Period
to 28 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 28 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
28 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 27 19 23
Rank change year-on-year -8 +4 -7
Permanent jobs citing CSS 10,790 5,141 13,106
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 8.49% 10.36% 9.56%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.12% 23.54% 25.33%
Number of salaries quoted 6,683 4,488 11,416
10th Percentile £32,000 £31,750 £28,750
25th Percentile £38,750 £37,500 £35,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.26% +1.06%
75th Percentile £65,563 £63,750 £62,500
90th Percentile £80,000 £73,750 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £46,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +2.22% +5.88% -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 51,083 21,841 51,735
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.18% 44.00% 37.76%
Number of salaries quoted 32,464 18,771 43,025
10th Percentile £36,250 £35,000 £32,500
25th Percentile £45,000 £42,500 £40,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +5.31%
75th Percentile £79,563 £75,000 £72,500
90th Percentile £95,000 £93,750 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 28 October 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 28 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 9,592 £50,000 - 1,997
UK excluding London -11 5,476 £46,000 +2.22% 1,413
London +2 4,360 £65,000 - 701
Work from Home -3 2,721 £51,000 +7.37% 500
South East -3 2,102 £47,500 -5.00% 322
North of England -19 1,083 £45,000 - 428
Midlands -5 852 £45,000 +5.88% 281
South West -9 811 £47,500 +5.56% 117
North West -17 563 £45,750 +1.67% 228
West Midlands -3 558 £45,000 +1.12% 168
Yorkshire -16 449 £45,000 +12.50% 155
East Midlands -13 271 £42,500 +6.25% 113
Scotland -18 270 £47,500 +11.76% 87
East of England -45 230 £52,500 +23.53% 139
Wales -39 88 £52,500 +25.00% 31
North East -25 71 £40,000 - 45
Northern Ireland -18 51 £37,500 - 9

For the 6 months to 28 October 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 9,512 (88.16%) HTML
2 8,921 (82.68%) JavaScript
3 5,233 (48.50%) React
4 4,659 (43.18%) Agile Software Development
5 3,297 (30.56%) AngularJS
6 3,058 (28.34%) Git (software)
7 2,929 (27.15%) Front End Development
8 2,785 (25.81%) Full Stack Development
9 2,759 (25.57%) .NET
10 2,756 (25.54%) C#
11 2,746 (25.45%) HTML5
12 2,720 (25.21%) User Experience
13 2,671 (24.75%) Node.js
14 2,410 (22.34%) TypeScript
15 2,377 (22.03%) SQL
16 2,198 (20.37%) Software Engineering
17 2,150 (19.93%) Social Skills
18 2,090 (19.37%) Azure
19 2,008 (18.61%) PHP
20 1,933 (17.91%) Web Development
21 1,925 (17.84%) AWS
22 1,920 (17.79%) CSS3
23 1,838 (17.03%) Finance
24 1,830 (16.96%) jQuery
25 1,759 (16.30%) MVC
26 1,721 (15.95%) Java
27 1,658 (15.37%) DevOps
28 1,603 (14.86%) SQL Server
29 1,585 (14.69%) TDD
30 1,582 (14.66%) REST

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1,058 (9.81%) CMS
2 638 (5.91%) WordPress
3 403 (3.73%) Apache
4 241 (2.23%) Elasticsearch
5 239 (2.22%) Confluence
6 231 (2.14%) Apache Spark
7 206 (1.91%) Umbraco
8 191 (1.77%) IIS
8 191 (1.77%) SharePoint
9 182 (1.69%) GemFire
10 155 (1.44%) nginx
11 146 (1.35%) Drupal
12 135 (1.25%) Headless CMS
13 120 (1.11%) EPiServer
14 119 (1.10%) Kentico
15 113 (1.05%) Sitecore CMS
16 106 (0.98%) Tomcat
17 85 (0.79%) Apache Solr
18 73 (0.68%) GeoServer
19 43 (0.40%) IBM Domino
Applications
1 252 (2.34%) Figma
2 225 (2.09%) Sketch
3 203 (1.88%) Photoshop
4 137 (1.27%) Adobe XD
5 125 (1.16%) InVision
6 117 (1.08%) Adobe Illustrator
7 115 (1.07%) Microsoft Office
8 100 (0.93%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 36 (0.33%) Microsoft Excel
9 36 (0.33%) Zeplin
10 34 (0.32%) InDesign
11 29 (0.27%) GIMP
12 27 (0.25%) Chatbot
12 27 (0.25%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 22 (0.20%) Campfire
14 16 (0.15%) MS Visio
15 15 (0.14%) MadCap Flare
16 12 (0.11%) UXPin
17 10 (0.093%) Adobe After Effects
18 9 (0.083%) Marvel
Business Applications
1 232 (2.15%) Magento
2 159 (1.47%) Shopify
3 89 (0.82%) Payment Gateway
4 80 (0.74%) Dynamics CRM
5 29 (0.27%) NetSuite
6 24 (0.22%) WebTrends
7 18 (0.17%) SAP Business ByDesign
8 13 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
9 12 (0.11%) Summit
10 10 (0.093%) Dynamics NAV
11 9 (0.083%) SAP S/4HANA
11 9 (0.083%) SDL Web 8
12 7 (0.065%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
13 6 (0.056%) Dynamics AX
14 5 (0.046%) Elite 3E
14 5 (0.046%) OpenCart
14 5 (0.046%) Remedy ITSM
14 5 (0.046%) SAP Hybris
15 4 (0.037%) Maximo
15 4 (0.037%) nopCommerce
Cloud Services
1 2,090 (19.37%) Azure
2 1,925 (17.84%) AWS
3 893 (8.28%) SaaS
4 789 (7.31%) GitHub
5 540 (5.00%) npm
6 525 (4.87%) GCP
7 466 (4.32%) Serverless
8 273 (2.53%) AWS Lambda
9 207 (1.92%) Amazon S3
10 162 (1.50%) Amazon EC2
11 160 (1.48%) PaaS
12 153 (1.42%) Amazon Kinesis
13 138 (1.28%) Power Platform
14 127 (1.18%) Google Analytics
14 127 (1.18%) Yarn
15 126 (1.17%) OpenShift
16 114 (1.06%) AWS CloudFormation
17 104 (0.96%) GitHub Actions
18 101 (0.94%) Microsoft 365
19 89 (0.82%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 468 (4.34%) HTTP
2 199 (1.84%) Internet
3 108 (1.00%) Broadband
4 99 (0.92%) DNS
5 87 (0.81%) SSL
6 68 (0.63%) TCP/IP
7 59 (0.55%) Wireless
8 58 (0.54%) MQTT
9 57 (0.53%) Wi-Fi
10 50 (0.46%) Bluetooth
11 49 (0.45%) Ethernet
12 28 (0.26%) SSH
13 26 (0.24%) Intranet
14 21 (0.19%) Firewall
15 19 (0.18%) SMTP
16 18 (0.17%) SMS
17 15 (0.14%) FTP
18 13 (0.12%) Extranet
18 13 (0.12%) VPN
19 10 (0.093%) Reverse Proxy
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,603 (14.86%) SQL Server
2 1,542 (14.29%) MySQL
3 859 (7.96%) PostgreSQL
4 716 (6.64%) NoSQL
5 606 (5.62%) Relational Database
6 513 (4.75%) Redis
7 488 (4.52%) MongoDB
8 265 (2.46%) MariaDB
9 232 (2.15%) Big Data
10 182 (1.69%) HBase
11 142 (1.32%) Amazon RDS
12 101 (0.94%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 98 (0.91%) GIS
14 90 (0.83%) Power BI
15 89 (0.82%) SQL Server Integration Services
16 88 (0.82%) Oracle Database
17 75 (0.70%) QGIS
18 72 (0.67%) Azure SQL Database
19 68 (0.63%) SQL Server Reporting Services
20 61 (0.57%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 3,058 (28.34%) Git (software)
2 1,034 (9.58%) webpack
3 842 (7.80%) Jenkins
4 657 (6.09%) JIRA
5 514 (4.76%) Cypress.io
6 437 (4.05%) gulp
7 374 (3.47%) Visual Studio
8 360 (3.34%) Storybook
9 289 (2.68%) Cucumber
10 288 (2.67%) JUnit
11 272 (2.52%) Selenium
12 260 (2.41%) Gradle
13 256 (2.37%) Protractor
14 245 (2.27%) Bitbucket
15 237 (2.20%) Mocha
16 220 (2.04%) Jasmine
17 217 (2.01%) Eclipse
18 204 (1.89%) Sonatype Nexus
19 202 (1.87%) Mockito
20 197 (1.83%) IntelliJ
General
1 2,150 (19.93%) Social Skills
2 1,838 (17.03%) Finance
3 935 (8.67%) Marketing
4 609 (5.64%) Analytical Skills
5 562 (5.21%) Retail
6 446 (4.13%) Banking
7 370 (3.43%) Law
8 317 (2.94%) Inclusion and Diversity
9 310 (2.87%) Games
10 208 (1.93%) Public Sector
11 186 (1.72%) Legal
12 179 (1.66%) Organisational Skills
13 177 (1.64%) Manufacturing
14 163 (1.51%) Telecoms
15 150 (1.39%) Publishing
16 108 (1.00%) Advertising
17 98 (0.91%) Automotive
18 83 (0.77%) Pharmaceutical
19 82 (0.76%) Presentation Skills
20 75 (0.70%) Documentation Skills
Job Titles
1 7,588 (70.32%) Developer
2 2,081 (19.29%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,533 (14.21%) Senior Developer
4 1,098 (10.18%) Software Engineer
5 1,091 (10.11%) Full Stack Developer
6 988 (9.16%) .NET Developer
7 848 (7.86%) PHP Developer
8 821 (7.61%) Software Developer
9 798 (7.40%) React Developer
10 664 (6.15%) Web Developer
11 595 (5.51%) C# Developer
12 480 (4.45%) JavaScript Developer
13 454 (4.21%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 368 (3.41%) Java Developer
15 359 (3.33%) Angular Developer
16 358 (3.32%) C# .NET Developer
17 336 (3.11%) Lead Developer
18 286 (2.65%) Designer
19 272 (2.52%) Senior Software Engineer
20 228 (2.11%) Junior
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 9,512 (88.16%) HTML
2 5,233 (48.50%) React
3 3,297 (30.56%) AngularJS
4 2,759 (25.57%) .NET
5 2,746 (25.45%) HTML5
6 2,671 (24.75%) Node.js
7 1,920 (17.79%) CSS3
8 1,830 (16.96%) jQuery
9 1,582 (14.66%) REST
10 1,566 (14.51%) Sass
11 1,536 (14.24%) Vue.js
12 1,533 (14.21%) RESTful
13 1,279 (11.85%) ASP.NET
14 1,219 (11.30%) Web Services
15 1,195 (11.08%) Redux
16 1,053 (9.76%) .NET Core
17 980 (9.08%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 894 (8.29%) JSON
19 808 (7.49%) .NET Framework
20 790 (7.32%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 2,720 (25.21%) User Experience
2 688 (6.38%) Mobile App
3 643 (5.96%) Greenfield Project
4 541 (5.01%) Self-Motivation
5 276 (2.56%) Linux Command Line
6 270 (2.50%) Virtual Team
7 246 (2.28%) Enterprise Software
8 157 (1.46%) Algorithms
9 146 (1.35%) Legacy Code
10 145 (1.34%) Data Structures
11 125 (1.16%) Legacy Systems
12 122 (1.13%) Blog
13 114 (1.06%) Management Information System
14 109 (1.01%) e-Learning
15 104 (0.96%) Social Media
16 93 (0.86%) Cloud Native
17 82 (0.76%) Animation
18 77 (0.71%) Client/Server
19 74 (0.69%) NHS
19 74 (0.69%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 1,093 (10.13%) Linux
2 466 (4.32%) Windows
3 347 (3.22%) Android
3 347 (3.22%) Apple iOS
4 270 (2.50%) Unix
5 126 (1.17%) Ubuntu
6 101 (0.94%) Windows Server
7 52 (0.48%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 40 (0.37%) CentOS
9 18 (0.17%) Windows 10
10 15 (0.14%) VMS
11 12 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
12 11 (0.10%) Mac OS
13 10 (0.093%) Windows Server 2016
14 9 (0.083%) Windows 7
15 8 (0.074%) Windows Server 2008
16 7 (0.065%) Fedora
17 6 (0.056%) Windows 8
17 6 (0.056%) Windows Server 2019
18 5 (0.046%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,659 (43.18%) Agile Software Development
2 2,929 (27.15%) Front End Development
3 2,785 (25.81%) Full Stack Development
4 2,198 (20.37%) Software Engineering
5 1,933 (17.91%) Web Development
6 1,759 (16.30%) MVC
7 1,658 (15.37%) DevOps
8 1,585 (14.69%) TDD
9 1,503 (13.93%) Problem-Solving
10 1,441 (13.35%) Scrum
11 1,248 (11.57%) Microservices
12 1,151 (10.67%) Unit Testing
13 1,108 (10.27%) E-Commerce
14 1,097 (10.17%) Computer Science
15 1,074 (9.95%) Test Automation
16 1,050 (9.73%) OO
17 915 (8.48%) Continuous Integration
18 843 (7.81%) Mentoring
19 744 (6.90%) SDLC
20 687 (6.37%) Clean Code
Programming Languages
1 8,921 (82.68%) JavaScript
2 2,756 (25.54%) C#
3 2,410 (22.34%) TypeScript
4 2,377 (22.03%) SQL
5 2,008 (18.61%) PHP
6 1,721 (15.95%) Java
7 1,263 (11.71%) Python
8 882 (8.17%) ES6
9 386 (3.58%) T-SQL
10 273 (2.53%) Ruby
11 232 (2.15%) Go
12 216 (2.00%) Groovy
12 216 (2.00%) Shell Script
13 184 (1.71%) PowerShell
14 178 (1.65%) C++
15 174 (1.61%) C
16 163 (1.51%) Java 8
17 148 (1.37%) Kotlin
18 139 (1.29%) ES7
19 129 (1.20%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 1,217 (11.28%) Degree
2 470 (4.36%) Computer Science Degree
3 220 (2.04%) Security Cleared
4 171 (1.58%) OCP
4 171 (1.58%) Oracle Certification
5 112 (1.04%) SC Cleared
6 76 (0.70%) Master's Degree
7 65 (0.60%) Microsoft Certification
8 35 (0.32%) AWS Certification
8 35 (0.32%) DV Cleared
9 33 (0.31%) PhD
10 28 (0.26%) Numerate Degree
11 17 (0.16%) DBS Check
12 16 (0.15%) SANS
13 13 (0.12%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 9 (0.083%) BPSS Clearance
14 9 (0.083%) ISTQB
14 9 (0.083%) ITIL Certification
15 8 (0.074%) MCSA
15 8 (0.074%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 811 (7.52%) Accessibility
2 614 (5.69%) QA
3 138 (1.28%) WCAG
4 50 (0.46%) GDPR
5 38 (0.35%) PCI DSS
6 30 (0.28%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 20 (0.19%) SLA
7 20 (0.19%) WAI
8 14 (0.13%) ISO 13485
9 12 (0.11%) Data Quality
10 10 (0.093%) NCSC
11 9 (0.083%) IEC 62304
12 4 (0.037%) Actionable Recommendations
13 3 (0.028%) Disclosure Scotland
14 2 (0.019%) GRC
14 2 (0.019%) PMO
15 1 (0.009%) DICOM
15 1 (0.009%) HL7
15 1 (0.009%) Section 508
System Software
1 1,290 (11.96%) Docker
2 178 (1.65%) HDFS
3 140 (1.30%) VMware Infrastructure
4 55 (0.51%) Active Directory
5 49 (0.45%) Firmware
6 18 (0.17%) Apache ZooKeeper
7 13 (0.12%) Varnish
8 8 (0.074%) Hyper-V
9 7 (0.065%) VMware ESXi
10 6 (0.056%) Virtual Machines
11 5 (0.046%) Ceph
11 5 (0.046%) KVM
12 2 (0.019%) Terminal Services
12 2 (0.019%) Virtual Servers
13 1 (0.009%) NFS
13 1 (0.009%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 673 (6.24%) Kubernetes
2 295 (2.73%) Ansible
3 250 (2.32%) Terraform
4 125 (1.16%) Opscode Chef
5 47 (0.44%) Grafana
6 45 (0.42%) Graphite
7 44 (0.41%) Single Sign-On
8 33 (0.31%) Hadoop YARN
9 30 (0.28%) Graylog
9 30 (0.28%) Opsgenie
10 21 (0.19%) Kibana
10 21 (0.19%) Rancher
11 16 (0.15%) Prometheus
12 14 (0.13%) Puppet
13 13 (0.12%) Bugsnag
14 11 (0.10%) HP Fortify
15 10 (0.093%) Consul
16 9 (0.083%) logstash
17 8 (0.074%) Docker Swarm
17 8 (0.074%) Packer
Vendors
1 1,054 (9.77%) Microsoft
2 572 (5.30%) Google
3 519 (4.81%) Adobe
4 359 (3.33%) Oracle
5 224 (2.08%) VMware
6 205 (1.90%) Okta
7 201 (1.86%) Salesforce.com
8 145 (1.34%) Xamarin
9 136 (1.26%) Sitecore
10 127 (1.18%) WooCommerce
11 117 (1.08%) SAP
12 90 (0.83%) Apple
12 90 (0.83%) Atlassian
13 88 (0.82%) Zend
14 67 (0.62%) ServiceNow
15 62 (0.57%) Splunk
16 54 (0.50%) IBM
17 41 (0.38%) Netlify
18 40 (0.37%) OutSystems
19 38 (0.35%) HubSpot