Period
to 18 May 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 18 May 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
18 May 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 18 21 21
Rank change year-on-year +3 0 -6
Permanent jobs citing CSS 9,126 9,182 15,008
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.09% 9.62% 10.32%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.10% 24.34% 26.81%
Number of salaries quoted 6,733 7,898 12,642
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £27,500
25th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £46,000
Median % change year-on-year - +8.70% +2.22%
75th Percentile £62,500 £65,000 £61,250
90th Percentile £77,500 £80,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 36,358 37,719 55,987
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.19% 39.50% 38.49%
Number of salaries quoted 27,760 31,278 46,214
10th Percentile £35,000 £33,000 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,250 £38,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £71,250
90th Percentile £91,250 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 18 May 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 18 May 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 8,169 £50,000 - 1,994
UK excluding London +2 5,981 £45,000 - 1,582
London +4 2,670 £65,000 - 539
Work from Home -3 1,967 £50,000 - 507
South East +2 1,740 £50,000 +5.26% 331
North of England +4 1,369 £42,500 -5.56% 490
Midlands +2 1,005 £42,500 - 301
South West +1 896 £45,000 +5.88% 215
North West +2 689 £42,500 -5.56% 256
West Midlands +5 612 £45,000 - 174
Yorkshire +5 573 £44,000 +6.02% 172
Scotland -6 399 £47,500 +5.56% 88
East Midlands +1 392 £40,000 -5.88% 126
East of England +5 356 £47,500 +5.56% 116
Wales +4 128 £38,000 +2.70% 32
North East +5 109 £41,500 +3.75% 62
Northern Ireland +13 74 £40,000 -20.00% 9
Isle of Man +3 22 £48,500 -

For the 6 months to 18 May 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 8,349 (91.49%) HTML
2 7,517 (82.37%) JavaScript
3 3,615 (39.61%) Agile Software Development
4 3,061 (33.54%) C#
5 2,938 (32.19%) React
6 2,904 (31.82%) HTML5
7 2,684 (29.41%) .NET
8 2,522 (27.64%) SQL
9 2,515 (27.56%) AngularJS
10 2,195 (24.05%) Front End Development
11 2,139 (23.44%) Git (software)
12 2,029 (22.23%) Web Development
13 1,933 (21.18%) PHP
14 1,871 (20.50%) CSS3
15 1,815 (19.89%) Azure
16 1,809 (19.82%) User Experience
17 1,795 (19.67%) MVC
18 1,748 (19.15%) Java
19 1,654 (18.12%) jQuery
20 1,626 (17.82%) Node.js
21 1,621 (17.76%) SQL Server
22 1,616 (17.71%) TypeScript
23 1,524 (16.70%) Microsoft
24 1,433 (15.70%) Social Skills
25 1,383 (15.15%) Vue.js
26 1,334 (14.62%) MySQL
27 1,311 (14.37%) Software Engineering
28 1,259 (13.80%) DevOps
29 1,243 (13.62%) ASP.NET
30 1,182 (12.95%) Scrum

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 624 (6.84%) CMS
2 386 (4.23%) WordPress
3 251 (2.75%) SharePoint
4 218 (2.39%) Apache
5 180 (1.97%) Confluence
6 176 (1.93%) IIS
7 159 (1.74%) Elasticsearch
8 128 (1.40%) Drupal
9 120 (1.31%) Umbraco
10 104 (1.14%) EPiServer
11 89 (0.98%) nginx
11 89 (0.98%) Sitecore CMS
12 74 (0.81%) Tomcat
13 73 (0.80%) Apache Spark
14 61 (0.67%) Apache Solr
15 57 (0.62%) Kentico
16 50 (0.55%) GemFire
17 25 (0.27%) JBoss
17 25 (0.27%) NServiceBus
18 23 (0.25%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 170 (1.86%) Sketch
2 160 (1.75%) Photoshop
3 122 (1.34%) Adobe Illustrator
4 106 (1.16%) InVision
5 97 (1.06%) Figma
6 72 (0.79%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 72 (0.79%) Microsoft Office
7 67 (0.73%) Adobe XD
8 42 (0.46%) Microsoft Excel
9 25 (0.27%) Adobe After Effects
10 21 (0.23%) InDesign
11 19 (0.21%) UXPin
12 18 (0.20%) GIMP
12 18 (0.20%) Zeplin
13 17 (0.19%) Chatbot
14 12 (0.13%) MadCap Flare
15 11 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
15 11 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
16 8 (0.088%) CINEMA 4D
16 8 (0.088%) MS Visio
Business Applications
1 207 (2.27%) Magento
2 139 (1.52%) Dynamics CRM
3 129 (1.41%) Shopify
4 54 (0.59%) Payment Gateway
5 22 (0.24%) OpenCart
6 20 (0.22%) nopCommerce
7 18 (0.20%) Remedy ITSM
8 10 (0.11%) WebTrends
9 9 (0.099%) NetSuite
10 6 (0.066%) Dynamics NAV
11 5 (0.055%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
12 4 (0.044%) Adobe Campaign
12 4 (0.044%) Bond Adapt
12 4 (0.044%) Dynamics AX
13 3 (0.033%) SAP ERP
14 2 (0.022%) Odoo
14 2 (0.022%) Sage 300 ERP
14 2 (0.022%) Sage CRM
14 2 (0.022%) SAP Hybris
14 2 (0.022%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 1,815 (19.89%) Azure
2 1,150 (12.60%) AWS
3 598 (6.55%) SaaS
4 347 (3.80%) GitHub
5 298 (3.27%) Serverless
6 282 (3.09%) npm
7 275 (3.01%) GCP
8 218 (2.39%) Power Platform
9 190 (2.08%) PaaS
10 162 (1.78%) AWS Lambda
11 139 (1.52%) Amazon S3
12 117 (1.28%) Dynamics 365
13 112 (1.23%) Amazon EC2
14 109 (1.19%) PowerApps
15 101 (1.11%) Azure Service Bus
16 96 (1.05%) Azure Active Directory
17 94 (1.03%) Microsoft 365
18 92 (1.01%) Azure Functions
19 86 (0.94%) Azure Key Vault
20 85 (0.93%) Google Analytics
Communications & Networking
1 159 (1.74%) HTTP
2 139 (1.52%) Internet
3 56 (0.61%) DNS
4 50 (0.55%) SSL
5 44 (0.48%) Wireless
6 42 (0.46%) Intranet
7 30 (0.33%) Broadband
8 28 (0.31%) TCP/IP
9 26 (0.28%) VPN
10 25 (0.27%) FTP
11 24 (0.26%) SSH
12 22 (0.24%) Network Security
12 22 (0.24%) Skype
13 21 (0.23%) Ethernet
13 21 (0.23%) MQTT
13 21 (0.23%) Wi-Fi
14 20 (0.22%) Bluetooth
15 17 (0.19%) Firewall
16 16 (0.18%) Extranet
17 13 (0.14%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,621 (17.76%) SQL Server
2 1,334 (14.62%) MySQL
3 482 (5.28%) NoSQL
4 416 (4.56%) PostgreSQL
5 375 (4.11%) Relational Database
6 360 (3.94%) MongoDB
7 200 (2.19%) Redis
8 139 (1.52%) Big Data
9 123 (1.35%) Power BI
10 111 (1.22%) MariaDB
11 101 (1.11%) Azure SQL Database
12 95 (1.04%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 87 (0.95%) Amazon RDS
14 71 (0.78%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 64 (0.70%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 62 (0.68%) SQL Server 2012
17 53 (0.58%) RDBMS
18 45 (0.49%) HBase
19 42 (0.46%) SQL Server 2016
20 38 (0.42%) SQL Server 2008
Development Applications
1 2,139 (23.44%) Git (software)
2 487 (5.34%) webpack
3 456 (5.00%) JIRA
4 379 (4.15%) Visual Studio
5 354 (3.88%) Jenkins
6 318 (3.48%) gulp
7 260 (2.85%) Cypress.io
8 201 (2.20%) Team Foundation Server
9 161 (1.76%) JUnit
10 159 (1.74%) Bitbucket
11 154 (1.69%) Grunt
12 153 (1.68%) Visual Studio Team System
13 148 (1.62%) Selenium
14 134 (1.47%) Storybook
15 124 (1.36%) Subversion
16 116 (1.27%) Gradle
17 114 (1.25%) Maven
18 109 (1.19%) Jasmine
19 104 (1.14%) Protractor
20 101 (1.11%) NUnit
General
1 1,433 (15.70%) Social Skills
2 1,031 (11.30%) Finance
3 555 (6.08%) Marketing
4 496 (5.44%) Analytical Skills
5 444 (4.87%) Retail
6 351 (3.85%) Games
7 291 (3.19%) Banking
8 249 (2.73%) Public Sector
9 150 (1.64%) Law
9 150 (1.64%) Manufacturing
10 133 (1.46%) Organisational Skills
11 122 (1.34%) Publishing
12 111 (1.22%) Telecoms
13 106 (1.16%) Multimedia
14 87 (0.95%) Advertising
15 86 (0.94%) Back Office
16 84 (0.92%) Automotive
17 78 (0.85%) Legal
18 59 (0.65%) Local Government
18 59 (0.65%) Presentation Skills
Job Titles
1 7,016 (76.88%) Developer
2 1,499 (16.43%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,432 (15.69%) Senior Developer
4 1,154 (12.65%) Full Stack Developer
5 1,033 (11.32%) .NET Developer
6 917 (10.05%) Software Developer
7 908 (9.95%) Web Developer
8 834 (9.14%) PHP Developer
9 755 (8.27%) React Developer
10 706 (7.74%) C# Developer
11 603 (6.61%) Software Engineer
12 520 (5.70%) Trainee
13 507 (5.56%) JavaScript Developer
13 507 (5.56%) Trainee Developer
14 506 (5.54%) C# .NET Developer
15 370 (4.05%) Trainee Web Developer
16 334 (3.66%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 331 (3.63%) Angular Developer
18 292 (3.20%) Lead Developer
19 278 (3.05%) Senior .NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 8,349 (91.49%) HTML
2 2,938 (32.19%) React
3 2,904 (31.82%) HTML5
4 2,684 (29.41%) .NET
5 2,515 (27.56%) AngularJS
6 1,871 (20.50%) CSS3
7 1,654 (18.12%) jQuery
8 1,626 (17.82%) Node.js
9 1,383 (15.15%) Vue.js
10 1,243 (13.62%) ASP.NET
11 1,171 (12.83%) Sass
12 1,097 (12.02%) .NET Core
13 1,073 (11.76%) REST
14 1,059 (11.60%) RESTful
15 984 (10.78%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 915 (10.03%) Web Services
17 846 (9.27%) .NET Framework
18 737 (8.08%) Laravel
19 721 (7.90%) Redux
20 668 (7.32%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 1,809 (19.82%) User Experience
2 555 (6.08%) Greenfield Project
3 539 (5.91%) Mobile App
4 355 (3.89%) Self-Motivation
5 192 (2.10%) Enterprise Software
6 180 (1.97%) Data Structures
7 145 (1.59%) N-Tier
8 115 (1.26%) Virtual Team
9 112 (1.23%) Linux Command Line
10 80 (0.88%) Blog
11 79 (0.87%) Cloud Native
12 69 (0.76%) Social Media
13 68 (0.75%) Algorithms
14 58 (0.64%) NHS
15 54 (0.59%) Graphic Design
16 51 (0.56%) Client/Server
16 51 (0.56%) Management Information System
17 50 (0.55%) Hedge funds
18 46 (0.50%) Animation
19 42 (0.46%) Reinsurance
Operating Systems
1 728 (7.98%) Linux
2 419 (4.59%) Windows
3 281 (3.08%) Android
4 256 (2.81%) Apple iOS
5 128 (1.40%) Unix
6 97 (1.06%) Windows Server
7 60 (0.66%) Ubuntu
8 22 (0.24%) Debian
9 20 (0.22%) CentOS
10 11 (0.12%) Windows 10
10 11 (0.12%) Windows 7
11 8 (0.088%) VMS
11 8 (0.088%) Windows Server 2008
11 8 (0.088%) Windows Server 2012
12 7 (0.077%) Windows Server 2016
13 6 (0.066%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 6 (0.066%) tvOS
14 4 (0.044%) Mac OS X
15 3 (0.033%) Windows 8
16 2 (0.022%) Windows Server 2003
Processes & Methodologies
1 3,615 (39.61%) Agile Software Development
2 2,195 (24.05%) Front End Development
3 2,029 (22.23%) Web Development
4 1,795 (19.67%) MVC
5 1,311 (14.37%) Software Engineering
6 1,259 (13.80%) DevOps
7 1,182 (12.95%) Scrum
8 1,128 (12.36%) TDD
9 1,126 (12.34%) Microservices
10 1,034 (11.33%) OO
11 933 (10.22%) E-Commerce
12 835 (9.15%) Problem-Solving
13 756 (8.28%) Unit Testing
14 712 (7.80%) Test Automation
15 694 (7.60%) OOP
16 648 (7.10%) Computer Science
17 645 (7.07%) Mentoring
18 590 (6.47%) Continuous Integration
19 542 (5.94%) SDLC
20 508 (5.57%) Cybersecurity
Programming Languages
1 7,517 (82.37%) JavaScript
2 3,061 (33.54%) C#
3 2,522 (27.64%) SQL
4 1,933 (21.18%) PHP
5 1,748 (19.15%) Java
6 1,616 (17.71%) TypeScript
7 884 (9.69%) Python
8 630 (6.90%) ES6
9 607 (6.65%) Java 8
10 453 (4.96%) T-SQL
11 202 (2.21%) Ruby
12 151 (1.65%) PowerShell
13 133 (1.46%) VB.NET
14 119 (1.30%) C++
15 106 (1.16%) Kotlin
16 96 (1.05%) Scala
17 95 (1.04%) C
18 93 (1.02%) ES7
19 90 (0.99%) PHP 7
20 89 (0.98%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 995 (10.90%) Degree
2 561 (6.15%) Oracle Certification
3 519 (5.69%) CIW
3 519 (5.69%) OCA
4 408 (4.47%) OCAJ
5 291 (3.19%) Computer Science Degree
6 153 (1.68%) OCP
7 110 (1.21%) Security Cleared
8 97 (1.06%) SC Cleared
9 78 (0.85%) Microsoft Certification
10 56 (0.61%) Master's Degree
11 31 (0.34%) AWS Certification
12 28 (0.31%) SANS
13 19 (0.21%) HND
14 15 (0.16%) DV Cleared
14 15 (0.16%) PhD
15 13 (0.14%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
16 11 (0.12%) Numerate Degree
17 9 (0.099%) PMI Certification
18 7 (0.077%) ISTQB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 342 (3.75%) QA
2 81 (0.89%) WCAG
3 37 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 28 (0.31%) GDPR
5 27 (0.30%) PCI DSS
6 19 (0.21%) WAI
7 13 (0.14%) SLA
8 9 (0.099%) Actionable Recommendations
9 4 (0.044%) ISO/IEC 20000
10 3 (0.033%) PMO
11 2 (0.022%) Good Clinical Practice
12 1 (0.011%) Data Quality
12 1 (0.011%) NCSC
12 1 (0.011%) PSD2
System Software
1 945 (10.36%) Docker
2 47 (0.52%) VMware Infrastructure
3 42 (0.46%) HDFS
4 38 (0.42%) Active Directory
5 12 (0.13%) Firmware
6 7 (0.077%) Virtual Servers
7 6 (0.066%) Virtual Machines
8 5 (0.055%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 5 (0.055%) Hyper-V
8 5 (0.055%) Kamailio
8 5 (0.055%) OpenSIPS
8 5 (0.055%) Varnish
9 4 (0.044%) Ceph
9 4 (0.044%) KVM
10 2 (0.022%) vSphere
11 1 (0.011%) LXC
11 1 (0.011%) Terminal Services
11 1 (0.011%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 498 (5.46%) Kubernetes
2 207 (2.27%) Terraform
3 127 (1.39%) Ansible
4 110 (1.21%) Opscode Chef
5 36 (0.39%) Puppet
6 18 (0.20%) HP UCMDB
7 16 (0.18%) Packer
8 15 (0.16%) MIIS
9 13 (0.14%) Prometheus
10 12 (0.13%) Docker Swarm
11 11 (0.12%) Bugsnag
11 11 (0.12%) Kibana
12 10 (0.11%) Grafana
13 9 (0.099%) Single Sign-On
14 8 (0.088%) HP Fortify
15 4 (0.044%) Galera Cluster
15 4 (0.044%) Graphite
15 4 (0.044%) Istio
15 4 (0.044%) Opsgenie
15 4 (0.044%) vRealize
Vendors
1 1,524 (16.70%) Microsoft
2 729 (7.99%) Oracle
3 329 (3.61%) Google
4 316 (3.46%) Adobe
5 115 (1.26%) Sitecore
6 107 (1.17%) Zend
7 104 (1.14%) Salesforce.com
8 91 (1.00%) Xamarin
9 87 (0.95%) Nintex
10 83 (0.91%) VMware
11 67 (0.73%) Atlassian
12 53 (0.58%) SAP
12 53 (0.58%) WooCommerce
13 50 (0.55%) Okta
14 48 (0.53%) IBM
15 42 (0.46%) Apple
16 32 (0.35%) ServiceNow
17 31 (0.34%) Databricks
18 26 (0.28%) HP
19 25 (0.27%) Sage