Period
to 24 July 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 24 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
24 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 44 42 27
Rank change year-on-year -2 -15 -7
Contract jobs citing TDD 3,562 1,898 5,940
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.00% 5.06% 6.46%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.67% 5.86% 7.40%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,635 1,467 4,549
10th Percentile £406 £394 £390
25th Percentile £458 £459 £438
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £543 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +3.33% - +5.00%
75th Percentile £625 £600 £588
90th Percentile £688 £675 £675
UK excluding London median daily rate £470 £490 £463
% change year-on-year -4.08% +5.95% +7.31%
Number of hourly rates quoted 52 17 6
10th Percentile £36.63 £50.42 £24.68
25th Percentile £45.00 £58.00 £36.39
Median hourly rate £64.00 £62.00 £40.37
Median % change year-on-year +3.23% +53.59% -10.29%
75th Percentile £68.46 £65.25 £55.50
90th Percentile £73.35 £69.50 £61.60
UK excluding London median hourly rate £62.90 £53.06 £38.74
% change year-on-year +18.54% +36.98% -13.92%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 62,822 32,399 80,229
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 88.25% 86.35% 87.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 43,172 21,632 53,654
10th Percentile £313 £300 £300
25th Percentile £406 £400 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £600 £576 £575
90th Percentile £688 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £438
% change year-on-year - +2.86% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,710 929 2,178
10th Percentile £12.00 £12.37 £11.61
25th Percentile £15.00 £16.00 £14.50
Median hourly rate £24.00 £23.08 £22.79
Median % change year-on-year +4.01% +1.25% +13.95%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £60.87 £55.00 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £21.00 £21.50 £22.93
% change year-on-year -2.33% -6.24% +20.59%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 24 July 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 24 July 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 24 July 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 2,929 £550 +4.76% 1,633
London 0 2,043 £575 +4.55% 797
Work from Home +3 970 £500 - 358
UK excluding London +1 932 £470 -4.08% 911
North of England -14 220 £475 -9.52% 335
South East +20 205 £456 -2.83% 191
Scotland +27 182 £445 +4.71% 44
South West -21 112 £500 -4.76% 84
North West 0 109 £475 -5.00% 201
East of England -31 86 £513 +5.67% 80
Midlands -23 80 £450 +9.09% 140
Yorkshire -18 75 £475 -9.52% 95
West Midlands -27 55 £475 - 87
North East +13 36 £475 -11.63% 39
Wales -4 28 £450 - 29
Northern Ireland +9 20 £475 +7.71% 9
East Midlands -22 18 £405 +27.96% 51
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 24 July 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,495 (70.04%) Agile Software Development
2 1,417 (39.78%) Java
3 1,268 (35.60%) BDD
4 1,103 (30.97%) JavaScript
5 1,026 (28.80%) DevOps
6 990 (27.79%) Microservices
7 876 (24.59%) Scrum
8 861 (24.17%) AWS
9 847 (23.78%) Azure
10 811 (22.77%) Test Automation
11 789 (22.15%) Git (software)
12 787 (22.09%) Continuous Integration
13 757 (21.25%) Software Engineering
14 747 (20.97%) Docker
15 744 (20.89%) Spring
16 736 (20.66%) React
17 683 (19.17%) SQL
18 668 (18.75%) C#
19 646 (18.14%) Jenkins
20 633 (17.77%) .NET
21 568 (15.95%) Social Skills
22 540 (15.16%) AngularJS
23 532 (14.94%) Kubernetes
24 514 (14.43%) Python
25 510 (14.32%) HTML
26 507 (14.23%) Pair Programming
27 506 (14.21%) Finance
28 501 (14.07%) CSS
29 485 (13.62%) RESTful
30 465 (13.05%) Node.js

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 224 (6.29%) Confluence
2 90 (2.53%) Apache Spark
3 85 (2.39%) Elasticsearch
4 55 (1.54%) Apache
5 49 (1.38%) SharePoint
6 43 (1.21%) Tomcat
7 39 (1.09%) JBoss
8 36 (1.01%) Cloud Foundry
9 34 (0.95%) Oracle SOA Suite
10 31 (0.87%) CMS
11 30 (0.84%) Oracle Coherence
12 29 (0.81%) WebSphere
13 27 (0.76%) Apache Airflow
14 26 (0.73%) Mule
15 24 (0.67%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 21 (0.59%) Red Hat Fuse
17 18 (0.51%) WordPress
18 17 (0.48%) Jetty
19 14 (0.39%) IIS
19 14 (0.39%) nginx
Applications
1 15 (0.42%) Microsoft Excel
2 10 (0.28%) Photoshop
3 5 (0.14%) MS Visio
4 4 (0.11%) Figma
5 3 (0.084%) Chatbot
6 2 (0.056%) Microsoft Office
6 2 (0.056%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.028%) S-PLUS
7 1 (0.028%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 13 (0.36%) Dynamics CRM
2 7 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
2 7 (0.20%) Magento
3 3 (0.084%) SAP Hybris
3 3 (0.084%) SAP S/4HANA
4 1 (0.028%) BusinessWorks
4 1 (0.028%) Dynamics AX
4 1 (0.028%) NetSuite
4 1 (0.028%) Oracle BPM
4 1 (0.028%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
4 1 (0.028%) Payment Gateway
4 1 (0.028%) Primavera
4 1 (0.028%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 1 (0.028%) SAP ERP
4 1 (0.028%) SAP Oil and Gas
4 1 (0.028%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 861 (24.17%) AWS
2 847 (23.78%) Azure
3 315 (8.84%) Serverless
4 238 (6.68%) GCP
5 183 (5.14%) GitHub
6 158 (4.44%) AWS Lambda
7 94 (2.64%) Amazon S3
8 92 (2.58%) PaaS
9 74 (2.08%) OpenShift
10 69 (1.94%) Power Platform
11 59 (1.66%) AWS CloudFormation
12 58 (1.63%) IaaS
13 55 (1.54%) SaaS
14 53 (1.49%) Azure Functions
15 49 (1.38%) Amazon SQS
16 48 (1.35%) npm
17 46 (1.29%) Azure Active Directory
18 32 (0.90%) Azure Service Bus
19 31 (0.87%) Amazon EC2
20 30 (0.84%) Azure Logic Apps
Communications & Networking
1 63 (1.77%) HTTP
2 26 (0.73%) Internet
3 21 (0.59%) LAN
4 20 (0.56%) DNS
5 18 (0.51%) TCP/IP
6 15 (0.42%) Broadband
7 12 (0.34%) Wi-Fi
8 11 (0.31%) RTMP
9 10 (0.28%) Kerberos
9 10 (0.28%) SSL
9 10 (0.28%) UPnP
10 9 (0.25%) DECT
11 8 (0.22%) SMS
11 8 (0.22%) WAN
12 7 (0.20%) IPv4
12 7 (0.20%) IPv6
12 7 (0.20%) Multicast
12 7 (0.20%) PPP
13 6 (0.17%) ATM
14 5 (0.14%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 293 (8.23%) NoSQL
2 253 (7.10%) SQL Server
3 208 (5.84%) MongoDB
4 197 (5.53%) Relational Database
5 171 (4.80%) PostgreSQL
6 124 (3.48%) MySQL
7 113 (3.17%) Big Data
8 68 (1.91%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 68 (1.91%) Hadoop
9 59 (1.66%) Apache Cassandra
10 55 (1.54%) Oracle Database
11 54 (1.52%) Data Warehouse
12 53 (1.49%) Power BI
13 47 (1.32%) Redis
14 45 (1.26%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 42 (1.18%) Azure SQL Database
16 39 (1.09%) BigQuery
17 37 (1.04%) RDBMS
18 33 (0.93%) Amazon Aurora
18 33 (0.93%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 789 (22.15%) Git (software)
2 646 (18.14%) Jenkins
3 417 (11.71%) JIRA
4 309 (8.67%) Cucumber
5 267 (7.50%) JUnit
6 251 (7.05%) Maven
7 226 (6.34%) Selenium
8 147 (4.13%) GitLab
9 142 (3.99%) TeamCity
10 134 (3.76%) Mockito
11 107 (3.00%) Gradle
12 101 (2.84%) Visual Studio
13 95 (2.67%) Jasmine
14 93 (2.61%) Cypress.io
15 87 (2.44%) Subversion
16 86 (2.41%) Octopus Deploy
17 78 (2.19%) webpack
18 77 (2.16%) Postman
19 55 (1.54%) Bitbucket
19 55 (1.54%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 568 (15.95%) Social Skills
2 506 (14.21%) Finance
3 409 (11.48%) Banking
4 197 (5.53%) Public Sector
5 189 (5.31%) Front Office
6 149 (4.18%) Investment Banking
7 112 (3.14%) Analytical Skills
8 99 (2.78%) Retail
9 77 (2.16%) Manufacturing
10 74 (2.08%) Games
11 47 (1.32%) Marketing
12 44 (1.24%) Telecoms
13 42 (1.18%) Influencing Skills
14 38 (1.07%) Automotive
15 37 (1.04%) Retail Banking
16 36 (1.01%) Documentation Skills
17 28 (0.79%) Publishing
18 20 (0.56%) Law
19 17 (0.48%) Electronics
20 11 (0.31%) Legal
Job Titles
1 2,423 (68.02%) Developer
2 691 (19.40%) Java Developer
3 367 (10.30%) Senior Developer
4 264 (7.41%) C# Developer
5 231 (6.49%) .NET Developer
6 224 (6.29%) React Developer
7 222 (6.23%) Full Stack Developer
8 219 (6.15%) Software Engineer
9 190 (5.33%) Scala Developer
10 155 (4.35%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 152 (4.27%) JavaScript Developer
12 113 (3.17%) Senior Java Developer
13 112 (3.14%) Software Developer
14 110 (3.09%) Java Engineer
15 106 (2.98%) C# .NET Developer
16 105 (2.95%) DevOps Engineer
17 92 (2.58%) Architect
18 90 (2.53%) Agile Developer
18 90 (2.53%) AWS Developer
18 90 (2.53%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 744 (20.89%) Spring
2 736 (20.66%) React
3 633 (17.77%) .NET
4 540 (15.16%) AngularJS
5 510 (14.32%) HTML
6 501 (14.07%) CSS
7 485 (13.62%) RESTful
8 465 (13.05%) Node.js
9 438 (12.30%) REST
10 431 (12.10%) Spring Boot
11 302 (8.48%) Web Services
12 296 (8.31%) Kafka
13 257 (7.22%) HTML5
14 255 (7.16%) .NET Core
15 219 (6.15%) Redux
16 185 (5.19%) GraphQL
17 153 (4.30%) JSON
18 142 (3.99%) Hibernate
19 140 (3.93%) .NET Framework
20 134 (3.76%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 239 (6.71%) Greenfield Project
2 200 (5.61%) User Experience
3 115 (3.23%) Mobile App
4 100 (2.81%) Cloud Native
5 90 (2.53%) Fixed Income
6 88 (2.47%) Self-Motivation
7 80 (2.25%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 70 (1.97%) Algorithms
9 69 (1.94%) Derivative
10 67 (1.88%) Data Protection Act
10 67 (1.88%) Data Structures
11 62 (1.74%) Enterprise Software
12 44 (1.24%) Legacy Systems
13 39 (1.09%) Client/Server
14 38 (1.07%) Public Cloud
15 33 (0.93%) Interest Rate Derivative
16 32 (0.90%) Virtual Team
17 30 (0.84%) Credit Risk
18 27 (0.76%) CMDB
18 27 (0.76%) Management Information System
Operating Systems
1 309 (8.67%) Linux
2 153 (4.30%) Unix
3 145 (4.07%) Apple iOS
4 139 (3.90%) Android
5 87 (2.44%) Windows
6 15 (0.42%) Mac OS
7 12 (0.34%) Mac OS X
8 11 (0.31%) OpenWrt
8 11 (0.31%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 11 (0.31%) Windows 10
9 10 (0.28%) Windows Server
9 10 (0.28%) Windows Server 2016
10 6 (0.17%) CentOS
10 6 (0.17%) tvOS
10 6 (0.17%) Ubuntu
11 4 (0.11%) Debian
11 4 (0.11%) Embedded Linux
11 4 (0.11%) Solaris
11 4 (0.11%) VMS
12 2 (0.056%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,495 (70.04%) Agile Software Development
2 1,268 (35.60%) BDD
3 1,026 (28.80%) DevOps
4 990 (27.79%) Microservices
5 876 (24.59%) Scrum
6 811 (22.77%) Test Automation
7 787 (22.09%) Continuous Integration
8 757 (21.25%) Software Engineering
9 507 (14.23%) Pair Programming
10 391 (10.98%) Unit Testing
11 322 (9.04%) Problem-Solving
12 321 (9.01%) Kanban
13 301 (8.45%) Continuous Delivery
14 281 (7.89%) MVC
15 271 (7.61%) Continuous Improvement
16 242 (6.79%) OO
17 233 (6.54%) Mentoring
18 232 (6.51%) SDLC
19 220 (6.18%) User Stories
20 216 (6.06%) Front End Development
Programming Languages
1 1,417 (39.78%) Java
2 1,103 (30.97%) JavaScript
3 683 (19.17%) SQL
4 668 (18.75%) C#
5 514 (14.43%) Python
6 454 (12.75%) TypeScript
7 335 (9.40%) Scala
8 261 (7.33%) Java 8
9 165 (4.63%) Kotlin
10 162 (4.55%) C++
10 162 (4.55%) Java 11
11 100 (2.81%) PowerShell
12 99 (2.78%) Go
13 89 (2.50%) ES6
13 89 (2.50%) PHP
14 82 (2.30%) Ruby
15 73 (2.05%) Bash Shell
16 67 (1.88%) Apple Swift
16 67 (1.88%) Shell Script
17 58 (1.63%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 201 (5.64%) Security Cleared
2 175 (4.91%) Degree
3 172 (4.83%) SC Cleared
4 45 (1.26%) Computer Science Degree
5 30 (0.84%) BPSS Clearance
6 24 (0.67%) ISTQB
7 20 (0.56%) Sun Certification
8 17 (0.48%) Numerate Degree
9 15 (0.42%) OCPJP
10 13 (0.36%) ISEB
11 10 (0.28%) DV Cleared
12 9 (0.25%) AWS Certification
12 9 (0.25%) Master's Degree
13 8 (0.22%) DBS Check
14 6 (0.17%) SAFe Agilist
14 6 (0.17%) TOGAF Certification
15 5 (0.14%) Microsoft Certification
16 4 (0.11%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
16 4 (0.11%) PMI Certification
17 2 (0.056%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 264 (7.41%) QA
2 135 (3.79%) Accessibility
3 11 (0.31%) Data Quality
3 11 (0.31%) WCAG
4 9 (0.25%) JTAG
5 7 (0.20%) GDPR
6 6 (0.17%) MiFID
6 6 (0.17%) PMO
7 4 (0.11%) ISO 20022
8 3 (0.084%) SEPA
9 2 (0.056%) Disclosure Scotland
10 1 (0.028%) HL7
10 1 (0.028%) IFRS
10 1 (0.028%) PCI DSS
System Software
1 747 (20.97%) Docker
2 56 (1.57%) Active Directory
3 15 (0.42%) Varnish
4 11 (0.31%) HDFS
5 9 (0.25%) Apache ZooKeeper
6 8 (0.22%) vSphere
7 7 (0.20%) Platform Symphony
8 5 (0.14%) NDS
8 5 (0.14%) NetIQ eDirectory
9 4 (0.11%) VirtualBox
9 4 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
10 3 (0.084%) Firmware
10 3 (0.084%) Postfix
10 3 (0.084%) Squid
11 1 (0.028%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 532 (14.94%) Kubernetes
2 262 (7.36%) Terraform
3 163 (4.58%) Ansible
4 132 (3.71%) Grafana
5 105 (2.95%) Prometheus
6 31 (0.87%) Kibana
7 28 (0.79%) Opscode Chef
8 21 (0.59%) Puppet
9 17 (0.48%) MIIS
9 17 (0.48%) ZABBIX
10 13 (0.36%) Oozie
11 12 (0.34%) Docker Swarm
12 10 (0.28%) ITRS Geneos
13 9 (0.25%) Istio
14 8 (0.22%) Rancher
15 5 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
15 5 (0.14%) vCenter Server
16 4 (0.11%) Hadoop YARN
16 4 (0.11%) HP ALM
16 4 (0.11%) Packer
Vendors
1 247 (6.93%) Oracle
2 224 (6.29%) Microsoft
3 136 (3.82%) Google
4 80 (2.25%) Splunk
5 64 (1.80%) Atlassian
6 46 (1.29%) CA Agile Central
7 42 (1.18%) IBM
8 41 (1.15%) Databricks
9 35 (0.98%) New Relic
10 34 (0.95%) Adobe
11 33 (0.93%) CA
12 28 (0.79%) TIBCO
13 26 (0.73%) Xamarin
14 25 (0.70%) SAP
15 24 (0.67%) Sybase
16 22 (0.62%) DevExpress
16 22 (0.62%) ServiceNow
17 20 (0.56%) MuleSoft
18 17 (0.48%) Spiceworks
19 16 (0.45%) Apple