Period
to 12 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for JUnit skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited JUnit over the 6 months to 12 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

JUnit
UK
6 months to
12 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 286 261 241
Rank change year-on-year -25 -20 -27
Contract jobs citing JUnit 423 576 1,092
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.81% 0.97% 1.13%
As % of the Development Applications category 4.69% 5.48% 5.43%
Number of daily rates quoted 258 405 680
10th Percentile £360 £350 £363
25th Percentile £407 £413 £416
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £475 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year -5.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £542 £575 £575
90th Percentile £625 £625 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £475 £473
% change year-on-year -10.53% +0.53% +8.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 10 4 8
10th Percentile £39.20 " £38.76
25th Percentile £40.25 £44.43 £41.22
Median hourly rate £50.00 £53.18 £46.70
Median % change year-on-year -5.97% +13.87% +3.78%
75th Percentile £58.00 £58.81 £52.10
90th Percentile £65.30 £60.28 £64.48
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £58.00 £46.70
% change year-on-year -27.59% +24.20% +3.78%

JUnit is in the Development Applications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for development application skills.

All Development Application Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for development application skills 9,022 10,511 20,092
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 17.26% 17.62% 20.83%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,119 7,198 13,825
10th Percentile £327 £331 £328
25th Percentile £400 £406 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £480 £490 £488
Median % change year-on-year -2.04% +0.51% +2.63%
75th Percentile £575 £575 £575
90th Percentile £650 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £450 £450
% change year-on-year -5.56% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 180 165 263
10th Percentile £28.40 £18.25 £22.45
25th Percentile £40.00 £32.50 £36.75
Median hourly rate £45.00 £47.50 £44.18
Median % change year-on-year -5.26% +7.51% +3.95%
75th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £50.00
90th Percentile £61.25 £63.75 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £45.00 £44.00 £45.00
% change year-on-year +2.27% -2.22% +5.88%

JUnit
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing JUnit as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing JUnit.

Daily rate trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing JUnit over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing JUnit.

Hourly rate trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing JUnit over the 6 months to 12 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing JUnit within the UK over the 6 months to 12 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -19 329 £475 -5.00% 91
London -43 210 £500 -4.76% 41
UK excluding London +5 124 £425 -10.53% 59
Work from Home -158 122 £473 -14.05% 16
Scotland +31 35 £405 -10.00% 7
North of England +18 33 £458 -10.03% 12
South East +62 20 £396 -9.94% 14
East of England +45 13 £500 -0.25% 6
Yorkshire +13 13 £440 -20.00% 3
South West +40 12 £562 +12.40% 11
North East +27 10 £475 +2.70% 2
North West +17 10 £473 +11.18% 7
Midlands -29 9 £413 -8.33% 6
East Midlands +23 5 £413 +16.55% 2
West Midlands -38 4 £500 +11.11% 4
Northern Ireland +11 2 £431 -

For the 6 months to 12 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing JUnit also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for JUnit.

1 353 (83.45%) Java
2 227 (53.66%) Agile Software Development
3 193 (45.63%) Jenkins
4 173 (40.90%) Spring
5 155 (36.64%) Git (software)
6 153 (36.17%) TDD
7 144 (34.04%) Maven
8 136 (32.15%) Mockito
9 130 (30.73%) Docker
10 128 (30.26%) REST
11 124 (29.31%) JavaScript
12 121 (28.61%) Cucumber
13 119 (28.13%) JIRA
13 119 (28.13%) Microservices
14 116 (27.42%) AWS
15 113 (26.71%) Test Automation
16 111 (26.24%) DevOps
17 104 (24.59%) BDD
18 98 (23.17%) Continuous Integration
19 96 (22.70%) Java 8
20 92 (21.75%) Kubernetes
21 88 (20.80%) XML
22 87 (20.57%) Scrum
22 87 (20.57%) RESTful
23 85 (20.09%) GitHub
24 83 (19.62%) JSON
24 83 (19.62%) Web Services
25 82 (19.39%) Azure
26 81 (19.15%) SQL
26 81 (19.15%) Hibernate

JUnit
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 71 (16.78%) Confluence
2 38 (8.98%) JBoss
3 29 (6.86%) Tomcat
4 28 (6.62%) WebSphere
5 23 (5.44%) Mule
6 22 (5.20%) Elasticsearch
7 21 (4.96%) Red Hat Fuse
8 16 (3.78%) Cloud Foundry
9 13 (3.07%) WebLogic
10 12 (2.84%) Apache
10 12 (2.84%) Jetty
11 10 (2.36%) Apache Spark
12 8 (1.89%) SharePoint
13 7 (1.65%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 6 (1.42%) Anypoint
15 5 (1.18%) WebSphere Application Server
16 4 (0.95%) BizTalk Server
16 4 (0.95%) GlassFish
16 4 (0.95%) Oracle Coherence
16 4 (0.95%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 4 (0.95%) MS Visio
2 2 (0.47%) Sketch
3 1 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
Business Applications
1 5 (1.18%) Adobe Campaign
2 3 (0.71%) Dynamics CRM
3 1 (0.24%) Exstream
3 1 (0.24%) SAP ERP
3 1 (0.24%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 116 (27.42%) AWS
2 85 (20.09%) GitHub
3 82 (19.39%) Azure
4 27 (6.38%) Serverless
5 23 (5.44%) AWS Lambda
5 23 (5.44%) PaaS
6 20 (4.73%) Amazon S3
6 20 (4.73%) GCP
7 19 (4.49%) OpenShift
8 14 (3.31%) Amazon SQS
8 14 (3.31%) IaaS
8 14 (3.31%) Slack
9 11 (2.60%) SaaS
10 10 (2.36%) Apigee
11 9 (2.13%) Virtual Private Cloud
12 7 (1.65%) Boomi
13 6 (1.42%) Firebase
14 5 (1.18%) Amazon EC2
14 5 (1.18%) AWS CloudFormation
14 5 (1.18%) npm
Communications & Networking
1 29 (6.86%) HTTP
2 17 (4.02%) HTTPS
3 9 (2.13%) Internet
3 9 (2.13%) SMS
4 8 (1.89%) Kerberos
5 7 (1.65%) DNS
5 7 (1.65%) TCP/IP
6 5 (1.18%) DMARC
6 5 (1.18%) SMTP
6 5 (1.18%) SSL
7 4 (0.95%) NAS
8 2 (0.47%) DLNA
8 2 (0.47%) LAN
8 2 (0.47%) NFC
8 2 (0.47%) SWIFTNet
8 2 (0.47%) UPnP
8 2 (0.47%) VPN
8 2 (0.47%) Wi-Fi
9 1 (0.24%) FTP
9 1 (0.24%) WebEx
Database & Business Intelligence
1 43 (10.17%) MongoDB
2 40 (9.46%) NoSQL
3 36 (8.51%) Relational Database
4 30 (7.09%) PostgreSQL
5 24 (5.67%) SQL Server
6 23 (5.44%) MySQL
7 15 (3.55%) RDBMS
8 9 (2.13%) Apache Hive
9 7 (1.65%) Amazon DynamoDB
9 7 (1.65%) DB2
9 7 (1.65%) HBase
9 7 (1.65%) Impala
10 6 (1.42%) Oracle Database
11 5 (1.18%) Apache Cassandra
11 5 (1.18%) Big Data
11 5 (1.18%) CockroachDB
12 4 (0.95%) Geospatial Data
12 4 (0.95%) GIS
12 4 (0.95%) Redis
13 3 (0.71%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 193 (45.63%) Jenkins
2 155 (36.64%) Git (software)
3 144 (34.04%) Maven
4 136 (32.15%) Mockito
5 121 (28.61%) Cucumber
6 119 (28.13%) JIRA
7 74 (17.49%) Selenium
8 59 (13.95%) Gradle
9 45 (10.64%) IntelliJ
10 42 (9.93%) GitLab
11 37 (8.75%) SonarQube
12 33 (7.80%) Subversion
13 32 (7.57%) Postman
14 30 (7.09%) git-flow
15 29 (6.86%) Eclipse
15 29 (6.86%) JMeter
16 23 (5.44%) SoapUI
17 21 (4.96%) TestNG
18 20 (4.73%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 20 (4.73%) Sonatype Nexus
General
1 68 (16.08%) Finance
2 58 (13.71%) Banking
3 31 (7.33%) Public Sector
4 21 (4.96%) Investment Banking
5 7 (1.65%) Telecoms
6 6 (1.42%) Marketing
7 5 (1.18%) Front Office
8 4 (0.95%) Dutch Language
8 4 (0.95%) French Language
9 3 (0.71%) Advertising
9 3 (0.71%) Back Office
9 3 (0.71%) Law
9 3 (0.71%) Retail Banking
10 2 (0.47%) Electronics
10 2 (0.47%) Games
10 2 (0.47%) Multimedia
10 2 (0.47%) Pharmaceutical
10 2 (0.47%) Retail
11 1 (0.24%) Financial Institution
11 1 (0.24%) Legal
Job Titles
1 273 (64.54%) Developer
2 162 (38.30%) Java Developer
3 41 (9.69%) Senior Developer
4 32 (7.57%) Android Developer
4 32 (7.57%) Senior Java Developer
5 28 (6.62%) Full Stack Developer
6 20 (4.73%) Software Engineer
7 19 (4.49%) Tester
8 18 (4.26%) AWS Developer
8 18 (4.26%) DevOps Engineer
9 16 (3.78%) SC Cleared Java Developer
10 15 (3.55%) Automation Tester
10 15 (3.55%) Java Engineer
11 14 (3.31%) Integration Developer
12 13 (3.07%) Android Engineer
12 13 (3.07%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
12 13 (3.07%) Java Middleware Developer
12 13 (3.07%) Middleware Developer
12 13 (3.07%) Scala Developer
13 12 (2.84%) Automation Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 173 (40.90%) Spring
2 128 (30.26%) REST
3 88 (20.80%) XML
4 87 (20.57%) RESTful
5 83 (19.62%) JSON
5 83 (19.62%) Web Services
6 81 (19.15%) Hibernate
7 76 (17.97%) Spring Boot
8 72 (17.02%) Node.js
9 70 (16.55%) HTML
10 59 (13.95%) AngularJS
11 52 (12.29%) SOAP
12 46 (10.87%) CSS
13 40 (9.46%) React
13 40 (9.46%) RxJava
14 35 (8.27%) JPA
15 31 (7.33%) Java EE
16 30 (7.09%) J2EE
16 30 (7.09%) Kafka
17 29 (6.86%) JMS
Miscellaneous
1 41 (9.69%) Mobile App
2 28 (6.62%) Analytical Skills
3 19 (4.49%) Data Structures
3 19 (4.49%) Enterprise Software
4 18 (4.26%) Cloud Native
4 18 (4.26%) Fixed Income
5 16 (3.78%) Algorithms
6 15 (3.55%) User Experience
7 12 (2.84%) Animation
8 11 (2.60%) Hybrid Cloud
8 11 (2.60%) Mobile Payment
8 11 (2.60%) Public Cloud
9 10 (2.36%) Private Cloud
9 10 (2.36%) Self-Motivation
10 7 (1.65%) Analytical Mindset
11 6 (1.42%) Equities
11 6 (1.42%) Replication
12 5 (1.18%) Clustering
12 5 (1.18%) iPhone
12 5 (1.18%) Marketing Technology
Operating Systems
1 73 (17.26%) Linux
2 67 (15.84%) Android
3 49 (11.58%) Unix
4 21 (4.96%) Windows
5 20 (4.73%) Apple iOS
6 6 (1.42%) CentOS
7 4 (0.95%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 4 (0.95%) Ubuntu
8 2 (0.47%) Embedded Linux
9 1 (0.24%) Mac OS
9 1 (0.24%) Mac OS X
9 1 (0.24%) Solaris
9 1 (0.24%) Windows Server
9 1 (0.24%) Windows Server 2008
9 1 (0.24%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 227 (53.66%) Agile Software Development
2 153 (36.17%) TDD
3 119 (28.13%) Microservices
4 113 (26.71%) Test Automation
5 111 (26.24%) DevOps
6 104 (24.59%) BDD
7 98 (23.17%) Continuous Integration
8 87 (20.57%) Scrum
9 65 (15.37%) Pair Programming
9 65 (15.37%) Unit Testing
10 61 (14.42%) Software Engineering
11 54 (12.77%) Continuous Delivery
12 53 (12.53%) OO
13 48 (11.35%) Android Development
14 43 (10.17%) SDLC
15 38 (8.98%) Kanban
15 38 (8.98%) Problem-Solving
16 35 (8.27%) Open Source
17 30 (7.09%) Computer Science
17 30 (7.09%) MVC
Programming Languages
1 353 (83.45%) Java
2 124 (29.31%) JavaScript
3 96 (22.70%) Java 8
4 81 (19.15%) SQL
5 69 (16.31%) Python
6 58 (13.71%) Kotlin
7 41 (9.69%) Scala
8 31 (7.33%) Bash Shell
9 21 (4.96%) PowerShell
9 21 (4.96%) TypeScript
10 20 (4.73%) C++
11 17 (4.02%) Shell Script
12 15 (3.55%) Apple Swift
12 15 (3.55%) PL/SQL
13 13 (3.07%) Groovy
14 12 (2.84%) Go
15 10 (2.36%) C
16 9 (2.13%) C#
16 9 (2.13%) Perl
16 9 (2.13%) Ruby
Qualifications
1 66 (15.60%) Security Cleared
2 51 (12.06%) SC Cleared
3 21 (4.96%) Degree
4 12 (2.84%) Computer Science Degree
5 7 (1.65%) BPSS Clearance
6 5 (1.18%) AWS Certification
6 5 (1.18%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.95%) ISTQB
7 4 (0.95%) Master's Degree
8 2 (0.47%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 1 (0.24%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 46 (10.87%) QA
2 6 (1.42%) Data Quality
3 5 (1.18%) GDPR
3 5 (1.18%) WCAG
4 2 (0.47%) ISO 15022
4 2 (0.47%) ISO 20022
5 1 (0.24%) Disclosure Scotland
System Software
1 130 (30.73%) Docker
2 9 (2.13%) VMware Infrastructure
3 5 (1.18%) HDFS
4 4 (0.95%) Active Directory
5 2 (0.47%) KVM
5 2 (0.47%) Postfix
5 2 (0.47%) Virtual Machines
6 1 (0.24%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 92 (21.75%) Kubernetes
2 31 (7.33%) Ansible
3 28 (6.62%) Puppet
4 26 (6.15%) Kibana
4 26 (6.15%) Terraform
5 16 (3.78%) Grafana
6 14 (3.31%) Opscode Chef
7 10 (2.36%) Prometheus
8 9 (2.13%) logstash
9 8 (1.89%) Consul
10 4 (0.95%) HP ALM
11 3 (0.71%) Nagios
11 3 (0.71%) ZABBIX
12 2 (0.47%) CloudHub
12 2 (0.47%) HP Fortify
12 2 (0.47%) Rancher
13 1 (0.24%) Graphite
13 1 (0.24%) HP Quality Center
13 1 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 41 (9.69%) Oracle
2 29 (6.86%) Google
3 21 (4.96%) Microsoft
4 20 (4.73%) Atlassian
5 19 (4.49%) Sybase
6 18 (4.26%) Adobe
7 16 (3.78%) Red Hat
8 15 (3.55%) Splunk
9 10 (2.36%) MuleSoft
9 10 (2.36%) Murex
10 9 (2.13%) VMware
10 9 (2.13%) webMethods
11 8 (1.89%) AppDynamics
12 7 (1.65%) Cloudera
12 7 (1.65%) Dell
13 5 (1.18%) TIBCO
14 4 (0.95%) Fiorano
14 4 (0.95%) HP
14 4 (0.95%) IBM
14 4 (0.95%) Talend