Period
to 6 June 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 6 June 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
6 Jun 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 20 20 15
Rank change year-on-year 0 -5 -1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 8,321 14,693 20,635
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 9.61% 10.22% 11.92%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.17% 26.62% 29.36%
Number of salaries quoted 7,759 13,212 19,343
Median annual salary £50,000 £45,520 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +9.84% +1.15% +5.88%
10th Percentile £31,250 £27,500 £27,500
90th Percentile £78,750 £75,000 £71,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £41,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% +2.41% +3.75%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 34,424 55,204 70,290
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.77% 38.39% 40.61%
Number of salaries quoted 28,212 45,218 58,765
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £33,750 £31,250 £31,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.56% - +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 6 June 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 6 June 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 7,576 £50,000 +5.26% 912
UK excluding London +1 5,299 £45,000 +5.88% 710
London -7 2,742 £65,000 +8.33% 253
South East +4 1,901 £47,500 +5.56% 136
North of England 0 1,193 £45,000 +5.88% 229
North West +2 727 £45,000 +5.88% 133
Midlands 0 727 £43,000 +7.50% 136
Work from Home -2 694 £50,000 +8.70% 132
South West -1 615 £42,500 +6.25% 96
West Midlands +1 407 £45,000 +12.50% 69
Yorkshire +5 374 £42,500 +6.25% 56
East of England -4 352 £47,500 - 61
Scotland +1 337 £45,000 +12.50% 18
East Midlands +1 318 £42,500 +10.39% 67
Wales -3 138 £36,000 +2.86% 29
North East +3 92 £40,000 -1.54% 40
Northern Ireland -17 31 £50,000 +11.11% 6
Channel Islands +1 7 £65,000 -13.33%
Isle of Man +2 1 - -

For the 6 months to 6 June 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 7,705 (92.60%) HTML
2 7,008 (84.22%) JavaScript
3 3,788 (45.52%) Agile Software Development
4 3,046 (36.61%) .NET
5 3,014 (36.22%) AngularJS
6 2,954 (35.50%) C#
7 2,398 (28.82%) HTML5
8 2,331 (28.01%) React
9 2,140 (25.72%) MVC
10 2,124 (25.53%) SQL
11 1,978 (23.77%) Front End Development
12 1,921 (23.09%) jQuery
13 1,890 (22.71%) Git (software)
14 1,725 (20.73%) Web Development
15 1,643 (19.75%) ASP.NET
16 1,625 (19.53%) SQL Server
17 1,577 (18.95%) CSS3
18 1,504 (18.07%) PHP
19 1,445 (17.37%) User Experience
20 1,404 (16.87%) Azure
21 1,357 (16.31%) Node.js
22 1,352 (16.25%) TDD
23 1,276 (15.33%) Sass
24 1,251 (15.03%) Finance
25 1,196 (14.37%) Java
26 1,177 (14.14%) Scrum
27 1,114 (13.39%) Software Engineering
28 1,106 (13.29%) MySQL
29 1,088 (13.08%) REST
30 1,061 (12.75%) Web Services

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 492 (5.91%) CMS
2 316 (3.80%) WordPress
3 187 (2.25%) Apache
4 164 (1.97%) SharePoint
5 155 (1.86%) IIS
6 146 (1.75%) Confluence
7 116 (1.39%) Elasticsearch
8 102 (1.23%) Umbraco
9 90 (1.08%) Drupal
10 67 (0.81%) nginx
11 65 (0.78%) Tomcat
12 62 (0.75%) Sitecore CMS
13 57 (0.69%) EPiServer
14 44 (0.53%) SharePoint 2013
15 36 (0.43%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 33 (0.40%) ArcGIS
17 31 (0.37%) Oracle Spatial
18 24 (0.29%) JBoss
19 22 (0.26%) Joomla!
20 21 (0.25%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 219 (2.63%) Photoshop
2 157 (1.89%) Sketch
3 120 (1.44%) Adobe Illustrator
4 112 (1.35%) InVision
5 88 (1.06%) Microsoft Excel
6 73 (0.88%) Adobe XD
7 70 (0.84%) Microsoft Office
8 52 (0.62%) Zeplin
9 47 (0.56%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 27 (0.32%) Figma
11 22 (0.26%) InDesign
12 16 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 15 (0.18%) UXPin
14 9 (0.11%) MadCap Flare
14 9 (0.11%) Marvel
15 8 (0.096%) Chatbot
15 8 (0.096%) MS Visio
16 6 (0.072%) Adobe After Effects
16 6 (0.072%) GIMP
17 5 (0.060%) InfoPath
Business Applications
1 220 (2.64%) Magento
2 73 (0.88%) Dynamics CRM
3 58 (0.70%) Shopify
4 40 (0.48%) NetSuite
5 35 (0.42%) Payment Gateway
6 20 (0.24%) Remedy ITSM
7 14 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
8 11 (0.13%) OpenCart
8 11 (0.13%) SAP Hybris
9 9 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
9 9 (0.11%) SDL Web 8
10 8 (0.096%) Eloqua
11 6 (0.072%) Maximo
11 6 (0.072%) Oracle Applications
12 5 (0.060%) Distributed Ledger
13 4 (0.048%) OpenText MBPM
13 4 (0.048%) SAP S/4HANA
13 4 (0.048%) StreamServe
13 4 (0.048%) WebTrends
14 3 (0.036%) Oracle CRM On Demand
Cloud Services
1 1,404 (16.87%) Azure
2 1,001 (12.03%) AWS
3 435 (5.23%) SaaS
4 287 (3.45%) npm
5 230 (2.76%) Serverless
6 194 (2.33%) GCP
6 194 (2.33%) GitHub
7 133 (1.60%) AWS Lambda
8 114 (1.37%) Power Platform
9 100 (1.20%) PaaS
10 79 (0.95%) Google Analytics
11 68 (0.82%) Cloud Computing
12 66 (0.79%) Amazon S3
13 65 (0.78%) Office 365
14 58 (0.70%) Dynamics 365
15 49 (0.59%) AWS CloudFormation
15 49 (0.59%) Azure Functions
16 48 (0.58%) Amazon SQS
17 46 (0.55%) PowerApps
18 45 (0.54%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 132 (1.59%) Internet
2 128 (1.54%) HTTP
3 51 (0.61%) SSL
4 47 (0.56%) Intranet
5 43 (0.52%) DNS
6 35 (0.42%) VPN
7 28 (0.34%) Network Security
8 27 (0.32%) Skype
9 20 (0.24%) Wireless
10 18 (0.22%) Firewall
11 17 (0.20%) TCP/IP
12 15 (0.18%) SSH
13 11 (0.13%) RTP
14 10 (0.12%) RFID
15 9 (0.11%) AMQP
16 8 (0.096%) Broadband
16 8 (0.096%) Cisco ASA
16 8 (0.096%) VoIP
16 8 (0.096%) WAN
17 5 (0.060%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,625 (19.53%) SQL Server
2 1,106 (13.29%) MySQL
3 398 (4.78%) NoSQL
4 362 (4.35%) Relational Database
5 307 (3.69%) PostgreSQL
6 300 (3.61%) MongoDB
7 147 (1.77%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 131 (1.57%) Big Data
9 128 (1.54%) Redis
10 109 (1.31%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 104 (1.25%) SQL Server 2012
12 96 (1.15%) Power BI
13 80 (0.96%) RDBMS
14 77 (0.93%) SQL Server 2008
15 69 (0.83%) SQL Server 2016
16 67 (0.81%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 63 (0.76%) Azure SQL Database
18 58 (0.70%) Amazon RDS
19 57 (0.69%) Cosmos DB
20 49 (0.59%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 1,890 (22.71%) Git (software)
2 557 (6.69%) webpack
3 423 (5.08%) Visual Studio
4 416 (5.00%) JIRA
5 389 (4.67%) gulp
6 366 (4.40%) Jenkins
7 303 (3.64%) Selenium
8 255 (3.06%) Grunt
9 219 (2.63%) Jasmine
10 212 (2.55%) Team Foundation Server
11 184 (2.21%) NUnit
12 181 (2.18%) Subversion
13 141 (1.69%) Bitbucket
14 126 (1.51%) Maven
15 115 (1.38%) TeamCity
16 106 (1.27%) Karma Test Runner
17 105 (1.26%) Mocha
18 100 (1.20%) Cypress.io
19 89 (1.07%) Cucumber
20 88 (1.06%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 1,251 (15.03%) Finance
2 500 (6.01%) Marketing
3 442 (5.31%) Retail
4 176 (2.12%) Banking
5 170 (2.04%) Games
6 117 (1.41%) Public Sector
7 94 (1.13%) Manufacturing
8 76 (0.91%) Law
9 75 (0.90%) Legal
10 64 (0.77%) Telecoms
11 62 (0.75%) Financial Institution
12 56 (0.67%) Back Office
12 56 (0.67%) Front Office
13 54 (0.65%) Advertising
14 45 (0.54%) Publishing
15 42 (0.50%) Automotive
16 40 (0.48%) Electronics
17 38 (0.46%) Investment Banking
18 34 (0.41%) Pharmaceutical
19 25 (0.30%) Local Government
Job Titles
1 6,576 (79.03%) Developer
2 1,587 (19.07%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,277 (15.35%) Senior Developer
4 1,223 (14.70%) .NET Developer
5 886 (10.65%) Full Stack Developer
6 821 (9.87%) C# Developer
7 779 (9.36%) Software Developer
8 714 (8.58%) PHP Developer
9 693 (8.33%) JavaScript Developer
10 657 (7.90%) Web Developer
11 642 (7.72%) React Developer
12 509 (6.12%) C# .NET Developer
13 491 (5.90%) Software Engineer
14 416 (5.00%) Java Developer
15 403 (4.84%) Angular Developer
16 360 (4.33%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 328 (3.94%) Junior
18 270 (3.24%) Junior Developer
19 265 (3.18%) Lead Developer
20 262 (3.15%) Senior .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 7,705 (92.60%) HTML
2 3,046 (36.61%) .NET
3 3,014 (36.22%) AngularJS
4 2,398 (28.82%) HTML5
5 2,331 (28.01%) React
6 1,921 (23.09%) jQuery
7 1,643 (19.75%) ASP.NET
8 1,577 (18.95%) CSS3
9 1,357 (16.31%) Node.js
10 1,276 (15.33%) Sass
11 1,088 (13.08%) REST
12 1,061 (12.75%) Web Services
13 1,010 (12.14%) Vue.js
14 956 (11.49%) .NET Framework
15 856 (10.29%) .NET Core
16 813 (9.77%) ASP.NET MVC
17 773 (9.29%) RESTful
18 755 (9.07%) ASP.NET Web API
19 681 (8.18%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 631 (7.58%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 1,445 (17.37%) User Experience
2 591 (7.10%) Greenfield Project
3 457 (5.49%) Mobile App
4 405 (4.87%) Analytical Skills
5 281 (3.38%) Self-Motivation
6 182 (2.19%) Enterprise Software
7 82 (0.99%) Hedge funds
8 76 (0.91%) Linux Command Line
9 69 (0.83%) Cloud Native
10 68 (0.82%) Algorithms
10 68 (0.82%) Data Structures
11 47 (0.56%) Blog
11 47 (0.56%) W3C
12 46 (0.55%) Client/Server
12 46 (0.55%) NHS
12 46 (0.55%) Public Cloud
13 45 (0.54%) Management Information System
14 42 (0.50%) Social Media
15 41 (0.49%) Graphic Design
16 40 (0.48%) Virtual Team
Operating Systems
1 662 (7.96%) Linux
2 361 (4.34%) Windows
3 269 (3.23%) Android
4 251 (3.02%) Apple iOS
5 114 (1.37%) Unix
6 62 (0.75%) Windows Server
7 50 (0.60%) Mac OS X
8 43 (0.52%) CentOS
9 37 (0.44%) Ubuntu
10 27 (0.32%) Windows Server 2012
11 20 (0.24%) Windows Server 2016
12 15 (0.18%) Windows Server 2008
13 11 (0.13%) Debian
14 10 (0.12%) Fedora
15 7 (0.084%) VMS
15 7 (0.084%) Windows 10
15 7 (0.084%) Windows Server 2019
16 6 (0.072%) Windows 7
17 5 (0.060%) Mac OS
18 3 (0.036%) tvOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,788 (45.52%) Agile Software Development
2 2,140 (25.72%) MVC
3 1,978 (23.77%) Front End Development
4 1,725 (20.73%) Web Development
5 1,352 (16.25%) TDD
6 1,177 (14.14%) Scrum
7 1,114 (13.39%) Software Engineering
8 964 (11.59%) DevOps
9 827 (9.94%) OO
10 783 (9.41%) Problem-Solving
11 768 (9.23%) Test Automation
12 702 (8.44%) Microservices
13 645 (7.75%) Unit Testing
14 640 (7.69%) E-Commerce
15 627 (7.54%) Continuous Integration
16 618 (7.43%) OOP
17 593 (7.13%) Computer Science
18 535 (6.43%) Fintech
19 529 (6.36%) BDD
20 516 (6.20%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 7,008 (84.22%) JavaScript
2 2,954 (35.50%) C#
3 2,124 (25.53%) SQL
4 1,504 (18.07%) PHP
5 1,196 (14.37%) Java
6 1,040 (12.50%) TypeScript
7 675 (8.11%) Python
8 612 (7.35%) ES6
9 397 (4.77%) T-SQL
10 244 (2.93%) Ruby
11 200 (2.40%) VB.NET
12 180 (2.16%) C++
13 138 (1.66%) Java 8
14 111 (1.33%) C
15 104 (1.25%) PHP 7
16 97 (1.17%) PowerShell
17 72 (0.87%) PL/SQL
18 71 (0.85%) Go
19 69 (0.83%) Scala
20 61 (0.73%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 842 (10.12%) Degree
2 328 (3.94%) Computer Science Degree
3 145 (1.74%) Security Cleared
4 106 (1.27%) SC Cleared
5 59 (0.71%) Microsoft Certification
6 22 (0.26%) DBS Check
7 16 (0.19%) AWS Certification
8 15 (0.18%) Master's Degree
9 13 (0.16%) Analytics IQ
10 12 (0.14%) DV Cleared
11 10 (0.12%) HND
12 7 (0.084%) CCNP
12 7 (0.084%) Cisco Certification
12 7 (0.084%) Numerate Degree
12 7 (0.084%) PhD
13 6 (0.072%) MCPD
13 6 (0.072%) MCSD
13 6 (0.072%) Postgraduate
14 5 (0.060%) MCAD
14 5 (0.060%) Oracle Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 424 (5.10%) QA
2 50 (0.60%) GDPR
3 33 (0.40%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 25 (0.30%) WCAG
5 22 (0.26%) Data Quality
6 13 (0.16%) SLA
7 9 (0.11%) ISO 9001
8 8 (0.096%) PCI DSS
9 6 (0.072%) PMO
10 4 (0.048%) SEPA
11 2 (0.024%) HL7
11 2 (0.024%) ISO 9000
12 1 (0.012%) Disclosure Scotland
12 1 (0.012%) MiFID
12 1 (0.012%) Sarbanes-Oxley
12 1 (0.012%) WAI
System Software
1 749 (9.00%) Docker
2 37 (0.44%) Active Directory
3 7 (0.084%) Squid
3 7 (0.084%) VMware Infrastructure
4 3 (0.036%) Virtual Machines
4 3 (0.036%) vSphere
5 2 (0.024%) Hyper-V
5 2 (0.024%) LXC
5 2 (0.024%) Microsoft Virtual Server
5 2 (0.024%) Varnish
5 2 (0.024%) Virtual Servers
6 1 (0.012%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 345 (4.15%) Kubernetes
2 93 (1.12%) Terraform
3 49 (0.59%) Ansible
4 38 (0.46%) Single Sign-On
5 36 (0.43%) Opscode Chef
6 24 (0.29%) Kibana
7 16 (0.19%) logstash
8 15 (0.18%) HP UCMDB
9 12 (0.14%) Mesos
10 11 (0.13%) Puppet
11 8 (0.096%) cPanel
12 6 (0.072%) Grafana
12 6 (0.072%) Packer
13 5 (0.060%) CA Single Sign-On
13 5 (0.060%) TeamSite
14 4 (0.048%) FortiGate
14 4 (0.048%) Rancher
15 3 (0.036%) MIIS
15 3 (0.036%) Plesk
16 2 (0.024%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 935 (11.24%) Microsoft
2 316 (3.80%) Google
3 308 (3.70%) Adobe
4 291 (3.50%) Oracle
5 198 (2.38%) Zend
6 126 (1.51%) Xamarin
7 107 (1.29%) Salesforce.com
8 93 (1.12%) Atlassian
9 87 (1.05%) ServiceNow
10 77 (0.93%) Sitecore
11 61 (0.73%) SAP
12 32 (0.38%) ESRI
13 31 (0.37%) Tableau
14 30 (0.36%) IBM
15 24 (0.29%) Remedy
16 23 (0.28%) Apple
16 23 (0.28%) VMware
17 22 (0.26%) Pardot
17 22 (0.26%) TIBCO
18 21 (0.25%) hybris