Period
to 14 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for JUnit skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited JUnit over the 6 months to 14 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

JUnit
UK
6 months to
14 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 288 274 258
Rank change year-on-year -14 -16 -18
Contract jobs citing JUnit 551 408 960
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.90% 0.94% 1.06%
As % of the Development Applications category 5.13% 5.16% 5.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 364 283 604
10th Percentile £372 £346 £363
25th Percentile £425 £413 £419
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £495 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year -1.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £588 £575 £550
90th Percentile £663 £638 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £474 £450 £475
% change year-on-year +5.28% -5.26% +5.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 2 3
10th Percentile £39.90 £54.18 £47.02
25th Percentile £40.50 £54.81 £47.54
Median hourly rate £65.00 £57.75 £48.40
Median % change year-on-year +12.55% +19.32% +7.56%
75th Percentile £67.00 £60.44 £55.80
90th Percentile £72.93 £60.93 £60.23
UK excluding London median hourly rate £63.00 £58.00 £48.40
% change year-on-year +8.62% +19.83% +7.56%

JUnit is in the Development Applications category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for development application skills.

All Development Application Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for development application skills 10,746 7,906 18,072
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 17.48% 18.20% 19.95%
Number of daily rates quoted 7,187 5,520 12,146
10th Percentile £350 £333 £333
25th Percentile £413 £411 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £475
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +0.53%
75th Percentile £588 £588 £575
90th Percentile £675 £675 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £448 £450 £450
% change year-on-year -0.39% - +5.88%
Number of hourly rates quoted 194 110 258
10th Percentile £25.50 £19.23 £21.25
25th Percentile £40.00 £36.75 £36.55
Median hourly rate £47.50 £47.50 £44.18
Median % change year-on-year - +7.51% +3.95%
75th Percentile £57.50 £55.00 £50.00
90th Percentile £65.50 £63.08 £55.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £47.50 £45.96 £44.00
% change year-on-year +3.36% +4.44% +3.53%

JUnit
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing JUnit as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing JUnit.

Daily rate trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing JUnit over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Daily rate histogram for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing JUnit.

Hourly rate trend for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing JUnit over the 6 months to 14 June 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for JUnit in the UK

JUnit
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing JUnit within the UK over the 6 months to 14 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -17 435 £500 - 140
London -51 278 £525 - 70
UK excluding London +16 165 £474 +5.28% 83
Work from Home -130 157 £475 -5.00% 35
South East +26 45 £450 -4.00% 24
Scotland -5 36 £425 +1.49% 10
North of England +10 35 £490 +8.78% 19
South West +2 20 £498 +2.15% 10
North East +24 16 £500 -2.44% 4
North West -3 13 £485 +17.58% 12
East of England +10 11 £495 +1.02% 8
Midlands -37 11 £413 -2.94% 9
Northern Ireland +4 7 £475 +5.32% 1
Yorkshire +3 6 £475 -5.00% 3
West Midlands -38 6 £450 +5.14% 6
East Midlands +3 5 £413 +37.50% 3

For the 6 months to 14 June 2021, IT contractor jobs citing JUnit also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for JUnit.

1 469 (85.12%) Java
2 317 (57.53%) Agile Software Development
3 249 (45.19%) Jenkins
4 243 (44.10%) Spring
5 232 (42.11%) TDD
5 232 (42.11%) Git (software)
6 184 (33.39%) Maven
7 182 (33.03%) Docker
8 179 (32.49%) Microservices
9 178 (32.30%) Cucumber
10 172 (31.22%) REST
11 171 (31.03%) Mockito
12 161 (29.22%) JavaScript
13 157 (28.49%) AWS
14 151 (27.40%) BDD
15 149 (27.04%) Test Automation
16 142 (25.77%) JIRA
17 133 (24.14%) Java 8
18 130 (23.59%) Scrum
19 128 (23.23%) DevOps
20 120 (21.78%) RESTful
21 117 (21.23%) Selenium
22 116 (21.05%) XML
23 114 (20.69%) SQL
24 108 (19.60%) Continuous Integration
25 106 (19.24%) JSON
25 106 (19.24%) Hibernate
26 105 (19.06%) Spring Boot
27 104 (18.87%) Kubernetes
28 102 (18.51%) Azure

JUnit
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 80 (14.52%) Confluence
2 40 (7.26%) JBoss
3 39 (7.08%) Tomcat
4 27 (4.90%) Elasticsearch
5 19 (3.45%) Red Hat Fuse
5 19 (3.45%) WebSphere
6 17 (3.09%) Mule
7 14 (2.54%) Apache
8 13 (2.36%) Jetty
9 12 (2.18%) Apache Spark
10 11 (2.00%) Adobe Experience Manager
10 11 (2.00%) WebLogic
11 8 (1.45%) Anypoint
11 8 (1.45%) SharePoint
12 6 (1.09%) Cloud Foundry
12 6 (1.09%) CMS
13 5 (0.91%) FileNet
13 5 (0.91%) OpenStack
13 5 (0.91%) Oracle SOA Suite
14 4 (0.73%) Oracle Application Server
Applications
1 2 (0.36%) Microsoft Office
1 2 (0.36%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 5 (0.91%) Adobe Campaign
1 5 (0.91%) SAP Hybris
2 4 (0.73%) Dynamics CRM
3 2 (0.36%) Oracle BPM
4 1 (0.18%) SAP ERP
Cloud Services
1 157 (28.49%) AWS
2 102 (18.51%) Azure
3 92 (16.70%) GitHub
4 46 (8.35%) Serverless
5 42 (7.62%) AWS Lambda
6 34 (6.17%) GCP
7 27 (4.90%) Amazon S3
8 22 (3.99%) OpenShift
9 21 (3.81%) Amazon EC2
10 19 (3.45%) PaaS
11 14 (2.54%) SaaS
12 12 (2.18%) Amazon SQS
12 12 (2.18%) AWS CloudFormation
13 10 (1.81%) Apigee
13 10 (1.81%) npm
14 8 (1.45%) Amazon ECS
14 8 (1.45%) AWS CodePipeline
14 8 (1.45%) Slack
15 7 (1.27%) Amazon EKS
16 6 (1.09%) BrowserStack
Communications & Networking
1 26 (4.72%) HTTP
2 16 (2.90%) HTTPS
3 15 (2.72%) LAN
4 11 (2.00%) TCP/IP
5 9 (1.63%) Internet
5 9 (1.63%) SMS
6 8 (1.45%) DNS
7 6 (1.09%) Kerberos
8 5 (0.91%) DMARC
8 5 (0.91%) SMTP
8 5 (0.91%) SSL
9 4 (0.73%) 2G
9 4 (0.73%) DLNA
9 4 (0.73%) UPnP
9 4 (0.73%) Wi-Fi
10 2 (0.36%) FTP
10 2 (0.36%) NFC
10 2 (0.36%) SWIFTNet
10 2 (0.36%) VPN
10 2 (0.36%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 66 (11.98%) NoSQL
2 61 (11.07%) Relational Database
3 55 (9.98%) MongoDB
4 44 (7.99%) PostgreSQL
5 39 (7.08%) SQL Server
6 26 (4.72%) MySQL
7 18 (3.27%) Amazon DynamoDB
8 15 (2.72%) RDBMS
9 12 (2.18%) DB2
9 12 (2.18%) Redis
10 7 (1.27%) Hadoop
11 6 (1.09%) Apache Cassandra
11 6 (1.09%) Apache Hive
11 6 (1.09%) HBase
11 6 (1.09%) Impala
11 6 (1.09%) Oracle Database
12 5 (0.91%) CockroachDB
13 4 (0.73%) Amazon Athena
13 4 (0.73%) Big Data
14 3 (0.54%) MariaDB
Development Applications
1 249 (45.19%) Jenkins
2 232 (42.11%) Git (software)
3 184 (33.39%) Maven
4 178 (32.30%) Cucumber
5 171 (31.03%) Mockito
6 142 (25.77%) JIRA
7 117 (21.23%) Selenium
8 68 (12.34%) Gradle
9 53 (9.62%) IntelliJ
10 51 (9.26%) Subversion
11 50 (9.07%) SonarQube
12 48 (8.71%) GitLab
13 45 (8.17%) Postman
14 43 (7.80%) TestNG
15 34 (6.17%) Eclipse
16 28 (5.08%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 28 (5.08%) git-flow
17 27 (4.90%) JMeter
17 27 (4.90%) Sonatype Nexus
18 26 (4.72%) Bitbucket
General
1 94 (17.06%) Social Skills
2 92 (16.70%) Finance
3 77 (13.97%) Banking
4 46 (8.35%) Analytical Skills
5 34 (6.17%) Public Sector
6 23 (4.17%) Investment Banking
7 21 (3.81%) Documentation Skills
8 19 (3.45%) Front Office
9 12 (2.18%) Presentation Skills
10 11 (2.00%) Influencing Skills
11 10 (1.81%) Retail
11 10 (1.81%) Telecoms
12 8 (1.45%) Manufacturing
13 6 (1.09%) Marketing
13 6 (1.09%) Wearables
14 4 (0.73%) Dutch Language
14 4 (0.73%) Electronics
14 4 (0.73%) French Language
14 4 (0.73%) Organisational Skills
15 3 (0.54%) Law
Job Titles
1 380 (68.97%) Developer
2 236 (42.83%) Java Developer
3 64 (11.62%) Senior Developer
4 56 (10.16%) Senior Java Developer
5 43 (7.80%) Android Developer
6 34 (6.17%) Full Stack Developer
7 24 (4.36%) Software Engineer
7 24 (4.36%) Tester
8 22 (3.99%) AWS Developer
9 20 (3.63%) Architect
9 20 (3.63%) DevOps Engineer
10 19 (3.45%) JavaScript Developer
11 18 (3.27%) Automation Tester
12 15 (2.72%) Java Engineer
13 14 (2.54%) Automation Engineer
13 14 (2.54%) Java Middleware Developer
13 14 (2.54%) Middleware Developer
14 13 (2.36%) Cloud Developer
14 13 (2.36%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
14 13 (2.36%) QA Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 243 (44.10%) Spring
2 172 (31.22%) REST
3 120 (21.78%) RESTful
4 116 (21.05%) XML
5 106 (19.24%) Hibernate
5 106 (19.24%) JSON
6 105 (19.06%) Spring Boot
7 99 (17.97%) Web Services
8 97 (17.60%) HTML
9 86 (15.61%) AngularJS
10 85 (15.43%) Node.js
11 60 (10.89%) SOAP
12 58 (10.53%) CSS
13 55 (9.98%) Java EE
14 52 (9.44%) JPA
15 50 (9.07%) React
16 45 (8.17%) J2EE
17 39 (7.08%) HTML5
18 37 (6.72%) Kafka
19 36 (6.53%) Swagger
Miscellaneous
1 32 (5.81%) Mobile App
2 30 (5.44%) Algorithms
3 24 (4.36%) Fixed Income
4 19 (3.45%) Animation
4 19 (3.45%) Data Structures
4 19 (3.45%) User Experience
5 18 (3.27%) Cloud Native
5 18 (3.27%) Public Cloud
6 17 (3.09%) Enterprise Software
7 16 (2.90%) Private Cloud
7 16 (2.90%) Replication
8 14 (2.54%) Client/Server
9 11 (2.00%) Greenfield Project
10 10 (1.81%) Hybrid Cloud
10 10 (1.81%) iPhone
11 9 (1.63%) Mainframe
12 8 (1.45%) Self-Motivation
13 6 (1.09%) Analytical Mindset
13 6 (1.09%) Reference Data
14 5 (0.91%) Clustering
Operating Systems
1 100 (18.15%) Linux
2 67 (12.16%) Android
3 58 (10.53%) Unix
4 36 (6.53%) Windows
5 18 (3.27%) Apple iOS
6 6 (1.09%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 5 (0.91%) CentOS
8 4 (0.73%) Debian
8 4 (0.73%) Embedded Linux
8 4 (0.73%) Ubuntu
8 4 (0.73%) VMS
9 1 (0.18%) Windows Server
9 1 (0.18%) Windows Server 2008
9 1 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 317 (57.53%) Agile Software Development
2 232 (42.11%) TDD
3 179 (32.49%) Microservices
4 151 (27.40%) BDD
5 149 (27.04%) Test Automation
6 130 (23.59%) Scrum
7 128 (23.23%) DevOps
8 108 (19.60%) Continuous Integration
9 91 (16.52%) Software Engineering
10 86 (15.61%) Unit Testing
11 70 (12.70%) MVC
12 69 (12.52%) Problem-Solving
13 66 (11.98%) Pair Programming
14 63 (11.43%) OO
15 61 (11.07%) SDLC
16 60 (10.89%) Continuous Delivery
16 60 (10.89%) Kanban
17 47 (8.53%) Android Development
18 43 (7.80%) Mentoring
19 39 (7.08%) UML
Programming Languages
1 469 (85.12%) Java
2 161 (29.22%) JavaScript
3 133 (24.14%) Java 8
4 114 (20.69%) SQL
5 87 (15.79%) Python
6 50 (9.07%) Scala
7 49 (8.89%) Kotlin
8 37 (6.72%) C++
9 33 (5.99%) TypeScript
10 27 (4.90%) Bash Shell
11 26 (4.72%) PowerShell
12 25 (4.54%) Shell Script
13 18 (3.27%) PL/SQL
14 17 (3.09%) Ruby
15 14 (2.54%) C
15 14 (2.54%) Groovy
16 12 (2.18%) C#
16 12 (2.18%) ES6
16 12 (2.18%) Java 9
17 11 (2.00%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 84 (15.25%) Security Cleared
2 68 (12.34%) SC Cleared
3 24 (4.36%) Degree
4 11 (2.00%) Computer Science Degree
5 8 (1.45%) BPSS Clearance
5 8 (1.45%) ISTQB
6 6 (1.09%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 4 (0.73%) DV Cleared
7 4 (0.73%) Master's Degree
8 3 (0.54%) ISEB
9 2 (0.36%) AWS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 51 (9.26%) QA
2 12 (2.18%) Accessibility
3 6 (1.09%) Data Quality
4 5 (0.91%) GDPR
4 5 (0.91%) WCAG
5 3 (0.54%) PMO
6 2 (0.36%) ISO 15022
6 2 (0.36%) ISO 20022
7 1 (0.18%) PCI DSS
7 1 (0.18%) PSD2
System Software
1 182 (33.03%) Docker
2 12 (2.18%) VMware Infrastructure
3 6 (1.09%) Active Directory
4 4 (0.73%) HDFS
5 3 (0.54%) Varnish
5 3 (0.54%) Virtual Machines
6 2 (0.36%) KVM
6 2 (0.36%) Postfix
6 2 (0.36%) RACF
6 2 (0.36%) vSphere
7 1 (0.18%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.18%) RHEV
7 1 (0.18%) vCloud
Systems Management
1 104 (18.87%) Kubernetes
2 37 (6.72%) Ansible
3 29 (5.26%) Puppet
4 28 (5.08%) Kibana
4 28 (5.08%) Terraform
5 17 (3.09%) Grafana
6 14 (2.54%) Opscode Chef
7 9 (1.63%) logstash
8 8 (1.45%) Consul
9 6 (1.09%) Prometheus
10 5 (0.91%) Nagios
11 4 (0.73%) HP ALM
12 3 (0.54%) CloudHub
12 3 (0.54%) Rancher
12 3 (0.54%) Single Sign-On
12 3 (0.54%) ZABBIX
13 2 (0.36%) HP Fortify
13 2 (0.36%) Istio
13 2 (0.36%) Kustomize
14 1 (0.18%) Graphite
Vendors
1 58 (10.53%) Oracle
2 43 (7.80%) Google
3 31 (5.63%) Adobe
4 24 (4.36%) Microsoft
5 21 (3.81%) Atlassian
6 18 (3.27%) Sybase
7 13 (2.36%) Red Hat
8 12 (2.18%) Splunk
8 12 (2.18%) VMware
9 11 (2.00%) Murex
10 10 (1.81%) CA
10 10 (1.81%) CA Agile Central
10 10 (1.81%) MuleSoft
11 9 (1.63%) hybris
11 9 (1.63%) SAP
12 8 (1.45%) webMethods
13 7 (1.27%) IBM
14 6 (1.09%) Cloudera
14 6 (1.09%) New Relic
15 4 (0.73%) SaltStack