Period
to 20 September 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 20 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 45 29 20
Rank change year-on-year -16 -9 -3
Contract jobs citing TDD 1,431 5,430 8,098
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 4.91% 6.12% 7.86%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.68% 7.05% 9.04%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,143 4,225 6,414
Median daily rate £513 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -2.38% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £350 £388 £363
90th Percentile £650 £688 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £450
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 15 8 26
Median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -22.22% +5.88%
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -22.22% +5.88%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 25,197 77,001 89,584
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.40% 86.76% 87.00%
Number of daily rates quoted 15,870 50,495 59,128
Median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% -
10th Percentile £300 £300 £300
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £438 £425
% change year-on-year +2.86% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 908 2,295 2,470
Median hourly rate £35.00 £24.00 £20.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +45.83% +17.07% -14.58%
10th Percentile £12.68 £11.80 £11.17
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £50.00
Median hourly rate £31.00 £23.75 £20.00
% change year-on-year +30.53% +18.75% -16.67%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 20 September 2020.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 20 September 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -15 1,332 £515 -1.90% 875
London -16 866 £525 -4.55% 411
UK excluding London -11 489 £475 +5.56% 503
Work from Home -10 177 £488 -6.02% 165
North of England +5 149 £500 +11.11% 193
South West +30 98 £525 +13.51% 45
North West -7 71 £500 +15.61% 124
East of England -7 69 £475 +5.56% 43
South East -41 69 £475 +2.70% 108
Yorkshire +14 68 £500 +2.56% 44
Midlands +2 67 £424 -5.89% 74
West Midlands -1 46 £435 -5.95% 51
East Midlands +13 20 £344 -16.62% 23
Scotland -23 18 £450 -5.26% 23
Northern Ireland +22 10 £427 -10.11% 3
North East +10 10 £520 +24.18% 25
Wales +35 9 £375 -11.76% 15

For the 6 months to 20 September 2020, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,056 (73.79%) Agile Software Development
2 712 (49.76%) Java
3 608 (42.49%) BDD
4 442 (30.89%) AWS
5 434 (30.33%) Microservices
6 418 (29.21%) Test Automation
7 415 (29.00%) DevOps
8 412 (28.79%) JavaScript
9 385 (26.90%) Azure
10 337 (23.55%) Scrum
11 310 (21.66%) Docker
12 297 (20.75%) Git (software)
13 276 (19.29%) Continuous Integration
14 266 (18.59%) Spring
15 244 (17.05%) Kubernetes
15 244 (17.05%) React
16 243 (16.98%) HTML
17 237 (16.56%) Finance
18 231 (16.14%) Node.js
18 231 (16.14%) Java 8
19 229 (16.00%) Pair Programming
20 227 (15.86%) CSS
21 225 (15.72%) SQL
22 224 (15.65%) Python
22 224 (15.65%) AngularJS
23 219 (15.30%) Security Cleared
24 216 (15.09%) Linux
25 208 (14.54%) C#
26 202 (14.12%) .NET
27 201 (14.05%) Jenkins

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 103 (7.20%) Confluence
2 55 (3.84%) Elasticsearch
3 45 (3.14%) Mule
4 42 (2.94%) Apache Spark
5 35 (2.45%) Red Hat Fuse
6 30 (2.10%) JBoss
6 30 (2.10%) WebLogic
7 29 (2.03%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 20 (1.40%) Oracle Service Bus
9 17 (1.19%) CMS
10 14 (0.98%) Apache
11 13 (0.91%) Apache Solr
11 13 (0.91%) SAS
12 12 (0.84%) Cloud Foundry
12 12 (0.84%) Tomcat
13 10 (0.70%) SharePoint
14 6 (0.42%) Jetty
14 6 (0.42%) Oracle Workflow
14 6 (0.42%) WebSphere
15 5 (0.35%) IIS
Applications
1 19 (1.33%) Microsoft Excel
2 6 (0.42%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.21%) Photoshop
4 2 (0.14%) Chatbot
4 2 (0.14%) Figma
5 1 (0.070%) 3ds Max
5 1 (0.070%) Blender
5 1 (0.070%) GIMP
5 1 (0.070%) InVision
5 1 (0.070%) Maya
5 1 (0.070%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 1 (0.070%) MS Visio
5 1 (0.070%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 6 (0.42%) Dynamics CRM
2 5 (0.35%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
3 4 (0.28%) Magento
3 4 (0.28%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 2 (0.14%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.14%) SAP FI-CA
5 1 (0.070%) FINCAD Analytics
5 1 (0.070%) ION MarketView
5 1 (0.070%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
5 1 (0.070%) RMDS
5 1 (0.070%) SAP Hybris
5 1 (0.070%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 442 (30.89%) AWS
2 385 (26.90%) Azure
3 62 (4.33%) Serverless
4 55 (3.84%) GCP
5 49 (3.42%) GitHub
6 32 (2.24%) PaaS
7 31 (2.17%) AWS Lambda
8 24 (1.68%) Amazon EC2
9 23 (1.61%) Logic Apps
10 22 (1.54%) Azure Functions
10 22 (1.54%) Power Platform
11 20 (1.40%) AWS CloudFormation
12 19 (1.33%) Amazon ECS
12 19 (1.33%) SaaS
13 18 (1.26%) IaaS
13 18 (1.26%) OpenShift
13 18 (1.26%) Slack
14 14 (0.98%) Cloud Computing
15 13 (0.91%) Amazon S3
15 13 (0.91%) Firebase
Communications & Networking
1 26 (1.82%) HTTP
2 12 (0.84%) TCP/IP
3 11 (0.77%) Skype
4 9 (0.63%) SSL
5 8 (0.56%) Internet
6 6 (0.42%) DNS
7 5 (0.35%) SSH
8 4 (0.28%) FIX Connectivity
9 2 (0.14%) AMQP
9 2 (0.14%) DHCP
9 2 (0.14%) FTP
9 2 (0.14%) Kerberos
9 2 (0.14%) SNMP
10 1 (0.070%) 2G
10 1 (0.070%) 3G
10 1 (0.070%) 4G
10 1 (0.070%) DSL
10 1 (0.070%) DVB
10 1 (0.070%) Intrusion Detection
10 1 (0.070%) PuTTY
Database & Business Intelligence
1 149 (10.41%) MongoDB
2 124 (8.67%) SQL Server
3 75 (5.24%) NoSQL
4 70 (4.89%) PostgreSQL
4 70 (4.89%) Relational Database
5 65 (4.54%) MySQL
6 44 (3.07%) Hadoop
7 36 (2.52%) Big Data
8 29 (2.03%) Amazon RDS
9 24 (1.68%) Cosmos DB
10 23 (1.61%) Azure SQL Database
11 21 (1.47%) RDBMS
12 20 (1.40%) Oracle Database
13 15 (1.05%) Apache Cassandra
14 14 (0.98%) Data Warehouse
15 13 (0.91%) DataStage
15 13 (0.91%) Redis
15 13 (0.91%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 11 (0.77%) Power BI
17 10 (0.70%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 297 (20.75%) Git (software)
2 201 (14.05%) Jenkins
3 169 (11.81%) JIRA
4 148 (10.34%) Cucumber
5 140 (9.78%) Maven
6 122 (8.53%) Selenium
7 117 (8.18%) JUnit
8 88 (6.15%) Mockito
9 83 (5.80%) Subversion
10 76 (5.31%) Jasmine
11 63 (4.40%) GitLab
12 55 (3.84%) SoapUI
13 52 (3.63%) JMeter
14 44 (3.07%) Grunt
14 44 (3.07%) Mocha
15 39 (2.73%) gulp
15 39 (2.73%) TeamCity
16 34 (2.38%) SonarQube
17 33 (2.31%) Postman
18 32 (2.24%) Gradle
General
1 237 (16.56%) Finance
2 185 (12.93%) Public Sector
3 167 (11.67%) Banking
4 94 (6.57%) Front Office
5 83 (5.80%) Investment Banking
6 45 (3.14%) Marketing
7 41 (2.87%) Manufacturing
7 41 (2.87%) Telecoms
8 38 (2.66%) Electronics
9 16 (1.12%) Games
10 11 (0.77%) Retail
11 10 (0.70%) Financial Institution
11 10 (0.70%) Law
12 8 (0.56%) Advertising
13 6 (0.42%) Social Housing
14 4 (0.28%) Automotive
14 4 (0.28%) Police
15 3 (0.21%) Back Office
15 3 (0.21%) Legal
16 2 (0.14%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 980 (68.48%) Developer
2 356 (24.88%) Java Developer
3 145 (10.13%) Senior Developer
4 109 (7.62%) React Developer
5 93 (6.50%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
6 88 (6.15%) JavaScript Developer
7 86 (6.01%) .NET Developer
8 79 (5.52%) Senior Java Developer
9 78 (5.45%) C# Developer
10 72 (5.03%) Full Stack Developer
11 50 (3.49%) Azure Developer
11 50 (3.49%) Software Engineer
12 49 (3.42%) Architect
12 49 (3.42%) AWS Engineer
13 48 (3.35%) AWS Developer
13 48 (3.35%) Test Engineer
14 45 (3.14%) DevOps Engineer
14 45 (3.14%) Java Engineer
14 45 (3.14%) Python Developer
15 44 (3.07%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 266 (18.59%) Spring
2 244 (17.05%) React
3 243 (16.98%) HTML
4 231 (16.14%) Node.js
5 227 (15.86%) CSS
6 224 (15.65%) AngularJS
7 202 (14.12%) .NET
8 180 (12.58%) Web Services
9 176 (12.30%) REST
10 169 (11.81%) RESTful
11 153 (10.69%) Spring Boot
12 150 (10.48%) HTML5
13 112 (7.83%) SOAP
14 95 (6.64%) XML
15 86 (6.01%) Redux
16 81 (5.66%) JSON
17 78 (5.45%) ASP.NET
18 71 (4.96%) CSS3
19 70 (4.89%) ActiveMQ
20 62 (4.33%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 131 (9.15%) User Experience
2 74 (5.17%) Greenfield Project
3 63 (4.40%) Fixed Income
4 47 (3.28%) Analytical Skills
5 41 (2.87%) Derivative
6 38 (2.66%) Mobile App
7 30 (2.10%) Algorithms
8 25 (1.75%) Cloud Native
9 20 (1.40%) Enterprise Software
9 20 (1.40%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
10 19 (1.33%) Equities
10 19 (1.33%) Public Cloud
11 16 (1.12%) Hybrid Cloud
12 14 (0.98%) Data Centre
12 14 (0.98%) Data Structures
13 12 (0.84%) Credit Risk
14 11 (0.77%) Client/Server
14 11 (0.77%) Management Information System
14 11 (0.77%) Self-Motivation
15 10 (0.70%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 216 (15.09%) Linux
2 163 (11.39%) Unix
3 89 (6.22%) Mac OS X
4 57 (3.98%) Android
5 51 (3.56%) Apple iOS
6 41 (2.87%) Windows
7 10 (0.70%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 7 (0.49%) Mac OS
8 7 (0.49%) Ubuntu
9 5 (0.35%) CentOS
9 5 (0.35%) Debian
9 5 (0.35%) tvOS
10 3 (0.21%) Windows Server
11 1 (0.070%) CoreOS
11 1 (0.070%) Embedded Linux
11 1 (0.070%) Windows 10
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,056 (73.79%) Agile Software Development
2 608 (42.49%) BDD
3 434 (30.33%) Microservices
4 418 (29.21%) Test Automation
5 415 (29.00%) DevOps
6 337 (23.55%) Scrum
7 276 (19.29%) Continuous Integration
8 229 (16.00%) Pair Programming
9 184 (12.86%) Kanban
10 177 (12.37%) Software Engineering
11 146 (10.20%) Continuous Deployment
12 144 (10.06%) Problem-Solving
13 130 (9.08%) OO
14 121 (8.46%) Front End Development
15 120 (8.39%) Continuous Delivery
16 111 (7.76%) Responsive Web Design
17 107 (7.48%) Web Development
18 102 (7.13%) Web Design
19 98 (6.85%) SDLC
20 93 (6.50%) User Stories
Programming Languages
1 712 (49.76%) Java
2 412 (28.79%) JavaScript
3 231 (16.14%) Java 8
4 225 (15.72%) SQL
5 224 (15.65%) Python
6 208 (14.54%) C#
7 96 (6.71%) Scala
8 88 (6.15%) TypeScript
9 53 (3.70%) Kotlin
10 45 (3.14%) C++
11 40 (2.80%) Ruby
12 36 (2.52%) PHP
13 35 (2.45%) Shell Script
14 26 (1.82%) Apple Swift
15 25 (1.75%) ES6
15 25 (1.75%) T-SQL
15 25 (1.75%) XPath
16 24 (1.68%) Go
16 24 (1.68%) PowerShell
17 22 (1.54%) R
Qualifications
1 219 (15.30%) Security Cleared
2 159 (11.11%) SC Cleared
3 80 (5.59%) Degree
4 38 (2.66%) BPSS Clearance
5 30 (2.10%) ISEB
5 30 (2.10%) ISTQB
6 28 (1.96%) Computer Science Degree
7 24 (1.68%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 23 (1.61%) DBS Check
9 17 (1.19%) DV Cleared
10 10 (0.70%) Numerate Degree
11 8 (0.56%) OCPJP
11 8 (0.56%) Sun Certification
12 7 (0.49%) Master's Degree
13 3 (0.21%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
14 1 (0.070%) AWS Certification
14 1 (0.070%) ISEB Practitioner
14 1 (0.070%) MCITP
14 1 (0.070%) Microsoft Certification
14 1 (0.070%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 109 (7.62%) QA
2 50 (3.49%) WCAG
3 14 (0.98%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.56%) GDPR
5 5 (0.35%) PMO
6 2 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
6 2 (0.14%) MiFID
7 1 (0.070%) EMIR
7 1 (0.070%) FINREP
System Software
1 310 (21.66%) Docker
2 20 (1.40%) Active Directory
3 12 (0.84%) NDS
3 12 (0.84%) NetIQ eDirectory
4 7 (0.49%) VMware Infrastructure
4 7 (0.49%) vSphere
5 5 (0.35%) Postfix
6 3 (0.21%) Veritas Cluster Server
7 2 (0.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 2 (0.14%) HDFS
7 2 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
8 1 (0.070%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 244 (17.05%) Kubernetes
2 113 (7.90%) Terraform
3 64 (4.47%) Ansible
4 27 (1.89%) Puppet
5 21 (1.47%) Opscode Chef
6 17 (1.19%) NetIQ Identity Manager
7 9 (0.63%) Tivoli
8 8 (0.56%) Rancher
8 8 (0.56%) Salt
9 5 (0.35%) Grafana
10 4 (0.28%) HP Quality Center
10 4 (0.28%) Kibana
11 3 (0.21%) HP ALM
11 3 (0.21%) Oracle Identity Manager
11 3 (0.21%) Pacemaker
11 3 (0.21%) Prometheus
11 3 (0.21%) Rundeck
11 3 (0.21%) Tivoli Identity Manager
12 2 (0.14%) Nessus
12 2 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 127 (8.87%) Oracle
2 77 (5.38%) Microsoft
3 44 (3.07%) SAP
4 38 (2.66%) Google
5 26 (1.82%) WSO2
6 25 (1.75%) Databricks
7 24 (1.68%) Splunk
8 23 (1.61%) Atlassian
9 22 (1.54%) Talend
10 19 (1.33%) Sybase
11 18 (1.26%) MuleSoft
11 18 (1.26%) NetIQ
12 16 (1.12%) ForgeRock
13 12 (0.84%) webMethods
14 11 (0.77%) AppDynamics
14 11 (0.77%) Novell
15 10 (0.70%) IBM
15 10 (0.70%) Salesforce.com
15 10 (0.70%) VMware
16 9 (0.63%) Murex