CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 16 April 2024 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

6 months to
16 Apr 2024
Same period 2023 Same period 2022
Rank 107 92 61
Rank change year-on-year -15 -31 -6
Contract jobs citing CSS 903 1,640 3,407
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 2.06% 2.67% 3.79%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 10.10% 11.35% 13.91%
Number of daily rates quoted 629 1,187 2,507
10th Percentile £306 £325 £363
25th Percentile £400 £413 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £498 £500 £525
Median % change year-on-year -0.50% -4.76% +16.67%
75th Percentile £588 £608 £632
90th Percentile £703 £712 £713
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £450 £463
% change year-on-year - -2.70% +15.63%
Number of hourly rates quoted 23 23 48
10th Percentile £26.70 £21.25 £24.08
25th Percentile £37.63 £41.50 £37.95
Median hourly rate £46.18 £62.50 £55.25
Median % change year-on-year -26.11% +13.12% +31.55%
75th Percentile £63.75 £80.00 £67.40
90th Percentile £70.00 £85.00 £69.83
UK excluding London median hourly rate £60.00 £49.53 £55.00
% change year-on-year +21.15% -9.95% +41.03%

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 8,938 14,448 24,487
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 20.38% 23.52% 27.25%
Number of daily rates quoted 6,229 10,524 17,997
10th Percentile £338 £400 £400
25th Percentile £425 £463 £463
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £528 £550 £550
Median % change year-on-year -4.00% - +10.00%
75th Percentile £650 £676 £653
90th Percentile £763 £775 £750
UK excluding London median daily rate £500 £500 £500
% change year-on-year - - +17.65%
Number of hourly rates quoted 193 151 254
10th Percentile £20.48 £30.00 £21.30
25th Percentile £36.25 £45.00 £35.00
Median hourly rate £46.18 £65.00 £49.00
Median % change year-on-year -28.95% +32.65% +8.89%
75th Percentile £63.75 £75.00 £65.00
90th Percentile £75.00 £81.00 £75.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £46.18 £62.50 £49.00
% change year-on-year -26.11% +27.55% +8.89%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 16 April 2024.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 16 April 2024.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 16 April 2024. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -27 718 £500 - 950
London -4 425 £525 -4.55% 344
Work from Home -6 394 £494 +3.24% 472
UK excluding London -22 347 £450 - 669
South East +8 93 £388 -8.82% 116
Scotland +31 73 £482 +1.58% 53
North of England -49 63 £423 -6.11% 202
North West -20 43 £420 -11.58% 120
Midlands -22 37 £419 +0.30% 130
South West +9 35 £550 +13.40% 75
East of England +9 33 £477 +6.00% 68
Yorkshire -17 20 £425 -5.56% 64
East Midlands -12 19 £300 -23.57% 49
West Midlands +1 18 £425 - 80
Wales +8 7 £438 +2.94% 21
Northern Ireland +9 6 - - 12

CSS
Co-occurring Skills and Capabilities by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same employment type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 48 (5.32%) CMS
2 31 (3.43%) Confluence
3 30 (3.32%) SharePoint
4 23 (2.55%) nginx
5 18 (1.99%) WordPress
6 12 (1.33%) Headless CMS
7 10 (1.11%) Adobe Experience Manager
8 9 (1.00%) Drupal
9 8 (0.89%) IIS
9 8 (0.89%) Kentico
10 7 (0.78%) SharePoint 2010
10 7 (0.78%) SharePoint Server
11 6 (0.66%) Umbraco
12 5 (0.55%) Apache
13 4 (0.44%) Tomcat
14 3 (0.33%) Skype for Business
14 3 (0.33%) WebSphere
15 2 (0.22%) Cloud Foundry
15 2 (0.22%) Gunicorn
15 2 (0.22%) Moodle
Applications
1 17 (1.88%) Photoshop
2 15 (1.66%) Adobe Illustrator
3 14 (1.55%) Sketch
4 13 (1.44%) InVision
5 12 (1.33%) Microsoft Excel
6 11 (1.22%) Microsoft Office
7 9 (1.00%) Adobe XD
8 7 (0.78%) Adobe After Effects
9 6 (0.66%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 6 (0.66%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 3 (0.33%) InDesign
11 2 (0.22%) MS Visio
12 1 (0.11%) 3ds Max
12 1 (0.11%) Acrobat
12 1 (0.11%) Adobe Premiere
12 1 (0.11%) Avocode
12 1 (0.11%) Blender
12 1 (0.11%) Chatbot
12 1 (0.11%) Elementor
Business Applications
1 12 (1.33%) Shopify
2 9 (1.00%) Dynamics CRM
3 5 (0.55%) Salesforce CRM
4 4 (0.44%) Magento
5 3 (0.33%) Maximo
5 3 (0.33%) Payment Gateway
6 2 (0.22%) Adobe Campaign
6 2 (0.22%) NetSuite
6 2 (0.22%) Unica
6 2 (0.22%) WebTrends
7 1 (0.11%) SAP GRC
7 1 (0.11%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 162 (17.94%) AWS
2 156 (17.28%) Azure
3 49 (5.43%) Azure DevOps
4 43 (4.76%) GCP
4 43 (4.76%) GitHub
4 43 (4.76%) Power Platform
5 42 (4.65%) Figma
6 35 (3.88%) Power Automate
7 33 (3.65%) Serverless
8 27 (2.99%) Amazon S3
9 23 (2.55%) AWS Lambda
9 23 (2.55%) SaaS
10 22 (2.44%) AWS Elastic Beanstalk
10 22 (2.44%) PowerApps
11 20 (2.21%) Microsoft 365
12 19 (2.10%) Azure Cosmos DB
13 18 (1.99%) Dynamics 365
14 17 (1.88%) AWS CloudFormation
14 17 (1.88%) Azure Service Bus
15 15 (1.66%) GitHub Actions
Communications & Networking
1 24 (2.66%) HTTP
2 19 (2.10%) Firewall
3 17 (1.88%) VPN
4 16 (1.77%) Intranet
5 14 (1.55%) Software-Defined Radio
6 13 (1.44%) SNMP
7 7 (0.78%) DNS
8 6 (0.66%) TCP/IP
9 4 (0.44%) Internet
10 3 (0.33%) FTP
10 3 (0.33%) MQTT
10 3 (0.33%) Skype
11 2 (0.22%) 5G
11 2 (0.22%) RTP
12 1 (0.11%) Broadband
12 1 (0.11%) DHCP
12 1 (0.11%) HTTPS
12 1 (0.11%) Network Security
12 1 (0.11%) VLAN
12 1 (0.11%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 83 (9.19%) SQL Server
2 58 (6.42%) PostgreSQL
3 53 (5.87%) MySQL
4 42 (4.65%) MongoDB
5 33 (3.65%) Relational Database
6 29 (3.21%) NoSQL
7 23 (2.55%) Power BI
8 20 (2.21%) Amazon Aurora
9 18 (1.99%) Oracle Database
10 13 (1.44%) Elasticsearch
11 11 (1.22%) Metadata
12 10 (1.11%) BigQuery
13 8 (0.89%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 7 (0.78%) MariaDB
14 7 (0.78%) PowerPivot
15 6 (0.66%) Microsoft Power View
16 5 (0.55%) Amazon RDS
16 5 (0.55%) BusinessObjects
16 5 (0.55%) Looker
16 5 (0.55%) Tableau
Development Applications
1 165 (18.27%) Git
2 67 (7.42%) JIRA
3 48 (5.32%) Jenkins
4 31 (3.43%) Cypress.io
5 28 (3.10%) webpack
6 25 (2.77%) Bitbucket
7 18 (1.99%) Visual Studio Code
8 17 (1.88%) TeamCity
9 16 (1.77%) Robot Framework
10 15 (1.66%) Eclipse
11 14 (1.55%) GitLab
11 14 (1.55%) Selenium
12 13 (1.44%) GoogleTest
12 13 (1.44%) Storybook
13 11 (1.22%) git-flow
13 11 (1.22%) Postman
14 7 (0.78%) Maven
14 7 (0.78%) SonarQube
14 7 (0.78%) Visual Studio
15 6 (0.66%) IntelliJ
General
1 195 (21.59%) Social Skills
2 134 (14.84%) Finance
3 98 (10.85%) Analytical Skills
4 86 (9.52%) Public Sector
5 80 (8.86%) Marketing
6 61 (6.76%) Banking
7 24 (2.66%) Front Office
8 19 (2.10%) Presentation Skills
8 19 (2.10%) Retail
9 18 (1.99%) Publishing
10 17 (1.88%) Investment Banking
11 13 (1.44%) Inclusion and Diversity
11 13 (1.44%) Telecoms
12 11 (1.22%) Advertising
13 10 (1.11%) Back Office
14 8 (0.89%) Influencing Skills
14 8 (0.89%) Manufacturing
15 7 (0.78%) Automotive
15 7 (0.78%) Games
16 6 (0.66%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 591 (65.45%) Developer
2 133 (14.73%) Full Stack Developer
3 118 (13.07%) Front-End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 109 (12.07%) Senior
5 84 (9.30%) React Developer
6 62 (6.87%) Senior Developer
7 51 (5.65%) Designer
8 46 (5.09%) Lead
9 44 (4.87%) Software Engineer
10 41 (4.54%) Java Developer
11 39 (4.32%) .NET Developer
12 38 (4.21%) Full Stack Engineer
12 38 (4.21%) JavaScript Developer
13 35 (3.88%) Software Developer
13 35 (3.88%) UI Developer
14 26 (2.88%) Python Developer
14 26 (2.88%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 25 (2.77%) Java Engineer
16 24 (2.66%) JavaScript Engineer
17 23 (2.55%) HTML Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 788 (87.26%) HTML
2 347 (38.43%) React
3 191 (21.15%) Node.js
4 157 (17.39%) AngularJS
5 149 (16.50%) REST
6 137 (15.17%) .NET
7 114 (12.62%) HTML5
8 80 (8.86%) CSS3
9 78 (8.64%) Sass
10 70 (7.75%) jQuery
11 64 (7.09%) Vue
11 64 (7.09%) Web Services
12 61 (6.76%) ASP.NET
13 60 (6.64%) Spring
14 54 (5.98%) RESTful
15 49 (5.43%) JSON
16 47 (5.20%) Laravel
17 45 (4.98%) Redux
18 44 (4.87%) Spring Boot
19 43 (4.76%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 38 (4.21%) Product Ownership
2 26 (2.88%) Mobile App
3 24 (2.66%) Fixed Income
3 24 (2.66%) Greenfield Project
4 20 (2.21%) Legacy Systems
4 20 (2.21%) Self-Motivation
5 19 (2.10%) Algorithms
5 19 (2.10%) Data Structures
6 17 (1.88%) Management Information System
7 16 (1.77%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 14 (1.55%) Public Cloud
9 13 (1.44%) Enterprise Software
9 13 (1.44%) Marketing Technology
10 11 (1.22%) Derivative
10 11 (1.22%) Hedge funds
11 10 (1.11%) Cloud Native
12 9 (1.00%) Animation
12 9 (1.00%) CMDB
13 8 (0.89%) Distributed Systems
14 7 (0.78%) Data Protection Act
Operating Systems
1 69 (7.64%) Linux
2 37 (4.10%) Unix
3 23 (2.55%) Windows
4 19 (2.10%) Android
4 19 (2.10%) Apple iOS
5 7 (0.78%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
5 7 (0.78%) Windows Server
6 4 (0.44%) CentOS
6 4 (0.44%) Windows Server 2016
6 4 (0.44%) Windows Server 2019
7 1 (0.11%) Mac OS X
7 1 (0.11%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 323 (35.77%) Agile
2 233 (25.80%) Full Stack Development
3 179 (19.82%) Front End Development
4 167 (18.49%) User Experience
5 156 (17.28%) Problem-Solving
6 149 (16.50%) Web Development
7 132 (14.62%) DevOps
8 130 (14.40%) CI/CD
9 120 (13.29%) Software Engineering
10 107 (11.85%) TDD
11 89 (9.86%) Microservices
11 89 (9.86%) MVC
11 89 (9.86%) Test Automation
12 76 (8.42%) Scrum
13 71 (7.86%) UX Design
14 69 (7.64%) Computer Science
15 64 (7.09%) Prototyping
16 59 (6.53%) SDLC
17 55 (6.09%) Unit Testing
18 53 (5.87%) Design Patterns
Programming Languages
1 666 (73.75%) JavaScript
2 263 (29.13%) TypeScript
3 175 (19.38%) Java
4 162 (17.94%) SQL
5 136 (15.06%) C#
6 115 (12.74%) Python
7 86 (9.52%) PHP
8 33 (3.65%) PowerShell
9 20 (2.21%) Bash
9 20 (2.21%) C++
10 18 (1.99%) Shell Script
11 12 (1.33%) Apex Code
12 11 (1.22%) Bicep
12 11 (1.22%) Ruby
13 9 (1.00%) T-SQL
14 8 (0.89%) Kotlin
14 8 (0.89%) PL/SQL
15 7 (0.78%) C
16 6 (0.66%) Go
17 5 (0.55%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 100 (11.07%) Security Cleared
2 99 (10.96%) Degree
3 81 (8.97%) SC Cleared
4 47 (5.20%) Computer Science Degree
5 11 (1.22%) Master's Degree
6 10 (1.11%) BPSS Clearance
6 10 (1.11%) DV Cleared
7 7 (0.78%) ITIL Certification
8 6 (0.66%) CTC Cleared
9 4 (0.44%) Azure Certification
9 4 (0.44%) Numerate Degree
9 4 (0.44%) PMP
9 4 (0.44%) RHCE
9 4 (0.44%) RHCSA
10 3 (0.33%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.33%) Microsoft Certification
11 2 (0.22%) DBS Check
11 2 (0.22%) MCSD
11 2 (0.22%) MCSE
12 1 (0.11%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 101 (11.18%) Accessibility
2 41 (4.54%) QA
3 24 (2.66%) WCAG
4 10 (1.11%) GDPR
5 9 (1.00%) Data Quality
6 7 (0.78%) Disclosure Scotland
7 4 (0.44%) GRC
7 4 (0.44%) GxP
8 3 (0.33%) HIPAA
8 3 (0.33%) NIST
8 3 (0.33%) SLA
9 1 (0.11%) HL7
9 1 (0.11%) ISO 20022
9 1 (0.11%) MiFID
System Software
1 44 (4.87%) Docker
2 20 (2.21%) Active Directory
3 15 (1.66%) Firmware
4 9 (1.00%) VMware Infrastructure
5 3 (0.33%) Hyper-V
6 2 (0.22%) NFS
6 2 (0.22%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 34 (3.77%) Kubernetes
2 21 (2.33%) Terraform
3 14 (1.55%) Grafana
4 13 (1.44%) Kibana
4 13 (1.44%) Single Sign-On
5 7 (0.78%) Ansible
6 4 (0.44%) logstash
6 4 (0.44%) Puppet
7 3 (0.33%) Netcool
7 3 (0.33%) PingFederate
8 2 (0.22%) Active Directory Federation Services
8 2 (0.22%) systemd
9 1 (0.11%) Progress Chef
9 1 (0.11%) Prometheus
9 1 (0.11%) RSA Archer
Vendors
1 87 (9.63%) Microsoft
2 48 (5.32%) Adobe
3 46 (5.09%) Google
4 38 (4.21%) Oracle
5 32 (3.54%) ServiceNow
6 27 (2.99%) Salesforce
7 22 (2.44%) SAP
8 21 (2.33%) Atlassian
9 14 (1.55%) Optimizely
10 13 (1.44%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
11 12 (1.33%) Red Hat
12 9 (1.00%) VMware
13 6 (0.66%) dotdigital
13 6 (0.66%) Xamarin
14 5 (0.55%) Blue Prism
14 5 (0.55%) Ensighten
14 5 (0.55%) Monetate
14 5 (0.55%) Tealium
14 5 (0.55%) UiPath
14 5 (0.55%) WooCommerce