CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK

The table below provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies requiring CSS skills. It includes a benchmarking guide to the annual salaries offered in vacancies that cited CSS over the 6 months leading up to 12 June 2024, comparing them to the same period in the previous two years.

6 months to
12 Jun 2024
Same period 2023 Same period 2022
Rank 55 49 35
Rank change year-on-year -6 -14 -12
Permanent jobs citing CSS 4,339 5,216 14,969
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.95% 5.64% 8.66%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 19.66% 19.40% 21.03%
Number of salaries quoted 2,909 3,097 5,920
10th Percentile £31,250 £36,250 £32,500
25th Percentile £38,750 £44,000 £40,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £55,414 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year -5.26% +0.75% +10.00%
75th Percentile £67,500 £76,250 £70,250
90th Percentile £80,000 £92,500 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £52,500 £50,000
% change year-on-year -4.76% +5.00% +11.11%

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK

CSS falls under the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. For comparison with the information above, the following table provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies requiring technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 22,074 26,882 71,165
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 20.09% 29.07% 41.19%
Number of salaries quoted 16,295 17,588 29,917
10th Percentile £36,250 £40,500 £37,750
25th Percentile £45,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £67,500 £65,000
Median % change year-on-year -11.11% +3.85% +18.18%
75th Percentile £78,750 £87,500 £82,500
90th Percentile £100,000 £106,250 £100,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £57,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year -4.35% +4.55% +10.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 12 June 2024.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 12 June 2024. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -6 3,619 £52,500 -8.70% 963
UK excluding London -6 3,399 £50,000 -4.76% 747
Work from Home +2 1,746 £52,500 -4.55% 518
North of England -3 826 £47,500 -9.52% 227
London -36 786 £70,000 - 268
South East -15 767 £55,000 +4.76% 152
North West -10 542 £50,000 -4.76% 129
Midlands -6 494 £45,000 -18.18% 139
South West +23 451 £50,000 - 83
Scotland +2 392 £60,000 +14.29% 43
East of England +7 292 £49,020 -1.96% 83
East Midlands +21 250 £45,000 - 64
West Midlands -26 239 £47,500 -13.64% 75
Yorkshire -3 221 £45,000 -14.29% 65
Wales +12 109 £50,000 +11.11% 18
Northern Ireland +19 68 £45,000 -14.29% 21
North East -8 63 £42,500 -22.73% 33

CSS
Co-occurring Skills and Capabilities by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same employment type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 294 (6.78%) ArcGIS
2 282 (6.50%) GeoServer
3 253 (5.83%) WordPress
4 251 (5.78%) CMS
5 88 (2.03%) SharePoint
6 76 (1.75%) IIS
7 54 (1.24%) Drupal
8 53 (1.22%) FileNet
9 44 (1.01%) Umbraco
10 42 (0.97%) Apache
11 36 (0.83%) nginx
12 25 (0.58%) SAS
13 20 (0.46%) Cloud Foundry
14 18 (0.41%) Confluence
15 15 (0.35%) Apache Solr
16 11 (0.25%) Headless CMS
17 10 (0.23%) Microsoft Exchange
18 9 (0.21%) Sitecore CMS
19 7 (0.16%) Joomla!
20 6 (0.14%) JBoss
Applications
1 65 (1.50%) Photoshop
2 54 (1.24%) Adobe XD
3 37 (0.85%) Microsoft Excel
4 33 (0.76%) Adobe Illustrator
4 33 (0.76%) Microsoft Office
5 30 (0.69%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 30 (0.69%) Sketch
6 15 (0.35%) InVision
7 9 (0.21%) Trello
8 7 (0.16%) Adobe After Effects
9 6 (0.14%) Acrobat
9 6 (0.14%) InDesign
9 6 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 4 (0.092%) Adobe Premiere
10 4 (0.092%) MadCap Flare
10 4 (0.092%) RoboHelp
10 4 (0.092%) SPSS
11 3 (0.069%) Final Cut Pro
11 3 (0.069%) Spreadsheet
11 3 (0.069%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 78 (1.80%) Magento
2 57 (1.31%) Shopify
3 39 (0.90%) Dynamics CRM
4 38 (0.88%) SDL Web 8
5 22 (0.51%) Payment Gateway
6 20 (0.46%) Remedy ITSM
7 13 (0.30%) Salesforce CRM
8 6 (0.14%) SAP PLM
8 6 (0.14%) Teamcenter
9 5 (0.12%) NetSuite
10 3 (0.069%) Maximo
10 3 (0.069%) Sage 200
10 3 (0.069%) SAP Business One
11 2 (0.046%) CiviCRM
11 2 (0.046%) nopCommerce
11 2 (0.046%) SAP GRC
12 1 (0.023%) Sage 50
12 1 (0.023%) Towers Watson Igloo
12 1 (0.023%) Visualfiles
Cloud Services
1 1,591 (36.67%) Azure
2 885 (20.40%) AWS
3 411 (9.47%) Azure DevOps
4 245 (5.65%) IBM Cloud
5 207 (4.77%) Serverless
6 177 (4.08%) GitHub
7 166 (3.83%) SaaS
8 156 (3.60%) Azure Functions
8 156 (3.60%) Azure Service Bus
9 144 (3.32%) Azure Logic Apps
10 141 (3.25%) Power Platform
11 126 (2.90%) Azure API Management
12 95 (2.19%) GCP
13 93 (2.14%) Figma
14 85 (1.96%) Amazon S3
15 67 (1.54%) Power Automate
16 58 (1.34%) Dynamics 365
16 58 (1.34%) Google Analytics
17 56 (1.29%) PowerApps
18 53 (1.22%) Microsoft 365
Communications & Networking
1 81 (1.87%) Internet
2 58 (1.34%) HTTP
3 55 (1.27%) TCP/IP
4 50 (1.15%) DNS
5 39 (0.90%) SSL
6 22 (0.51%) Firewall
6 22 (0.51%) MQTT
7 18 (0.41%) Network Security
7 18 (0.41%) SSH
8 16 (0.37%) SNMP
9 14 (0.32%) VPN
10 12 (0.28%) Modbus
11 8 (0.18%) Intranet
12 7 (0.16%) FTP
13 6 (0.14%) OpenVPN
13 6 (0.14%) Wi-Fi
14 5 (0.12%) Reverse Proxy
14 5 (0.12%) VoIP
15 4 (0.092%) Broadband
15 4 (0.092%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 858 (19.77%) SQL Server
2 713 (16.43%) PostgreSQL
3 526 (12.12%) MySQL
4 420 (9.68%) NoSQL
5 333 (7.67%) Relational Database
6 332 (7.65%) MongoDB
7 315 (7.26%) GIS
8 282 (6.50%) QGIS
9 241 (5.55%) DB2
10 190 (4.38%) Azure SQL Database
11 107 (2.47%) Elasticsearch
12 89 (2.05%) Power BI
13 55 (1.27%) Apache Cassandra
14 42 (0.97%) Tableau
15 40 (0.92%) Redis
16 26 (0.60%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 23 (0.53%) SQL Server Integration Services
18 22 (0.51%) Geospatial Data
19 20 (0.46%) DynamoDB
20 19 (0.44%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 848 (19.54%) Git
2 214 (4.93%) JIRA
3 177 (4.08%) Visual Studio
4 151 (3.48%) JUnit
5 139 (3.20%) Cypress.io
6 109 (2.51%) Selenium
7 86 (1.98%) Jasmine
8 73 (1.68%) GitLab
9 71 (1.64%) Karma Test Runner
10 65 (1.50%) Jenkins
11 64 (1.47%) WebDriver
11 64 (1.47%) webpack
12 63 (1.45%) Protractor
13 60 (1.38%) Bitbucket
14 57 (1.31%) TeamCity
15 56 (1.29%) Moq
16 55 (1.27%) NUnit
17 49 (1.13%) Team Foundation Server
18 47 (1.08%) gulp
19 43 (0.99%) Visual Studio Code
General
1 860 (19.82%) Social Skills
2 559 (12.88%) Finance
3 452 (10.42%) Marketing
4 451 (10.39%) Inclusion and Diversity
5 350 (8.07%) Public Sector
6 293 (6.75%) Law
7 180 (4.15%) Analytical Skills
8 177 (4.08%) Banking
9 176 (4.06%) Retail
10 113 (2.60%) Legal
11 95 (2.19%) Investment Banking
12 84 (1.94%) Advertising
13 62 (1.43%) Games
14 48 (1.11%) Manufacturing
15 43 (0.99%) Organisational Skills
16 42 (0.97%) Multimedia
17 41 (0.94%) Telecoms
18 28 (0.65%) Electronics
18 28 (0.65%) Publishing
19 27 (0.62%) Tech for Good
Job Titles
1 2,806 (64.67%) Developer
2 961 (22.15%) Senior
3 695 (16.02%) Software Engineer
4 575 (13.25%) .NET Developer
5 554 (12.77%) Full Stack Developer
6 543 (12.51%) Senior Developer
7 344 (7.93%) Lead
8 316 (7.28%) PHP Developer
9 314 (7.24%) Front-End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 304 (7.01%) Software Developer
11 280 (6.45%) C# Developer
12 279 (6.43%) Senior Software Engineer
13 272 (6.27%) Web Developer
14 251 (5.78%) Full Stack Engineer
15 184 (4.24%) C# .NET Developer
16 178 (4.10%) Azure Developer
17 139 (3.20%) React Developer
18 125 (2.88%) Lead Software Engineer
19 124 (2.86%) Lead Developer
20 112 (2.58%) Azure Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,730 (85.96%) HTML
2 1,911 (44.04%) .NET
3 1,793 (41.32%) React
4 1,117 (25.74%) AngularJS
5 975 (22.47%) jQuery
6 942 (21.71%) ASP.NET
7 851 (19.61%) HTML5
8 832 (19.17%) .NET Core
9 739 (17.03%) Vue
10 663 (15.28%) Twitter Bootstrap
11 633 (14.59%) CSS3
12 624 (14.38%) Node.js
13 592 (13.64%) Web Services
14 576 (13.27%) REST
15 453 (10.44%) Entity Framework
16 423 (9.75%) .NET Framework
17 420 (9.68%) RESTful
18 382 (8.80%) Laravel
19 378 (8.71%) ASP.NET MVC
20 376 (8.67%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 370 (8.53%) Data Structures
2 348 (8.02%) Algorithms
3 251 (5.78%) Blockchain
4 245 (5.65%) Hybrid Cloud
5 188 (4.33%) Greenfield Project
6 141 (3.25%) Mobile App
7 139 (3.20%) Self-Motivation
8 134 (3.09%) Cloud Native
9 123 (2.83%) e-Learning
10 112 (2.58%) Product Ownership
11 65 (1.50%) Onboarding
12 58 (1.34%) CMDB
13 53 (1.22%) Legacy Systems
14 52 (1.20%) Legacy Code
15 43 (0.99%) IoT
15 43 (0.99%) Social Media
16 40 (0.92%) Virtual Team
17 39 (0.90%) Graphic Design
17 39 (0.90%) Management Information System
18 34 (0.78%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 475 (10.95%) Linux
2 403 (9.29%) Windows
3 293 (6.75%) Android
4 283 (6.52%) Apple iOS
5 24 (0.55%) Unix
6 12 (0.28%) Ubuntu
6 12 (0.28%) Windows Server
7 8 (0.18%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 6 (0.14%) CentOS
8 6 (0.14%) Mac OS
8 6 (0.14%) VMS
9 5 (0.12%) AIX
10 2 (0.046%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,762 (40.61%) Agile
2 1,428 (32.91%) Full Stack Development
3 1,256 (28.95%) Web Development
4 1,006 (23.19%) DevOps
5 996 (22.95%) Software Engineering
6 967 (22.29%) MVC
7 862 (19.87%) User Experience
8 821 (18.92%) Problem-Solving
9 647 (14.91%) Front End Development
10 526 (12.12%) Artificial Intelligence
11 491 (11.32%) OO
12 487 (11.22%) OOP
13 461 (10.62%) Mentoring
14 455 (10.49%) CI/CD
15 453 (10.44%) TDD
16 451 (10.39%) Design Patterns
17 436 (10.05%) Computer Science
18 385 (8.87%) E-Commerce
19 376 (8.67%) Responsive Web Design
20 347 (8.00%) SOLID
Programming Languages
1 3,666 (84.49%) JavaScript
2 1,874 (43.19%) C#
3 1,410 (32.50%) SQL
4 794 (18.30%) TypeScript
5 781 (18.00%) Python
6 757 (17.45%) PHP
7 652 (15.03%) Java
8 182 (4.19%) T-SQL
9 64 (1.47%) PowerShell
10 57 (1.31%) C++
11 54 (1.24%) Go
11 54 (1.24%) VB.NET
12 49 (1.13%) C
13 40 (0.92%) Ruby
14 30 (0.69%) Kotlin
15 26 (0.60%) XPath
16 23 (0.53%) Apex Code
16 23 (0.53%) VBA
17 21 (0.48%) PL/SQL
17 21 (0.48%) XAML
Qualifications
1 647 (14.91%) Degree
2 372 (8.57%) Security Cleared
3 337 (7.77%) SC Cleared
4 229 (5.28%) Computer Science Degree
5 56 (1.29%) Microsoft Certification
6 32 (0.74%) BPSS Clearance
7 29 (0.67%) Master's Degree
8 23 (0.53%) DBS Check
9 14 (0.32%) CTC Cleared
10 12 (0.28%) Azure Certification
10 12 (0.28%) Postgraduate
11 6 (0.14%) HND
12 4 (0.092%) DV Cleared
12 4 (0.092%) ISEB
12 4 (0.092%) ISTQB
12 4 (0.092%) ITIL Certification
12 4 (0.092%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 4 (0.092%) PMI Certification
13 3 (0.069%) MCPD
13 3 (0.069%) MCT
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 221 (5.09%) Accessibility
2 176 (4.06%) QA
3 66 (1.52%) WCAG
4 28 (0.65%) GDPR
5 25 (0.58%) SLA
6 22 (0.51%) PMO
7 8 (0.18%) WAI
8 5 (0.12%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 5 (0.12%) MiFID
9 4 (0.092%) GRC
9 4 (0.092%) ISO 9001
10 3 (0.069%) HIPAA
11 2 (0.046%) Cyber Essentials
11 2 (0.046%) Data Quality
11 2 (0.046%) HL7
12 1 (0.023%) ISO 13485
12 1 (0.023%) NIST
System Software
1 240 (5.53%) Docker
2 23 (0.53%) Active Directory
3 14 (0.32%) Firmware
4 6 (0.14%) Virtual Desktop
5 5 (0.12%) VMware Infrastructure
6 3 (0.069%) Hyper-V
6 3 (0.069%) KVM
6 3 (0.069%) Virtual Machines
6 3 (0.069%) VMware ESXi
7 2 (0.046%) Terminal Services
8 1 (0.023%) NFS
8 1 (0.023%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 212 (4.89%) Kubernetes
2 46 (1.06%) Terraform
3 30 (0.69%) Single Sign-On
4 13 (0.30%) WMI
5 11 (0.25%) MIIS
6 10 (0.23%) Ansible
7 9 (0.21%) cPanel
8 6 (0.14%) Active Directory Federation Services
8 6 (0.14%) Nagios
8 6 (0.14%) Progress Chef
8 6 (0.14%) Puppet
9 5 (0.12%) Plesk
10 4 (0.092%) HP UCMDB
11 3 (0.069%) Galera Cluster
11 3 (0.069%) logstash
12 2 (0.046%) Istio
12 2 (0.046%) RSA Archer
13 1 (0.023%) Grafana
13 1 (0.023%) Kibana
13 1 (0.023%) systemd
Vendors
1 532 (12.26%) Microsoft
2 295 (6.80%) ESRI
3 251 (5.78%) Red Hat
4 245 (5.65%) IBM
5 222 (5.12%) Oracle
6 173 (3.99%) Adobe
7 140 (3.23%) Google
8 64 (1.47%) ServiceNow
9 58 (1.34%) Salesforce
10 51 (1.18%) Facebook
11 50 (1.15%) WooCommerce
12 40 (0.92%) SAP
13 38 (0.88%) Atlassian
14 30 (0.69%) Xamarin
15 25 (0.58%) OpenAI
16 24 (0.55%) Splunk
17 23 (0.53%) F5
17 23 (0.53%) HP
18 20 (0.46%) BMC
18 20 (0.46%) Remedy