Period
to 14 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 14 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
14 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 42 41 26
Rank change year-on-year -1 -15 -4
Contract jobs citing TDD 2,896 2,538 6,238
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.07% 5.03% 6.84%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.81% 5.89% 7.81%
Number of daily rates quoted 2,144 1,986 4,802
10th Percentile £400 £400 £375
25th Percentile £450 £450 £430
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £525 £513
Median % change year-on-year - +2.44% +2.76%
75th Percentile £613 £600 £588
90th Percentile £673 £688 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £456 £475 £475
% change year-on-year -4.11% - +11.76%
Number of hourly rates quoted 45 21 11
10th Percentile £29.30 £45.00 £37.25
25th Percentile £40.00 £52.00 £40.81
Median hourly rate £58.00 £61.50 £48.40
Median % change year-on-year -5.69% +27.07% +7.56%
75th Percentile £65.54 £63.75 £56.25
90th Percentile £68.36 £69.50 £63.19
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £47.50 £45.45
% change year-on-year -5.26% +4.51% +1.00%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 49,879 43,084 79,879
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 87.28% 85.43% 87.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 34,115 28,643 53,648
10th Percentile £313 £288 £300
25th Percentile £400 £381 £381
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £495 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +4.21% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £663 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £450 £438
% change year-on-year -2.22% +2.86% +4.17%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,485 1,328 1,999
10th Percentile £12.24 £12.42 £11.50
25th Percentile £15.63 £16.00 £14.19
Median hourly rate £26.50 £22.34 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year +18.63% -0.72% +9.44%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £44.19
90th Percentile £59.35 £55.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.95 £20.11 £22.40
% change year-on-year +14.10% -10.22% +17.52%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 14 May 2021.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 14 May 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 14 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 2,347 £538 +2.38% 1,316
London -2 1,677 £550 - 622
Work from Home +5 868 £500 - 300
UK excluding London -4 706 £456 -4.11% 782
North of England +5 167 £455 -4.21% 299
South East -5 142 £458 -1.08% 167
Scotland +9 140 £425 -10.53% 55
South West -2 95 £500 -4.76% 83
North West +12 83 £450 -5.26% 204
Midlands -11 76 £450 - 82
East of England -23 57 £500 - 61
Yorkshire -8 49 £463 -7.50% 61
West Midlands -25 46 £450 -5.26% 63
North East +18 35 £475 +10.47% 34
East Midlands +7 19 £394 +23.13% 19
Wales 0 17 £450 -4.26% 26
Northern Ireland +7 12 £451 +12.81% 10
Channel Islands - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 14 May 2021, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 2,006 (69.27%) Agile Software Development
2 1,111 (38.36%) Java
3 1,082 (37.36%) BDD
4 885 (30.56%) DevOps
5 855 (29.52%) Microservices
6 839 (28.97%) JavaScript
7 728 (25.14%) AWS
8 706 (24.38%) Azure
9 702 (24.24%) Scrum
10 636 (21.96%) Test Automation
11 613 (21.17%) Git (software)
12 590 (20.37%) Docker
13 582 (20.10%) Continuous Integration
14 563 (19.44%) SQL
15 557 (19.23%) Software Engineering
16 541 (18.68%) Spring
17 535 (18.47%) .NET
18 531 (18.34%) C#
19 516 (17.82%) Jenkins
20 501 (17.30%) Python
21 469 (16.19%) Social Skills
22 466 (16.09%) React
23 449 (15.50%) Finance
24 439 (15.16%) Kubernetes
25 419 (14.47%) AngularJS
26 409 (14.12%) Pair Programming
27 405 (13.98%) HTML
28 401 (13.85%) Node.js
29 397 (13.71%) RESTful
30 394 (13.60%) CSS

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 188 (6.49%) Confluence
2 102 (3.52%) Apache Spark
3 77 (2.66%) Elasticsearch
4 67 (2.31%) Apache
5 47 (1.62%) SharePoint
6 39 (1.35%) JBoss
7 31 (1.07%) Mule
8 30 (1.04%) Apache Airflow
8 30 (1.04%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 30 (1.04%) Tomcat
9 27 (0.93%) Cloud Foundry
10 26 (0.90%) Oracle Coherence
11 24 (0.83%) Red Hat Fuse
12 23 (0.79%) CMS
13 18 (0.62%) NServiceBus
13 18 (0.62%) WebSphere
14 15 (0.52%) Jetty
15 13 (0.45%) nginx
15 13 (0.45%) WebLogic
16 11 (0.38%) IIS
Applications
1 11 (0.38%) Microsoft Excel
2 9 (0.31%) Photoshop
3 6 (0.21%) Figma
3 6 (0.21%) MS Visio
4 4 (0.14%) Chatbot
5 2 (0.069%) Microsoft Office
5 2 (0.069%) Sketch
5 2 (0.069%) Spreadsheet
6 1 (0.035%) 3ds Max
6 1 (0.035%) Blender
6 1 (0.035%) Maya
6 1 (0.035%) S-PLUS
6 1 (0.035%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 19 (0.66%) Dynamics CRM
2 5 (0.17%) Adobe Campaign
3 3 (0.10%) Magento
3 3 (0.10%) SAP S/4HANA
4 2 (0.069%) Payment Gateway
4 2 (0.069%) Refinitiv Enterprise Platform
4 2 (0.069%) RMDS
4 2 (0.069%) SAP Hybris
4 2 (0.069%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
5 1 (0.035%) Dynamics AX
5 1 (0.035%) Dynamics NAV
5 1 (0.035%) NetSuite
5 1 (0.035%) Primavera
5 1 (0.035%) Salesforce.com CRM
5 1 (0.035%) SAP ERP
5 1 (0.035%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 1 (0.035%) Shopify
5 1 (0.035%) Toggl
5 1 (0.035%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 728 (25.14%) AWS
2 706 (24.38%) Azure
3 267 (9.22%) Serverless
4 180 (6.22%) GCP
5 158 (5.46%) GitHub
6 132 (4.56%) AWS Lambda
7 84 (2.90%) PaaS
8 83 (2.87%) Amazon S3
9 76 (2.62%) Power Platform
10 75 (2.59%) OpenShift
11 66 (2.28%) Azure Functions
12 57 (1.97%) Azure Service Bus
13 48 (1.66%) Azure Active Directory
14 45 (1.55%) IaaS
15 44 (1.52%) SaaS
16 42 (1.45%) AWS CloudFormation
17 40 (1.38%) Azure Logic Apps
18 38 (1.31%) Amazon SQS
19 33 (1.14%) Cloud Computing
20 32 (1.10%) Azure Cosmos DB
Communications & Networking
1 43 (1.48%) HTTP
2 20 (0.69%) DNS
3 19 (0.66%) Internet
4 16 (0.55%) TCP/IP
5 14 (0.48%) Broadband
5 14 (0.48%) LAN
6 13 (0.45%) Wi-Fi
7 12 (0.41%) SSL
8 11 (0.38%) Kerberos
9 10 (0.35%) ATM
9 10 (0.35%) DECT
9 10 (0.35%) IPv4
9 10 (0.35%) IPv6
9 10 (0.35%) UPnP
10 9 (0.31%) SMS
11 8 (0.28%) Multicast
11 8 (0.28%) PPP
12 5 (0.17%) SMTP
12 5 (0.17%) SSH
12 5 (0.17%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 243 (8.39%) NoSQL
2 209 (7.22%) SQL Server
3 170 (5.87%) MongoDB
4 161 (5.56%) PostgreSQL
5 137 (4.73%) Relational Database
6 127 (4.39%) Big Data
7 107 (3.69%) MySQL
8 86 (2.97%) Hadoop
9 68 (2.35%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 60 (2.07%) Power BI
11 56 (1.93%) Data Warehouse
12 54 (1.86%) BigQuery
12 54 (1.86%) Redis
13 42 (1.45%) Azure SQL Database
14 39 (1.35%) Oracle Database
15 34 (1.17%) Apache Hive
15 34 (1.17%) HBase
15 34 (1.17%) RDBMS
16 33 (1.14%) Apache Cassandra
17 32 (1.10%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 613 (21.17%) Git (software)
2 516 (17.82%) Jenkins
3 333 (11.50%) JIRA
4 208 (7.18%) Maven
5 201 (6.94%) Cucumber
6 191 (6.60%) Selenium
7 186 (6.42%) JUnit
8 131 (4.52%) GitLab
9 101 (3.49%) TeamCity
10 99 (3.42%) Gradle
11 87 (3.00%) Mockito
12 86 (2.97%) Cypress.io
13 82 (2.83%) Subversion
14 77 (2.66%) webpack
15 76 (2.62%) Octopus Deploy
16 70 (2.42%) Jasmine
17 67 (2.31%) Visual Studio
18 54 (1.86%) Postman
19 50 (1.73%) Mocha
19 50 (1.73%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 469 (16.19%) Social Skills
2 449 (15.50%) Finance
3 333 (11.50%) Banking
4 183 (6.32%) Public Sector
5 163 (5.63%) Front Office
6 117 (4.04%) Investment Banking
7 88 (3.04%) Analytical Skills
8 71 (2.45%) Retail
9 51 (1.76%) Influencing Skills
10 50 (1.73%) Games
10 50 (1.73%) Manufacturing
11 48 (1.66%) Marketing
12 46 (1.59%) Telecoms
13 33 (1.14%) Documentation Skills
13 33 (1.14%) Retail Banking
14 29 (1.00%) Automotive
15 20 (0.69%) Publishing
16 18 (0.62%) Electronics
16 18 (0.62%) Law
17 12 (0.41%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 2,010 (69.41%) Developer
2 569 (19.65%) Java Developer
3 327 (11.29%) Senior Developer
4 194 (6.70%) .NET Developer
5 191 (6.60%) React Developer
6 180 (6.22%) C# Developer
7 174 (6.01%) Scala Developer
8 156 (5.39%) Full Stack Developer
9 147 (5.08%) Software Engineer
10 130 (4.49%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
11 115 (3.97%) JavaScript Developer
12 105 (3.63%) Senior Java Developer
13 98 (3.38%) AWS Developer
14 96 (3.31%) Python Developer
15 92 (3.18%) DevOps Engineer
16 84 (2.90%) Java Engineer
17 81 (2.80%) Software Developer
18 77 (2.66%) Architect
19 76 (2.62%) C# .NET Developer
20 72 (2.49%) Data Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 541 (18.68%) Spring
2 535 (18.47%) .NET
3 466 (16.09%) React
4 419 (14.47%) AngularJS
5 405 (13.98%) HTML
6 401 (13.85%) Node.js
7 397 (13.71%) RESTful
8 394 (13.60%) CSS
9 345 (11.91%) REST
10 309 (10.67%) Spring Boot
11 258 (8.91%) Web Services
12 238 (8.22%) Kafka
13 226 (7.80%) .NET Core
14 206 (7.11%) HTML5
15 193 (6.66%) Redux
16 144 (4.97%) JSON
17 138 (4.77%) GraphQL
18 136 (4.70%) XML
19 128 (4.42%) ASP.NET
20 114 (3.94%) .NET Framework
Miscellaneous
1 226 (7.80%) Greenfield Project
2 171 (5.90%) User Experience
3 89 (3.07%) Self-Motivation
4 84 (2.90%) Mobile App
5 83 (2.87%) Cloud Native
6 73 (2.52%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 68 (2.35%) Fixed Income
8 63 (2.18%) Algorithms
9 57 (1.97%) Data Structures
10 55 (1.90%) Enterprise Software
11 54 (1.86%) Derivative
12 36 (1.24%) Public Cloud
13 26 (0.90%) Animation
13 26 (0.90%) Virtual Team
14 23 (0.79%) Equities
15 21 (0.73%) Credit Risk
15 21 (0.73%) Hybrid Cloud
16 18 (0.62%) Client/Server
17 17 (0.59%) Interest Rate Derivative
18 16 (0.55%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 286 (9.88%) Linux
2 131 (4.52%) Unix
3 129 (4.45%) Android
4 115 (3.97%) Apple iOS
5 81 (2.80%) Windows
6 21 (0.73%) Mac OS X
7 16 (0.55%) Mac OS
8 15 (0.52%) Windows 10
9 13 (0.45%) OpenWrt
10 11 (0.38%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 10 (0.35%) Ubuntu
12 9 (0.31%) Windows Server
13 8 (0.28%) CentOS
14 6 (0.21%) Windows Server 2016
15 5 (0.17%) Debian
16 3 (0.10%) Embedded Linux
16 3 (0.10%) VMS
17 1 (0.035%) Tizen
17 1 (0.035%) tvOS
17 1 (0.035%) webOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,006 (69.27%) Agile Software Development
2 1,082 (37.36%) BDD
3 885 (30.56%) DevOps
4 855 (29.52%) Microservices
5 702 (24.24%) Scrum
6 636 (21.96%) Test Automation
7 582 (20.10%) Continuous Integration
8 557 (19.23%) Software Engineering
9 409 (14.12%) Pair Programming
10 299 (10.32%) Problem-Solving
11 283 (9.77%) Unit Testing
12 254 (8.77%) Kanban
13 253 (8.74%) Continuous Delivery
14 219 (7.56%) MVC
15 210 (7.25%) Continuous Improvement
16 199 (6.87%) OO
17 196 (6.77%) Mentoring
18 184 (6.35%) SDLC
19 178 (6.15%) Front End Development
20 171 (5.90%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 1,111 (38.36%) Java
2 839 (28.97%) JavaScript
3 563 (19.44%) SQL
4 531 (18.34%) C#
5 501 (17.30%) Python
6 327 (11.29%) TypeScript
7 321 (11.08%) Scala
8 222 (7.67%) Java 8
9 149 (5.15%) C++
10 143 (4.94%) Kotlin
11 106 (3.66%) PowerShell
12 96 (3.31%) Ruby
13 78 (2.69%) ES6
13 78 (2.69%) Go
14 70 (2.42%) Shell Script
15 65 (2.24%) PL/SQL
16 64 (2.21%) Bash Shell
17 56 (1.93%) C
18 55 (1.90%) PHP
19 54 (1.86%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 187 (6.46%) Security Cleared
2 168 (5.80%) Degree
3 153 (5.28%) SC Cleared
4 29 (1.00%) Numerate Degree
5 28 (0.97%) Computer Science Degree
6 26 (0.90%) BPSS Clearance
7 14 (0.48%) DV Cleared
7 14 (0.48%) Sun Certification
8 11 (0.38%) OCPJP
9 10 (0.35%) ISTQB
10 7 (0.24%) ISEB
11 6 (0.21%) SAFe Agilist
11 6 (0.21%) TOGAF Certification
12 5 (0.17%) AWS Certification
12 5 (0.17%) Microsoft Certification
13 4 (0.14%) DBS Check
13 4 (0.14%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
13 4 (0.14%) Master's Degree
13 4 (0.14%) PMI Certification
14 3 (0.10%) BC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 254 (8.77%) QA
2 16 (0.55%) WCAG
3 10 (0.35%) Data Quality
3 10 (0.35%) JTAG
4 7 (0.24%) GDPR
4 7 (0.24%) PMO
5 4 (0.14%) ISO 20022
5 4 (0.14%) MiFID
6 3 (0.10%) SEPA
7 1 (0.035%) Disclosure Scotland
7 1 (0.035%) HL7
7 1 (0.035%) PCI DSS
7 1 (0.035%) PSD2
7 1 (0.035%) SLA
System Software
1 590 (20.37%) Docker
2 60 (2.07%) Active Directory
3 19 (0.66%) HDFS
4 10 (0.35%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 7 (0.24%) Varnish
6 5 (0.17%) NDS
6 5 (0.17%) NetIQ eDirectory
6 5 (0.17%) Platform Symphony
7 2 (0.069%) KVM
7 2 (0.069%) Squid
8 1 (0.035%) Firmware
8 1 (0.035%) Hyper-V
8 1 (0.035%) Postfix
8 1 (0.035%) Virtual Machines
8 1 (0.035%) VirtualBox
8 1 (0.035%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 439 (15.16%) Kubernetes
2 221 (7.63%) Terraform
3 114 (3.94%) Ansible
4 93 (3.21%) Grafana
5 63 (2.18%) Prometheus
6 27 (0.93%) Opscode Chef
7 18 (0.62%) Puppet
8 16 (0.55%) Oozie
9 13 (0.45%) Kibana
10 12 (0.41%) Rancher
10 12 (0.41%) ZABBIX
11 9 (0.31%) Docker Swarm
11 9 (0.31%) Istio
12 8 (0.28%) MIIS
13 6 (0.21%) ITRS Geneos
14 5 (0.17%) Consul
14 5 (0.17%) Hadoop YARN
15 4 (0.14%) HP ALM
15 4 (0.14%) SCCM
15 4 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 219 (7.56%) Microsoft
2 194 (6.70%) Oracle
3 122 (4.21%) Google
4 67 (2.31%) Splunk
5 60 (2.07%) Atlassian
6 37 (1.28%) Databricks
7 34 (1.17%) IBM
8 28 (0.97%) Sybase
9 27 (0.93%) CA Agile Central
10 26 (0.90%) New Relic
10 26 (0.90%) SAP
11 22 (0.76%) CA
11 22 (0.76%) MuleSoft
12 20 (0.69%) Adobe
13 19 (0.66%) ServiceNow
14 18 (0.62%) TIBCO
14 18 (0.62%) Xamarin
15 17 (0.59%) DevExpress
16 14 (0.48%) Veracode
17 13 (0.45%) Cloudera