Period
to 16 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for CSS3 skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS3 over the 6 months to 16 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS 3
UK
6 months to
16 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 360 255 194
Rank change year-on-year -105 -61 -73
Contract jobs citing CSS3 596 286 1,219
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 0.72% 0.93% 1.43%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 2.41% 2.97% 4.60%
Number of daily rates quoted 420 201 828
10th Percentile £350 £313 £313
25th Percentile £400 £369 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £489 £475 £450
Median % change year-on-year +2.89% +5.56% +5.88%
75th Percentile £591 £538 £525
90th Percentile £700 £563 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £408 £400
% change year-on-year -1.84% +1.88% +2.83%
Number of hourly rates quoted 6 0 18
10th Percentile £17.01 " £17.90
25th Percentile £32.14 " £34.00
Median hourly rate £62.15 - £50.00
75th Percentile £69.45 " £105.31
90th Percentile £70.05 " £122.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £56.50 - £34.00

CSS3 is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 24,775 9,638 26,524
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 29.79% 31.21% 31.13%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,785 6,821 18,645
10th Percentile £363 £313 £338
25th Percentile £425 £400 £406
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £495 £500
Median % change year-on-year +6.06% -1.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £625 £588 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £475 £450 £445
% change year-on-year +5.56% +1.12% +4.71%
Number of hourly rates quoted 234 73 248
10th Percentile £17.79 £21.90 £20.15
25th Percentile £28.43 £30.00 £32.78
Median hourly rate £49.00 £42.00 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +16.67% -6.67% +8.36%
75th Percentile £63.44 £54.00 £53.00
90th Percentile £73.19 £61.87 £73.23
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.00 £46.40 £45.00
% change year-on-year +5.60% +3.11% +8.43%

CSS3
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS3 as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS3 in the UK

CSS3
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS3.

Daily rate trend for CSS3 in the UK

CSS3
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS3 over the 6 months to 16 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS3 in the UK

CSS3
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS3.

Hourly rate trend for CSS3 in the UK

CSS3
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS3 over the 6 months to 16 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS3 in the UK

CSS3
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS3 within the UK over the 6 months to 16 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -82 490 £475 -5.00% 381
London -75 327 £519 -0.24% 144
Work from Home -129 178 £475 +1.33% 96
UK excluding London -117 153 £400 -1.84% 265
South East -73 47 £493 +51.54% 46
North of England -71 38 £400 -2.44% 89
South West -25 26 £400 -13.51% 28
North West -41 22 £391 -7.94% 47
East of England -31 18 £475 +58.33% 34
Yorkshire -42 16 £425 +3.03% 33
Midlands -86 10 £325 -29.73% 39
Scotland -76 9 £450 - 15
West Midlands -70 8 £325 -7.14% 26
Northern Ireland -4 4 £473 +9.68% 3
Wales -25 2 £475 +2.70% 11
East Midlands -40 2 £375 -27.88% 13

For the 6 months to 16 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS3 also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for CSS3.

1 596 (100.00%) CSS
2 560 (93.96%) HTML
3 535 (89.77%) HTML5
4 510 (85.57%) JavaScript
5 286 (47.99%) React
6 267 (44.80%) Agile Software Development
7 224 (37.58%) AngularJS
8 215 (36.07%) Front End Development
9 188 (31.54%) TypeScript
10 186 (31.21%) Git (software)
11 183 (30.70%) Sass
12 167 (28.02%) Node.js
13 156 (26.17%) DevOps
14 154 (25.84%) Full Stack Development
15 137 (22.99%) Azure
16 130 (21.81%) Java
16 130 (21.81%) Accessibility
17 125 (20.97%) Web Development
18 113 (18.96%) AWS
19 111 (18.62%) TDD
19 111 (18.62%) Social Skills
20 104 (17.45%) ES6
21 103 (17.28%) Docker
22 101 (16.95%) Scrum
22 101 (16.95%) Python
23 99 (16.61%) Problem-Solving
24 98 (16.44%) Web Services
25 97 (16.28%) User Experience
26 95 (15.94%) jQuery
27 93 (15.60%) Finance

CSS3
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 49 (8.22%) CMS
2 27 (4.53%) Adobe Experience Manager
2 27 (4.53%) Confluence
3 18 (3.02%) Apache
3 18 (3.02%) WordPress
4 14 (2.35%) Drupal
5 11 (1.85%) nginx
6 8 (1.34%) IBM Domino
7 7 (1.17%) SharePoint
8 6 (1.01%) Apache Spark
9 5 (0.84%) Apache Solr
10 4 (0.67%) Elasticsearch
10 4 (0.67%) Headless CMS
10 4 (0.67%) LiveCycle
11 2 (0.34%) Cloud Foundry
11 2 (0.34%) Magnolia
11 2 (0.34%) Umbraco
12 1 (0.17%) Apache ServiceMix
12 1 (0.17%) Mule
12 1 (0.17%) Sitecore CMS
Applications
1 13 (2.18%) Adobe Creative Suite
1 13 (2.18%) Photoshop
2 11 (1.85%) Sketch
3 10 (1.68%) InVision
4 5 (0.84%) Adobe Illustrator
4 5 (0.84%) Adobe XD
5 3 (0.50%) GIMP
5 3 (0.50%) InDesign
6 2 (0.34%) Figma
6 2 (0.34%) Microsoft Office
7 1 (0.17%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 24 (4.03%) Magento
2 14 (2.35%) Shopify
3 2 (0.34%) Dynamics CRM
3 2 (0.34%) Payment Gateway
3 2 (0.34%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 137 (22.99%) Azure
2 113 (18.96%) AWS
3 82 (13.76%) GitHub
4 59 (9.90%) npm
5 13 (2.18%) AWS CloudFormation
6 11 (1.85%) GitHub Actions
7 10 (1.68%) Cloud Computing
8 8 (1.34%) Serverless
8 8 (1.34%) Yarn
9 7 (1.17%) Amazon S3
10 5 (0.84%) SaaS
10 5 (0.84%) Siteimprove
11 4 (0.67%) Adobe Creative Cloud
11 4 (0.67%) Google Analytics
11 4 (0.67%) Trello
12 3 (0.50%) Amazon EC2
12 3 (0.50%) AWS Fargate
12 3 (0.50%) CloudFront
12 3 (0.50%) Google Workspace
12 3 (0.50%) Power Platform
Communications & Networking
1 16 (2.68%) Internet
2 14 (2.35%) HTTP
3 6 (1.01%) DNS
4 5 (0.84%) Kerberos
5 4 (0.67%) SSL
5 4 (0.67%) TCP/IP
6 3 (0.50%) FTP
7 2 (0.34%) X.500
8 1 (0.17%) Broadband
8 1 (0.17%) Intranet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 63 (10.57%) SQL Server
2 37 (6.21%) MySQL
3 15 (2.52%) PostgreSQL
3 15 (2.52%) Relational Database
4 12 (2.01%) NoSQL
4 12 (2.01%) RDBMS
5 10 (1.68%) MongoDB
6 8 (1.34%) MariaDB
6 8 (1.34%) Redis
7 7 (1.17%) SQL Server Analysis Services
8 6 (1.01%) Big Data
8 6 (1.01%) Riak
9 5 (0.84%) Data Warehouse
9 5 (0.84%) Sybase ASE
10 4 (0.67%) Spotfire
11 3 (0.50%) Amazon RDS
11 3 (0.50%) SQL Server 2017
11 3 (0.50%) Tableau
12 2 (0.34%) Apache Hive
12 2 (0.34%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 186 (31.21%) Git (software)
2 70 (11.74%) Jenkins
3 66 (11.07%) webpack
4 41 (6.88%) JIRA
5 36 (6.04%) Grunt
6 32 (5.37%) gulp
6 32 (5.37%) Maven
7 29 (4.87%) JUnit
8 27 (4.53%) Jasmine
9 26 (4.36%) Bitbucket
10 25 (4.19%) Cucumber
11 24 (4.03%) Cypress.io
11 24 (4.03%) Subversion
12 23 (3.86%) Selenium
13 21 (3.52%) Mockito
14 20 (3.36%) Bower
14 20 (3.36%) Karma Test Runner
15 16 (2.68%) GitLab
15 16 (2.68%) Protractor
16 15 (2.52%) Babel
General
1 111 (18.62%) Social Skills
2 93 (15.60%) Finance
3 45 (7.55%) Analytical Skills
4 36 (6.04%) Banking
5 34 (5.70%) Marketing
6 27 (4.53%) Presentation Skills
7 24 (4.03%) Public Sector
8 22 (3.69%) Retail
9 12 (2.01%) Games
10 9 (1.51%) Publishing
11 8 (1.34%) Investment Banking
11 8 (1.34%) Law
11 8 (1.34%) Organisational Skills
11 8 (1.34%) Telecoms
12 6 (1.01%) Manufacturing
13 4 (0.67%) Advertising
13 4 (0.67%) Aerospace
13 4 (0.67%) Influencing Skills
13 4 (0.67%) Multimedia
14 3 (0.50%) Legal
Job Titles
1 461 (77.35%) Developer
2 157 (26.34%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 77 (12.92%) React Developer
4 71 (11.91%) Full Stack Developer
5 64 (10.74%) Senior Developer
6 52 (8.72%) Angular Developer
7 37 (6.21%) UI Developer
8 33 (5.54%) JavaScript Developer
9 32 (5.37%) Python Developer
10 31 (5.20%) Senior Front-End Developer
11 30 (5.03%) PHP Developer
12 29 (4.87%) .NET Developer
13 24 (4.03%) Backend Developer
13 24 (4.03%) Web Developer
14 21 (3.52%) Java Developer
15 20 (3.36%) Software Developer
16 18 (3.02%) Software Engineer
17 16 (2.68%) Lead Developer
17 16 (2.68%) Senior React Developer
18 14 (2.35%) C# Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 596 (100.00%) CSS
2 560 (93.96%) HTML
3 535 (89.77%) HTML5
4 286 (47.99%) React
5 224 (37.58%) AngularJS
6 183 (30.70%) Sass
7 167 (28.02%) Node.js
8 98 (16.44%) Web Services
9 95 (15.94%) jQuery
10 89 (14.93%) .NET
11 88 (14.77%) Redux
12 80 (13.42%) RESTful
13 74 (12.42%) REST
13 74 (12.42%) Vue.js
14 67 (11.24%) LESS
15 58 (9.73%) Spring
16 54 (9.06%) JSON
17 51 (8.56%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 49 (8.22%) Jest
19 47 (7.89%) Laravel
Miscellaneous
1 97 (16.28%) User Experience
2 27 (4.53%) Enterprise Software
3 25 (4.19%) Mobile App
4 17 (2.85%) Social Media
5 12 (2.01%) W3C
6 10 (1.68%) Data Structures
7 9 (1.51%) Algorithms
7 9 (1.51%) Greenfield Project
7 9 (1.51%) Market Risk
7 9 (1.51%) Virtual Team
8 7 (1.17%) N-Tier
9 6 (1.01%) iPad
9 6 (1.01%) NHS
10 5 (0.84%) Public Cloud
11 4 (0.67%) Cloud Native
11 4 (0.67%) Self-Motivation
12 3 (0.50%) Credit Risk
12 3 (0.50%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 3 (0.50%) Taxonomies
12 3 (0.50%) Vector Graphics
Operating Systems
1 45 (7.55%) Linux
2 13 (2.18%) Windows
3 8 (1.34%) Unix
4 3 (0.50%) Android
4 3 (0.50%) Apple iOS
4 3 (0.50%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4 3 (0.50%) Windows Server
5 1 (0.17%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 267 (44.80%) Agile Software Development
2 215 (36.07%) Front End Development
3 156 (26.17%) DevOps
4 154 (25.84%) Full Stack Development
5 125 (20.97%) Web Development
6 111 (18.62%) TDD
7 101 (16.95%) Scrum
8 99 (16.61%) Problem-Solving
9 73 (12.25%) MVC
10 71 (11.91%) Microservices
11 64 (10.74%) Software Engineering
12 63 (10.57%) E-Commerce
12 63 (10.57%) Test Automation
13 62 (10.40%) Unit Testing
14 49 (8.22%) Continuous Integration
15 42 (7.05%) BDD
16 41 (6.88%) Event-Driven
16 41 (6.88%) Mentoring
17 40 (6.71%) Analytics
17 40 (6.71%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 510 (85.57%) JavaScript
2 188 (31.54%) TypeScript
3 130 (21.81%) Java
4 104 (17.45%) ES6
5 101 (16.95%) Python
6 90 (15.10%) PHP
7 84 (14.09%) C#
8 57 (9.56%) SQL
9 25 (4.19%) Java 8
10 23 (3.86%) Scala
11 18 (3.02%) Java 11
12 15 (2.52%) ES7
12 15 (2.52%) Kotlin
13 9 (1.51%) R
14 7 (1.17%) Go
14 7 (1.17%) PowerShell
15 6 (1.01%) VB.NET
16 5 (0.84%) Bash Shell
17 4 (0.67%) T-SQL
17 4 (0.67%) VB
Qualifications
1 30 (5.03%) Degree
2 27 (4.53%) Security Cleared
3 12 (2.01%) SC Cleared
4 11 (1.85%) Computer Science Degree
5 10 (1.68%) Master's Degree
6 5 (0.84%) BPSS Clearance
7 1 (0.17%) DV Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 130 (21.81%) Accessibility
2 21 (3.52%) WCAG
3 10 (1.68%) QA
4 4 (0.67%) Data Quality
5 2 (0.34%) HL7
5 2 (0.34%) WAI
6 1 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
6 1 (0.17%) GDPR
6 1 (0.17%) Section 508
6 1 (0.17%) SLA
System Software
1 103 (17.28%) Docker
2 8 (1.34%) Active Directory
3 4 (0.67%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.17%) Apache Flume
4 1 (0.17%) HDFS
4 1 (0.17%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.17%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 34 (5.70%) Kubernetes
2 13 (2.18%) Ansible
3 12 (2.01%) Terraform
4 6 (1.01%) Opscode Chef
4 6 (1.01%) Puppet
5 4 (0.67%) Grafana
5 4 (0.67%) Kibana
6 3 (0.50%) Kubeflow
6 3 (0.50%) Single Sign-On
7 2 (0.34%) Nagios
7 2 (0.34%) Prometheus
8 1 (0.17%) MIIS
Vendors
1 50 (8.39%) Adobe
2 37 (6.21%) Microsoft
3 26 (4.36%) Oracle
4 15 (2.52%) hybris
5 8 (1.34%) Xerox
6 6 (1.01%) Atlassian
6 6 (1.01%) Google
6 6 (1.01%) Salesforce.com
6 6 (1.01%) SaltStack
7 5 (0.84%) Sybase
8 4 (0.67%) SAP
9 3 (0.50%) Demandware
9 3 (0.50%) Sitecore
9 3 (0.50%) Splunk
10 2 (0.34%) Coveo
10 2 (0.34%) MuleSoft
10 2 (0.34%) WooCommerce
10 2 (0.34%) Xamarin
11 1 (0.17%) Databricks
11 1 (0.17%) WorldPay