5.91%) Kotlin
10 73 (4.15%) Ruby
11 58 (3.29%) C++
12 53 (3.01%) PHP
13 50 (2.84%) Go
14 47 (2.67%) Shell Script
15 38 (2.16%) PowerShell
15 38 (2.16%) T-SQL
16 35 (1.99%) ES6
17 34 (1.93%) Apple Swift
17 34 (1.93%) C
18 32 (1.82%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 222 (12.61%) Security Cleared
2 172 (9.77%) SC Cleared
3 87 (4.94%) Degree
4 28 (1.59%) ISEB
5 25 (1.42%) BPSS Clearance
6 24 (1.36%) ISTQB
7 20 (1.14%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 19 (1.08%) DBS Check
9 18 (1.02%) Numerate Degree
10 17 (0.97%) DV Cleared
11 11 (0.62%) Computer Science Degree
12 9 (0.51%) OCPJP
12 9 (0.51%) Sun Certification
13 7 (0.40%) Master's Degree
14 4 (0.23%) AWS Certification
15 2 (0.11%) BC Cleared
15 2 (0.11%) ISEB Practitioner
16 1 (0.057%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
16 1 (0.057%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 132 (7.50%) QA
2 53 (3.01%) WCAG
3 9 (0.51%) Data Quality
4 4 (0.23%) GDPR
5 3 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
5 3 (0.17%) MiFID
5 3 (0.17%) PMO
6 2 (0.11%) JTAG
7 1 (0.057%) EMIR
7 1 (0.057%) FINREP
7 1 (0.057%) GxP
7 1 (0.057%) PSD2
System Software
1 341 (19.36%) Docker
2 20 (1.14%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.57%) NDS
3 10 (0.57%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 5 (0.28%) Postfix
5 4 (0.23%) Virtual Machines
5 4 (0.23%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.23%) vSphere
6 3 (0.17%) HDFS
7 2 (0.11%) Veritas Cluster Server
8 1 (0.057%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.057%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 243 (13.80%) Kubernetes
2 174 (9.88%) Terraform
3 92 (5.22%) Ansible
4 29 (1.65%) Puppet
5 18 (1.02%) Opscode Chef
6 14 (0.80%) Grafana
6 14 (0.80%) Salt
7 11 (0.62%) NetIQ Identity Manager
8 9 (0.51%) Rancher
9 8 (0.45%) Prometheus
10 7 (0.40%) Kibana
11 6 (0.34%) Single Sign-On
11 6 (0.34%) Tivoli
12 5 (0.28%) HP Quality Center
12 5 (0.28%) Rundeck
13 4 (0.23%) HP ALM
14 3 (0.17%) Consul
15 2 (0.11%) Oracle Identity Manager
15 2 (0.11%) Pacemaker
15 2 (0.11%) vRealize
Vendors
1 130 (7.38%) Oracle
2 80 (4.54%) Microsoft
3 50 (2.84%) SAP
4 44 (2.50%) Google
5 40 (2.27%) Sybase
6 36 (2.04%) Splunk
7 32 (1.82%) MuleSoft
8 31 (1.76%) Atlassian
8 31 (1.76%) Databricks
9 25 (1.42%) WSO2
10 19 (1.08%) Red Hat
11 17 (0.97%) Talend
11 17 (0.97%) webMethods
12 15 (0.85%) AppDynamics
12 15 (0.85%) Cloudera
12 15 (0.85%) Murex
13 14 (0.80%) Axway
13 14 (0.80%) Sparx
14 13 (0.74%) IBM
14 13 (0.74%) NetIQ