Period
to 23 January 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 January 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
23 Jan 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 21 16 14
Rank change year-on-year -5 -2 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 12,193 16,669 21,554
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 9.70% 10.98% 12.35%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.97% 27.75% 30.51%
Number of salaries quoted 10,519 13,933 19,197
UK median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £44,000
Median salary % change year-on-year - +7.95% +3.53%
10th Percentile £29,750 £28,750 £27,500
90th Percentile £77,500 £75,000 £70,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £44,000 £42,500 £40,000
% change year-on-year +3.53% +6.25% +2.56%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 48,835 60,079 70,652
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.83% 39.57% 40.47%
Number of salaries quoted 40,111 49,168 59,356
UK median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £30,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 January 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 16 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 23 January 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -5 11,138 £48,000 +1.05% 2,800
UK excluding London -1 7,810 £44,000 +3.53% 2,280
London -6 4,082 £62,032 +3.39% 773
South East -2 2,644 £45,000 - 507
North of England -4 1,571 £45,000 +8.43% 613
Midlands +3 1,214 £40,000 +0.82% 378
South West -5 988 £42,500 +6.25% 296
North West -5 939 £45,000 - 353
West Midlands +3 648 £42,000 +5.00% 187
East of England -2 612 £47,500 +5.56% 234
East Midlands +4 564 £40,000 +3.90% 191
Scotland +3 545 £42,500 -1.16% 160
Yorkshire -9 520 £40,000 - 170
Wales -1 179 £40,000 +11.11% 76
North East -7 113 £37,500 - 91
Northern Ireland -3 67 £50,000 +25.00% 17

For the 6 months to 23 January 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 11,217 (92.00%) HTML
2 10,413 (85.40%) JavaScript
3 5,306 (43.52%) Agile Software Development
4 4,885 (40.06%) C#
5 4,739 (38.87%) .NET
6 4,166 (34.17%) AngularJS
7 3,597 (29.50%) MVC
8 3,403 (27.91%) HTML5
9 3,104 (25.46%) React
10 3,069 (25.17%) SQL
11 2,997 (24.58%) jQuery
12 2,948 (24.18%) ASP.NET
13 2,859 (23.45%) Front End Development
14 2,692 (22.08%) SQL Server
15 2,577 (21.14%) Web Development
16 2,544 (20.86%) Git (software)
17 2,296 (18.83%) CSS3
18 2,186 (17.93%) PHP
19 2,044 (16.76%) User Experience
20 1,995 (16.36%) Azure
21 1,848 (15.16%) TDD
22 1,826 (14.98%) Node.js
23 1,736 (14.24%) Sass
24 1,717 (14.08%) Java
25 1,620 (13.29%) Microsoft
26 1,615 (13.25%) Software Engineering
27 1,607 (13.18%) Web Services
28 1,606 (13.17%) Scrum
29 1,605 (13.16%) REST
30 1,597 (13.10%) ASP.NET MVC

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 711 (5.83%) CMS
2 505 (4.14%) WordPress
3 276 (2.26%) SharePoint
4 256 (2.10%) Elasticsearch
5 208 (1.71%) IIS
6 198 (1.62%) Confluence
7 189 (1.55%) Drupal
8 180 (1.48%) Umbraco
9 174 (1.43%) Apache
10 136 (1.12%) Tomcat
11 119 (0.98%) EPiServer
12 109 (0.89%) nginx
13 96 (0.79%) Sitecore CMS
14 76 (0.62%) JBoss
15 53 (0.43%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 50 (0.41%) Kentico
17 42 (0.34%) SharePoint 2013
18 41 (0.34%) Apache Spark
19 38 (0.31%) Joomla!
20 31 (0.25%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 282 (2.31%) Photoshop
2 215 (1.76%) Sketch
3 177 (1.45%) Adobe Illustrator
4 147 (1.21%) InVision
5 139 (1.14%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 129 (1.06%) Microsoft Office
7 107 (0.88%) Adobe XD
8 82 (0.67%) Microsoft Excel
9 47 (0.39%) Zeplin
10 33 (0.27%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 27 (0.22%) InDesign
12 26 (0.21%) Figma
13 21 (0.17%) MS Visio
14 20 (0.16%) Chatbot
15 14 (0.11%) Acrobat
15 14 (0.11%) Fireworks
15 14 (0.11%) InfoPath
15 14 (0.11%) Marvel
16 12 (0.098%) Adobe After Effects
16 12 (0.098%) UserZoom
Business Applications
1 230 (1.89%) Magento
2 112 (0.92%) Dynamics CRM
3 54 (0.44%) Shopify
4 42 (0.34%) Payment Gateway
5 22 (0.18%) NetSuite
6 21 (0.17%) SAP Hybris
7 13 (0.11%) Dynamics AX
8 10 (0.082%) GoldMine
9 9 (0.074%) Distributed Ledger
9 9 (0.074%) SDL Web 8
10 8 (0.066%) SAP S/4HANA
11 7 (0.057%) Adobe Campaign
11 7 (0.057%) OpenCart
12 6 (0.049%) Oracle Applications
12 6 (0.049%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 5 (0.041%) WebTrends
14 4 (0.033%) Dynamics NAV
14 4 (0.033%) Eloqua
15 3 (0.025%) SAP Business One
16 2 (0.016%) Unica
Cloud Services
1 1,995 (16.36%) Azure
2 1,438 (11.79%) AWS
3 555 (4.55%) SaaS
4 404 (3.31%) npm
5 345 (2.83%) GitHub
6 269 (2.21%) Serverless
7 214 (1.76%) GCP
8 150 (1.23%) AWS Lambda
9 139 (1.14%) PaaS
10 121 (0.99%) Office 365
11 105 (0.86%) Google Analytics
12 104 (0.85%) Amazon S3
13 99 (0.81%) Power Platform
14 91 (0.75%) Amazon EC2
15 76 (0.62%) Amazon ECS
16 60 (0.49%) Cloud Computing
17 57 (0.47%) Amazon SQS
18 53 (0.43%) Azure Functions
18 53 (0.43%) PowerApps
18 53 (0.43%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 224 (1.84%) Internet
2 180 (1.48%) HTTP
3 70 (0.57%) Intranet
4 39 (0.32%) SSL
5 37 (0.30%) TCP/IP
6 35 (0.29%) DNS
7 26 (0.21%) Firewall
8 24 (0.20%) SSH
8 24 (0.20%) VPN
9 17 (0.14%) Network Security
10 14 (0.11%) Wireless
11 12 (0.098%) AMQP
12 10 (0.082%) DAB
12 10 (0.082%) FTP
12 10 (0.082%) RFID
13 9 (0.074%) HTTPS
13 9 (0.074%) RTP
13 9 (0.074%) VoIP
14 8 (0.066%) Skype
15 6 (0.049%) Remote Desktop
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,692 (22.08%) SQL Server
2 1,582 (12.97%) MySQL
3 471 (3.86%) Relational Database
4 453 (3.72%) NoSQL
5 401 (3.29%) MongoDB
6 370 (3.03%) PostgreSQL
7 197 (1.62%) Big Data
8 187 (1.53%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 175 (1.44%) SQL Server 2012
10 173 (1.42%) Redis
11 164 (1.35%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 141 (1.16%) SQL Server 2016
13 120 (0.98%) RDBMS
14 98 (0.80%) Azure SQL Database
15 82 (0.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 77 (0.63%) SQL Server 2008
17 72 (0.59%) GIS
18 70 (0.57%) Amazon RDS
19 65 (0.53%) Power BI
20 60 (0.49%) Cosmos DB
Development Applications
1 2,544 (20.86%) Git (software)
2 701 (5.75%) webpack
3 640 (5.25%) Visual Studio
4 595 (4.88%) JIRA
5 555 (4.55%) gulp
6 503 (4.13%) Jenkins
7 384 (3.15%) Grunt
8 378 (3.10%) Team Foundation Server
9 373 (3.06%) Selenium
10 315 (2.58%) Jasmine
11 268 (2.20%) Subversion
12 209 (1.71%) Bitbucket
13 203 (1.66%) TeamCity
14 200 (1.64%) NUnit
15 191 (1.57%) Maven
16 150 (1.23%) Octopus Deploy
17 146 (1.20%) JUnit
17 146 (1.20%) Karma Test Runner
17 146 (1.20%) Mocha
18 139 (1.14%) GitLab
General
1 1,580 (12.96%) Finance
2 769 (6.31%) Marketing
3 638 (5.23%) Retail
4 311 (2.55%) Banking
5 240 (1.97%) Games
6 189 (1.55%) Advertising
7 181 (1.48%) Public Sector
8 155 (1.27%) Manufacturing
9 125 (1.03%) Automotive
10 109 (0.89%) Telecoms
11 86 (0.71%) Legal
12 82 (0.67%) Law
13 73 (0.60%) Electronics
14 63 (0.52%) Publishing
15 48 (0.39%) Multimedia
16 46 (0.38%) Investment Banking
17 45 (0.37%) Back Office
18 40 (0.33%) Financial Institution
19 29 (0.24%) Front Office
20 22 (0.18%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 9,635 (79.02%) Developer
2 2,176 (17.85%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 2,110 (17.31%) .NET Developer
4 1,842 (15.11%) Senior Developer
5 1,508 (12.37%) C# Developer
6 1,147 (9.41%) Software Developer
7 1,135 (9.31%) Full Stack Developer
8 1,070 (8.78%) Web Developer
9 1,029 (8.44%) JavaScript Developer
10 1,006 (8.25%) PHP Developer
11 973 (7.98%) C# .NET Developer
12 840 (6.89%) React Developer
13 686 (5.63%) Software Engineer
14 619 (5.08%) Java Developer
15 573 (4.70%) Junior
16 534 (4.38%) Angular Developer
17 485 (3.98%) Junior Developer
18 475 (3.90%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 384 (3.15%) ASP.NET Developer
20 376 (3.08%) Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 11,217 (92.00%) HTML
2 4,739 (38.87%) .NET
3 4,166 (34.17%) AngularJS
4 3,403 (27.91%) HTML5
5 3,104 (25.46%) React
6 2,997 (24.58%) jQuery
7 2,948 (24.18%) ASP.NET
8 2,296 (18.83%) CSS3
9 1,826 (14.98%) Node.js
10 1,736 (14.24%) Sass
11 1,607 (13.18%) Web Services
12 1,605 (13.16%) REST
13 1,597 (13.10%) ASP.NET MVC
14 1,341 (11.00%) .NET Framework
15 1,273 (10.44%) Vue.js
16 1,171 (9.60%) RESTful
17 1,164 (9.55%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 1,147 (9.41%) ASP.NET Web API
19 941 (7.72%) XML
20 937 (7.68%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 2,044 (16.76%) User Experience
2 921 (7.55%) Greenfield Project
3 706 (5.79%) Mobile App
4 595 (4.88%) Analytical Skills
5 419 (3.44%) Self-Motivation
6 274 (2.25%) Enterprise Software
7 146 (1.20%) Algorithms
8 106 (0.87%) Data Structures
9 101 (0.83%) Linux Command Line
10 98 (0.80%) Hedge funds
11 92 (0.75%) Management Information System
12 91 (0.75%) Graphic Design
13 73 (0.60%) Social Media
14 71 (0.58%) Virtual Team
15 67 (0.55%) W3C
16 63 (0.52%) Cloud Native
17 58 (0.48%) Client/Server
18 54 (0.44%) Tandem
19 53 (0.43%) N-Tier
20 50 (0.41%) Animation
Operating Systems
1 896 (7.35%) Linux
2 542 (4.45%) Windows
3 426 (3.49%) Android
4 386 (3.17%) Apple iOS
5 161 (1.32%) Unix
6 63 (0.52%) Windows Server
7 61 (0.50%) Mac OS X
8 51 (0.42%) CentOS
9 47 (0.39%) Mac OS
10 42 (0.34%) Ubuntu
11 30 (0.25%) VMS
12 22 (0.18%) Debian
13 19 (0.16%) Windows Server 2012
14 18 (0.15%) Fedora
15 13 (0.11%) Windows 7
16 12 (0.098%) Windows 10
16 12 (0.098%) Windows Server 2008
17 10 (0.082%) Windows Phone
18 9 (0.074%) AIX
19 8 (0.066%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,306 (43.52%) Agile Software Development
2 3,597 (29.50%) MVC
3 2,859 (23.45%) Front End Development
4 2,577 (21.14%) Web Development
5 1,848 (15.16%) TDD
6 1,615 (13.25%) Software Engineering
7 1,606 (13.17%) Scrum
8 1,423 (11.67%) OO
9 1,404 (11.51%) DevOps
10 1,165 (9.55%) Problem-Solving
11 1,017 (8.34%) Unit Testing
12 1,013 (8.31%) Computer Science
13 952 (7.81%) E-Commerce
14 946 (7.76%) Test Automation
15 934 (7.66%) Continuous Integration
16 848 (6.95%) OOP
17 845 (6.93%) Mentoring
18 841 (6.90%) Microservices
19 821 (6.73%) SDLC
20 746 (6.12%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 10,413 (85.40%) JavaScript
2 4,885 (40.06%) C#
3 3,069 (25.17%) SQL
4 2,186 (17.93%) PHP
5 1,717 (14.08%) Java
6 1,314 (10.78%) TypeScript
7 968 (7.94%) Python
8 898 (7.36%) ES6
9 616 (5.05%) T-SQL
10 391 (3.21%) VB.NET
11 274 (2.25%) Ruby
12 260 (2.13%) Java 8
13 233 (1.91%) C++
14 166 (1.36%) C
15 146 (1.20%) PowerShell
16 118 (0.97%) PHP 7
17 105 (0.86%) ES7
18 100 (0.82%) PL/SQL
19 98 (0.80%) Go
20 95 (0.78%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 1,388 (11.38%) Degree
2 512 (4.20%) Computer Science Degree
3 173 (1.42%) Security Cleared
4 123 (1.01%) Microsoft Certification
5 100 (0.82%) SC Cleared
6 37 (0.30%) MCSD
7 31 (0.25%) HND
8 28 (0.23%) Master's Degree
9 27 (0.22%) Postgraduate
10 26 (0.21%) MCP
11 23 (0.19%) DBS Check
12 17 (0.14%) MCAD
12 17 (0.14%) Numerate Degree
13 12 (0.098%) MCPD
13 12 (0.098%) MCTS
14 11 (0.090%) CIW
14 11 (0.090%) Oracle Certification
15 10 (0.082%) Analytics IQ
15 10 (0.082%) ISEB
16 9 (0.074%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 478 (3.92%) QA
2 59 (0.48%) GDPR
3 44 (0.36%) SLA
4 43 (0.35%) WCAG
5 32 (0.26%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 16 (0.13%) WAI
7 15 (0.12%) PCI DSS
8 9 (0.074%) PMO
9 6 (0.049%) ISO 9001
10 3 (0.025%) SEPA
11 2 (0.016%) RMADS
12 1 (0.008%) Cyber Essentials
12 1 (0.008%) Data Quality
12 1 (0.008%) Disclosure Scotland
12 1 (0.008%) HL7
12 1 (0.008%) ISO 9000
12 1 (0.008%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 1 (0.008%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 980 (8.04%) Docker
2 48 (0.39%) Active Directory
3 16 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
4 9 (0.074%) Forefront TMG
5 7 (0.057%) Firmware
6 6 (0.049%) Varnish
6 6 (0.049%) VMware Infrastructure
7 5 (0.041%) vCloud
8 3 (0.025%) Hyper-V
8 3 (0.025%) LXC
9 2 (0.016%) Citrix Hypervisor
10 1 (0.008%) Cronacle
10 1 (0.008%) Shibboleth
10 1 (0.008%) vSphere
10 1 (0.008%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 393 (3.22%) Kubernetes
2 115 (0.94%) Terraform
3 85 (0.70%) Ansible
4 81 (0.66%) Opscode Chef
5 51 (0.42%) Kibana
6 40 (0.33%) Single Sign-On
7 34 (0.28%) logstash
8 25 (0.21%) Mesos
9 21 (0.17%) Puppet
10 20 (0.16%) HP Quality Center
11 16 (0.13%) SCCM
12 11 (0.090%) cPanel
12 11 (0.090%) Matomo
13 10 (0.082%) Plesk
14 8 (0.066%) HAProxy
15 7 (0.057%) Ganglia
16 6 (0.049%) Grafana
16 6 (0.049%) Marathon
16 6 (0.049%) Rancher
17 5 (0.041%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 1,620 (13.29%) Microsoft
2 512 (4.20%) Adobe
3 478 (3.92%) Oracle
4 410 (3.36%) Google
5 250 (2.05%) Zend
6 162 (1.33%) Xamarin
7 155 (1.27%) Sitecore
8 145 (1.19%) Salesforce.com
9 124 (1.02%) Atlassian
10 106 (0.87%) SAP
11 67 (0.55%) IBM
12 60 (0.49%) Splunk
13 56 (0.46%) ServiceNow
14 45 (0.37%) Facebook
15 41 (0.34%) Red Hat
16 35 (0.29%) Tableau
17 32 (0.26%) WooCommerce
18 31 (0.25%) Apple
18 31 (0.25%) hybris
19 27 (0.22%) YouTube