Period
to 7 July 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for TDD skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited TDD over the 6 months to 7 July 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Test-Driven Development (TDD)
UK
6 months to
7 Jul 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 41 25 19
Rank change year-on-year -16 -6 +1
Contract jobs citing TDD 2,085 6,217 8,104
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 5.03% 6.65% 7.76%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 5.86% 7.63% 8.93%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,604 4,829 6,360
Median daily rate £525 £525 £500
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.00% +6.27%
10th Percentile £388 £388 £363
90th Percentile £675 £663 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £468 £425
% change year-on-year +6.95% +10.00% +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 28 20 32
Median hourly rate £56.50 £35.00 £45.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +61.43% -22.22% +11.11%
10th Percentile £35.00 £35.00 £21.08
90th Percentile £66.72 £45.38 £59.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £35.00 £35.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year - -22.22% +11.11%

TDD is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 35,557 81,479 90,743
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 85.82% 87.10% 86.88%
Number of daily rates quoted 22,362 53,654 59,813
Median daily rate £475 £475 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.56% +2.27%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £300
90th Percentile £675 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £438 £423
% change year-on-year +2.86% +3.55% +5.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,238 2,288 2,461
Median hourly rate £32.15 £24.60 £21.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +30.68% +14.41% -14.00%
10th Percentile £12.83 £11.85 £11.17
90th Percentile £54.21 £52.50 £50.00
Median hourly rate £24.70 £24.00 £20.00
% change year-on-year +2.92% +20.00% -20.00%

TDD
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing TDD as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Daily rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 7 July 2020.

Daily rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing TDD.

Hourly rate trend for TDD in the UK

TDD
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing TDD over the 6 months to 7 July 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for TDD in the UK

TDD
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing TDD within the UK over the 6 months to 7 July 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -17 1,948 £525 - 647
London -11 1,251 £550 - 282
UK excluding London -16 783 £500 +6.95% 399
North of England -26 207 £500 +11.11% 136
South West +14 143 £525 +10.53% 50
South East -50 134 £463 -1.60% 89
East of England -8 129 £485 +2.11% 37
North West -17 95 £480 +12.94% 87
Work from Home -19 94 £500 -0.99% 85
Yorkshire -8 90 £525 +7.14% 34
Midlands -21 75 £425 -5.56% 52
Scotland +7 64 £450 - 20
West Midlands -21 47 £450 -3.23% 33
East Midlands +3 27 £317 -23.04% 19
Wales +48 26 £450 +4.65% 13
North East -12 22 £500 +11.11% 15
Northern Ireland +18 7 £451 -5.05% 2

For the 6 months to 7 July 2020, IT contractor jobs citing TDD also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for TDD.

1 1,530 (73.38%) Agile Software Development
2 987 (47.34%) Java
3 861 (41.29%) BDD
4 666 (31.94%) JavaScript
5 602 (28.87%) Microservices
6 552 (26.47%) AWS
7 511 (24.51%) Test Automation
8 493 (23.65%) Scrum
9 471 (22.59%) DevOps
10 462 (22.16%) Azure
11 397 (19.04%) Continuous Integration
12 396 (18.99%) Git (software)
13 383 (18.37%) C#
14 380 (18.23%) Pair Programming
15 374 (17.94%) React
16 372 (17.84%) Docker
17 361 (17.31%) .NET
18 359 (17.22%) SQL
18 359 (17.22%) AngularJS
19 358 (17.17%) HTML
20 348 (16.69%) Spring
21 328 (15.73%) Finance
22 326 (15.64%) CSS
23 321 (15.40%) Python
23 321 (15.40%) Node.js
24 307 (14.72%) Jenkins
25 278 (13.33%) Java 8
26 275 (13.19%) Software Engineering
27 273 (13.09%) Web Services
28 269 (12.90%) RESTful

TDD
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 128 (6.14%) Confluence
2 98 (4.70%) Elasticsearch
3 61 (2.93%) Apache Spark
4 48 (2.30%) Oracle SOA Suite
5 42 (2.01%) Mule
6 38 (1.82%) Red Hat Fuse
7 31 (1.49%) Oracle Service Bus
8 26 (1.25%) IIS
9 24 (1.15%) Apache
10 20 (0.96%) CMS
10 20 (0.96%) JBoss
11 17 (0.82%) SharePoint
11 17 (0.82%) WebLogic
12 16 (0.77%) Tomcat
13 15 (0.72%) Apache Solr
14 14 (0.67%) Cloud Foundry
15 9 (0.43%) Oracle Coherence
16 8 (0.38%) WebSphere
17 7 (0.34%) Adobe Experience Manager
17 7 (0.34%) SAS
Applications
1 13 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
2 7 (0.34%) Microsoft Office
3 3 (0.14%) Photoshop
3 3 (0.14%) Zeplin
4 2 (0.096%) Sketch
5 1 (0.048%) Adobe Illustrator
5 1 (0.048%) Chatbot
5 1 (0.048%) Figma
5 1 (0.048%) InVision
5 1 (0.048%) Microsoft Project
5 1 (0.048%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 8 (0.38%) Dynamics CRM
2 7 (0.34%) SAP Oil and Gas
3 6 (0.29%) Magento
4 4 (0.19%) SAP Hybris
5 3 (0.14%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.096%) ION MarketView
6 2 (0.096%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 2 (0.096%) Shopify
6 2 (0.096%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 1 (0.048%) FINCAD Analytics
7 1 (0.048%) Oracle Subledger Accounting
7 1 (0.048%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 552 (26.47%) AWS
2 462 (22.16%) Azure
3 117 (5.61%) Serverless
4 94 (4.51%) GitHub
5 66 (3.17%) Amazon EC2
5 66 (3.17%) GCP
6 63 (3.02%) AWS Lambda
7 54 (2.59%) Amazon S3
8 29 (1.39%) SaaS
9 25 (1.20%) AWS CloudFormation
10 23 (1.10%) OpenShift
11 20 (0.96%) Amazon EMR
11 20 (0.96%) PaaS
12 18 (0.86%) Azure Functions
12 18 (0.86%) npm
13 17 (0.82%) Amazon CloudWatch
13 17 (0.82%) Amazon SQS
14 15 (0.72%) Amazon Cognito
14 15 (0.72%) Amazon ECS
15 12 (0.58%) Amazon Kinesis
Communications & Networking
1 50 (2.40%) HTTP
2 14 (0.67%) TCP/IP
3 13 (0.62%) DNS
3 13 (0.62%) Skype
4 10 (0.48%) SSL
5 7 (0.34%) Internet
6 6 (0.29%) RTMP
7 5 (0.24%) DSL
7 5 (0.24%) FTP
8 3 (0.14%) DHCP
8 3 (0.14%) Radio Access Network
9 2 (0.096%) Firewall
9 2 (0.096%) HTTPS
9 2 (0.096%) LAN
9 2 (0.096%) LTE
9 2 (0.096%) MQTT
9 2 (0.096%) Multicast
9 2 (0.096%) NFC
9 2 (0.096%) SMS
9 2 (0.096%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 192 (9.21%) SQL Server
2 184 (8.82%) MongoDB
3 121 (5.80%) NoSQL
4 111 (5.32%) MySQL
5 98 (4.70%) Relational Database
6 85 (4.08%) PostgreSQL
7 66 (3.17%) Big Data
8 42 (2.01%) Hadoop
9 35 (1.68%) Amazon RDS
10 32 (1.53%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 31 (1.49%) Apache Cassandra
12 30 (1.44%) Redis
13 23 (1.10%) Azure SQL Database
14 22 (1.06%) HBase
15 21 (1.01%) Oracle Database
16 20 (0.96%) Cosmos DB
16 20 (0.96%) Data Warehouse
17 18 (0.86%) RDBMS
18 17 (0.82%) Data Lake
18 17 (0.82%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 396 (18.99%) Git (software)
2 307 (14.72%) Jenkins
3 246 (11.80%) JIRA
4 174 (8.35%) Maven
5 161 (7.72%) Cucumber
6 160 (7.67%) Selenium
7 129 (6.19%) JUnit
8 105 (5.04%) GitLab
9 100 (4.80%) Mockito
10 96 (4.60%) Subversion
11 74 (3.55%) TeamCity
12 71 (3.41%) Jasmine
13 58 (2.78%) Mocha
14 57 (2.73%) Gradle
15 56 (2.69%) SoapUI
16 55 (2.64%) Bitbucket
17 45 (2.16%) gulp
18 42 (2.01%) Grunt
18 42 (2.01%) JMeter
18 42 (2.01%) Team Foundation Server
General
1 328 (15.73%) Finance
2 215 (10.31%) Public Sector
3 214 (10.26%) Banking
4 139 (6.67%) Front Office
5 85 (4.08%) Investment Banking
6 63 (3.02%) Marketing
7 61 (2.93%) Telecoms
8 51 (2.45%) Manufacturing
9 49 (2.35%) Electronics
10 32 (1.53%) Retail
11 24 (1.15%) Games
12 21 (1.01%) Automotive
13 13 (0.62%) Financial Institution
14 11 (0.53%) Legal
15 9 (0.43%) Publishing
16 8 (0.38%) Advertising
16 8 (0.38%) Back Office
16 8 (0.38%) Retail Banking
17 7 (0.34%) Law
18 5 (0.24%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 1,501 (71.99%) Developer
2 527 (25.28%) Java Developer
3 222 (10.65%) Senior Developer
4 176 (8.44%) .NET Developer
5 164 (7.87%) React Developer
6 160 (7.67%) C# Developer
7 133 (6.38%) JavaScript Developer
8 127 (6.09%) Full Stack Developer
9 114 (5.47%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 108 (5.18%) Senior Java Developer
11 84 (4.03%) AWS Developer
12 80 (3.84%) Python Developer
13 70 (3.36%) Angular Developer
14 68 (3.26%) C# .NET Developer
15 65 (3.12%) Architect
16 63 (3.02%) UI Developer
17 62 (2.97%) Software Engineer
18 61 (2.93%) Lead Developer
19 60 (2.88%) Azure Developer
20 59 (2.83%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 374 (17.94%) React
2 361 (17.31%) .NET
3 359 (17.22%) AngularJS
4 358 (17.17%) HTML
5 348 (16.69%) Spring
6 326 (15.64%) CSS
7 321 (15.40%) Node.js
8 273 (13.09%) Web Services
9 269 (12.90%) RESTful
10 245 (11.75%) REST
11 209 (10.02%) Spring Boot
12 191 (9.16%) HTML5
13 160 (7.67%) SOAP
14 136 (6.52%) ASP.NET
15 127 (6.09%) JSON
16 118 (5.66%) Redux
17 108 (5.18%) .NET Framework
18 107 (5.13%) Kafka
18 107 (5.13%) XML
19 95 (4.56%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 154 (7.39%) User Experience
2 153 (7.34%) Greenfield Project
3 91 (4.36%) Fixed Income
4 80 (3.84%) Analytical Skills
5 58 (2.78%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 53 (2.54%) Mobile App
7 50 (2.40%) Enterprise Software
8 45 (2.16%) Derivative
9 44 (2.11%) Data Structures
10 29 (1.39%) Cloud Native
11 26 (1.25%) Algorithms
12 23 (1.10%) Public Cloud
13 21 (1.01%) Equities
14 19 (0.91%) Hybrid Cloud
15 18 (0.86%) Management Information System
16 17 (0.82%) Virtual Team
17 15 (0.72%) Linux Command Line
18 13 (0.62%) Credit Risk
18 13 (0.62%) Self-Motivation
19 12 (0.58%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 240 (11.51%) Linux
2 182 (8.73%) Unix
3 105 (5.04%) Mac OS X
4 75 (3.60%) Android
5 61 (2.93%) Apple iOS
6 46 (2.21%) Windows
7 16 (0.77%) Windows Server
8 9 (0.43%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 7 (0.34%) Mac OS
10 6 (0.29%) Solaris
11 4 (0.19%) CentOS
11 4 (0.19%) tvOS
12 3 (0.14%) Ubuntu
13 2 (0.096%) Debian
14 1 (0.048%) CoreOS
14 1 (0.048%) HPUX
14 1 (0.048%) zOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,530 (73.38%) Agile Software Development
2 861 (41.29%) BDD
3 602 (28.87%) Microservices
4 511 (24.51%) Test Automation
5 493 (23.65%) Scrum
6 471 (22.59%) DevOps
7 397 (19.04%) Continuous Integration
8 380 (18.23%) Pair Programming
9 275 (13.19%) Software Engineering
10 218 (10.46%) Kanban
11 181 (8.68%) OO
11 181 (8.68%) Problem-Solving
12 175 (8.39%) Continuous Deployment
13 174 (8.35%) Front End Development
14 172 (8.25%) MVC
15 162 (7.77%) Web Development
16 143 (6.86%) Unit Testing
17 141 (6.76%) Continuous Improvement
18 131 (6.28%) User Stories
19 125 (6.00%) Responsive Web Design
Programming Languages
1 987 (47.34%) Java
2 666 (31.94%) JavaScript
3 383 (18.37%) C#
4 359 (17.22%) SQL
5 321 (15.40%) Python
6 278 (13.33%) Java 8
7 149 (7.15%) TypeScript
8 108 (5.18%) Scala
9 73 (3.50%) Ruby
10 63 (3.02%) Kotlin
11 54 (2.59%) ES6
12 50 (2.40%) PHP
13 49 (2.35%) C++
14 48 (2.30%) Go
15 35 (1.68%) Apple Swift
16 34 (1.63%) T-SQL
16 34 (1.63%) XPath
17 31 (1.49%) Groovy
18 30 (1.44%) C
19 28 (1.34%) PowerShell
Qualifications
1 262 (12.57%) Security Cleared
2 179 (8.59%) SC Cleared
3 100 (4.80%) Degree
4 49 (2.35%) BPSS Clearance
5 46 (2.21%) Computer Science Degree
6 31 (1.49%) DV Cleared
7 28 (1.34%) ISTQB
8 23 (1.10%) DBS Check
8 23 (1.10%) ISEB
9 14 (0.67%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
10 9 (0.43%) Master's Degree
11 8 (0.38%) OCPJP
11 8 (0.38%) Sun Certification
12 7 (0.34%) AWS Certification
13 4 (0.19%) OCP
13 4 (0.19%) Oracle Certification
14 3 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
14 3 (0.14%) PMI Certification
15 2 (0.096%) Microsoft Certification
15 2 (0.096%) PMP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 125 (6.00%) QA
2 51 (2.45%) WCAG
3 13 (0.62%) GDPR
4 10 (0.48%) Data Quality
4 10 (0.48%) PMO
5 5 (0.24%) MiFID
6 4 (0.19%) SLA
7 3 (0.14%) Disclosure Scotland
8 2 (0.096%) EMIR
8 2 (0.096%) WAI
9 1 (0.048%) FINREP
9 1 (0.048%) IFRS
System Software
1 372 (17.84%) Docker
2 19 (0.91%) HDFS
3 12 (0.58%) Active Directory
4 7 (0.34%) VMware Infrastructure
4 7 (0.34%) vSphere
5 6 (0.29%) NDS
5 6 (0.29%) NetIQ eDirectory
5 6 (0.29%) Postfix
6 3 (0.14%) Veritas Cluster Server
7 2 (0.096%) BusyBox
7 2 (0.096%) Virtual Machines
8 1 (0.048%) Apache Flume
8 1 (0.048%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.048%) Firmware
8 1 (0.048%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 268 (12.85%) Kubernetes
2 113 (5.42%) Terraform
3 66 (3.17%) Ansible
4 36 (1.73%) Opscode Chef
5 28 (1.34%) Puppet
6 14 (0.67%) Kibana
7 11 (0.53%) Hadoop YARN
7 11 (0.53%) NetIQ Identity Manager
8 7 (0.34%) Grafana
9 6 (0.29%) Docker Swarm
9 6 (0.29%) MIIS
9 6 (0.29%) Tivoli
10 5 (0.24%) Rancher
10 5 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
11 4 (0.19%) Prometheus
11 4 (0.19%) Salt
12 3 (0.14%) HP ALM
12 3 (0.14%) Pacemaker
13 2 (0.096%) Graphite
13 2 (0.096%) Oracle Identity Manager
Vendors
1 185 (8.87%) Oracle
2 133 (6.38%) Microsoft
3 68 (3.26%) SAP
4 65 (3.12%) Google
5 42 (2.01%) Atlassian
6 40 (1.92%) Talend
7 36 (1.73%) WSO2
8 21 (1.01%) DevExpress
9 19 (0.91%) hybris
10 16 (0.77%) Adobe
10 16 (0.77%) Databricks
11 13 (0.62%) IBM
11 13 (0.62%) RedGate
12 12 (0.58%) Informatica
13 11 (0.53%) NetIQ
14 10 (0.48%) ForgeRock
14 10 (0.48%) Salesforce.com
14 10 (0.48%) Splunk
14 10 (0.48%) Sybase
14 10 (0.48%) Tableau