Period
to 28 February 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 28 February 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
28 Feb 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 17 20 16
Rank change year-on-year +3 -4 -1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 7,403 12,052 16,555
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.01% 9.80% 10.96%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.13% 25.24% 27.61%
Number of salaries quoted 7,648 11,254 14,907
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £28,500
90th Percentile £75,000 £77,500 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 30,684 47,755 59,960
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 41.48% 38.84% 39.71%
Number of salaries quoted 25,422 39,586 49,761
Median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £34,500 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 28 February 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 28 February 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +2 6,642 £50,000 - 1,812
UK excluding London +1 5,101 £45,000 - 1,465
London -5 1,955 £65,000 +4.00% 488
Work from Home -4 1,574 £47,500 - 498
South East +3 1,458 £50,000 +11.11% 317
North of England +5 1,189 £42,500 -5.56% 437
Midlands +3 864 £44,000 +10.00% 292
South West 0 749 £45,000 +12.50% 176
North West +2 614 £45,000 - 236
West Midlands +5 509 £45,000 +12.50% 179
Yorkshire +7 474 £42,500 - 158
East Midlands 0 353 £42,500 +6.25% 113
Scotland -5 325 £45,000 +5.88% 85
East of England +1 323 £45,000 -5.26% 95
Wales +6 123 £40,000 +6.67% 44
North East +4 101 £45,000 +12.50% 43
Northern Ireland +3 52 £40,000 -20.00% 18
Isle of Man +4 25 £49,500 - 2

For the 6 months to 28 February 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,820 (92.12%) HTML
2 6,453 (87.17%) JavaScript
3 3,004 (40.58%) Agile Software Development
4 2,535 (34.24%) C#
5 2,392 (32.31%) .NET
6 2,183 (29.49%) React
7 2,149 (29.03%) HTML5
8 2,096 (28.31%) SQL
9 2,089 (28.22%) AngularJS
10 1,801 (24.33%) Front End Development
11 1,763 (23.81%) Git (software)
12 1,708 (23.07%) PHP
13 1,694 (22.88%) MVC
14 1,644 (22.21%) Azure
15 1,521 (20.55%) jQuery
15 1,521 (20.55%) CSS3
16 1,513 (20.44%) Web Development
17 1,418 (19.15%) SQL Server
18 1,350 (18.24%) User Experience
19 1,348 (18.21%) Node.js
20 1,160 (15.67%) MySQL
21 1,157 (15.63%) TypeScript
22 1,152 (15.56%) ASP.NET
23 1,101 (14.87%) Vue.js
24 1,069 (14.44%) Java
25 1,062 (14.35%) DevOps
26 954 (12.89%) .NET Core
27 952 (12.86%) Scrum
28 949 (12.82%) Microsoft
29 933 (12.60%) TDD

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 501 (6.77%) CMS
2 351 (4.74%) WordPress
3 231 (3.12%) SharePoint
4 144 (1.95%) Confluence
5 142 (1.92%) Apache
6 130 (1.76%) IIS
7 121 (1.63%) Drupal
8 113 (1.53%) Umbraco
9 89 (1.20%) Elasticsearch
10 78 (1.05%) Sitecore CMS
11 74 (1.00%) EPiServer
12 64 (0.86%) Tomcat
13 53 (0.72%) nginx
14 45 (0.61%) Kentico
15 37 (0.50%) NServiceBus
16 33 (0.45%) Apache Solr
17 27 (0.36%) Joomla!
18 23 (0.31%) Apache Spark
19 22 (0.30%) JBoss
20 21 (0.28%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 146 (1.97%) Photoshop
2 125 (1.69%) Sketch
3 98 (1.32%) InVision
4 86 (1.16%) Adobe Illustrator
5 77 (1.04%) Figma
6 64 (0.86%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 58 (0.78%) Adobe XD
8 44 (0.59%) Microsoft Office
9 39 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
10 23 (0.31%) Zeplin
11 13 (0.18%) Chatbot
12 12 (0.16%) InDesign
13 11 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 8 (0.11%) Adobe After Effects
15 7 (0.095%) MS Visio
15 7 (0.095%) Spreadsheet
15 7 (0.095%) UXPin
16 4 (0.054%) GIMP
17 3 (0.041%) AutoCAD
17 3 (0.041%) CINEMA 4D
Business Applications
1 219 (2.96%) Magento
2 157 (2.12%) Dynamics CRM
3 121 (1.63%) Shopify
4 44 (0.59%) Payment Gateway
5 25 (0.34%) OpenCart
6 19 (0.26%) nopCommerce
7 18 (0.24%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 15 (0.20%) Siebel CRM
9 14 (0.19%) Remedy ITSM
10 10 (0.14%) NetSuite
11 8 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
11 8 (0.11%) Maximo
12 5 (0.068%) Dynamics NAV
12 5 (0.068%) Salesforce.com CRM
13 4 (0.054%) Bond Adapt
13 4 (0.054%) Unica
14 3 (0.041%) Odoo
14 3 (0.041%) Oracle Applications
15 2 (0.027%) SAP ERP
15 2 (0.027%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 1,644 (22.21%) Azure
2 864 (11.67%) AWS
3 483 (6.52%) SaaS
4 222 (3.00%) Serverless
5 210 (2.84%) Power Platform
6 205 (2.77%) PaaS
7 202 (2.73%) GCP
8 197 (2.66%) npm
9 167 (2.26%) Dynamics 365
10 163 (2.20%) GitHub
11 108 (1.46%) AWS Lambda
12 79 (1.07%) Azure Functions
13 78 (1.05%) Azure Active Directory
14 74 (1.00%) PowerApps
15 72 (0.97%) Google Analytics
16 70 (0.95%) Cloud Computing
17 60 (0.81%) Amazon EC2
18 59 (0.80%) IaaS
19 56 (0.76%) Microsoft 365
20 55 (0.74%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 142 (1.92%) HTTP
2 82 (1.11%) Internet
3 37 (0.50%) Skype
4 33 (0.45%) SSL
5 31 (0.42%) Intranet
6 27 (0.36%) TCP/IP
7 24 (0.32%) Wireless
8 23 (0.31%) VPN
9 21 (0.28%) Network Security
10 20 (0.27%) DNS
10 20 (0.27%) MQTT
11 18 (0.24%) Ethernet
12 16 (0.22%) Wi-Fi
13 15 (0.20%) RTP
13 15 (0.20%) SSH
14 14 (0.19%) Bluetooth
15 13 (0.18%) FTP
16 10 (0.14%) Firewall
17 9 (0.12%) HTTPS
17 9 (0.12%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,418 (19.15%) SQL Server
2 1,160 (15.67%) MySQL
3 355 (4.80%) NoSQL
4 321 (4.34%) MongoDB
5 310 (4.19%) Relational Database
6 258 (3.49%) PostgreSQL
7 109 (1.47%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 107 (1.45%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 101 (1.36%) Azure SQL Database
10 99 (1.34%) Redis
11 96 (1.30%) Big Data
12 85 (1.15%) SQL Server 2012
13 77 (1.04%) Power BI
14 56 (0.76%) Amazon RDS
15 50 (0.68%) Cosmos DB
16 48 (0.65%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 44 (0.59%) SQL Server 2008
18 43 (0.58%) RDBMS
19 39 (0.53%) Data Lake
20 33 (0.45%) SQL Server 2019
Development Applications
1 1,763 (23.81%) Git (software)
2 328 (4.43%) Visual Studio
3 320 (4.32%) JIRA
4 318 (4.30%) webpack
5 258 (3.49%) Team Foundation Server
6 247 (3.34%) gulp
7 209 (2.82%) Jenkins
8 152 (2.05%) Selenium
9 150 (2.03%) Grunt
10 137 (1.85%) Visual Studio Team System
11 125 (1.69%) Cypress.io
12 108 (1.46%) JUnit
13 105 (1.42%) Bitbucket
14 104 (1.40%) Subversion
15 99 (1.34%) Maven
16 94 (1.27%) NUnit
17 88 (1.19%) Jasmine
18 72 (0.97%) PHPUnit
19 65 (0.88%) Mocha
20 63 (0.85%) Babel
General
1 819 (11.06%) Finance
2 437 (5.90%) Marketing
3 307 (4.15%) Retail
4 262 (3.54%) Public Sector
5 243 (3.28%) Games
6 198 (2.67%) Banking
7 165 (2.23%) Manufacturing
8 132 (1.78%) Telecoms
9 103 (1.39%) Multimedia
10 90 (1.22%) Back Office
11 83 (1.12%) Electronics
12 78 (1.05%) Automotive
12 78 (1.05%) Law
13 71 (0.96%) Advertising
14 55 (0.74%) Publishing
15 47 (0.63%) Private Banking
16 44 (0.59%) Local Government
17 43 (0.58%) Legal
18 30 (0.41%) Front Office
19 29 (0.39%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 5,985 (80.85%) Developer
2 1,290 (17.43%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,262 (17.05%) Senior Developer
4 936 (12.64%) .NET Developer
5 902 (12.18%) Full Stack Developer
6 779 (10.52%) PHP Developer
7 667 (9.01%) Software Developer
8 644 (8.70%) C# Developer
9 609 (8.23%) Web Developer
10 598 (8.08%) React Developer
11 530 (7.16%) JavaScript Developer
12 465 (6.28%) C# .NET Developer
13 395 (5.34%) Software Engineer
14 303 (4.09%) Angular Developer
15 281 (3.80%) Lead Developer
16 277 (3.74%) Senior .NET Developer
17 274 (3.70%) Java Developer
18 261 (3.53%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 253 (3.42%) Junior
20 225 (3.04%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,820 (92.12%) HTML
2 2,392 (32.31%) .NET
3 2,183 (29.49%) React
4 2,149 (29.03%) HTML5
5 2,089 (28.22%) AngularJS
6 1,521 (20.55%) CSS3
6 1,521 (20.55%) jQuery
7 1,348 (18.21%) Node.js
8 1,152 (15.56%) ASP.NET
9 1,101 (14.87%) Vue.js
10 954 (12.89%) .NET Core
11 926 (12.51%) Sass
12 844 (11.40%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 806 (10.89%) REST
14 757 (10.23%) .NET Framework
15 732 (9.89%) RESTful
16 686 (9.27%) Web Services
17 631 (8.52%) Laravel
18 606 (8.19%) ASP.NET Web API
19 570 (7.70%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 1,350 (18.24%) User Experience
2 508 (6.86%) Greenfield Project
3 446 (6.02%) Analytical Skills
4 393 (5.31%) Mobile App
5 216 (2.92%) Self-Motivation
6 213 (2.88%) Enterprise Software
7 160 (2.16%) N-Tier
8 114 (1.54%) Data Structures
9 65 (0.88%) Linux Command Line
9 65 (0.88%) Virtual Team
10 61 (0.82%) Cloud Native
11 51 (0.69%) Graphic Design
12 50 (0.68%) Algorithms
13 46 (0.62%) Social Media
14 41 (0.55%) Client/Server
15 40 (0.54%) Public Cloud
16 39 (0.53%) Reinsurance
17 38 (0.51%) NHS
18 35 (0.47%) Management Information System
19 34 (0.46%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 591 (7.98%) Linux
2 368 (4.97%) Windows
3 170 (2.30%) Android
4 162 (2.19%) Apple iOS
5 86 (1.16%) Windows Server
6 70 (0.95%) Unix
7 50 (0.68%) Ubuntu
8 32 (0.43%) Debian
9 26 (0.35%) CentOS
10 7 (0.095%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 7 (0.095%) VMS
10 7 (0.095%) Windows 7
10 7 (0.095%) Windows Server 2008
11 6 (0.081%) Windows 10
12 5 (0.068%) Solaris
13 4 (0.054%) Windows Server 2012
13 4 (0.054%) Windows Server 2016
14 3 (0.041%) AIX
15 2 (0.027%) Mac OS X
16 1 (0.014%) Fedora
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,004 (40.58%) Agile Software Development
2 1,801 (24.33%) Front End Development
3 1,694 (22.88%) MVC
4 1,513 (20.44%) Web Development
5 1,062 (14.35%) DevOps
6 952 (12.86%) Scrum
7 933 (12.60%) TDD
8 899 (12.14%) Software Engineering
9 890 (12.02%) OO
10 848 (11.45%) Microservices
11 697 (9.42%) E-Commerce
12 599 (8.09%) Test Automation
13 585 (7.90%) Unit Testing
14 543 (7.33%) Problem-Solving
15 534 (7.21%) OOP
16 487 (6.58%) Continuous Integration
17 459 (6.20%) Mentoring
18 443 (5.98%) SDLC
19 433 (5.85%) Computer Science
20 394 (5.32%) Fintech
Programming Languages
1 6,453 (87.17%) JavaScript
2 2,535 (34.24%) C#
3 2,096 (28.31%) SQL
4 1,708 (23.07%) PHP
5 1,157 (15.63%) TypeScript
6 1,069 (14.44%) Java
7 700 (9.46%) Python
8 425 (5.74%) ES6
9 370 (5.00%) T-SQL
10 154 (2.08%) PowerShell
11 142 (1.92%) Java 8
12 140 (1.89%) Ruby
13 124 (1.67%) C++
14 107 (1.45%) VB.NET
15 81 (1.09%) Go
16 71 (0.96%) C
17 67 (0.91%) Scala
18 62 (0.84%) Kotlin
19 55 (0.74%) PHP 7
20 54 (0.73%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 744 (10.05%) Degree
2 218 (2.94%) Computer Science Degree
3 111 (1.50%) Security Cleared
4 96 (1.30%) SC Cleared
5 59 (0.80%) CIW
5 59 (0.80%) OCA
5 59 (0.80%) OCP
5 59 (0.80%) Oracle Certification
6 35 (0.47%) Microsoft Certification
7 15 (0.20%) SANS
8 14 (0.19%) DV Cleared
9 12 (0.16%) Numerate Degree
10 9 (0.12%) HND
10 9 (0.12%) PMI Certification
11 8 (0.11%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
12 7 (0.095%) AWS Certification
12 7 (0.095%) Master's Degree
12 7 (0.095%) Postgraduate
13 5 (0.068%) HNC
13 5 (0.068%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 351 (4.74%) QA
2 43 (0.58%) WCAG
3 34 (0.46%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 18 (0.24%) GDPR
5 17 (0.23%) SLA
6 15 (0.20%) WAI
7 5 (0.068%) ISO/IEC 20000
8 4 (0.054%) PCI DSS
8 4 (0.054%) PSD2
9 3 (0.041%) ISO 13485
10 2 (0.027%) Good Clinical Practice
10 2 (0.027%) NCSC
10 2 (0.027%) PMO
11 1 (0.014%) Actionable Recommendations
11 1 (0.014%) Data Quality
11 1 (0.014%) NIST
System Software
1 643 (8.69%) Docker
2 31 (0.42%) Active Directory
3 8 (0.11%) Firmware
3 8 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
4 7 (0.095%) Kamailio
4 7 (0.095%) OpenSIPS
5 5 (0.068%) Virtual Machines
6 4 (0.054%) KVM
6 4 (0.054%) Varnish
7 1 (0.014%) Citrix Hypervisor
7 1 (0.014%) Hyper-V
7 1 (0.014%) LXC
7 1 (0.014%) Terminal Services
7 1 (0.014%) VirtualBox
7 1 (0.014%) VMware ESXi
7 1 (0.014%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 324 (4.38%) Kubernetes
2 161 (2.17%) Terraform
3 74 (1.00%) Opscode Chef
4 50 (0.68%) Ansible
5 33 (0.45%) Puppet
6 18 (0.24%) MIIS
7 16 (0.22%) Single Sign-On
8 14 (0.19%) HP UCMDB
9 11 (0.15%) Docker Swarm
10 8 (0.11%) Prometheus
11 6 (0.081%) HP Fortify
11 6 (0.081%) Kibana
11 6 (0.081%) Packer
12 3 (0.041%) cPanel
12 3 (0.041%) HAProxy
12 3 (0.041%) Plesk
12 3 (0.041%) vRealize
13 2 (0.027%) Icinga
13 2 (0.027%) Rancher
13 2 (0.027%) Salt
Vendors
1 949 (12.82%) Microsoft
2 260 (3.51%) Adobe
3 255 (3.44%) Google
4 205 (2.77%) Oracle
5 104 (1.40%) Sitecore
6 98 (1.32%) Zend
7 96 (1.30%) Salesforce.com
8 86 (1.16%) SAP
9 79 (1.07%) Nintex
10 76 (1.03%) Xamarin
11 52 (0.70%) Atlassian
12 36 (0.49%) Databricks
13 33 (0.45%) VMware
13 33 (0.45%) WooCommerce
14 32 (0.43%) IBM
15 31 (0.42%) ServiceNow
16 30 (0.41%) Apple
17 28 (0.38%) Siebel
18 22 (0.30%) Splunk
19 20 (0.27%) HP