Period
to 2 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 2 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
2 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 21 21 23
Rank change year-on-year 0 +2 -7
Permanent jobs citing CSS 10,509 6,685 14,139
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 9.29% 9.84% 9.80%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 22.60% 24.07% 26.07%
Number of salaries quoted 6,809 5,706 12,151
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £28,250
25th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%
75th Percentile £65,000 £63,750 £61,250
90th Percentile £78,750 £76,250 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 46,508 27,770 54,226
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.10% 40.90% 37.59%
Number of salaries quoted 30,783 23,137 45,118
10th Percentile £35,750 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £43,750 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £77,500 £75,000 £72,000
90th Percentile £95,000 £92,500 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £48,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +4.17% +6.67% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 2 August 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 2 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 9,444 £50,000 - 2,093
UK excluding London -6 5,749 £45,000 - 1,493
London +6 4,046 £65,000 - 707
Work from Home -3 2,351 £50,000 - 524
South East 0 2,060 £47,500 - 307
North of England -11 1,068 £45,000 - 490
South West -2 939 £45,000 +5.88% 184
Midlands -2 887 £42,500 -5.56% 275
West Midlands -1 583 £45,000 - 167
North West -12 531 £45,000 - 280
Yorkshire -9 457 £45,000 +8.43% 165
Scotland -6 342 £50,000 +11.11% 69
East Midlands -7 298 £40,000 -5.88% 107
East of England -8 286 £50,000 +11.11% 121
Wales -10 105 £47,500 +18.75% 33
North East -11 82 £40,000 - 45
Northern Ireland -5 62 £35,000 -41.67% 14
Isle of Man -4 9 - -

For the 6 months to 2 August 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 9,218 (87.72%) HTML
2 8,743 (83.20%) JavaScript
3 4,920 (46.82%) React
4 4,510 (42.92%) Agile Software Development
5 3,307 (31.47%) AngularJS
6 3,084 (29.35%) C#
7 2,974 (28.30%) .NET
8 2,854 (27.16%) Git (software)
9 2,779 (26.44%) Front End Development
10 2,728 (25.96%) HTML5
11 2,650 (25.22%) Full Stack Development
12 2,643 (25.15%) SQL
13 2,552 (24.28%) User Experience
14 2,389 (22.73%) Node.js
15 2,307 (21.95%) TypeScript
16 2,142 (20.38%) Azure
17 2,020 (19.22%) PHP
18 2,010 (19.13%) Software Engineering
19 1,990 (18.94%) CSS3
20 1,913 (18.20%) Social Skills
21 1,812 (17.24%) Web Development
22 1,810 (17.22%) MVC
23 1,777 (16.91%) jQuery
24 1,765 (16.80%) AWS
25 1,735 (16.51%) Java
25 1,735 (16.51%) SQL Server
26 1,683 (16.01%) Finance
27 1,612 (15.34%) DevOps
28 1,572 (14.96%) Vue.js
29 1,557 (14.82%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 865 (8.23%) CMS
2 535 (5.09%) WordPress
3 394 (3.75%) Apache
4 236 (2.25%) Apache Spark
5 231 (2.20%) Elasticsearch
6 228 (2.17%) Confluence
6 228 (2.17%) SharePoint
7 199 (1.89%) IIS
8 183 (1.74%) GemFire
9 155 (1.47%) Umbraco
10 147 (1.40%) nginx
11 138 (1.31%) Drupal
12 103 (0.98%) Tomcat
13 100 (0.95%) Apache Solr
14 95 (0.90%) EPiServer
15 92 (0.88%) Kentico
16 85 (0.81%) Headless CMS
17 79 (0.75%) Sitecore CMS
18 59 (0.56%) GeoServer
19 42 (0.40%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 227 (2.16%) Sketch
2 195 (1.86%) Photoshop
3 166 (1.58%) Figma
4 139 (1.32%) Adobe Illustrator
5 122 (1.16%) InVision
6 101 (0.96%) Adobe XD
7 95 (0.90%) Microsoft Office
8 89 (0.85%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 41 (0.39%) Microsoft Excel
10 34 (0.32%) GIMP
11 33 (0.31%) Zeplin
12 30 (0.29%) InDesign
13 28 (0.27%) Chatbot
14 26 (0.25%) Adobe After Effects
15 20 (0.19%) Campfire
15 20 (0.19%) UXPin
16 17 (0.16%) MadCap Flare
16 17 (0.16%) Microsoft PowerPoint
17 12 (0.11%) Adobe Premiere
17 12 (0.11%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 238 (2.26%) Magento
2 161 (1.53%) Shopify
3 98 (0.93%) Dynamics CRM
4 76 (0.72%) Payment Gateway
5 27 (0.26%) WebTrends
6 19 (0.18%) Remedy ITSM
7 10 (0.095%) NetSuite
8 9 (0.086%) SAP S/4HANA
9 8 (0.076%) OpenCart
9 8 (0.076%) SDL Web 8
10 6 (0.057%) Dynamics NAV
10 6 (0.057%) SAP Hybris
10 6 (0.057%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 5 (0.048%) Dynamics AX
12 3 (0.029%) JDE OneWorld
12 3 (0.029%) nopCommerce
12 3 (0.029%) Sage 300 ERP
12 3 (0.029%) Sage CRM
12 3 (0.029%) SAP Oil and Gas
12 3 (0.029%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 2,142 (20.38%) Azure
2 1,765 (16.80%) AWS
3 765 (7.28%) SaaS
4 644 (6.13%) GitHub
5 470 (4.47%) npm
6 464 (4.42%) GCP
7 460 (4.38%) Serverless
8 277 (2.64%) AWS Lambda
9 223 (2.12%) Amazon S3
10 197 (1.87%) PaaS
11 185 (1.76%) Power Platform
12 180 (1.71%) Amazon EC2
13 126 (1.20%) Yarn
14 122 (1.16%) Amazon Kinesis
15 112 (1.07%) Microsoft 365
16 111 (1.06%) AWS CloudFormation
17 108 (1.03%) Google Analytics
18 106 (1.01%) OpenShift
19 102 (0.97%) Azure Functions
20 100 (0.95%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 319 (3.04%) HTTP
2 183 (1.74%) Internet
3 91 (0.87%) DNS
4 85 (0.81%) Broadband
5 81 (0.77%) SSL
6 59 (0.56%) Wireless
7 45 (0.43%) TCP/IP
8 42 (0.40%) Intranet
9 38 (0.36%) MQTT
10 37 (0.35%) Ethernet
11 33 (0.31%) Bluetooth
11 33 (0.31%) Wi-Fi
12 27 (0.26%) SSH
13 26 (0.25%) FTP
14 24 (0.23%) VPN
15 23 (0.22%) Firewall
15 23 (0.22%) SMTP
16 19 (0.18%) Extranet
17 18 (0.17%) Skype
18 14 (0.13%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,735 (16.51%) SQL Server
2 1,526 (14.52%) MySQL
3 788 (7.50%) PostgreSQL
4 759 (7.22%) NoSQL
5 583 (5.55%) Relational Database
6 481 (4.58%) MongoDB
7 464 (4.42%) Redis
8 277 (2.64%) MariaDB
9 248 (2.36%) Big Data
10 180 (1.71%) HBase
11 143 (1.36%) Amazon RDS
12 126 (1.20%) Power BI
13 98 (0.93%) SQL Server Reporting Services
14 97 (0.92%) Azure SQL Database
15 95 (0.90%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 83 (0.79%) Oracle Database
17 80 (0.76%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 67 (0.64%) GIS
19 62 (0.59%) QGIS
20 61 (0.58%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 2,854 (27.16%) Git (software)
2 848 (8.07%) webpack
3 657 (6.25%) JIRA
4 651 (6.19%) Jenkins
5 486 (4.62%) Cypress.io
6 427 (4.06%) gulp
7 402 (3.83%) Visual Studio
8 338 (3.22%) Storybook
9 297 (2.83%) JUnit
10 287 (2.73%) Cucumber
11 263 (2.50%) Protractor
12 261 (2.48%) Gradle
13 240 (2.28%) Bitbucket
14 224 (2.13%) Selenium
15 217 (2.06%) Eclipse
16 200 (1.90%) Mockito
17 199 (1.89%) Sonatype Nexus
18 196 (1.87%) IntelliJ
19 195 (1.86%) Jasmine
20 178 (1.69%) Grunt
General
1 1,913 (18.20%) Social Skills
2 1,683 (16.01%) Finance
3 814 (7.75%) Marketing
4 604 (5.75%) Retail
5 551 (5.24%) Analytical Skills
6 494 (4.70%) Banking
7 385 (3.66%) Games
8 347 (3.30%) Law
9 274 (2.61%) Inclusion and Diversity
10 253 (2.41%) Public Sector
11 184 (1.75%) Manufacturing
12 173 (1.65%) Legal
13 168 (1.60%) Telecoms
14 166 (1.58%) Organisational Skills
15 144 (1.37%) Publishing
16 115 (1.09%) Advertising
17 101 (0.96%) Automotive
18 91 (0.87%) Presentation Skills
19 74 (0.70%) Documentation Skills
20 69 (0.66%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 7,444 (70.83%) Developer
2 1,889 (17.98%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,552 (14.77%) Senior Developer
4 1,133 (10.78%) Full Stack Developer
5 1,040 (9.90%) .NET Developer
6 1,004 (9.55%) Software Engineer
7 859 (8.17%) Software Developer
8 845 (8.04%) PHP Developer
9 816 (7.76%) React Developer
10 692 (6.58%) C# Developer
11 644 (6.13%) Web Developer
12 482 (4.59%) JavaScript Developer
13 447 (4.25%) C# .NET Developer
13 447 (4.25%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 395 (3.76%) Angular Developer
15 335 (3.19%) Lead Developer
16 327 (3.11%) Java Developer
17 275 (2.62%) Designer
18 265 (2.52%) Junior
19 248 (2.36%) Senior Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 9,218 (87.72%) HTML
2 4,920 (46.82%) React
3 3,307 (31.47%) AngularJS
4 2,974 (28.30%) .NET
5 2,728 (25.96%) HTML5
6 2,389 (22.73%) Node.js
7 1,990 (18.94%) CSS3
8 1,777 (16.91%) jQuery
9 1,572 (14.96%) Vue.js
10 1,557 (14.82%) REST
11 1,512 (14.39%) Sass
12 1,453 (13.83%) RESTful
13 1,309 (12.46%) ASP.NET
14 1,220 (11.61%) .NET Core
15 1,145 (10.90%) Redux
15 1,145 (10.90%) Web Services
16 1,078 (10.26%) Twitter Bootstrap
17 925 (8.80%) .NET Framework
18 849 (8.08%) JSON
19 742 (7.06%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 2,552 (24.28%) User Experience
2 736 (7.00%) Mobile App
3 573 (5.45%) Greenfield Project
4 482 (4.59%) Self-Motivation
5 258 (2.46%) Linux Command Line
6 235 (2.24%) Virtual Team
7 196 (1.87%) Enterprise Software
8 195 (1.86%) Data Structures
9 165 (1.57%) Legacy Systems
10 136 (1.29%) Algorithms
11 130 (1.24%) Blog
12 97 (0.92%) N-Tier
13 88 (0.84%) Social Media
14 86 (0.82%) Cloud Native
15 84 (0.80%) Legacy Code
16 80 (0.76%) Client/Server
16 80 (0.76%) NHS
17 78 (0.74%) Management Information System
18 74 (0.70%) Animation
19 70 (0.67%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 1,037 (9.87%) Linux
2 471 (4.48%) Windows
3 374 (3.56%) Android
4 352 (3.35%) Apple iOS
5 280 (2.66%) Unix
6 128 (1.22%) Ubuntu
7 97 (0.92%) Windows Server
8 42 (0.40%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 38 (0.36%) CentOS
10 17 (0.16%) Windows 10
11 15 (0.14%) Debian
12 12 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
13 11 (0.10%) VMS
13 11 (0.10%) Windows 7
14 9 (0.086%) Windows Server 2016
15 7 (0.067%) tvOS
16 6 (0.057%) Windows 8
16 6 (0.057%) Windows Server 2008
16 6 (0.057%) Windows Server 2019
17 5 (0.048%) Fedora
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,510 (42.92%) Agile Software Development
2 2,779 (26.44%) Front End Development
3 2,650 (25.22%) Full Stack Development
4 2,010 (19.13%) Software Engineering
5 1,812 (17.24%) Web Development
6 1,810 (17.22%) MVC
7 1,612 (15.34%) DevOps
8 1,486 (14.14%) TDD
9 1,461 (13.90%) Scrum
10 1,403 (13.35%) Microservices
11 1,261 (12.00%) Problem-Solving
12 1,179 (11.22%) OO
13 1,109 (10.55%) E-Commerce
14 1,079 (10.27%) Unit Testing
15 1,030 (9.80%) Computer Science
16 963 (9.16%) Test Automation
17 843 (8.02%) Continuous Integration
18 828 (7.88%) Mentoring
19 724 (6.89%) OOP
20 700 (6.66%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 8,743 (83.20%) JavaScript
2 3,084 (29.35%) C#
3 2,643 (25.15%) SQL
4 2,307 (21.95%) TypeScript
5 2,020 (19.22%) PHP
6 1,735 (16.51%) Java
7 1,215 (11.56%) Python
8 894 (8.51%) ES6
9 474 (4.51%) T-SQL
10 262 (2.49%) Ruby
11 233 (2.22%) Java 8
12 215 (2.05%) Shell Script
13 208 (1.98%) Groovy
14 169 (1.61%) PowerShell
15 168 (1.60%) C++
16 154 (1.47%) Go
17 152 (1.45%) VB.NET
18 143 (1.36%) Kotlin
19 137 (1.30%) C
20 133 (1.27%) ES7
Qualifications
1 1,272 (12.10%) Degree
2 427 (4.06%) Computer Science Degree
3 245 (2.33%) OCP
3 245 (2.33%) Oracle Certification
4 192 (1.83%) Security Cleared
5 111 (1.06%) SC Cleared
6 91 (0.87%) Master's Degree
7 88 (0.84%) Microsoft Certification
8 76 (0.72%) CIW
8 76 (0.72%) OCA
9 45 (0.43%) AWS Certification
10 33 (0.31%) DV Cleared
10 33 (0.31%) PhD
11 25 (0.24%) SANS
12 18 (0.17%) Numerate Degree
13 17 (0.16%) HND
14 11 (0.10%) DBS Check
14 11 (0.10%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
15 7 (0.067%) BPSS Clearance
15 7 (0.067%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 648 (6.17%) Accessibility
2 476 (4.53%) QA
3 125 (1.19%) WCAG
4 48 (0.46%) GDPR
4 48 (0.46%) PCI DSS
5 31 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 13 (0.12%) WAI
7 12 (0.11%) Actionable Recommendations
8 10 (0.095%) SLA
9 9 (0.086%) Data Quality
10 7 (0.067%) ISO 13485
10 7 (0.067%) NCSC
11 4 (0.038%) IEC 62304
12 2 (0.019%) Good Clinical Practice
12 2 (0.019%) GRC
12 2 (0.019%) PMO
System Software
1 1,223 (11.64%) Docker
2 175 (1.67%) HDFS
3 138 (1.31%) VMware Infrastructure
4 38 (0.36%) Active Directory
5 33 (0.31%) Firmware
6 19 (0.18%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 11 (0.10%) Varnish
8 10 (0.095%) Hyper-V
9 7 (0.067%) Ceph
9 7 (0.067%) Virtual Servers
10 6 (0.057%) VMware ESXi
11 5 (0.048%) Virtual Machines
12 3 (0.029%) Kamailio
12 3 (0.029%) OpenSIPS
12 3 (0.029%) Terminal Services
13 2 (0.019%) vSphere
14 1 (0.010%) LXC
14 1 (0.010%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 697 (6.63%) Kubernetes
2 282 (2.68%) Ansible
3 268 (2.55%) Terraform
4 165 (1.57%) Opscode Chef
5 38 (0.36%) Graphite
6 34 (0.32%) Grafana
7 26 (0.25%) Graylog
7 26 (0.25%) Opsgenie
8 24 (0.23%) Hadoop YARN
9 22 (0.21%) Single Sign-On
10 20 (0.19%) Prometheus
11 19 (0.18%) HP UCMDB
12 16 (0.15%) Puppet
13 15 (0.14%) Active Directory Federation Services
14 14 (0.13%) Kibana
14 14 (0.13%) Packer
15 13 (0.12%) MIIS
16 12 (0.11%) Bugsnag
16 12 (0.11%) Rancher
17 11 (0.10%) Docker Swarm
Vendors
1 1,150 (10.94%) Microsoft
2 496 (4.72%) Google
3 435 (4.14%) Adobe
4 423 (4.03%) Oracle
5 230 (2.19%) VMware
6 202 (1.92%) Okta
7 165 (1.57%) Salesforce.com
8 108 (1.03%) Xamarin
9 104 (0.99%) Atlassian
10 102 (0.97%) Zend
11 95 (0.90%) Sitecore
12 93 (0.88%) WooCommerce
13 80 (0.76%) Apple
14 72 (0.69%) SAP
15 59 (0.56%) Nintex
16 51 (0.49%) IBM
17 47 (0.45%) ServiceNow
18 46 (0.44%) Splunk
19 45 (0.43%) OutSystems
20 43 (0.41%) Samsung