Period
to 4 August 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 4 August 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
4 Aug 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 20 22 15
Rank change year-on-year +2 -7 -1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 6,506 14,011 20,062
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 9.78% 9.80% 11.60%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.88% 25.98% 28.84%
Number of salaries quoted 6,165 12,874 18,743
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%
10th Percentile £31,250 £28,750 £27,500
90th Percentile £76,250 £75,000 £72,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 27,242 53,924 69,567
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.93% 37.70% 40.23%
Number of salaries quoted 22,489 44,444 57,806
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £33,750 £31,250 £31,250
90th Percentile £92,500 £86,250 £81,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £48,500 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +7.78% - +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 4 August 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 4 August 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +2 5,988 £50,000 +5.26% 1,075
UK excluding London +1 4,257 £45,000 +5.88% 921
London -6 2,032 £65,000 +8.33% 222
South East +3 1,458 £47,500 +5.56% 163
North of England +2 1,039 £45,000 +7.14% 292
Work from Home 0 673 £50,000 +11.11% 179
North West +4 635 £45,000 +5.88% 159
Midlands 0 587 £45,000 +12.50% 177
South West +4 539 £42,500 +6.25% 141
West Midlands +3 364 £45,000 +12.50% 86
Yorkshire +15 342 £41,500 +3.75% 93
East of England 0 284 £45,000 - 77
East Midlands 0 221 £42,500 +6.25% 90
Scotland +1 218 £45,000 +7.78% 38
Wales -2 103 £40,000 +6.67% 28
North East +2 62 £42,500 - 40
Northern Ireland -12 26 £60,000 +41.18% 6
Channel Islands +1 6 £65,000 -13.33%
Isle of Man +3 1 - -

For the 6 months to 4 August 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,021 (92.55%) HTML
2 5,443 (83.66%) JavaScript
3 2,877 (44.22%) Agile Software Development
4 2,345 (36.04%) .NET
5 2,282 (35.08%) C#
6 2,274 (34.95%) AngularJS
7 1,835 (28.20%) HTML5
8 1,731 (26.61%) React
9 1,667 (25.62%) SQL
10 1,661 (25.53%) MVC
11 1,580 (24.29%) Git (software)
12 1,540 (23.67%) jQuery
13 1,507 (23.16%) Front End Development
14 1,367 (21.01%) Web Development
15 1,319 (20.27%) SQL Server
16 1,316 (20.23%) PHP
17 1,269 (19.51%) ASP.NET
18 1,215 (18.68%) CSS3
19 1,113 (17.11%) Azure
20 1,092 (16.78%) User Experience
21 1,048 (16.11%) Node.js
22 980 (15.06%) TDD
23 930 (14.29%) MySQL
24 926 (14.23%) Scrum
25 912 (14.02%) Sass
26 870 (13.37%) Finance
27 868 (13.34%) Software Engineering
28 847 (13.02%) Vue.js
29 818 (12.57%) DevOps
30 809 (12.43%) TypeScript

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 392 (6.03%) CMS
2 273 (4.20%) WordPress
3 176 (2.71%) Apache
4 121 (1.86%) IIS
5 115 (1.77%) Elasticsearch
6 111 (1.71%) Confluence
7 102 (1.57%) SharePoint
8 68 (1.05%) nginx
8 68 (1.05%) Umbraco
9 56 (0.86%) Drupal
10 41 (0.63%) Tomcat
11 36 (0.55%) EPiServer
12 28 (0.43%) Moodle
13 27 (0.42%) SharePoint 2013
14 25 (0.38%) NServiceBus
14 25 (0.38%) Sitecore CMS
15 21 (0.32%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 18 (0.28%) Joomla!
17 16 (0.25%) JBoss
18 14 (0.22%) Apache Spark
Applications
1 157 (2.41%) Photoshop
2 125 (1.92%) Sketch
3 82 (1.26%) Adobe Illustrator
4 75 (1.15%) InVision
5 69 (1.06%) Microsoft Excel
6 48 (0.74%) Microsoft Office
7 40 (0.61%) Adobe XD
8 35 (0.54%) Zeplin
9 29 (0.45%) Adobe Creative Suite
10 28 (0.43%) Figma
11 15 (0.23%) UXPin
12 14 (0.22%) InDesign
13 10 (0.15%) Chatbot
13 10 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 10 (0.15%) MS Visio
14 9 (0.14%) MadCap Flare
14 9 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
15 6 (0.092%) Marvel
16 3 (0.046%) Adobe Premiere
16 3 (0.046%) Fireworks
Business Applications
1 202 (3.10%) Magento
2 61 (0.94%) Shopify
3 57 (0.88%) Dynamics CRM
4 39 (0.60%) Payment Gateway
5 31 (0.48%) Remedy ITSM
6 22 (0.34%) NetSuite
7 13 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
8 10 (0.15%) Dynamics AX
9 8 (0.12%) OpenCart
9 8 (0.12%) SDL Web 8
10 7 (0.11%) Eloqua
11 6 (0.092%) Maximo
11 6 (0.092%) SAP Hybris
11 6 (0.092%) SAP S/4HANA
12 4 (0.061%) WebTrends
13 3 (0.046%) Distributed Ledger
13 3 (0.046%) Oracle Applications
14 2 (0.031%) OpenText MBPM
14 2 (0.031%) Salesforce.com CRM
14 2 (0.031%) Summit
Cloud Services
1 1,113 (17.11%) Azure
2 671 (10.31%) AWS
3 350 (5.38%) SaaS
4 235 (3.61%) npm
5 189 (2.91%) Serverless
6 165 (2.54%) GitHub
7 153 (2.35%) GCP
8 101 (1.55%) AWS Lambda
9 92 (1.41%) Power Platform
10 75 (1.15%) PaaS
11 65 (1.00%) Cloud Computing
12 59 (0.91%) Google Analytics
13 52 (0.80%) Amazon S3
14 49 (0.75%) Dynamics 365
15 42 (0.65%) Amazon EC2
16 40 (0.61%) Office 365
16 40 (0.61%) Yarn
17 39 (0.60%) Azure Functions
18 31 (0.48%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
19 28 (0.43%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 127 (1.95%) HTTP
2 90 (1.38%) Internet
3 45 (0.69%) Skype
4 37 (0.57%) Intranet
5 35 (0.54%) SSL
6 29 (0.45%) Network Security
7 28 (0.43%) VPN
8 21 (0.32%) DNS
9 17 (0.26%) Firewall
9 17 (0.26%) TCP/IP
10 12 (0.18%) SSH
11 11 (0.17%) Wireless
12 10 (0.15%) Broadband
13 8 (0.12%) MQTT
13 8 (0.12%) RTP
14 6 (0.092%) Cisco ASA
14 6 (0.092%) WAN
15 5 (0.077%) Ethernet
15 5 (0.077%) FTP
15 5 (0.077%) LAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,319 (20.27%) SQL Server
2 930 (14.29%) MySQL
3 331 (5.09%) NoSQL
4 292 (4.49%) MongoDB
5 278 (4.27%) Relational Database
6 223 (3.43%) PostgreSQL
7 142 (2.18%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 127 (1.95%) Redis
9 96 (1.48%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 93 (1.43%) SQL Server 2012
11 90 (1.38%) Big Data
12 74 (1.14%) Power BI
13 72 (1.11%) SQL Server 2008
14 56 (0.86%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 56 (0.86%) RDBMS
15 50 (0.77%) SQL Server 2016
16 49 (0.75%) SQL Server Analysis Services
17 40 (0.61%) Azure SQL Database
18 39 (0.60%) MariaDB
19 36 (0.55%) Amazon RDS
Development Applications
1 1,580 (24.29%) Git (software)
2 440 (6.76%) webpack
3 338 (5.20%) JIRA
4 328 (5.04%) Visual Studio
5 260 (4.00%) gulp
6 249 (3.83%) Jenkins
7 230 (3.54%) Selenium
8 191 (2.94%) Team Foundation Server
9 190 (2.92%) Grunt
10 169 (2.60%) Subversion
11 141 (2.17%) Jasmine
12 127 (1.95%) NUnit
13 112 (1.72%) Bitbucket
14 97 (1.49%) Cypress.io
15 94 (1.44%) TeamCity
16 76 (1.17%) Mocha
17 71 (1.09%) Maven
18 67 (1.03%) Octopus Deploy
19 64 (0.98%) Karma Test Runner
20 59 (0.91%) Babel
General
1 870 (13.37%) Finance
2 433 (6.66%) Marketing
3 307 (4.72%) Retail
4 120 (1.84%) Public Sector
5 109 (1.68%) Games
6 98 (1.51%) Banking
7 85 (1.31%) Manufacturing
8 83 (1.28%) Law
9 60 (0.92%) Telecoms
10 56 (0.86%) Legal
10 56 (0.86%) Publishing
11 51 (0.78%) Advertising
12 47 (0.72%) Financial Institution
13 44 (0.68%) Back Office
14 39 (0.60%) Front Office
15 38 (0.58%) Electronics
16 29 (0.45%) Local Government
17 25 (0.38%) Automotive
18 24 (0.37%) Pharmaceutical
19 23 (0.35%) Investment Banking
Job Titles
1 5,145 (79.08%) Developer
2 1,221 (18.77%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 962 (14.79%) Senior Developer
4 935 (14.37%) .NET Developer
5 677 (10.41%) PHP Developer
6 630 (9.68%) Full Stack Developer
7 585 (8.99%) C# Developer
8 583 (8.96%) Software Developer
9 521 (8.01%) JavaScript Developer
10 502 (7.72%) Web Developer
11 475 (7.30%) React Developer
12 403 (6.19%) Software Engineer
13 364 (5.59%) C# .NET Developer
14 279 (4.29%) Angular Developer
15 245 (3.77%) Junior
16 237 (3.64%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 232 (3.57%) Java Developer
18 209 (3.21%) Senior .NET Developer
19 201 (3.09%) Lead Developer
20 198 (3.04%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,021 (92.55%) HTML
2 2,345 (36.04%) .NET
3 2,274 (34.95%) AngularJS
4 1,835 (28.20%) HTML5
5 1,731 (26.61%) React
6 1,540 (23.67%) jQuery
7 1,269 (19.51%) ASP.NET
8 1,215 (18.68%) CSS3
9 1,048 (16.11%) Node.js
10 912 (14.02%) Sass
11 847 (13.02%) Vue.js
12 808 (12.42%) REST
13 792 (12.17%) Web Services
14 777 (11.94%) .NET Core
15 766 (11.77%) .NET Framework
16 648 (9.96%) ASP.NET MVC
17 641 (9.85%) ASP.NET Web API
18 634 (9.74%) RESTful
19 516 (7.93%) Redux
20 515 (7.92%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 1,092 (16.78%) User Experience
2 483 (7.42%) Greenfield Project
3 339 (5.21%) Mobile App
4 306 (4.70%) Analytical Skills
5 206 (3.17%) Self-Motivation
6 138 (2.12%) Enterprise Software
7 73 (1.12%) Hedge funds
8 50 (0.77%) Data Structures
9 46 (0.71%) Cloud Native
10 44 (0.68%) Linux Command Line
11 41 (0.63%) Algorithms
12 36 (0.55%) Blog
13 35 (0.54%) e-Learning
14 34 (0.52%) NHS
14 34 (0.52%) N-Tier
15 32 (0.49%) Marketing Technology
16 31 (0.48%) W3C
17 29 (0.45%) Social Media
18 28 (0.43%) Virtual Team
19 26 (0.40%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 534 (8.21%) Linux
2 270 (4.15%) Windows
3 171 (2.63%) Android
4 160 (2.46%) Apple iOS
5 83 (1.28%) Unix
6 48 (0.74%) Windows Server
7 32 (0.49%) Ubuntu
8 28 (0.43%) CentOS
9 20 (0.31%) Windows Server 2012
10 18 (0.28%) Windows Server 2016
11 15 (0.23%) Mac OS X
12 13 (0.20%) Windows Server 2008
13 8 (0.12%) Debian
13 8 (0.12%) Windows 10
14 7 (0.11%) Windows 7
15 4 (0.061%) Mac OS
16 1 (0.015%) Fedora
16 1 (0.015%) MVS
16 1 (0.015%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16 1 (0.015%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,877 (44.22%) Agile Software Development
2 1,661 (25.53%) MVC
3 1,507 (23.16%) Front End Development
4 1,367 (21.01%) Web Development
5 980 (15.06%) TDD
6 926 (14.23%) Scrum
7 868 (13.34%) Software Engineering
8 818 (12.57%) DevOps
9 635 (9.76%) OO
10 623 (9.58%) Microservices
11 597 (9.18%) Problem-Solving
12 552 (8.48%) Test Automation
13 529 (8.13%) OOP
14 528 (8.12%) E-Commerce
15 465 (7.15%) Continuous Integration
16 453 (6.96%) Unit Testing
17 427 (6.56%) Computer Science
18 410 (6.30%) Fintech
19 382 (5.87%) Mentoring
20 372 (5.72%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 5,443 (83.66%) JavaScript
2 2,282 (35.08%) C#
3 1,667 (25.62%) SQL
4 1,316 (20.23%) PHP
5 809 (12.43%) TypeScript
6 776 (11.93%) Java
7 518 (7.96%) Python
8 457 (7.02%) ES6
9 307 (4.72%) T-SQL
10 183 (2.81%) Ruby
11 150 (2.31%) C++
12 134 (2.06%) VB.NET
13 84 (1.29%) C
14 73 (1.12%) PHP 7
15 70 (1.08%) Java 8
16 69 (1.06%) PowerShell
17 65 (1.00%) PL/SQL
18 49 (0.75%) Scala
19 48 (0.74%) Go
19 48 (0.74%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 693 (10.65%) Degree
2 277 (4.26%) Computer Science Degree
3 99 (1.52%) Security Cleared
4 71 (1.09%) SC Cleared
5 35 (0.54%) Microsoft Certification
6 16 (0.25%) DV Cleared
7 15 (0.23%) DBS Check
8 12 (0.18%) AWS Certification
9 9 (0.14%) Master's Degree
10 7 (0.11%) Analytics IQ
11 6 (0.092%) HND
11 6 (0.092%) MCPD
11 6 (0.092%) PhD
12 5 (0.077%) CCNP
12 5 (0.077%) Cisco Certification
13 4 (0.061%) Numerate Degree
14 3 (0.046%) CCNA
14 3 (0.046%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 3 (0.046%) MBCS
15 2 (0.031%) SAP Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 326 (5.01%) QA
2 35 (0.54%) GDPR
3 22 (0.34%) Data Quality
4 19 (0.29%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 10 (0.15%) WCAG
6 7 (0.11%) PCI DSS
7 5 (0.077%) ISO 9001
7 5 (0.077%) SLA
8 2 (0.031%) HL7
8 2 (0.031%) MiFID
8 2 (0.031%) PMO
9 1 (0.015%) EMIR
9 1 (0.015%) GxP
9 1 (0.015%) ISO 9000
9 1 (0.015%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 595 (9.15%) Docker
2 29 (0.45%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.15%) vSphere
4 9 (0.14%) Squid
5 7 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
6 4 (0.061%) Firmware
7 3 (0.046%) Hyper-V
7 3 (0.046%) Microsoft Virtual Server
7 3 (0.046%) Virtual Machines
7 3 (0.046%) Virtual Servers
8 2 (0.031%) LXC
8 2 (0.031%) Varnish
9 1 (0.015%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 272 (4.18%) Kubernetes
2 63 (0.97%) Terraform
3 41 (0.63%) Ansible
4 19 (0.29%) HP UCMDB
5 17 (0.26%) cPanel
5 17 (0.26%) Single Sign-On
6 16 (0.25%) Opscode Chef
7 15 (0.23%) Kibana
8 11 (0.17%) logstash
8 11 (0.17%) Puppet
9 6 (0.092%) Packer
10 5 (0.077%) CA Single Sign-On
10 5 (0.077%) MIIS
10 5 (0.077%) TeamSite
11 4 (0.061%) Grafana
12 3 (0.046%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
12 3 (0.046%) vRealize
13 2 (0.031%) Hadoop YARN
13 2 (0.031%) Rancher
13 2 (0.031%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 705 (10.84%) Microsoft
2 221 (3.40%) Google
3 213 (3.27%) Adobe
4 194 (2.98%) Oracle
5 171 (2.63%) Zend
6 109 (1.68%) Salesforce.com
7 106 (1.63%) Xamarin
8 78 (1.20%) ServiceNow
9 58 (0.89%) Atlassian
10 57 (0.88%) SAP
11 38 (0.58%) Remedy
12 33 (0.51%) VMware
13 27 (0.42%) Sitecore
14 25 (0.38%) IBM
15 24 (0.37%) Pardot
16 22 (0.34%) TIBCO
17 21 (0.32%) hybris
18 19 (0.29%) HP
18 19 (0.29%) Tableau
18 19 (0.29%) Telerik