Period
to 20 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
20 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 21 15 15
Rank change year-on-year -6 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 13,209 18,473 22,117
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 9.68% 11.32% 12.29%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.48% 28.44% 30.61%
Number of salaries quoted 11,453 15,784 19,703
UK median annual salary £47,500 £46,514 £44,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +2.12% +5.71% +3.53%
10th Percentile £29,000 £28,000 £27,250
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £68,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £42,500 £40,000
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +3.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 51,837 64,961 72,264
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.00% 39.82% 40.16%
Number of salaries quoted 42,823 53,662 60,064
UK median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £29,750
90th Percentile £87,500 £83,750 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +0.97%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 November 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 12,111 £47,500 - 2,822
UK excluding London -3 8,497 £42,500 - 2,240
London -7 4,405 £60,000 - 785
South East -3 2,908 £45,000 - 483
North of England -4 1,728 £42,500 +6.25% 595
Midlands -1 1,295 £40,000 - 405
North West -3 1,089 £45,000 +5.88% 345
South West -8 1,081 £41,000 +2.50% 310
West Midlands +1 722 £40,000 - 224
East of England -5 668 £45,591 +1.31% 248
Scotland +6 600 £42,000 -6.67% 119
East Midlands +1 566 £40,000 +2.56% 181
Yorkshire -9 548 £40,000 - 182
Wales -1 158 £40,000 +6.67% 74
North East -11 92 £40,000 +6.67% 68
Northern Ireland -1 72 £50,000 +33.33% 10
Isle of Man +2 1 £55,000 -18.52%

For the 6 months to 20 November 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 12,192 (92.30%) HTML
2 11,287 (85.45%) JavaScript
3 5,732 (43.39%) Agile Software Development
4 5,307 (40.18%) C#
5 5,055 (38.27%) .NET
6 4,493 (34.01%) AngularJS
7 3,867 (29.28%) MVC
8 3,637 (27.53%) HTML5
9 3,299 (24.98%) jQuery
10 3,226 (24.42%) ASP.NET
11 3,222 (24.39%) SQL
12 3,174 (24.03%) React
13 3,030 (22.94%) Front End Development
14 2,946 (22.30%) SQL Server
15 2,825 (21.39%) Web Development
16 2,743 (20.77%) Git (software)
17 2,479 (18.77%) CSS3
18 2,378 (18.00%) PHP
19 2,318 (17.55%) User Experience
20 2,071 (15.68%) Azure
21 2,004 (15.17%) TDD
22 1,896 (14.35%) Node.js
23 1,865 (14.12%) Java
24 1,805 (13.66%) MySQL
25 1,776 (13.45%) Sass
26 1,767 (13.38%) ASP.NET MVC
27 1,742 (13.19%) Scrum
28 1,726 (13.07%) Microsoft
29 1,700 (12.87%) Software Engineering
30 1,691 (12.80%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 791 (5.99%) CMS
2 615 (4.66%) WordPress
3 300 (2.27%) Elasticsearch
4 292 (2.21%) SharePoint
5 240 (1.82%) Umbraco
6 218 (1.65%) Apache
7 211 (1.60%) IIS
8 206 (1.56%) Drupal
9 203 (1.54%) Confluence
10 168 (1.27%) Tomcat
11 123 (0.93%) nginx
12 103 (0.78%) EPiServer
13 86 (0.65%) Sitecore CMS
14 81 (0.61%) JBoss
15 60 (0.45%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 59 (0.45%) Joomla!
17 47 (0.36%) Kentico
18 45 (0.34%) Apache Spark
19 40 (0.30%) Oracle SOA Suite
20 36 (0.27%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 384 (2.91%) Photoshop
2 262 (1.98%) Sketch
3 232 (1.76%) Adobe Illustrator
4 149 (1.13%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 143 (1.08%) InVision
6 128 (0.97%) Microsoft Office
7 96 (0.73%) Adobe XD
8 85 (0.64%) Microsoft Excel
9 51 (0.39%) Zeplin
10 37 (0.28%) InDesign
11 34 (0.26%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 31 (0.23%) Figma
13 28 (0.21%) MS Visio
14 21 (0.16%) InfoPath
15 20 (0.15%) Acrobat
16 19 (0.14%) Chatbot
17 17 (0.13%) Fireworks
18 16 (0.12%) Marvel
18 16 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
18 16 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 251 (1.90%) Magento
2 113 (0.86%) Dynamics CRM
3 65 (0.49%) Payment Gateway
4 49 (0.37%) Shopify
5 23 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
6 21 (0.16%) NetSuite
7 20 (0.15%) Dynamics AX
8 12 (0.091%) Dynamics NAV
8 12 (0.091%) OpenCart
8 12 (0.091%) WebTrends
9 11 (0.083%) Adobe Campaign
10 10 (0.076%) GoldMine
10 10 (0.076%) SDL Web 8
11 8 (0.061%) SAP S/4HANA
12 6 (0.045%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 4 (0.030%) Distributed Ledger
13 4 (0.030%) Eloqua
14 3 (0.023%) OpenText MBPM
14 3 (0.023%) osCommerce
14 3 (0.023%) SAP Business One
Cloud Services
1 2,071 (15.68%) Azure
2 1,533 (11.61%) AWS
3 625 (4.73%) SaaS
4 429 (3.25%) npm
5 389 (2.94%) GitHub
6 327 (2.48%) Serverless
7 269 (2.04%) GCP
8 186 (1.41%) AWS Lambda
9 146 (1.11%) Office 365
10 138 (1.04%) PaaS
11 121 (0.92%) Power Platform
12 119 (0.90%) Amazon S3
13 117 (0.89%) Google Analytics
14 108 (0.82%) Amazon EC2
15 82 (0.62%) Amazon ECS
16 77 (0.58%) Yarn
17 68 (0.51%) Cloud Computing
18 59 (0.45%) Adobe Creative Cloud
19 58 (0.44%) Amazon CloudWatch
20 57 (0.43%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 236 (1.79%) Internet
2 219 (1.66%) HTTP
3 71 (0.54%) Intranet
4 46 (0.35%) TCP/IP
5 31 (0.23%) DNS
6 30 (0.23%) Firewall
7 25 (0.19%) SSL
7 25 (0.19%) VPN
8 24 (0.18%) SSH
9 18 (0.14%) Network Security
10 15 (0.11%) WebEx
11 13 (0.098%) HTTPS
11 13 (0.098%) Remote Desktop
12 12 (0.091%) VoIP
13 11 (0.083%) Wireless
14 10 (0.076%) DAB
14 10 (0.076%) Extranet
15 8 (0.061%) FTP
15 8 (0.061%) Skype
16 7 (0.053%) AMQP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,946 (22.30%) SQL Server
2 1,805 (13.66%) MySQL
3 528 (4.00%) NoSQL
4 512 (3.88%) Relational Database
5 465 (3.52%) MongoDB
6 366 (2.77%) PostgreSQL
7 223 (1.69%) Big Data
8 204 (1.54%) Redis
9 189 (1.43%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 179 (1.36%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 158 (1.20%) SQL Server 2012
12 143 (1.08%) RDBMS
13 139 (1.05%) SQL Server 2016
14 119 (0.90%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 92 (0.70%) Azure SQL Database
16 85 (0.64%) Power BI
17 80 (0.61%) MariaDB
18 79 (0.60%) SQL Server 2008
19 76 (0.58%) GIS
20 65 (0.49%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 2,743 (20.77%) Git (software)
2 756 (5.72%) webpack
3 698 (5.28%) Visual Studio
4 653 (4.94%) JIRA
5 525 (3.97%) Jenkins
6 520 (3.94%) gulp
7 409 (3.10%) Selenium
8 404 (3.06%) Team Foundation Server
9 383 (2.90%) Grunt
10 341 (2.58%) Subversion
11 302 (2.29%) Jasmine
12 245 (1.85%) TeamCity
13 234 (1.77%) Bitbucket
14 192 (1.45%) NUnit
15 176 (1.33%) Maven
16 165 (1.25%) JUnit
17 153 (1.16%) Octopus Deploy
18 149 (1.13%) GitLab
19 146 (1.11%) Mocha
20 139 (1.05%) Visual Studio Team System
General
1 1,590 (12.04%) Finance
2 865 (6.55%) Marketing
3 674 (5.10%) Retail
4 328 (2.48%) Banking
5 258 (1.95%) Games
6 246 (1.86%) Advertising
7 244 (1.85%) Public Sector
8 194 (1.47%) Manufacturing
9 145 (1.10%) Telecoms
10 130 (0.98%) Automotive
11 105 (0.79%) Law
12 102 (0.77%) Legal
13 100 (0.76%) Electronics
14 81 (0.61%) Publishing
15 56 (0.42%) Investment Banking
16 51 (0.39%) Multimedia
17 37 (0.28%) Back Office
18 33 (0.25%) Financial Institution
18 33 (0.25%) Pharmaceutical
19 26 (0.20%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 10,371 (78.51%) Developer
2 2,317 (17.54%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 2,310 (17.49%) .NET Developer
4 1,866 (14.13%) Senior Developer
5 1,603 (12.14%) C# Developer
6 1,265 (9.58%) Software Developer
7 1,164 (8.81%) PHP Developer
8 1,122 (8.49%) Web Developer
9 1,098 (8.31%) Full Stack Developer
10 1,087 (8.23%) C# .NET Developer
11 1,085 (8.21%) JavaScript Developer
12 852 (6.45%) React Developer
13 759 (5.75%) Software Engineer
14 615 (4.66%) Java Developer
15 614 (4.65%) Junior
16 531 (4.02%) Junior Developer
17 500 (3.79%) Angular Developer
18 456 (3.45%) Designer
19 454 (3.44%) ASP.NET Developer
20 453 (3.43%) Senior Front-End Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 12,192 (92.30%) HTML
2 5,055 (38.27%) .NET
3 4,493 (34.01%) AngularJS
4 3,637 (27.53%) HTML5
5 3,299 (24.98%) jQuery
6 3,226 (24.42%) ASP.NET
7 3,174 (24.03%) React
8 2,479 (18.77%) CSS3
9 1,896 (14.35%) Node.js
10 1,776 (13.45%) Sass
11 1,767 (13.38%) ASP.NET MVC
12 1,691 (12.80%) Web Services
13 1,613 (12.21%) REST
14 1,335 (10.11%) .NET Framework
15 1,317 (9.97%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 1,281 (9.70%) ASP.NET Web API
17 1,279 (9.68%) Vue.js
18 1,193 (9.03%) RESTful
19 1,032 (7.81%) XML
20 981 (7.43%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 2,318 (17.55%) User Experience
2 954 (7.22%) Greenfield Project
3 752 (5.69%) Mobile App
4 602 (4.56%) Analytical Skills
5 419 (3.17%) Self-Motivation
6 338 (2.56%) Enterprise Software
7 181 (1.37%) Algorithms
8 140 (1.06%) Data Structures
9 122 (0.92%) Management Information System
10 112 (0.85%) Social Media
11 98 (0.74%) Hedge funds
12 91 (0.69%) Virtual Team
13 90 (0.68%) Graphic Design
14 75 (0.57%) Tandem
15 72 (0.55%) Linux Command Line
16 66 (0.50%) Cloud Native
17 62 (0.47%) W3C
18 58 (0.44%) iPad
18 58 (0.44%) N-Tier
18 58 (0.44%) Robotics
Operating Systems
1 967 (7.32%) Linux
2 566 (4.28%) Windows
3 441 (3.34%) Android
4 403 (3.05%) Apple iOS
5 134 (1.01%) Unix
6 84 (0.64%) Windows Server
7 64 (0.48%) Mac OS
8 58 (0.44%) Ubuntu
9 49 (0.37%) CentOS
10 43 (0.33%) Debian
11 30 (0.23%) Mac OS X
12 26 (0.20%) Windows Server 2012
13 24 (0.18%) Windows 10
14 21 (0.16%) VMS
14 21 (0.16%) Windows 7
15 18 (0.14%) Windows Server 2003
15 18 (0.14%) Windows XP
16 16 (0.12%) AIX
17 14 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
18 13 (0.098%) Windows 2000
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,732 (43.39%) Agile Software Development
2 3,867 (29.28%) MVC
3 3,030 (22.94%) Front End Development
4 2,825 (21.39%) Web Development
5 2,004 (15.17%) TDD
6 1,742 (13.19%) Scrum
7 1,700 (12.87%) Software Engineering
8 1,513 (11.45%) OO
9 1,488 (11.27%) DevOps
10 1,264 (9.57%) Problem-Solving
11 1,107 (8.38%) Unit Testing
12 1,071 (8.11%) Computer Science
13 1,041 (7.88%) E-Commerce
14 983 (7.44%) Continuous Integration
15 940 (7.12%) Test Automation
16 932 (7.06%) OOP
17 910 (6.89%) SDLC
18 876 (6.63%) Mentoring
19 862 (6.53%) Microservices
20 815 (6.17%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 11,287 (85.45%) JavaScript
2 5,307 (40.18%) C#
3 3,222 (24.39%) SQL
4 2,378 (18.00%) PHP
5 1,865 (14.12%) Java
6 1,293 (9.79%) TypeScript
7 1,024 (7.75%) Python
8 947 (7.17%) ES6
9 634 (4.80%) T-SQL
10 425 (3.22%) VB.NET
11 286 (2.17%) Java 8
12 284 (2.15%) Ruby
13 209 (1.58%) C++
14 181 (1.37%) C
15 169 (1.28%) PowerShell
16 127 (0.96%) PHP 7
17 117 (0.89%) Scala
18 111 (0.84%) ES7
19 106 (0.80%) PL/SQL
20 90 (0.68%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 1,534 (11.61%) Degree
2 576 (4.36%) Computer Science Degree
3 153 (1.16%) Security Cleared
4 124 (0.94%) Microsoft Certification
5 75 (0.57%) SC Cleared
6 46 (0.35%) MCP
7 33 (0.25%) Master's Degree
8 31 (0.23%) HND
9 28 (0.21%) MCSD
10 24 (0.18%) Numerate Degree
10 24 (0.18%) Postgraduate
11 22 (0.17%) ISTQB
12 21 (0.16%) DV Cleared
12 21 (0.16%) ISEB
13 18 (0.14%) DBS Check
14 14 (0.11%) MCAD
14 14 (0.11%) MCPD
14 14 (0.11%) MCTS
15 11 (0.083%) CIW
16 9 (0.068%) MCSE
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 493 (3.73%) QA
2 63 (0.48%) GDPR
3 42 (0.32%) SLA
4 40 (0.30%) WCAG
5 28 (0.21%) WAI
6 26 (0.20%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 20 (0.15%) PCI DSS
8 12 (0.091%) PMO
9 7 (0.053%) Cyber Essentials
10 4 (0.030%) Data Quality
10 4 (0.030%) ISO/IEC 20000
11 3 (0.023%) ISO 9001
12 1 (0.008%) HL7
12 1 (0.008%) ISO 14001
12 1 (0.008%) RMADS
12 1 (0.008%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 964 (7.30%) Docker
2 70 (0.53%) Active Directory
3 18 (0.14%) Forefront TMG
3 18 (0.14%) Virtual Machines
4 15 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
5 10 (0.076%) Firmware
5 10 (0.076%) vCloud
6 7 (0.053%) Hyper-V
7 3 (0.023%) Varnish
8 2 (0.015%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 2 (0.015%) LXC
9 1 (0.008%) Cronacle
9 1 (0.008%) Shibboleth
9 1 (0.008%) vSphere
9 1 (0.008%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 369 (2.79%) Kubernetes
2 122 (0.92%) Ansible
3 107 (0.81%) Terraform
4 98 (0.74%) Opscode Chef
5 44 (0.33%) Kibana
6 34 (0.26%) logstash
7 30 (0.23%) Single Sign-On
8 25 (0.19%) Puppet
9 24 (0.18%) HP Quality Center
9 24 (0.18%) SCCM
10 14 (0.11%) cPanel
11 11 (0.083%) Ganglia
11 11 (0.083%) Matomo
11 11 (0.083%) Mesos
11 11 (0.083%) TeamSite
12 10 (0.076%) Plesk
13 8 (0.061%) Docker Swarm
13 8 (0.061%) HAProxy
14 6 (0.045%) Marathon
15 5 (0.038%) Grafana
Vendors
1 1,726 (13.07%) Microsoft
2 608 (4.60%) Adobe
3 533 (4.04%) Oracle
4 450 (3.41%) Google
5 255 (1.93%) Zend
6 158 (1.20%) Xamarin
7 155 (1.17%) Salesforce.com
8 139 (1.05%) Sitecore
9 131 (0.99%) SAP
10 125 (0.95%) Atlassian
11 88 (0.67%) Splunk
12 64 (0.48%) IBM
13 60 (0.45%) Facebook
14 55 (0.42%) Cypress Semiconductor
15 41 (0.31%) ServiceNow
16 40 (0.30%) Nintex
17 39 (0.30%) Red Hat
18 38 (0.29%) Tableau
18 38 (0.29%) WooCommerce
19 35 (0.26%) YouTube