Period
to 16 December 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 16 December 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
16 Dec 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 19 16 28
Rank change year-on-year -3 +12 +1
Contract jobs citing TDD 8,111 7,827 6,570
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 7.78% 7.63% 6.40%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 8.97% 8.88% 7.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,323 6,152 5,205
UK median daily rate £500 £488 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.56% +8.33% -
10th Percentile £375 £350 £325
90th Percentile £644 £625 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +8.97%
Number of hourly rates quoted 25 58 23
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +9.68%
10th Percentile £31.53 £37.00 £35.80
90th Percentile £68.25 £63.75 £49.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £45.00 £40.00
% change year-on-year - +12.50% +3.23%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 90,418 88,119 87,561
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.77% 85.88% 85.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 59,907 58,813 57,686
UK median daily rate £465 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.33% +5.88% +2.41%
10th Percentile £300 £278 £263
90th Percentile £638 £638 £601
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £401 £400
% change year-on-year +6.12% +0.13% +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,315 2,058 2,464
UK median hourly rate £22.43 £24.00 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -6.54% +6.67% +2.27%
10th Percentile £11.19 £11.25 £11.06
90th Percentile £50.25 £49.58 £48.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £25.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year -16.00% +11.11% -

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing TDD.

Contractor daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 16 December 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD.

Contractor hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 16 December 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 16 December 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -5 7,689 £513 +2.50% 1,921
London -2 4,718 £525 +2.44% 939
UK excluding London -2 3,331 £450 +5.88% 1,099
South East +5 1,099 £488 +14.71% 286
North of England +2 801 £438 +9.38% 309
Midlands -3 430 £450 +12.50% 157
North West -3 381 £450 +12.50% 154
East of England -14 335 £525 +8.25% 105
Yorkshire -3 319 £425 - 116
West Midlands -4 314 £450 +12.50% 88
South West +13 301 £425 +6.25% 125
Scotland -1 246 £438 +7.69% 83
East Midlands -12 112 £469 +19.88% 69
North East +8 101 £428 +0.59% 39
Wales +14 88 £425 - 28
Northern Ireland +4 33 £412 -4.19% 5
Isle of Man - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 16 December 2018, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 5,999 (73.96%) Agile Software Development
2 3,596 (44.33%) Java
3 3,372 (41.57%) BDD
4 2,996 (36.94%) JavaScript
5 2,163 (26.67%) Continuous Integration
6 2,107 (25.98%) Scrum
7 2,068 (25.50%) Git (software)
8 2,009 (24.77%) Microservices
9 1,778 (21.92%) C#
10 1,764 (21.75%) HTML
11 1,738 (21.43%) Test Automation
12 1,729 (21.32%) Spring
13 1,726 (21.28%) .NET
14 1,722 (21.23%) CSS
14 1,722 (21.23%) Amazon AWS
15 1,639 (20.21%) Jenkins
16 1,598 (19.70%) AngularJS
17 1,508 (18.59%) REST
18 1,438 (17.73%) SQL
19 1,417 (17.47%) Finance
20 1,400 (17.26%) Docker
21 1,391 (17.15%) RESTful
22 1,337 (16.48%) Web Services
23 1,330 (16.40%) React
24 1,329 (16.39%) DevOps
25 1,294 (15.95%) Microsoft Azure
26 1,195 (14.73%) Node.js
27 1,150 (14.18%) Java 8
28 1,108 (13.66%) MVC
29 1,106 (13.64%) OO

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 529 (6.52%) Confluence
2 313 (3.86%) Tomcat
3 309 (3.81%) Elasticsearch
4 279 (3.44%) WebSphere
5 257 (3.17%) WebLogic
6 225 (2.77%) Apache Spark
7 205 (2.53%) Apache
8 195 (2.40%) OpenStack
9 190 (2.34%) CMS
10 159 (1.96%) JBoss
11 92 (1.13%) Mule
12 88 (1.08%) Jetty
13 83 (1.02%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 78 (0.96%) Cloud Foundry
15 76 (0.94%) NServiceBus
16 70 (0.86%) MQSeries
17 62 (0.76%) Oracle Service Bus
18 57 (0.70%) Apache Solr
18 57 (0.70%) IIS
19 55 (0.68%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 44 (0.54%) Microsoft Excel
2 33 (0.41%) Photoshop
3 24 (0.30%) Spreadsheet
4 13 (0.16%) Adobe Illustrator
5 10 (0.12%) Fireworks
5 10 (0.12%) InVision
6 5 (0.062%) Chatbot
6 5 (0.062%) GIMP
7 4 (0.049%) Microsoft Office
7 4 (0.049%) Microsoft Project
7 4 (0.049%) MS Visio
8 2 (0.025%) Microsoft PowerPoint
8 2 (0.025%) Snapchat
9 1 (0.012%) Doxygen
9 1 (0.012%) Final Cut Pro
9 1 (0.012%) InfoPath
9 1 (0.012%) S-PLUS
Business Applications
1 53 (0.65%) Dynamics CRM
2 17 (0.21%) Magento
3 13 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
4 9 (0.11%) Distributed Ledger
5 8 (0.099%) Markit EDM
6 5 (0.062%) SAP Hybris
7 4 (0.049%) Unit4 Business World
8 3 (0.037%) Oracle Financials
8 3 (0.037%) Oracle Retail
8 3 (0.037%) SAP Oil and Gas
9 2 (0.025%) Global One
9 2 (0.025%) ION MarketView
9 2 (0.025%) PeopleSoft Financials
9 2 (0.025%) PolarLake
9 2 (0.025%) thinkFolio
10 1 (0.012%) Endur
10 1 (0.012%) Exstream
10 1 (0.012%) LatentZero
10 1 (0.012%) SAP FI
10 1 (0.012%) SDL Web 8
Cloud Services
1 1,722 (21.23%) Amazon AWS
2 1,294 (15.95%) Microsoft Azure
3 345 (4.25%) GitHub
4 252 (3.11%) Serverless
5 208 (2.56%) Google Cloud Platform
6 148 (1.82%) Amazon EC2
7 123 (1.52%) AWS Lambda
8 107 (1.32%) npm
9 96 (1.18%) OpenShift
10 94 (1.16%) PaaS
11 93 (1.15%) SaaS
12 87 (1.07%) Cloud Computing
13 64 (0.79%) Amazon S3
14 63 (0.78%) Slack
15 62 (0.76%) Amazon SQS
16 55 (0.68%) Heroku
17 46 (0.57%) AWS CloudFormation
18 40 (0.49%) Yarn
19 37 (0.46%) Azure Functions
20 33 (0.41%) Apigee
Communications & Networking
1 263 (3.24%) HTTP
2 95 (1.17%) Internet
3 63 (0.78%) TCP/IP
4 53 (0.65%) SSL
5 51 (0.63%) AMQP
6 26 (0.32%) FTP
7 20 (0.25%) DNS
8 19 (0.23%) Firewall
9 18 (0.22%) Software-Defined Networking
10 17 (0.21%) Kerberos
11 15 (0.18%) SSH
12 14 (0.17%) HTTPS
12 14 (0.17%) VPN
13 13 (0.16%) Broadband
13 13 (0.16%) Skype
14 9 (0.11%) SMS
14 9 (0.11%) SMTP
15 8 (0.099%) LAN
16 7 (0.086%) Network Security
16 7 (0.086%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 940 (11.59%) SQL Server
2 920 (11.34%) NoSQL
3 684 (8.43%) PostgreSQL
4 624 (7.69%) MySQL
5 609 (7.51%) MongoDB
6 483 (5.95%) Relational Database
7 327 (4.03%) Hadoop
8 315 (3.88%) Big Data
9 306 (3.77%) Apache Cassandra
10 185 (2.28%) Redis
11 143 (1.76%) HBase
12 100 (1.23%) RDBMS
13 94 (1.16%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 94 (1.16%) Azure SQL Database
14 90 (1.11%) Couchbase
15 89 (1.10%) Data Warehouse
16 87 (1.07%) Apache Hive
17 67 (0.83%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 64 (0.79%) Riak
19 59 (0.73%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 2,068 (25.50%) Git (software)
2 1,639 (20.21%) Jenkins
3 925 (11.40%) JIRA
4 785 (9.68%) Maven
5 774 (9.54%) Selenium
6 630 (7.77%) Cucumber
7 562 (6.93%) JUnit
8 404 (4.98%) Subversion
9 349 (4.30%) TeamCity
10 316 (3.90%) NUnit
11 268 (3.30%) webpack
12 261 (3.22%) Mockito
13 245 (3.02%) Gradle
14 237 (2.92%) Team Foundation Server
15 224 (2.76%) MSTest
16 210 (2.59%) Visual Studio
17 205 (2.53%) gulp
18 204 (2.52%) WebDriver
19 200 (2.47%) Mocha
20 193 (2.38%) Jasmine
General
1 1,417 (17.47%) Finance
2 655 (8.08%) Banking
3 257 (3.17%) Retail
4 231 (2.85%) Front Office
5 192 (2.37%) Telecoms
6 175 (2.16%) Investment Banking
7 169 (2.08%) Marketing
8 167 (2.06%) Games
9 107 (1.32%) Manufacturing
10 104 (1.28%) Electronics
11 75 (0.92%) Law
12 72 (0.89%) Publishing
13 68 (0.84%) Back Office
14 48 (0.59%) Advertising
14 48 (0.59%) Financial Institution
15 42 (0.52%) Automotive
16 31 (0.38%) Legal
17 14 (0.17%) Pharmaceutical
17 14 (0.17%) Retail Banking
18 10 (0.12%) Billing
Job Titles
1 6,212 (76.59%) Developer
2 2,165 (26.69%) Java Developer
3 967 (11.92%) Senior Developer
4 914 (11.27%) .NET Developer
5 673 (8.30%) C# Developer
6 625 (7.71%) React Developer
7 582 (7.18%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
8 541 (6.67%) JavaScript Developer
9 457 (5.63%) Full Stack Developer
10 379 (4.67%) Angular Developer
11 363 (4.48%) Senior Java Developer
12 362 (4.46%) Agile Developer
13 319 (3.93%) C# .NET Developer
14 309 (3.81%) AWS Developer
15 264 (3.25%) Software Engineer
16 243 (3.00%) Lead Developer
17 235 (2.90%) Scala Developer
18 211 (2.60%) Python Developer
19 200 (2.47%) Architect
20 193 (2.38%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,764 (21.75%) HTML
2 1,729 (21.32%) Spring
3 1,726 (21.28%) .NET
4 1,722 (21.23%) CSS
5 1,598 (19.70%) AngularJS
6 1,508 (18.59%) REST
7 1,391 (17.15%) RESTful
8 1,337 (16.48%) Web Services
9 1,330 (16.40%) React
10 1,195 (14.73%) Node.js
11 986 (12.16%) Spring Boot
12 901 (11.11%) HTML5
13 737 (9.09%) JSON
14 684 (8.43%) ASP.NET
15 683 (8.42%) Hibernate
16 586 (7.22%) ASP.NET Web API
17 549 (6.77%) SOAP
18 535 (6.60%) CSS3
19 497 (6.13%) .NET Framework
20 496 (6.12%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 1,078 (13.29%) Greenfield Project
2 501 (6.18%) User Experience
3 343 (4.23%) Fintech
4 338 (4.17%) Mobile App
5 303 (3.74%) Analytical Skills
6 149 (1.84%) Enterprise Software
7 148 (1.82%) Algorithms
8 130 (1.60%) Self-Motivation
9 126 (1.55%) Data Structures
10 117 (1.44%) Fixed Income
11 98 (1.21%) Derivative
12 96 (1.18%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 85 (1.05%) Virtual Team
14 84 (1.04%) Equities
15 72 (0.89%) Cloud Native
16 71 (0.88%) iPad
17 57 (0.70%) Linux Command Line
18 55 (0.68%) Hedge funds
19 49 (0.60%) Video on Demand
20 44 (0.54%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 745 (9.19%) Linux
2 368 (4.54%) Unix
3 307 (3.78%) Android
4 296 (3.65%) Apple iOS
5 262 (3.23%) Windows
6 67 (0.83%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 54 (0.67%) Mac OS X
8 52 (0.64%) Windows Server
9 38 (0.47%) VMS
10 24 (0.30%) Mac OS
11 16 (0.20%) Solaris
12 10 (0.12%) CentOS
12 10 (0.12%) Embedded Linux
13 8 (0.099%) Ubuntu
14 5 (0.062%) tvOS
14 5 (0.062%) Windows 7
15 4 (0.049%) Windows 10
15 4 (0.049%) Windows 8
16 3 (0.037%) Android TV
16 3 (0.037%) DC/OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,999 (73.96%) Agile Software Development
2 3,372 (41.57%) BDD
3 2,163 (26.67%) Continuous Integration
4 2,107 (25.98%) Scrum
5 2,009 (24.77%) Microservices
6 1,738 (21.43%) Test Automation
7 1,329 (16.39%) DevOps
8 1,108 (13.66%) MVC
9 1,106 (13.64%) OO
10 996 (12.28%) Kanban
11 989 (12.19%) Software Engineering
12 871 (10.74%) Pair Programming
13 830 (10.23%) Front End Development
14 822 (10.13%) Unit Testing
15 607 (7.48%) Continuous Delivery
16 578 (7.13%) SOA
17 574 (7.08%) E-Commerce
18 537 (6.62%) Problem-Solving
19 498 (6.14%) Open Source
20 449 (5.54%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 3,596 (44.33%) Java
2 2,996 (36.94%) JavaScript
3 1,778 (21.92%) C#
4 1,438 (17.73%) SQL
5 1,150 (14.18%) Java 8
6 835 (10.29%) Python
7 519 (6.40%) Scala
8 437 (5.39%) TypeScript
9 377 (4.65%) ES6
10 363 (4.48%) Ruby
11 321 (3.96%) PHP
12 187 (2.31%) Apple Swift
13 170 (2.10%) Groovy
14 147 (1.81%) Kotlin
15 141 (1.74%) T-SQL
16 132 (1.63%) Go
17 129 (1.59%) C++
18 119 (1.47%) Objective-C
19 110 (1.36%) PL/SQL
20 108 (1.33%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 414 (5.10%) Degree
2 379 (4.67%) Security Cleared
3 307 (3.78%) SC Cleared
4 126 (1.55%) BPSS Clearance
5 108 (1.33%) Computer Science Degree
6 59 (0.73%) ISTQB
7 46 (0.57%) ISEB
8 28 (0.35%) Numerate Degree
9 20 (0.25%) DV Cleared
10 18 (0.22%) Master's Degree
11 15 (0.18%) DBS Check
11 15 (0.18%) PhD
12 12 (0.15%) AWS Certification
12 12 (0.15%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 9 (0.11%) Sun Certification
14 8 (0.099%) BC Cleared
14 8 (0.099%) PMI Certification
15 7 (0.086%) CTC Cleared
15 7 (0.086%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
16 6 (0.074%) CITP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 507 (6.25%) QA
2 41 (0.51%) Data Quality
3 31 (0.38%) WCAG
4 21 (0.26%) Disclosure Scotland
5 20 (0.25%) PMO
6 11 (0.14%) GDPR
7 7 (0.086%) EMIR
7 7 (0.086%) MiFID
8 6 (0.074%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 6 (0.074%) PCI DSS
9 5 (0.062%) SLA
10 4 (0.049%) HL7
11 3 (0.037%) Dodd-Frank
11 3 (0.037%) ECSS
11 3 (0.037%) ISO 20022
11 3 (0.037%) MIL-STD-1553
11 3 (0.037%) PSD2
12 1 (0.012%) DICOM
12 1 (0.012%) Government Security Classifications
12 1 (0.012%) Solvency II
System Software
1 1,400 (17.26%) Docker
2 75 (0.92%) HDFS
3 64 (0.79%) VMware Infrastructure
4 62 (0.76%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 57 (0.70%) vSphere
6 18 (0.22%) Active Directory
7 15 (0.18%) Virtual Machines
8 9 (0.11%) Apache Flume
8 9 (0.11%) VirtualBox
9 5 (0.062%) Firmware
9 5 (0.062%) Microsoft App-V
10 3 (0.037%) LXC
10 3 (0.037%) OpenAM
11 2 (0.025%) KVM
12 1 (0.012%) Ceph
12 1 (0.012%) IAG
12 1 (0.012%) Platform Symphony
Systems Management
1 635 (7.83%) Ansible
2 507 (6.25%) Kubernetes
3 451 (5.56%) Puppet
4 391 (4.82%) Opscode Chef
5 256 (3.16%) Terraform
6 83 (1.02%) Kibana
7 74 (0.91%) Hadoop YARN
8 72 (0.89%) Cobbler
9 55 (0.68%) Mesos
10 54 (0.67%) Grafana
11 49 (0.60%) logstash
12 31 (0.38%) Packer
13 29 (0.36%) Single Sign-On
14 28 (0.35%) ZABBIX
15 25 (0.31%) Prometheus
16 21 (0.26%) Graphite
17 18 (0.22%) HP Quality Center
17 18 (0.22%) Oozie
18 14 (0.17%) Docker Swarm
18 14 (0.17%) Rancher
Vendors
1 711 (8.77%) Oracle
2 542 (6.68%) Microsoft
3 323 (3.98%) Google
4 112 (1.38%) SAP
5 101 (1.25%) Atlassian
6 98 (1.21%) WSO2
7 85 (1.05%) IBM
8 79 (0.97%) Splunk
9 77 (0.95%) VMware
10 72 (0.89%) Sitecore
11 66 (0.81%) Apple
11 66 (0.81%) Red Hat
12 56 (0.69%) Adobe
13 48 (0.59%) Sybase
14 47 (0.58%) Zend
15 43 (0.53%) Cloudera
16 38 (0.47%) Xamarin
17 37 (0.46%) Informatica
18 36 (0.44%) TIBCO
19 35 (0.43%) Talend