Period
to 9 April 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
9 Apr 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 20 18 14
Rank change year-on-year -2 -4 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 11,324 15,879 21,440
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 9.83% 10.66% 12.10%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.97% 27.17% 29.75%
Number of salaries quoted 10,514 14,135 20,196
Median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%
10th Percentile £31,250 £27,500 £27,500
90th Percentile £78,750 £75,000 £70,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £40,000
% change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 45,355 58,444 72,073
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.38% 39.22% 40.67%
Number of salaries quoted 37,310 47,904 60,893
Median annual salary £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £30,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £79,200
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £43,500
% change year-on-year +5.56% +3.45% +2.35%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 9 April 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 9 April 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 10,283 £50,000 +5.26% 1,510
UK excluding London +1 7,263 £45,000 +5.88% 1,190
London -7 3,706 £65,000 +8.33% 418
South East 0 2,534 £45,000 - 284
North of England -3 1,510 £45,000 +7.14% 351
Midlands +2 1,058 £42,500 +6.25% 215
Work from Home 0 902 £48,000 +4.35% 123
North West -2 882 £45,000 +5.88% 194
South West -1 876 £40,000 - 130
West Midlands +3 583 £42,500 +6.25% 117
East of England -3 543 £47,500 - 110
Yorkshire -3 511 £41,500 +3.75% 111
Scotland +1 496 £45,000 +11.80% 52
East Midlands -1 475 £42,500 +13.33% 98
Wales -3 184 £37,500 +4.17% 47
North East -2 117 £40,000 +1.27% 46
Northern Ireland -9 62 £50,000 +11.11% 2
Channel Islands -1 6 £65,000 +44.44%
Isle of Man - 1 - -

For the 6 months to 9 April 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 10,431 (92.11%) HTML
2 9,541 (84.25%) JavaScript
3 5,020 (44.33%) Agile Software Development
4 4,379 (38.67%) C#
5 4,341 (38.33%) .NET
6 3,994 (35.27%) AngularJS
7 3,272 (28.89%) HTML5
8 3,128 (27.62%) MVC
9 3,048 (26.92%) React
10 2,855 (25.21%) SQL
11 2,759 (24.36%) jQuery
12 2,666 (23.54%) Front End Development
13 2,477 (21.87%) ASP.NET
14 2,448 (21.62%) Git (software)
15 2,358 (20.82%) SQL Server
16 2,287 (20.20%) Web Development
17 2,172 (19.18%) CSS3
18 2,067 (18.25%) PHP
19 2,018 (17.82%) Azure
20 1,952 (17.24%) User Experience
21 1,833 (16.19%) Node.js
22 1,728 (15.26%) Sass
23 1,726 (15.24%) TDD
24 1,601 (14.14%) Finance
25 1,581 (13.96%) Java
26 1,558 (13.76%) Scrum
27 1,539 (13.59%) Software Engineering
28 1,468 (12.96%) REST
29 1,467 (12.95%) Web Services
30 1,455 (12.85%) MySQL

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 685 (6.05%) CMS
2 426 (3.76%) WordPress
3 267 (2.36%) SharePoint
4 220 (1.94%) Apache
5 196 (1.73%) Elasticsearch
6 193 (1.70%) IIS
7 178 (1.57%) Confluence
8 149 (1.32%) Umbraco
9 144 (1.27%) Drupal
10 102 (0.90%) Tomcat
11 96 (0.85%) nginx
12 91 (0.80%) Sitecore CMS
13 85 (0.75%) EPiServer
14 50 (0.44%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 44 (0.39%) JBoss
15 44 (0.39%) SharePoint 2013
16 39 (0.34%) ArcGIS
17 36 (0.32%) Kentico
18 34 (0.30%) Oracle Spatial
19 33 (0.29%) Apache Spark
Applications
1 285 (2.52%) Photoshop
2 213 (1.88%) Sketch
3 161 (1.42%) Adobe Illustrator
4 142 (1.25%) InVision
5 119 (1.05%) Microsoft Office
6 102 (0.90%) Microsoft Excel
7 96 (0.85%) Adobe XD
8 74 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 64 (0.57%) Zeplin
10 27 (0.24%) InDesign
11 26 (0.23%) Figma
11 26 (0.23%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 20 (0.18%) Chatbot
13 17 (0.15%) InfoPath
14 14 (0.12%) Marvel
14 14 (0.12%) UXPin
15 12 (0.11%) Fireworks
15 12 (0.11%) MS Visio
16 10 (0.088%) Adobe After Effects
16 10 (0.088%) MadCap Flare
Business Applications
1 265 (2.34%) Magento
2 98 (0.87%) Dynamics CRM
3 64 (0.57%) Shopify
4 41 (0.36%) NetSuite
5 34 (0.30%) Payment Gateway
6 16 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
7 14 (0.12%) Dynamics AX
8 12 (0.11%) OpenCart
9 11 (0.097%) Adobe Campaign
10 8 (0.071%) SDL Web 8
11 7 (0.062%) Distributed Ledger
11 7 (0.062%) GoldMine
12 6 (0.053%) Remedy ITSM
12 6 (0.053%) SAP S/4HANA
13 5 (0.044%) Oracle Applications
14 4 (0.035%) Eloqua
14 4 (0.035%) OpenText MBPM
14 4 (0.035%) StreamServe
15 3 (0.026%) Salesforce.com CRM
16 2 (0.018%) SAP BPC
Cloud Services
1 2,018 (17.82%) Azure
2 1,375 (12.14%) AWS
3 557 (4.92%) SaaS
4 397 (3.51%) npm
5 280 (2.47%) GitHub
6 278 (2.45%) Serverless
7 229 (2.02%) GCP
8 167 (1.47%) AWS Lambda
9 144 (1.27%) PaaS
10 120 (1.06%) Power Platform
11 105 (0.93%) Amazon S3
11 105 (0.93%) Office 365
12 103 (0.91%) Google Analytics
13 74 (0.65%) Cloud Computing
14 70 (0.62%) Dynamics 365
15 68 (0.60%) Amazon SQS
16 67 (0.59%) Amazon ECS
17 65 (0.57%) Amazon EC2
18 62 (0.55%) PowerApps
19 60 (0.53%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 181 (1.60%) Internet
2 172 (1.52%) HTTP
3 77 (0.68%) Intranet
4 52 (0.46%) DNS
5 47 (0.42%) SSL
6 32 (0.28%) VPN
7 26 (0.23%) Firewall
8 25 (0.22%) TCP/IP
9 24 (0.21%) Network Security
10 23 (0.20%) Wireless
11 19 (0.17%) SSH
12 16 (0.14%) Skype
13 14 (0.12%) RTP
14 13 (0.11%) RFID
15 11 (0.097%) AMQP
16 8 (0.071%) Extranet
16 8 (0.071%) VoIP
17 7 (0.062%) Broadband
17 7 (0.062%) Cisco ASA
17 7 (0.062%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,358 (20.82%) SQL Server
2 1,455 (12.85%) MySQL
3 507 (4.48%) Relational Database
4 506 (4.47%) NoSQL
5 379 (3.35%) PostgreSQL
6 361 (3.19%) MongoDB
7 172 (1.52%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 167 (1.47%) Redis
9 158 (1.40%) Big Data
9 158 (1.40%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 139 (1.23%) SQL Server 2012
11 121 (1.07%) SQL Server 2016
12 112 (0.99%) RDBMS
13 101 (0.89%) Azure SQL Database
14 89 (0.79%) SQL Server 2008
15 86 (0.76%) Power BI
16 78 (0.69%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 76 (0.67%) Amazon RDS
18 63 (0.56%) Cosmos DB
19 58 (0.51%) GIS
Development Applications
1 2,448 (21.62%) Git (software)
2 703 (6.21%) webpack
3 609 (5.38%) Visual Studio
4 558 (4.93%) gulp
5 549 (4.85%) JIRA
6 478 (4.22%) Jenkins
7 379 (3.35%) Grunt
8 368 (3.25%) Selenium
9 346 (3.06%) Team Foundation Server
10 281 (2.48%) Jasmine
11 245 (2.16%) Subversion
12 233 (2.06%) NUnit
13 176 (1.55%) Bitbucket
14 170 (1.50%) Maven
15 165 (1.46%) TeamCity
16 142 (1.25%) Octopus Deploy
17 141 (1.25%) Karma Test Runner
18 140 (1.24%) Mocha
19 130 (1.15%) GitLab
20 116 (1.02%) JUnit
General
1 1,601 (14.14%) Finance
2 686 (6.06%) Marketing
3 583 (5.15%) Retail
4 277 (2.45%) Banking
5 262 (2.31%) Games
6 158 (1.40%) Public Sector
7 130 (1.15%) Manufacturing
8 107 (0.94%) Advertising
9 100 (0.88%) Automotive
10 96 (0.85%) Telecoms
11 94 (0.83%) Legal
12 87 (0.77%) Law
13 65 (0.57%) Back Office
14 57 (0.50%) Publishing
15 54 (0.48%) Financial Institution
16 50 (0.44%) Electronics
17 49 (0.43%) Front Office
18 44 (0.39%) Investment Banking
19 37 (0.33%) Pharmaceutical
20 32 (0.28%) Multimedia
Job Titles
1 8,979 (79.29%) Developer
2 2,065 (18.24%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,847 (16.31%) .NET Developer
4 1,736 (15.33%) Senior Developer
5 1,260 (11.13%) C# Developer
6 1,210 (10.69%) Full Stack Developer
7 1,069 (9.44%) Software Developer
8 931 (8.22%) Web Developer
9 930 (8.21%) PHP Developer
10 926 (8.18%) JavaScript Developer
11 816 (7.21%) React Developer
12 784 (6.92%) C# .NET Developer
13 654 (5.78%) Software Engineer
14 566 (5.00%) Java Developer
15 530 (4.68%) Angular Developer
16 519 (4.58%) Junior
17 472 (4.17%) Senior Front-End Developer
18 437 (3.86%) Junior Developer
19 339 (2.99%) Senior .NET Developer
20 335 (2.96%) Designer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 10,431 (92.11%) HTML
2 4,341 (38.33%) .NET
3 3,994 (35.27%) AngularJS
4 3,272 (28.89%) HTML5
5 3,048 (26.92%) React
6 2,759 (24.36%) jQuery
7 2,477 (21.87%) ASP.NET
8 2,172 (19.18%) CSS3
9 1,833 (16.19%) Node.js
10 1,728 (15.26%) Sass
11 1,468 (12.96%) REST
12 1,467 (12.95%) Web Services
13 1,326 (11.71%) .NET Framework
14 1,269 (11.21%) ASP.NET MVC
15 1,256 (11.09%) Vue.js
16 1,118 (9.87%) RESTful
17 1,083 (9.56%) .NET Core
18 1,076 (9.50%) ASP.NET Web API
19 1,035 (9.14%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 834 (7.36%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 1,952 (17.24%) User Experience
2 827 (7.30%) Greenfield Project
3 653 (5.77%) Mobile App
4 541 (4.78%) Analytical Skills
5 411 (3.63%) Self-Motivation
6 259 (2.29%) Enterprise Software
7 118 (1.04%) Algorithms
8 113 (1.00%) Data Structures
9 107 (0.94%) Linux Command Line
10 94 (0.83%) Hedge funds
11 79 (0.70%) Management Information System
12 77 (0.68%) Cloud Native
13 69 (0.61%) W3C
14 65 (0.57%) Virtual Team
15 59 (0.52%) Client/Server
16 58 (0.51%) Graphic Design
17 57 (0.50%) Social Media
18 53 (0.47%) Blog
18 53 (0.47%) NHS
19 52 (0.46%) Animation
Operating Systems
1 842 (7.44%) Linux
2 471 (4.16%) Windows
3 394 (3.48%) Android
4 348 (3.07%) Apple iOS
5 157 (1.39%) Unix
6 73 (0.64%) Windows Server
7 68 (0.60%) Mac OS X
8 63 (0.56%) CentOS
9 52 (0.46%) Ubuntu
10 30 (0.26%) Windows Server 2012
11 25 (0.22%) Mac OS
12 23 (0.20%) VMS
13 17 (0.15%) Windows Server 2016
14 16 (0.14%) Fedora
15 14 (0.12%) Windows Server 2008
16 12 (0.11%) Debian
17 8 (0.071%) Windows Server 2019
18 5 (0.044%) Windows 10
19 4 (0.035%) Windows 7
19 4 (0.035%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,020 (44.33%) Agile Software Development
2 3,128 (27.62%) MVC
3 2,666 (23.54%) Front End Development
4 2,287 (20.20%) Web Development
5 1,726 (15.24%) TDD
6 1,558 (13.76%) Scrum
7 1,539 (13.59%) Software Engineering
8 1,316 (11.62%) DevOps
9 1,240 (10.95%) OO
10 1,077 (9.51%) Problem-Solving
11 992 (8.76%) Test Automation
12 905 (7.99%) Microservices
13 865 (7.64%) Unit Testing
14 862 (7.61%) E-Commerce
15 853 (7.53%) Continuous Integration
16 828 (7.31%) Computer Science
17 790 (6.98%) OOP
18 737 (6.51%) Mentoring
19 687 (6.07%) BDD
20 675 (5.96%) SDLC
Programming Languages
1 9,541 (84.25%) JavaScript
2 4,379 (38.67%) C#
3 2,855 (25.21%) SQL
4 2,067 (18.25%) PHP
5 1,581 (13.96%) Java
6 1,281 (11.31%) TypeScript
7 938 (8.28%) Python
8 814 (7.19%) ES6
9 583 (5.15%) T-SQL
10 309 (2.73%) Ruby
11 301 (2.66%) VB.NET
12 228 (2.01%) C++
13 211 (1.86%) Java 8
14 147 (1.30%) C
15 135 (1.19%) PHP 7
16 133 (1.17%) PowerShell
17 95 (0.84%) Bash Shell
17 95 (0.84%) Go
18 91 (0.80%) Scala
19 88 (0.78%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 1,190 (10.51%) Degree
2 435 (3.84%) Computer Science Degree
3 182 (1.61%) Security Cleared
4 117 (1.03%) SC Cleared
5 109 (0.96%) Microsoft Certification
6 30 (0.26%) MCSD
7 28 (0.25%) DBS Check
8 26 (0.23%) Master's Degree
9 24 (0.21%) HND
10 19 (0.17%) Postgraduate
11 18 (0.16%) Analytics IQ
12 17 (0.15%) AWS Certification
13 14 (0.12%) Numerate Degree
14 11 (0.097%) DV Cleared
14 11 (0.097%) Oracle Certification
15 10 (0.088%) CIW
16 9 (0.079%) PhD
17 8 (0.071%) BPSS Clearance
17 8 (0.071%) MCAD
17 8 (0.071%) MCP
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 511 (4.51%) QA
2 61 (0.54%) GDPR
3 45 (0.40%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 43 (0.38%) WCAG
5 32 (0.28%) SLA
6 10 (0.088%) ISO 9001
6 10 (0.088%) PCI DSS
6 10 (0.088%) WAI
7 8 (0.071%) PMO
8 7 (0.062%) Data Quality
9 4 (0.035%) SEPA
10 3 (0.026%) HL7
11 2 (0.018%) ISO 9000
11 2 (0.018%) RMADS
12 1 (0.009%) Disclosure Scotland
12 1 (0.009%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 996 (8.80%) Docker
2 49 (0.43%) Active Directory
3 15 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
4 7 (0.062%) Varnish
5 4 (0.035%) LXC
6 3 (0.026%) Squid
6 3 (0.026%) VMware Infrastructure
7 2 (0.018%) Citrix Hypervisor
7 2 (0.018%) Firmware
8 1 (0.009%) Cronacle
8 1 (0.009%) Hyper-V
8 1 (0.009%) vSphere
8 1 (0.009%) XenApp
Systems Management
1 440 (3.89%) Kubernetes
2 118 (1.04%) Terraform
3 60 (0.53%) Ansible
4 53 (0.47%) Single Sign-On
5 46 (0.41%) Kibana
6 45 (0.40%) Opscode Chef
7 33 (0.29%) logstash
8 21 (0.19%) Mesos
9 18 (0.16%) cPanel
10 14 (0.12%) Puppet
11 13 (0.11%) Plesk
12 8 (0.071%) HP Quality Center
13 6 (0.053%) HP UCMDB
14 5 (0.044%) FortiGate
14 5 (0.044%) Grafana
14 5 (0.044%) Rancher
15 4 (0.035%) Packer
16 3 (0.026%) CA Single Sign-On
16 3 (0.026%) Capistrano
16 3 (0.026%) TeamSite
Vendors
1 1,374 (12.13%) Microsoft
2 431 (3.81%) Adobe
3 419 (3.70%) Google
4 395 (3.49%) Oracle
5 239 (2.11%) Zend
6 182 (1.61%) Xamarin
7 134 (1.18%) Sitecore
8 121 (1.07%) Salesforce.com
9 108 (0.95%) Atlassian
10 84 (0.74%) SAP
11 77 (0.68%) ServiceNow
12 53 (0.47%) IBM
13 40 (0.35%) Tableau
14 38 (0.34%) ESRI
15 37 (0.33%) Splunk
16 31 (0.27%) Red Hat
17 27 (0.24%) hybris
18 24 (0.21%) Apple
18 24 (0.21%) Facebook
19 23 (0.20%) RedGate