Period
to 23 January 2022

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 23 January 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
23 Jan 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 29 19 22
Rank change year-on-year -10 +3 -5
Permanent jobs citing CSS 10,562 6,530 12,200
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 8.25% 10.32% 9.70%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.48% 24.30% 25.34%
Number of salaries quoted 6,136 5,719 10,594
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £29,750
25th Percentile £40,000 £37,500 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
75th Percentile £68,750 £62,500 £62,500
90th Percentile £85,000 £75,000 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £43,500
% change year-on-year +5.56% +3.45% +2.35%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 49,181 26,871 48,148
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.40% 42.46% 38.26%
Number of salaries quoted 30,350 23,073 39,856
10th Percentile £37,500 £35,000 £32,500
25th Percentile £46,250 £42,500 £40,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £62,500 £55,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +13.64% - +4.76%
75th Percentile £81,250 £73,750 £72,500
90th Percentile £97,500 £90,000 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £54,100 £50,000 £45,591
% change year-on-year +8.20% +9.67% +1.31%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 23 January 2022.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 23 January 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -9 9,043 £52,500 +5.00% 1,667
UK excluding London -9 5,540 £47,500 +5.56% 1,199
London -2 3,861 £65,000 - 567
Work from Home -5 2,734 £52,500 +10.53% 400
South East -9 1,832 £50,000 - 229
North of England -10 1,369 £45,000 +5.88% 392
Midlands -7 929 £46,000 +8.24% 214
North West -14 687 £47,500 +5.56% 210
South West -9 681 £47,500 +3.26% 124
Yorkshire -8 575 £45,000 +6.51% 135
West Midlands -8 548 £47,500 +11.76% 140
East Midlands -8 351 £45,000 +12.50% 72
Scotland -14 340 £50,000 +11.11% 84
East of England -67 216 £50,000 +17.65% 117
Wales -18 132 £50,000 +25.00% 33
North East -14 107 £43,500 -1.69% 47
Northern Ireland -10 67 £37,500 +7.14% 7

For the 6 months to 23 January 2022, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 9,482 (89.77%) HTML
2 8,940 (84.64%) JavaScript
3 4,903 (46.42%) React
4 4,525 (42.84%) Agile Software Development
5 3,344 (31.66%) HTML5
6 2,968 (28.10%) C#
7 2,934 (27.78%) AngularJS
8 2,902 (27.48%) Git (software)
9 2,642 (25.01%) Full Stack Development
10 2,589 (24.51%) Front End Development
11 2,436 (23.06%) .NET
12 2,423 (22.94%) CSS3
13 2,378 (22.51%) Node.js
14 2,332 (22.08%) User Experience
15 2,299 (21.77%) Software Engineering
16 2,243 (21.24%) TypeScript
17 2,230 (21.11%) SQL
18 2,181 (20.65%) Java
19 2,120 (20.07%) Social Skills
20 2,028 (19.20%) Azure
21 1,900 (17.99%) Web Development
22 1,870 (17.70%) AWS
23 1,861 (17.62%) PHP
24 1,842 (17.44%) Python
25 1,791 (16.96%) jQuery
26 1,750 (16.57%) DevOps
27 1,648 (15.60%) Microsoft
28 1,595 (15.10%) Finance
29 1,582 (14.98%) MVC
30 1,567 (14.84%) TDD

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 877 (8.30%) CMS
2 533 (5.05%) WordPress
3 300 (2.84%) Apache
4 239 (2.26%) Confluence
5 214 (2.03%) Elasticsearch
6 184 (1.74%) SharePoint
7 177 (1.68%) Umbraco
8 149 (1.41%) IIS
9 135 (1.28%) GeoServer
10 130 (1.23%) nginx
11 127 (1.20%) Drupal
12 105 (0.99%) Sitecore CMS
12 105 (0.99%) Tomcat
13 104 (0.98%) EPiServer
14 98 (0.93%) Headless CMS
15 68 (0.64%) Apache Spark
15 68 (0.64%) Kentico
16 50 (0.47%) GemFire
17 37 (0.35%) Joomla!
18 36 (0.34%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 213 (2.02%) Sketch
2 180 (1.70%) Photoshop
3 144 (1.36%) Adobe XD
4 123 (1.16%) Microsoft Office
5 110 (1.04%) InVision
6 96 (0.91%) Adobe Illustrator
7 92 (0.87%) Adobe Creative Suite
8 65 (0.62%) Microsoft Excel
9 31 (0.29%) Chatbot
10 30 (0.28%) Microsoft PowerPoint
11 24 (0.23%) Zeplin
12 20 (0.19%) InDesign
13 14 (0.13%) MS Visio
13 14 (0.13%) OmniGraffle
14 13 (0.12%) Campfire
15 10 (0.095%) GIMP
15 10 (0.095%) InfoPath
16 9 (0.085%) Adobe After Effects
16 9 (0.085%) Adobe Premiere
17 6 (0.057%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 174 (1.65%) Magento
2 103 (0.98%) Shopify
3 71 (0.67%) Dynamics CRM
4 68 (0.64%) Payment Gateway
5 50 (0.47%) NetSuite
6 32 (0.30%) SAP Business ByDesign
7 20 (0.19%) Summit
8 14 (0.13%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 14 (0.13%) WebTrends
9 10 (0.095%) Remedy ITSM
10 7 (0.066%) Maximo
10 7 (0.066%) SAP Business One
11 6 (0.057%) Dynamics NAV
12 5 (0.047%) Dynamics AX
12 5 (0.047%) Elite 3E
12 5 (0.047%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
13 4 (0.038%) Infor CloudSuite Industrial (formerly SyteLine)
13 4 (0.038%) nopCommerce
13 4 (0.038%) OpenCart
14 3 (0.028%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 2,028 (19.20%) Azure
2 1,870 (17.70%) AWS
3 880 (8.33%) SaaS
4 701 (6.64%) GitHub
5 592 (5.60%) GCP
6 572 (5.42%) npm
7 531 (5.03%) Serverless
8 278 (2.63%) AWS Lambda
9 276 (2.61%) Figma
10 165 (1.56%) Amazon S3
11 159 (1.51%) Google Analytics
12 142 (1.34%) Power Platform
13 134 (1.27%) Amazon EC2
13 134 (1.27%) PaaS
14 129 (1.22%) Microsoft 365
15 121 (1.15%) Amazon SQS
15 121 (1.15%) Yarn
16 118 (1.12%) GitHub Actions
17 106 (1.00%) Cloud Computing
18 89 (0.84%) OpenShift
Communications & Networking
1 551 (5.22%) HTTP
2 208 (1.97%) Internet
3 81 (0.77%) Broadband
4 75 (0.71%) DNS
5 66 (0.62%) SSL
6 44 (0.42%) SSH
6 44 (0.42%) Wi-Fi
7 42 (0.40%) TCP/IP
8 41 (0.39%) MQTT
9 37 (0.35%) Wireless
10 34 (0.32%) Intranet
11 30 (0.28%) Bluetooth
12 28 (0.27%) Ethernet
13 18 (0.17%) FTP
14 17 (0.16%) 5G
14 17 (0.16%) Firewall
15 16 (0.15%) VPN
16 13 (0.12%) HTTPS
16 13 (0.12%) VLAN
17 11 (0.10%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,489 (14.10%) SQL Server
2 1,488 (14.09%) MySQL
3 798 (7.56%) PostgreSQL
4 503 (4.76%) NoSQL
5 479 (4.54%) Relational Database
6 455 (4.31%) MongoDB
7 425 (4.02%) Redis
8 166 (1.57%) GIS
9 154 (1.46%) Big Data
10 136 (1.29%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 135 (1.28%) QGIS
12 110 (1.04%) Amazon RDS
13 96 (0.91%) MariaDB
14 89 (0.84%) Blockchain
15 84 (0.80%) RDBMS
16 81 (0.77%) Oracle Database
17 76 (0.72%) Power BI
18 57 (0.54%) Amazon Aurora
18 57 (0.54%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 48 (0.45%) HBase
Development Applications
1 2,902 (27.48%) Git (software)
2 986 (9.34%) webpack
3 802 (7.59%) Jenkins
4 625 (5.92%) JIRA
5 398 (3.77%) gulp
6 363 (3.44%) Cypress.io
7 288 (2.73%) Visual Studio
8 257 (2.43%) Selenium
9 245 (2.32%) Bitbucket
10 234 (2.22%) Mocha
11 231 (2.19%) Grunt
12 215 (2.04%) GitLab
13 193 (1.83%) Storybook
14 170 (1.61%) Subversion
15 165 (1.56%) Jasmine
16 157 (1.49%) JUnit
17 149 (1.41%) Babel
18 133 (1.26%) Team Foundation Server
19 126 (1.19%) PHPUnit
20 124 (1.17%) TeamCity
General
1 2,120 (20.07%) Social Skills
2 1,595 (15.10%) Finance
3 870 (8.24%) Marketing
4 662 (6.27%) Analytical Skills
5 441 (4.18%) Retail
6 333 (3.15%) Games
7 307 (2.91%) Banking
8 266 (2.52%) Inclusion and Diversity
9 247 (2.34%) Public Sector
10 195 (1.85%) Manufacturing
11 175 (1.66%) Law
12 152 (1.44%) Organisational Skills
13 145 (1.37%) Publishing
14 143 (1.35%) Advertising
15 109 (1.03%) Automotive
16 100 (0.95%) Pharmaceutical
17 98 (0.93%) Legal
18 96 (0.91%) Telecoms
19 83 (0.79%) Financial Institution
20 70 (0.66%) Documentation Skills
Job Titles
1 7,648 (72.41%) Developer
2 1,848 (17.50%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,466 (13.88%) Senior Developer
4 1,282 (12.14%) Software Developer
5 1,167 (11.05%) Software Engineer
6 1,071 (10.14%) Full Stack Developer
7 884 (8.37%) .NET Developer
8 786 (7.44%) React Developer
9 747 (7.07%) PHP Developer
10 644 (6.10%) Web Developer
11 544 (5.15%) Trainee
12 542 (5.13%) Trainee Developer
13 541 (5.12%) Trainee Software Developer
14 517 (4.89%) JavaScript Developer
15 437 (4.14%) C# Developer
16 391 (3.70%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 347 (3.29%) Lead Developer
18 343 (3.25%) Java Developer
19 299 (2.83%) Angular Developer
20 297 (2.81%) Junior
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 9,482 (89.77%) HTML
2 4,903 (46.42%) React
3 3,344 (31.66%) HTML5
4 2,934 (27.78%) AngularJS
5 2,436 (23.06%) .NET
6 2,423 (22.94%) CSS3
7 2,378 (22.51%) Node.js
8 1,791 (16.96%) jQuery
9 1,507 (14.27%) Sass
10 1,478 (13.99%) Vue.js
11 1,383 (13.09%) REST
12 1,330 (12.59%) RESTful
13 1,204 (11.40%) ASP.NET
14 1,072 (10.15%) Web Services
15 931 (8.81%) Redux
16 881 (8.34%) .NET Core
17 857 (8.11%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 768 (7.27%) .NET Framework
19 742 (7.03%) GraphQL
20 724 (6.85%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,332 (22.08%) User Experience
2 716 (6.78%) Data Structures
3 562 (5.32%) Mobile App
4 558 (5.28%) Greenfield Project
5 539 (5.10%) Self-Motivation
6 290 (2.75%) Enterprise Software
7 215 (2.04%) Virtual Team
8 171 (1.62%) Legacy Code
9 166 (1.57%) Algorithms
10 154 (1.46%) e-Learning
11 143 (1.35%) Linux Command Line
12 116 (1.10%) Social Media
13 112 (1.06%) Management Information System
14 81 (0.77%) Animation
15 80 (0.76%) Blog
15 80 (0.76%) Public Cloud
16 77 (0.73%) Legacy Systems
17 74 (0.70%) Data Protection Act
17 74 (0.70%) NHS
18 73 (0.69%) Cloud Native
Operating Systems
1 983 (9.31%) Linux
2 366 (3.47%) Windows
3 309 (2.93%) Android
4 299 (2.83%) Apple iOS
5 196 (1.86%) Ubuntu
6 141 (1.33%) Unix
7 81 (0.77%) Windows Server
8 26 (0.25%) CentOS
9 22 (0.21%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 18 (0.17%) VMS
11 15 (0.14%) Mac OS
12 7 (0.066%) Windows Server 2008
12 7 (0.066%) Windows Server 2016
13 6 (0.057%) Debian
13 6 (0.057%) Fedora
13 6 (0.057%) Windows 10
14 4 (0.038%) Windows Phone
14 4 (0.038%) Windows Server 2012
15 3 (0.028%) Windows Mobile
15 3 (0.028%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,525 (42.84%) Agile Software Development
2 2,642 (25.01%) Full Stack Development
3 2,589 (24.51%) Front End Development
4 2,299 (21.77%) Software Engineering
5 1,900 (17.99%) Web Development
6 1,750 (16.57%) DevOps
7 1,582 (14.98%) MVC
8 1,567 (14.84%) TDD
9 1,502 (14.22%) CI/CD
10 1,495 (14.15%) OO
11 1,474 (13.96%) Problem-Solving
12 1,296 (12.27%) Scrum
13 1,202 (11.38%) OOP
14 1,095 (10.37%) UX Design
15 1,025 (9.70%) Unit Testing
16 1,023 (9.69%) Test Automation
17 1,021 (9.67%) Microservices
18 949 (8.99%) Computer Science
19 941 (8.91%) Continuous Integration
20 877 (8.30%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 8,940 (84.64%) JavaScript
2 2,968 (28.10%) C#
3 2,243 (21.24%) TypeScript
4 2,230 (21.11%) SQL
5 2,181 (20.65%) Java
6 1,861 (17.62%) PHP
7 1,842 (17.44%) Python
8 784 (7.42%) ES6
9 651 (6.16%) Java 8
10 382 (3.62%) T-SQL
11 295 (2.79%) Ruby
12 253 (2.40%) Go
13 185 (1.75%) C++
14 176 (1.67%) C
15 167 (1.58%) Kotlin
16 164 (1.55%) PowerShell
17 139 (1.32%) PHP 7
18 138 (1.31%) VB.NET
19 105 (0.99%) ES7
20 98 (0.93%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 1,202 (11.38%) Degree
2 590 (5.59%) Oracle Certification
3 586 (5.55%) OCP
4 541 (5.12%) CIW
4 541 (5.12%) OCA
5 516 (4.89%) Computer Science Degree
6 334 (3.16%) Security Cleared
7 270 (2.56%) SC Cleared
8 71 (0.67%) Microsoft Certification
9 64 (0.61%) Master's Degree
10 33 (0.31%) Numerate Degree
11 31 (0.29%) PMI Certification
12 24 (0.23%) DBS Check
13 22 (0.21%) AWS Certification
14 20 (0.19%) DV Cleared
15 17 (0.16%) BPSS Clearance
16 16 (0.15%) SANS
17 13 (0.12%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
18 12 (0.11%) ISTQB
18 12 (0.11%) MCPD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 751 (7.11%) QA
2 736 (6.97%) Accessibility
3 126 (1.19%) WCAG
4 52 (0.49%) GDPR
5 37 (0.35%) SLA
6 33 (0.31%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 16 (0.15%) Data Quality
8 15 (0.14%) WAI
9 13 (0.12%) ISO 13485
9 13 (0.12%) PCI DSS
10 11 (0.10%) IEC 62304
11 5 (0.047%) HIPAA
11 5 (0.047%) NCSC
12 4 (0.038%) Disclosure Scotland
13 2 (0.019%) HL7
13 2 (0.019%) PMO
14 1 (0.009%) Cyber Essentials
14 1 (0.009%) DICOM
14 1 (0.009%) SNOMED CT
14 1 (0.009%) TickIT
System Software
1 1,348 (12.76%) Docker
2 66 (0.62%) Active Directory
2 66 (0.62%) VMware Infrastructure
3 48 (0.45%) HDFS
4 30 (0.28%) Firmware
5 20 (0.19%) Varnish
6 14 (0.13%) KVM
7 9 (0.085%) Virtual Machines
8 8 (0.076%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 4 (0.038%) Oracle RAC
9 4 (0.038%) vCloud
9 4 (0.038%) VirtualBox
9 4 (0.038%) VMware ESXi
10 3 (0.028%) Hyper-V
11 2 (0.019%) Virtual Servers
12 1 (0.009%) NFS
12 1 (0.009%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 634 (6.00%) Kubernetes
2 266 (2.52%) Terraform
3 139 (1.32%) Ansible
4 45 (0.43%) Single Sign-On
5 41 (0.39%) Prometheus
6 34 (0.32%) Hadoop YARN
6 34 (0.32%) Kibana
7 33 (0.31%) Opscode Chef
8 26 (0.25%) Grafana
9 25 (0.24%) Puppet
10 17 (0.16%) logstash
11 15 (0.14%) Consul
11 15 (0.14%) Graphite
12 14 (0.13%) Packer
13 13 (0.12%) HP Fortify
14 11 (0.10%) Rancher
15 9 (0.085%) Graylog
15 9 (0.085%) HP UCMDB
15 9 (0.085%) Opsgenie
16 7 (0.066%) Bugsnag
Vendors
1 1,648 (15.60%) Microsoft
2 825 (7.81%) Oracle
3 593 (5.61%) Google
4 445 (4.21%) Adobe
5 202 (1.91%) Salesforce.com
6 150 (1.42%) Xamarin
7 134 (1.27%) Sitecore
8 129 (1.22%) SAP
9 109 (1.03%) Zend
10 96 (0.91%) WooCommerce
11 83 (0.79%) VMware
12 74 (0.70%) Apple
13 70 (0.66%) ServiceNow
14 64 (0.61%) Facebook
15 63 (0.60%) IBM
16 59 (0.56%) Okta
17 43 (0.41%) Atlassian
17 43 (0.41%) HubSpot
18 38 (0.36%) Telerik
19 36 (0.34%) HP