The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for SDLC skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited SDLC over the 3 months to 24 March 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

3 months to
24 Mar 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Systems or Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
UK
Rank 72 62 71
Rank change year-on-year -10 +9  
Contract jobs citing SDLC 1419 1628 1422
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 3.13% 3.07% 2.70%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.77% 3.71% 3.39%
Number of daily rates quoted 953 1090 879
Median daily rate £465 £425 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +9.41% -  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £307 £300 £298
10% offered a daily rate of more than £625 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £400
% change year-on-year +6.66% -6.25%  
Number of hourly rates quoted 18 23 16
Median hourly rate £42.00 £41.85 £32.55
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +0.35% +28.57%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £29.00 £35.00 £22.50
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £55.00 £66.03 £46.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £42.00 £41.85 £32.10
% change year-on-year +0.35% +30.37%  

SDLC is in the process and methodology skills category. The next table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process and methodology skills.

Contract Process & Methodology Skills
UK
Contract job vacancies with a requirement for process and methodology skills 37647 43912 41983
As % of all contract IT job vacancies advertised in the UK 83.11% 82.85% 79.79%
Number of daily rates quoted 24815 28793 26009
Median daily rate £450 £425 £420
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +1.19%  
90% offered a daily rate of more than £300 £300 £275
10% offered a daily rate of more than £600 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £410 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +2.50% -  
Number of hourly rates quoted 953 1109 1205
Median hourly rate £35.00 £37.50 £28.19
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -6.66% +33.02%  
90% offered a hourly rate of more than £13.00 £13.00 £12.10
10% offered a hourly rate of more than £53.00 £55.00 £49.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £36.00 £39.00 £30.00
% change year-on-year -7.69% +30.00%  

SDLC
Job Vacancy Trend

The job posting trend of jobs advertised citing SDLC as a proportion of all contract or permanent IT jobs with a match in the Processes & Methodologies category.

Job vacancy trend for SDLC in the UK

SDLC
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing SDLC.

Contractor daily rate trend for SDLC in the UK

SDLC
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing SDLC over the 3 months to 24 March 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for SDLC in the UK

SDLC
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for hourly rates quoted in IT contractor jobs citing SDLC.

Contractor hourly rate trend for SDLC in the UK

SDLC
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing SDLC over the 3 months to 24 March 2017.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for SDLC in the UK

SDLC
Top 30 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing SDLC within the UK over the 3 months to 24 March 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 3 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Last 3 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 1329 £475 +10.46% 523
London -1 691 £525 +5.00% 147
South East +28 292 £450 +20.00% 75
City of London -30 98 £500 -4.76% 43
Surrey +49 97 £425 -1.16% 12
North West -12 64 £350 -6.66% 78
Scotland -5 62 £350 -7.89% 33
South West -23 60 £444 +18.33% 51
Yorkshire -9 59 £385 +2.66% 60
Berkshire +29 57 £425 -5.55% 16
West Midlands -3 57 £365 -8.75% 35
East of England +1 51 £363 -15.94% 43
East Midlands -12 42 £395 +5.33% 27
West Sussex +34 41 £468 +26.35% 5
Hampshire -10 40 £450 +38.46% 23
West Yorkshire -5 37 £385 +8.07% 38
Redhill +6 32 £450 +5.88% 1
Manchester -10 31 £431 +18.96% 54
Leeds 0 29 £385 +4.05% 33
Glasgow +1 26 £375 - 13
Buckinghamshire -6 26 £413 +5.76% 8
Gatwick - 24 £468 -
Gloucestershire +14 21 £475 - 3
Essex -1 20 £338 -15.62% 5
Reading +18 19 £420 -2.32% 6
Birmingham +2 19 £463 +15.62% 12
Hertfordshire +10 17 £400 -8.57% 7
Nottingham +2 17 £365 -10.42% 4
Nottinghamshire -4 17 £365 -7.59% 9
Milton Keynes -7 17 £425 +12.58% 5

SDLC
Top 30 Related IT Skills

For the 6 months to 24 March 2017, IT contractor jobs citing SDLC also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for SDLC.

1 1439 (53.85%) Agile Software Development
2 749 (28.03%) Finance
3 708 (26.50%) SQL
4 691 (25.86%) Java
5 504 (18.86%) Oracle
6 483 (18.08%) Scrum
7 442 (16.54%) JavaScript
8 400 (14.97%) .NET
9 387 (14.48%) C#
10 372 (13.92%) Project Management
11 343 (12.84%) Waterfall
12 333 (12.46%) Banking
13 331 (12.39%) TDD
14 323 (12.09%) Linux
15 309 (11.56%) Microsoft
16 307 (11.49%) Web Services
17 299 (11.19%) HTML
17 299 (11.19%) QA
18 296 (11.08%) Analytical Skills
19 294 (11.00%) XML
20 288 (10.78%) SQL Server
21 284 (10.63%) Windows
22 282 (10.55%) Python
23 281 (10.52%) Business Analysis
24 272 (10.18%) Stakeholder Management
25 270 (10.10%) Unix
26 259 (9.69%) Software Engineering
27 258 (9.66%) Degree
28 251 (9.39%) Continuous Integration
29 249 (9.32%) OO

SDLC
Top Related IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 90 (3.37%) SharePoint
2 78 (2.92%) WebLogic
3 75 (2.81%) Confluence
3 75 (2.81%) Oracle SOA Suite
4 58 (2.17%) JBoss
5 56 (2.10%) Tomcat
6 54 (2.02%) CMS
7 52 (1.95%) Apache
8 36 (1.35%) BizTalk Server
9 33 (1.24%) WebSphere
10 28 (1.05%) Apache Spark
10 28 (1.05%) Skype for Business
11 26 (0.97%) IIS
12 25 (0.94%) nginx
13 19 (0.71%) Oracle Workflow
14 18 (0.67%) Elasticsearch
15 14 (0.52%) Mule
15 14 (0.52%) Mule ESB
16 13 (0.49%) GeoServer
17 12 (0.45%) Umbraco
Applications
1 197 (7.37%) MS Excel
2 81 (3.03%) MS Office
3 75 (2.81%) MS Visio
4 48 (1.80%) MS PowerPoint
5 43 (1.61%) MS Project
6 9 (0.34%) Spreadsheet
7 7 (0.26%) Photoshop
8 5 (0.19%) OmniGraffle
9 4 (0.15%) Adobe Illustrator
9 4 (0.15%) Fireworks
9 4 (0.15%) InfoPath
10 2 (0.075%) GNU Octave
11 1 (0.037%) Adobe Creative Suite
Business Applications
1 50 (1.87%) Dynamics CRM
2 24 (0.90%) ION MarketView
3 23 (0.86%) Oracle BPM
4 12 (0.45%) SAP Oil and Gas
5 11 (0.41%) Dynamics AX
5 11 (0.41%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 9 (0.34%) Oracle EBS R12
7 7 (0.26%) Oracle EBS
8 5 (0.19%) NetSuite
8 5 (0.19%) Oracle ERP
9 4 (0.15%) Eloqua
9 4 (0.15%) Fredhopper
9 4 (0.15%) Markit EDM
9 4 (0.15%) SAP ERP
9 4 (0.15%) thinkFolio
9 4 (0.15%) Unit4 Business World
10 3 (0.11%) Oracle Applications
10 3 (0.11%) Oracle Cash Management
10 3 (0.11%) SAP FI
10 3 (0.11%) SAP FI/CO
Cloud Services
1 94 (3.52%) Microsoft Azure
2 62 (2.32%) Amazon AWS
3 58 (2.17%) SaaS
4 33 (1.24%) Office 365
5 28 (1.05%) GitHub
6 25 (0.94%) IaaS
7 21 (0.79%) PaaS
8 19 (0.71%) Yammer
9 13 (0.49%) Cloud Computing
10 11 (0.41%) Google Cloud Platform
11 9 (0.34%) Amazon S3
11 9 (0.34%) AWS CloudFormation
12 8 (0.30%) Amazon ELB
12 8 (0.30%) Slack
13 7 (0.26%) Amazon EC2
13 7 (0.26%) Force.com
13 7 (0.26%) Virtual Private Cloud
14 6 (0.22%) OpenShift
15 5 (0.19%) Route 53
16 4 (0.15%) Datadog
Communications & Networking
1 34 (1.27%) HTTP
2 28 (1.05%) Firewall
3 27 (1.01%) Internet
3 27 (1.01%) TCP/IP
4 18 (0.67%) Network Security
5 13 (0.49%) DNS
6 12 (0.45%) LAN
6 12 (0.45%) LDAP
6 12 (0.45%) SSL
7 10 (0.37%) HTTPS
8 9 (0.34%) Intranet
8 9 (0.34%) Wireless
9 8 (0.30%) VPN
10 7 (0.26%) Unified Communications
10 7 (0.26%) X.509
11 6 (0.22%) Reverse Proxy
11 6 (0.22%) SAN
11 6 (0.22%) Skype
11 6 (0.22%) SNMP
11 6 (0.22%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 288 (10.78%) SQL Server
2 222 (8.31%) Relational Database
3 162 (6.06%) Oracle Database
4 108 (4.04%) Data Warehouse
5 92 (3.44%) NoSQL
6 88 (3.29%) Big Data
7 85 (3.18%) RDBMS
8 76 (2.84%) MySQL
9 70 (2.62%) Oracle Database 11g
10 68 (2.54%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 64 (2.40%) MongoDB
12 58 (2.17%) Hadoop
13 55 (2.06%) Oracle Database 10g
13 55 (2.06%) Oracle Database 12c
14 54 (2.02%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 48 (1.80%) DB2
16 39 (1.46%) BusinessObjects
17 33 (1.24%) PostgreSQL
18 30 (1.12%) SQL Server 2012
19 28 (1.05%) SQL Server 2008
Development Applications
1 240 (8.98%) JIRA
2 185 (6.92%) Git (software)
3 170 (6.36%) Jenkins
4 132 (4.94%) Selenium
5 108 (4.04%) Team Foundation Server
6 100 (3.74%) Maven
7 98 (3.67%) Subversion
8 80 (2.99%) Cucumber
9 75 (2.81%) JUnit
10 59 (2.21%) Visual Studio
11 53 (1.98%) TeamCity
12 39 (1.46%) NUnit
13 38 (1.42%) SoapUI
14 37 (1.38%) Mockito
15 31 (1.16%) WebDriver
16 30 (1.12%) JMeter
17 29 (1.09%) Eclipse
17 29 (1.09%) Gradle
18 23 (0.86%) LoadRunner
19 20 (0.75%) Ant
General
1 749 (28.03%) Finance
2 333 (12.46%) Banking
3 136 (5.09%) Investment Banking
4 129 (4.83%) Front Office
5 127 (4.75%) Retail
6 62 (2.32%) Marketing
7 47 (1.76%) Telecoms
8 33 (1.24%) Advertising
9 27 (1.01%) Back Office
9 27 (1.01%) Financial Institution
10 26 (0.97%) Publishing
11 25 (0.94%) Military
12 24 (0.90%) Legal
13 23 (0.86%) Pharmaceutical
14 21 (0.79%) Billing
14 21 (0.79%) Manufacturing
15 20 (0.75%) Games
16 18 (0.67%) Electronics
17 13 (0.49%) Law
18 12 (0.45%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 905 (33.87%) Developer
2 515 (19.27%) Analyst
3 285 (10.67%) Business Analyst
4 277 (10.37%) Java Developer
5 231 (8.65%) Project Manager
6 226 (8.46%) Architect
7 140 (5.24%) .NET Developer
8 135 (5.05%) C# Developer
9 103 (3.85%) Senior Developer
10 97 (3.63%) Consultant
11 91 (3.41%) Systems Analyst
12 90 (3.37%) SQL Developer
13 87 (3.26%) Tester
14 81 (3.03%) C++ Developer
14 81 (3.03%) JavaScript Developer
15 80 (2.99%) Software Engineer
16 79 (2.96%) Agile Developer
17 69 (2.58%) C# .NET Developer
17 69 (2.58%) Test Analyst
18 62 (2.32%) Solutions Architect
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 400 (14.97%) .NET
2 307 (11.49%) Web Services
3 299 (11.19%) HTML
4 294 (11.00%) XML
5 214 (8.01%) CSS
6 183 (6.85%) Spring
7 159 (5.95%) AngularJS
8 141 (5.28%) REST
9 139 (5.20%) SOAP
10 130 (4.87%) HTML5
11 119 (4.45%) Hibernate
12 105 (3.93%) ASP.NET
13 102 (3.82%) jQuery
14 90 (3.37%) .NET Framework
15 77 (2.88%) J2EE
15 77 (2.88%) RESTful
16 73 (2.73%) Middleware
17 66 (2.47%) CSS3
18 63 (2.36%) Ajax
19 60 (2.25%) JMS
Miscellaneous
1 296 (11.08%) Analytical Skills
2 120 (4.49%) Computer Science
3 99 (3.71%) Fixed Income
4 87 (3.26%) User Experience
5 85 (3.18%) Management Information System
6 84 (3.14%) Equities
7 66 (2.47%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 54 (2.02%) Data Centre
8 54 (2.02%) Derivative
9 49 (1.83%) Data Structures
10 47 (1.76%) Enterprise Software
10 47 (1.76%) Mobile App
11 41 (1.53%) Fintech
12 39 (1.46%) Virtual Team
13 35 (1.31%) Client/Server
14 34 (1.27%) Equity Derivative
15 32 (1.20%) Reference Data
16 24 (0.90%) Market Risk
17 23 (0.86%) Algorithms
17 23 (0.86%) Credit Risk
Operating Systems
1 323 (12.09%) Linux
2 284 (10.63%) Windows
3 270 (10.10%) Unix
4 53 (1.98%) Windows Server
5 29 (1.09%) AIX
5 29 (1.09%) Android
6 27 (1.01%) Apple iOS
7 24 (0.90%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 18 (0.67%) Solaris
9 15 (0.56%) CentOS
10 13 (0.49%) Windows Server 2008
10 13 (0.49%) Windows Server 2012
11 8 (0.30%) Windows 10
11 8 (0.30%) Windows 7
12 7 (0.26%) Ubuntu
13 6 (0.22%) Windows Vista
14 4 (0.15%) Embedded Linux
14 4 (0.15%) SUSE
15 3 (0.11%) Windows Server 2003
15 3 (0.11%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 1439 (53.85%) Agile Software Development
2 483 (18.08%) Scrum
3 372 (13.92%) Project Management
4 343 (12.84%) Waterfall
5 331 (12.39%) TDD
6 281 (10.52%) Business Analysis
7 272 (10.18%) Stakeholder Management
8 259 (9.69%) Software Engineering
9 251 (9.39%) Continuous Integration
10 249 (9.32%) OO
11 190 (7.11%) ITIL
12 183 (6.85%) DevOps
13 182 (6.81%) BDD
14 171 (6.40%) SOA
15 167 (6.25%) Migration
16 165 (6.18%) PRINCE2
17 151 (5.65%) Configuration Management
18 148 (5.54%) Business Intelligence
19 137 (5.13%) MVC
20 136 (5.09%) User Acceptance Testing
Programming Languages
1 708 (26.50%) SQL
2 691 (25.86%) Java
3 442 (16.54%) JavaScript
4 387 (14.48%) C#
5 282 (10.55%) Python
6 193 (7.22%) C++
7 150 (5.61%) C
8 114 (4.27%) PL/SQL
9 111 (4.15%) Perl
10 84 (3.14%) T-SQL
11 83 (3.11%) Shell Script
12 64 (2.40%) PHP
13 59 (2.21%) Ruby
14 41 (1.53%) Bash Shell
14 41 (1.53%) VB
15 38 (1.42%) VB.NET
16 36 (1.35%) Scala
17 32 (1.20%) TypeScript
18 28 (1.05%) PowerShell
19 19 (0.71%) ES6
Qualifications
1 258 (9.66%) Degree
2 174 (6.51%) Security Cleared
3 113 (4.23%) ISEB
4 88 (3.29%) SC Cleared
5 79 (2.96%) ISTQB
6 56 (2.10%) DV Cleared
6 56 (2.10%) PMI Certification
7 47 (1.76%) PMP
8 44 (1.65%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 37 (1.38%) CISSP
10 23 (0.86%) PRINCE2 Practitioner
11 22 (0.82%) PRINCE2 Certification
12 15 (0.56%) BPSS Clearance
12 15 (0.56%) CLAS
13 14 (0.52%) Sun Certification
14 13 (0.49%) CISM
14 13 (0.49%) Microsoft Certification
15 11 (0.41%) ITIL Certification
16 9 (0.34%) CISA
17 8 (0.30%) IIBA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 299 (11.19%) QA
2 62 (2.32%) MiFID
3 44 (1.65%) Data Quality
4 42 (1.57%) PMO
5 29 (1.09%) SLA
6 21 (0.79%) EMIR
7 19 (0.71%) Dodd-Frank
7 19 (0.71%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 16 (0.60%) COBIT
9 14 (0.52%) PCI DSS
10 10 (0.37%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 9 (0.34%) Disclosure Scotland
11 9 (0.34%) FATCA
12 8 (0.30%) GDPR
12 8 (0.30%) SEPA
13 5 (0.19%) Basel II
13 5 (0.19%) JSP 440
14 4 (0.15%) ISO 9000
14 4 (0.15%) ISO20022
14 4 (0.15%) SDET
System Software
1 80 (2.99%) Docker
2 51 (1.91%) Active Directory
3 29 (1.09%) VMware Infrastructure
4 9 (0.34%) Virtual Machines
5 8 (0.30%) HDFS
6 7 (0.26%) vSphere
7 5 (0.19%) KVM
7 5 (0.19%) NFS
8 4 (0.15%) Apache Flume
8 4 (0.15%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 4 (0.15%) VMware ESX
8 4 (0.15%) Xen
9 3 (0.11%) Hyper-V
9 3 (0.11%) Samba
10 2 (0.075%) LXC
10 2 (0.075%) Microsoft App-V
10 2 (0.075%) Squid
10 2 (0.075%) Virtual Desktop
10 2 (0.075%) Virtual Servers
11 1 (0.037%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 68 (2.54%) Ansible
2 63 (2.36%) Puppet
3 44 (1.65%) Opscode Chef
4 27 (1.01%) HP Quality Center
5 16 (0.60%) SCCM
6 11 (0.41%) Nagios
7 9 (0.34%) Kibana
7 9 (0.34%) logstash
8 8 (0.30%) Salt
9 7 (0.26%) Kubernetes
9 7 (0.26%) Terraform
10 6 (0.22%) Graphite
10 6 (0.22%) Tivoli
11 5 (0.19%) Control-M
11 5 (0.19%) vRealize
12 4 (0.15%) Docker Swarm
12 4 (0.15%) Hadoop YARN
12 4 (0.15%) HAProxy
12 4 (0.15%) Packer
12 4 (0.15%) vMotion
Vendors
1 504 (18.86%) Oracle
2 309 (11.56%) Microsoft
3 92 (3.44%) SAP
4 62 (2.32%) ServiceNow
5 59 (2.21%) Sybase
6 57 (2.13%) Salesforce.com
7 44 (1.65%) HP
8 40 (1.50%) VMware
9 35 (1.31%) TIBCO
10 34 (1.27%) IBM
11 30 (1.12%) ION Trading
11 30 (1.12%) Red Hat
12 26 (0.97%) Google
13 22 (0.82%) Splunk
14 21 (0.79%) Adobe
14 21 (0.79%) Teradata
15 20 (0.75%) Informatica
16 19 (0.71%) Infor
17 18 (0.67%) AppDynamics
18 15 (0.56%) Sitecore
Bristol, Avon
Opus Recruitment Solutions Ltd
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: Yesterday
Manchester
Progressive Recruitment
Rate: £300 - £335 per annum + competitive
Posted: Yesterday
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Fruition IT Resources Limited
Rate: £250 - £300 per day
Posted: 16 hours ago
London
Mason Frank International
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: Yesterday
Belfast, County Antrim
HAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Rate: £381.00 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
IT Executive Ltd
Rate: £40000 - £55000 per annum
Posted: 18 hours ago
London
AMS contingency
Posted: Yesterday
North Yorkshire
Spring Technology
Posted: 18 hours ago
Redhill, Surrey
ARC IT Recruitment Ltd
Rate: £320 - £400 per day
Posted: 18 hours ago
West London
Michael Bailey Associates
Rate: Market Rates
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Testing Circle Ltd
Rate: £0.00 per annum
Posted: 12 hours ago
Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
Rullion
Posted: 2 days ago
Derbyshire
The People Network
Rate: £400 - £600 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
Belfast, County Antrim
McGregor Boyall
Rate: £450 - £475 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Reading, Berkshire
TEKsystems
Rate: £300 - £430 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
London
Cititec
Rate: £400 - £600 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire
The People Network
Rate: £400 - £600 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Cheshire
Harvey Nash plc
Posted: 3 days ago
Exeter, Devon
Reed Technology
Rate: £300 - £340 per day
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Complete Tech Limited
Rate: From £450 to £525 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Havant, Hampshire
Sopra Steria Recruitment
Posted: Yesterday
Edinburgh, Midlothian
Harvey Nash plc
Rate: Day rate only
Posted: 2 days ago
Leeds, West Yorkshire
Ventula Consulting Ltd
Rate: From £350 to £400 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
East London
Spencer Rose
Rate: From £593 to £600 per annum
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Eames Consulting
Posted: 2 days ago
City, London
Hatstand Limited
Rate: £400 - £550 per annum
Posted: 3 days ago
Bromley, Kent
TEKsystems
Rate: £500 - £600 per day
Posted: 3 days ago
Glasgow, Lanarkshire
FPSG Connect
Posted: 2 days ago
London
Hydrogen Group
Rate: £500.00 per day
Posted: 4 days ago
Norwich, Norfolk
Tec Partners
Rate: £250.00 - £400.00 per day
Posted: 2 days ago