Period
to 20 September 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 September 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 18 22 15
Rank change year-on-year +4 -7 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 4,985 13,389 19,278
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.16% 9.48% 11.53%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.25% 25.32% 28.81%
Number of salaries quoted 4,912 12,405 17,807
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +3.45%
10th Percentile £32,000 £28,750 £28,000
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 21,439 52,880 66,907
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 43.69% 37.43% 40.00%
Number of salaries quoted 18,037 43,339 55,452
Median annual salary £57,500 £52,500 £50,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +9.52% +5.00% +5.26%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,250 £31,250
90th Percentile £95,000 £87,500 £82,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 September 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 4,636 £50,000 +5.26% 1,386
UK excluding London +4 3,334 £45,000 +5.88% 1,162
London -6 1,488 £65,000 +8.33% 319
South East +4 1,067 £50,000 +11.11% 214
North of England +3 859 £45,000 +5.88% 372
Work from Home -1 652 £50,000 +8.70% 239
North West +4 515 £45,000 +5.88% 215
Midlands +2 491 £45,000 +12.50% 215
South West +6 459 £45,000 +5.88% 164
West Midlands +5 302 £45,750 +7.65% 119
Yorkshire +14 273 £40,000 - 111
East of England +7 230 £45,000 - 99
East Midlands +1 188 £42,500 +6.25% 96
Scotland -4 137 £42,500 - 59
Wales +2 74 £40,000 - 29
North East +13 70 £40,000 -8.05% 46
Northern Ireland -7 20 £40,000 -5.88% 10
Channel Islands +2 1 £65,000 -

For the 6 months to 20 September 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,604 (92.36%) HTML
2 4,224 (84.73%) JavaScript
3 2,126 (42.65%) Agile Software Development
4 1,762 (35.35%) .NET
5 1,705 (34.20%) AngularJS
6 1,672 (33.54%) C#
7 1,367 (27.42%) HTML5
8 1,334 (26.76%) React
9 1,325 (26.58%) SQL
10 1,286 (25.80%) MVC
11 1,255 (25.18%) Git (software)
12 1,139 (22.85%) jQuery
13 1,091 (21.89%) Front End Development
14 1,081 (21.69%) PHP
15 1,038 (20.82%) Web Development
16 1,033 (20.72%) SQL Server
17 1,002 (20.10%) ASP.NET
18 945 (18.96%) CSS3
19 862 (17.29%) Azure
20 831 (16.67%) Node.js
21 751 (15.07%) MySQL
22 746 (14.96%) TDD
23 738 (14.80%) User Experience
24 720 (14.44%) DevOps
25 710 (14.24%) Scrum
26 707 (14.18%) TypeScript
27 693 (13.90%) Vue.js
27 693 (13.90%) Software Engineering
28 662 (13.28%) REST
29 652 (13.08%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 301 (6.04%) CMS
2 194 (3.89%) WordPress
3 115 (2.31%) Apache
4 108 (2.17%) IIS
5 102 (2.05%) Elasticsearch
6 82 (1.64%) Confluence
7 67 (1.34%) SharePoint
8 50 (1.00%) Drupal
9 49 (0.98%) Umbraco
10 48 (0.96%) nginx
11 41 (0.82%) NServiceBus
12 33 (0.66%) Moodle
13 30 (0.60%) EPiServer
14 18 (0.36%) Adobe Experience Manager
14 18 (0.36%) Tomcat
15 17 (0.34%) SharePoint 2013
16 16 (0.32%) Headless CMS
17 15 (0.30%) Apache Spark
18 13 (0.26%) Joomla!
19 12 (0.24%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 89 (1.79%) Photoshop
2 83 (1.66%) Sketch
3 60 (1.20%) Adobe Illustrator
4 54 (1.08%) InVision
5 39 (0.78%) Figma
5 39 (0.78%) Microsoft Excel
6 32 (0.64%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 28 (0.56%) Adobe XD
8 26 (0.52%) Microsoft Office
9 22 (0.44%) Zeplin
10 11 (0.22%) UXPin
11 10 (0.20%) MS Visio
12 8 (0.16%) Chatbot
13 7 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
14 6 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
15 5 (0.10%) InDesign
16 4 (0.080%) Marvel
17 3 (0.060%) Moqups
18 2 (0.040%) FileZilla
18 2 (0.040%) Fireworks
Business Applications
1 157 (3.15%) Magento
2 66 (1.32%) Dynamics CRM
3 64 (1.28%) Shopify
4 31 (0.62%) Payment Gateway
5 30 (0.60%) Remedy ITSM
6 17 (0.34%) Adobe Campaign
7 16 (0.32%) NetSuite
8 10 (0.20%) Unica
9 8 (0.16%) Siebel CRM
10 7 (0.14%) Maximo
11 6 (0.12%) Eloqua
12 5 (0.10%) OpenCart
13 4 (0.080%) Dynamics AX
13 4 (0.080%) Oracle Applications
13 4 (0.080%) SDL Web 8
13 4 (0.080%) WebTrends
14 3 (0.060%) Distributed Ledger
14 3 (0.060%) Oracle CRM On Demand
14 3 (0.060%) Salesforce.com CRM
14 3 (0.060%) SAP Hybris
Cloud Services
1 862 (17.29%) Azure
2 512 (10.27%) AWS
3 282 (5.66%) SaaS
4 177 (3.55%) npm
5 131 (2.63%) GitHub
5 131 (2.63%) Serverless
6 106 (2.13%) GCP
7 88 (1.77%) Power Platform
8 70 (1.40%) AWS Lambda
9 61 (1.22%) Cloud Computing
10 51 (1.02%) PaaS
11 43 (0.86%) Dynamics 365
12 35 (0.70%) Google Analytics
13 34 (0.68%) Azure Functions
14 31 (0.62%) Amazon EC2
15 30 (0.60%) Office 365
16 28 (0.56%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
17 26 (0.52%) Firebase
18 24 (0.48%) IaaS
19 23 (0.46%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 116 (2.33%) HTTP
2 61 (1.22%) Internet
3 56 (1.12%) Skype
4 32 (0.64%) SSL
5 31 (0.62%) Network Security
6 22 (0.44%) VPN
7 16 (0.32%) FTP
8 15 (0.30%) Intranet
9 14 (0.28%) TCP/IP
10 13 (0.26%) SSH
11 11 (0.22%) Ethernet
11 11 (0.22%) Firewall
12 9 (0.18%) Broadband
12 9 (0.18%) MQTT
13 8 (0.16%) DNS
14 7 (0.14%) RTP
14 7 (0.14%) SMS
15 5 (0.10%) AMQP
15 5 (0.10%) Wi-Fi
15 5 (0.10%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,033 (20.72%) SQL Server
2 751 (15.07%) MySQL
3 263 (5.28%) MongoDB
4 255 (5.12%) NoSQL
5 216 (4.33%) Relational Database
6 175 (3.51%) PostgreSQL
7 137 (2.75%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 114 (2.29%) Redis
9 93 (1.87%) SQL Server 2012
10 92 (1.85%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 68 (1.36%) Big Data
12 52 (1.04%) SQL Server 2008
13 51 (1.02%) Power BI
14 49 (0.98%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 41 (0.82%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 35 (0.70%) Azure SQL Database
16 35 (0.70%) RDBMS
17 32 (0.64%) SQL Server 2016
18 30 (0.60%) Amazon RDS
19 28 (0.56%) Data Warehouse
Development Applications
1 1,255 (25.18%) Git (software)
2 312 (6.26%) webpack
3 264 (5.30%) JIRA
4 208 (4.17%) Visual Studio
5 194 (3.89%) Team Foundation Server
6 171 (3.43%) gulp
6 171 (3.43%) Jenkins
7 163 (3.27%) Selenium
8 130 (2.61%) Grunt
9 107 (2.15%) Subversion
10 87 (1.75%) Jasmine
11 80 (1.60%) Cypress.io
12 79 (1.58%) Bitbucket
13 72 (1.44%) TeamCity
14 68 (1.36%) NUnit
15 59 (1.18%) Octopus Deploy
16 57 (1.14%) Mocha
17 50 (1.00%) Babel
18 48 (0.96%) PHPUnit
19 46 (0.92%) JUnit
General
1 635 (12.74%) Finance
2 361 (7.24%) Marketing
3 170 (3.41%) Retail
4 112 (2.25%) Public Sector
5 88 (1.77%) Games
6 76 (1.52%) Banking
7 71 (1.42%) Telecoms
8 69 (1.38%) Manufacturing
9 62 (1.24%) Law
10 49 (0.98%) Publishing
11 44 (0.88%) Advertising
12 43 (0.86%) Electronics
13 34 (0.68%) Financial Institution
14 31 (0.62%) Legal
15 24 (0.48%) Front Office
15 24 (0.48%) Local Government
16 23 (0.46%) Back Office
16 23 (0.46%) Private Banking
17 18 (0.36%) Automotive
18 14 (0.28%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 3,941 (79.06%) Developer
2 874 (17.53%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 771 (15.47%) Senior Developer
4 678 (13.60%) .NET Developer
5 604 (12.12%) PHP Developer
6 480 (9.63%) Full Stack Developer
7 458 (9.19%) C# Developer
8 410 (8.22%) Software Developer
9 403 (8.08%) JavaScript Developer
10 373 (7.48%) React Developer
11 371 (7.44%) Web Developer
12 336 (6.74%) Software Engineer
13 282 (5.66%) C# .NET Developer
14 220 (4.41%) Angular Developer
15 165 (3.31%) Java Developer
15 165 (3.31%) Lead Developer
16 163 (3.27%) Senior .NET Developer
17 160 (3.21%) Junior
18 152 (3.05%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 125 (2.51%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,604 (92.36%) HTML
2 1,762 (35.35%) .NET
3 1,705 (34.20%) AngularJS
4 1,367 (27.42%) HTML5
5 1,334 (26.76%) React
6 1,139 (22.85%) jQuery
7 1,002 (20.10%) ASP.NET
8 945 (18.96%) CSS3
9 831 (16.67%) Node.js
10 693 (13.90%) Vue.js
11 662 (13.28%) REST
12 652 (13.08%) Sass
13 638 (12.80%) .NET Core
14 557 (11.17%) .NET Framework
15 552 (11.07%) Web Services
16 536 (10.75%) ASP.NET MVC
17 513 (10.29%) ASP.NET Web API
18 490 (9.83%) RESTful
19 439 (8.81%) XML
20 392 (7.86%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 738 (14.80%) User Experience
2 380 (7.62%) Greenfield Project
3 263 (5.28%) Mobile App
4 231 (4.63%) Analytical Skills
5 138 (2.77%) Self-Motivation
6 88 (1.77%) Enterprise Software
7 49 (0.98%) Hedge funds
8 42 (0.84%) N-Tier
9 40 (0.80%) e-Learning
10 36 (0.72%) Cloud Native
11 32 (0.64%) Data Structures
12 28 (0.56%) Social Media
13 27 (0.54%) Algorithms
13 27 (0.54%) Linux Command Line
13 27 (0.54%) Media Streaming
14 25 (0.50%) Blog
15 22 (0.44%) Video\Live Streaming
16 20 (0.40%) Embedded Systems
17 19 (0.38%) CMDB
18 18 (0.36%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 425 (8.53%) Linux
2 217 (4.35%) Windows
3 114 (2.29%) Android
4 111 (2.23%) Apple iOS
5 67 (1.34%) Unix
6 45 (0.90%) Windows Server
7 24 (0.48%) Ubuntu
8 23 (0.46%) CentOS
9 12 (0.24%) Windows Server 2012
9 12 (0.24%) Windows Server 2016
10 9 (0.18%) Windows 10
11 7 (0.14%) Windows Server 2008
12 5 (0.10%) Fedora
13 4 (0.080%) Debian
13 4 (0.080%) Mac OS X
13 4 (0.080%) Windows 7
14 1 (0.020%) MVS
14 1 (0.020%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 1 (0.020%) tvOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,126 (42.65%) Agile Software Development
2 1,286 (25.80%) MVC
3 1,091 (21.89%) Front End Development
4 1,038 (20.82%) Web Development
5 746 (14.96%) TDD
6 720 (14.44%) DevOps
7 710 (14.24%) Scrum
8 693 (13.90%) Software Engineering
9 567 (11.37%) OO
10 522 (10.47%) Microservices
11 441 (8.85%) OOP
12 434 (8.71%) Problem-Solving
13 430 (8.63%) E-Commerce
14 360 (7.22%) Unit Testing
15 359 (7.20%) Test Automation
16 358 (7.18%) Continuous Integration
17 299 (6.00%) Computer Science
18 296 (5.94%) Mentoring
19 288 (5.78%) BDD
19 288 (5.78%) Fintech
Programming Languages
1 4,224 (84.73%) JavaScript
2 1,672 (33.54%) C#
3 1,325 (26.58%) SQL
4 1,081 (21.69%) PHP
5 707 (14.18%) TypeScript
6 560 (11.23%) Java
7 366 (7.34%) Python
8 318 (6.38%) ES6
9 224 (4.49%) T-SQL
10 134 (2.69%) C++
11 118 (2.37%) Ruby
12 82 (1.64%) VB.NET
13 58 (1.16%) C
14 55 (1.10%) PowerShell
15 49 (0.98%) Java 8
16 47 (0.94%) PL/SQL
17 44 (0.88%) Go
18 37 (0.74%) PHP 7
19 36 (0.72%) Apex Code
20 34 (0.68%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 519 (10.41%) Degree
2 201 (4.03%) Computer Science Degree
3 67 (1.34%) Security Cleared
4 49 (0.98%) SC Cleared
5 15 (0.30%) Microsoft Certification
6 11 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
7 7 (0.14%) DV Cleared
8 6 (0.12%) HND
8 6 (0.12%) MCPD
9 4 (0.080%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.060%) CCNA
10 3 (0.060%) CCNP
10 3 (0.060%) Cisco Certification
10 3 (0.060%) HNC
10 3 (0.060%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
11 2 (0.040%) DBS Check
11 2 (0.040%) Master's Degree
11 2 (0.040%) PhD
11 2 (0.040%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.020%) CSPO
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 246 (4.93%) QA
2 28 (0.56%) GDPR
3 21 (0.42%) Data Quality
4 11 (0.22%) ISO/IEC 27001
5 7 (0.14%) SLA
6 6 (0.12%) PCI DSS
6 6 (0.12%) WCAG
7 4 (0.080%) MiFID
8 3 (0.060%) EMIR
8 3 (0.060%) PSD2
9 2 (0.040%) NIST
10 1 (0.020%) GxP
10 1 (0.020%) PMO
10 1 (0.020%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 484 (9.71%) Docker
2 14 (0.28%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.20%) vSphere
4 8 (0.16%) Firmware
4 8 (0.16%) Squid
5 7 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
6 4 (0.080%) LXC
7 3 (0.060%) Hyper-V
7 3 (0.060%) Microsoft Virtual Server
7 3 (0.060%) Virtual Machines
7 3 (0.060%) Virtual Servers
8 2 (0.040%) Citrix Hypervisor
8 2 (0.040%) Varnish
9 1 (0.020%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 225 (4.51%) Kubernetes
2 49 (0.98%) Terraform
3 30 (0.60%) Ansible
4 18 (0.36%) HP UCMDB
5 16 (0.32%) cPanel
6 13 (0.26%) Kibana
7 12 (0.24%) Opscode Chef
8 10 (0.20%) Puppet
8 10 (0.20%) Single Sign-On
9 8 (0.16%) MIIS
10 6 (0.12%) Packer
10 6 (0.12%) Rancher
11 4 (0.080%) logstash
12 3 (0.060%) CA Single Sign-On
12 3 (0.060%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
12 3 (0.060%) Grafana
12 3 (0.060%) Plesk
12 3 (0.060%) TeamSite
12 3 (0.060%) vRealize
13 2 (0.040%) Nagios
Vendors
1 546 (10.95%) Microsoft
2 154 (3.09%) Adobe
3 149 (2.99%) Zend
4 141 (2.83%) Oracle
5 129 (2.59%) Google
6 105 (2.11%) Salesforce.com
7 77 (1.54%) ServiceNow
8 52 (1.04%) Xamarin
9 48 (0.96%) Atlassian
9 48 (0.96%) SAP
10 36 (0.72%) VMware
11 34 (0.68%) Remedy
12 21 (0.42%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
12 21 (0.42%) Splunk
13 20 (0.40%) IBM
14 19 (0.38%) Pardot
15 18 (0.36%) BMC
15 18 (0.36%) HP
15 18 (0.36%) hybris
16 17 (0.34%) HubSpot