Period
to

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 2 July 2022 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
2 Jul 2022
Same period 2021 Same period 2020
Rank 33 22 21
Rank change year-on-year -11 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 15,395 10,345 7,662
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 8.56% 9.61% 9.69%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.12% 23.60% 24.61%
Number of salaries quoted 5,935 7,092 6,566
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £31,250
25th Percentile £41,225 £37,500 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £50,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +10.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £71,250 £63,750 £65,000
90th Percentile £87,500 £77,500 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 72,893 43,843 31,136
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.54% 40.71% 39.40%
Number of salaries quoted 30,361 30,158 25,902
10th Percentile £38,000 £35,000 £33,750
25th Percentile £47,500 £42,500 £42,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £64,500 £57,500 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +12.17% +4.55% +4.76%
75th Percentile £82,500 £76,250 £75,000
90th Percentile £100,000 £92,500 £90,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year +10.00% +5.26% +5.56%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 2 July 2022.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 2 July 2022. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Jobs
England -12 12,441 £55,000 +10.00% 1,109
Work from Home -7 7,617 £55,000 +13.40% 571
UK excluding London -6 6,904 £50,000 +11.11% 761
London -15 6,094 £65,000 - 377
South East -11 2,084 £50,000 +3.09% 176
North of England 0 1,698 £49,500 +16.47% 226
Midlands -9 1,024 £50,000 +17.65% 147
North West -5 871 £50,000 +17.65% 113
South West -9 847 £47,500 +5.56% 104
Yorkshire -3 664 £45,750 +1.67% 95
West Midlands -9 609 £50,000 +11.11% 83
East of England -7 557 £43,000 -14.00% 57
Scotland -12 470 £52,500 +8.25% 34
East Midlands -6 409 £50,000 +25.00% 64
Wales -3 186 £52,500 +26.51% 13
North East +3 164 £37,616 -10.44% 18
Northern Ireland -2 103 £40,500 +1.25% 4

For the 6 months to 2 July 2022, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 13,562 (88.09%) HTML
2 12,677 (82.34%) JavaScript
3 7,666 (49.80%) React
4 7,412 (48.15%) Agile
5 5,099 (33.12%) Git (software)
6 4,599 (29.87%) AngularJS
7 4,474 (29.06%) .NET
8 4,370 (28.39%) Software Engineering
9 4,331 (28.13%) C#
10 4,314 (28.02%) HTML5
11 4,035 (26.21%) Node.js
12 3,974 (25.81%) Social Skills
13 3,935 (25.56%) SQL
14 3,900 (25.33%) Full Stack Development
15 3,897 (25.31%) TypeScript
16 3,744 (24.32%) Azure
17 3,727 (24.21%) Java
18 3,672 (23.85%) User Experience
19 3,471 (22.55%) AWS
20 3,306 (21.47%) Front End Development
21 3,194 (20.75%) CSS3
22 3,021 (19.62%) Web Development
23 2,933 (19.05%) Python
24 2,921 (18.97%) DevOps
25 2,908 (18.89%) Docker
26 2,720 (17.67%) Finance
27 2,718 (17.66%) MVC
28 2,672 (17.36%) CI/CD
29 2,576 (16.73%) Sass
30 2,481 (16.12%) TDD

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 907 (5.89%) CMS
2 459 (2.98%) WordPress
3 424 (2.75%) Confluence
4 400 (2.60%) Apache
5 367 (2.38%) Umbraco
6 230 (1.49%) Apache Spark
7 205 (1.33%) Drupal
8 140 (0.91%) nginx
9 137 (0.89%) IIS
10 130 (0.84%) Headless CMS
10 130 (0.84%) SharePoint
11 126 (0.82%) GeoServer
12 82 (0.53%) Tomcat
13 78 (0.51%) Sitecore CMS
14 70 (0.45%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 54 (0.35%) EPiServer
16 52 (0.34%) Cloud Foundry
17 38 (0.25%) Apache Solr
18 35 (0.23%) Moodle
19 32 (0.21%) Joomla!
Applications
1 408 (2.65%) Sketch
2 283 (1.84%) Photoshop
3 180 (1.17%) Adobe XD
4 174 (1.13%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 171 (1.11%) InVision
6 134 (0.87%) Adobe Illustrator
7 130 (0.84%) Microsoft Office
8 127 (0.82%) Microsoft Excel
9 52 (0.34%) InDesign
9 52 (0.34%) Microsoft PowerPoint
10 40 (0.26%) Chatbot
11 36 (0.23%) OmniGraffle
11 36 (0.23%) Spreadsheet
12 32 (0.21%) Adobe After Effects
13 29 (0.19%) Zeplin
14 23 (0.15%) MS Visio
15 19 (0.12%) Campfire
16 18 (0.12%) Maya
17 13 (0.084%) Acrobat
18 12 (0.078%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 143 (0.93%) Shopify
2 123 (0.80%) Magento
3 72 (0.47%) Dynamics CRM
4 62 (0.40%) WebTrends
5 40 (0.26%) Academy Housing
6 38 (0.25%) Payment Gateway
7 32 (0.21%) SessionCam
7 32 (0.21%) Social Studio
8 29 (0.19%) NetSuite
9 16 (0.10%) Distributed Ledger
10 15 (0.097%) Dynamics NAV
11 14 (0.091%) Remedy ITSM
12 12 (0.078%) Maximo
13 11 (0.071%) Adobe Campaign
14 9 (0.058%) Eloqua
14 9 (0.058%) Salesforce.com CRM
14 9 (0.058%) SAP Hybris
15 8 (0.052%) R3 Corda
15 8 (0.052%) SAP Business One
16 7 (0.045%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
Cloud Services
1 3,744 (24.32%) Azure
2 3,471 (22.55%) AWS
3 1,471 (9.56%) Serverless
4 1,226 (7.96%) SaaS
5 1,112 (7.22%) GitHub
6 956 (6.21%) GCP
7 783 (5.09%) Azure DevOps
8 723 (4.70%) npm
9 667 (4.33%) AWS Lambda
10 624 (4.05%) Figma
11 346 (2.25%) Amazon S3
12 310 (2.01%) PaaS
13 309 (2.01%) Google Analytics
14 299 (1.94%) OpenShift
15 258 (1.68%) Amazon EC2
16 256 (1.66%) Amazon SQS
17 241 (1.57%) Azure Functions
18 214 (1.39%) Azure Service Bus
19 213 (1.38%) Power Platform
20 210 (1.36%) GitHub Actions
Communications & Networking
1 1,096 (7.12%) HTTP
2 604 (3.92%) SSL
3 596 (3.87%) Internet
4 122 (0.79%) Broadband
5 65 (0.42%) DNS
6 55 (0.36%) SSH
7 40 (0.26%) Intranet
8 33 (0.21%) Network Security
9 32 (0.21%) FTP
9 32 (0.21%) HTTPS
10 30 (0.19%) VPN
11 27 (0.18%) VoIP
12 26 (0.17%) PPP
13 25 (0.16%) Firewall
14 24 (0.16%) DMZ
14 24 (0.16%) Extranet
15 21 (0.14%) SNA
16 19 (0.12%) 5G
16 19 (0.12%) TCP/IP
16 19 (0.12%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,223 (14.44%) SQL Server
2 2,118 (13.76%) MySQL
3 1,528 (9.93%) PostgreSQL
4 1,423 (9.24%) NoSQL
5 936 (6.08%) Relational Database
6 898 (5.83%) MongoDB
7 736 (4.78%) Redis
8 375 (2.44%) Elasticsearch
9 253 (1.64%) Apache Cassandra
10 228 (1.48%) Big Data
11 195 (1.27%) Flink
12 187 (1.21%) Amazon RDS
13 181 (1.18%) RDBMS
14 177 (1.15%) DynamoDB
15 164 (1.07%) Power BI
16 131 (0.85%) GIS
17 129 (0.84%) QGIS
18 112 (0.73%) MariaDB
19 105 (0.68%) Oracle Database
20 94 (0.61%) Amazon Aurora
Development Applications
1 5,099 (33.12%) Git (software)
2 1,656 (10.76%) JIRA
3 1,404 (9.12%) webpack
4 1,150 (7.47%) Jenkins
5 638 (4.14%) Cypress.io
6 435 (2.83%) Selenium
7 431 (2.80%) gulp
8 380 (2.47%) GitLab
9 375 (2.44%) Subversion
10 369 (2.40%) Bitbucket
11 364 (2.36%) Visual Studio
12 358 (2.33%) Maven
13 311 (2.02%) Jasmine
14 307 (1.99%) Grunt
15 303 (1.97%) Mocha
16 298 (1.94%) Team Foundation Server
17 290 (1.88%) Babel
18 271 (1.76%) Gradle
19 227 (1.47%) CircleCI
20 223 (1.45%) Storybook
General
1 3,974 (25.81%) Social Skills
2 2,720 (17.67%) Finance
3 1,929 (12.53%) Marketing
4 1,191 (7.74%) Analytical Skills
5 912 (5.92%) Retail
6 759 (4.93%) Games
7 703 (4.57%) Inclusion and Diversity
8 610 (3.96%) Banking
9 555 (3.61%) Public Sector
10 548 (3.56%) Manufacturing
11 318 (2.07%) Legal
12 297 (1.93%) Organisational Skills
13 264 (1.71%) Publishing
14 244 (1.58%) Law
15 239 (1.55%) Advertising
16 189 (1.23%) Local Government
17 176 (1.14%) Presentation Skills
18 168 (1.09%) Pharmaceutical
19 162 (1.05%) Automotive
20 153 (0.99%) Financial Institution
Job Titles
1 9,186 (59.67%) Developer
2 2,895 (18.80%) Software Engineer
3 2,276 (14.78%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 2,147 (13.95%) Senior Developer
5 1,504 (9.77%) Software Developer
6 1,407 (9.14%) Full Stack Developer
7 1,017 (6.61%) .NET Developer
8 838 (5.44%) React Developer
9 717 (4.66%) Web Developer
10 665 (4.32%) Senior Software Engineer
11 632 (4.11%) Senior Front-End Developer
12 584 (3.79%) Designer
13 542 (3.52%) Trainee
14 541 (3.51%) Trainee Developer
14 541 (3.51%) Trainee Software Developer
15 532 (3.46%) JavaScript Developer
16 490 (3.18%) PHP Developer
17 446 (2.90%) C# Developer
18 401 (2.60%) Lead Developer
19 338 (2.20%) Angular Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 13,562 (88.09%) HTML
2 7,666 (49.80%) React
3 4,599 (29.87%) AngularJS
4 4,474 (29.06%) .NET
5 4,314 (28.02%) HTML5
6 4,035 (26.21%) Node.js
7 3,194 (20.75%) CSS3
8 2,576 (16.73%) Sass
9 2,300 (14.94%) ASP.NET
10 2,209 (14.35%) Vue.js
11 2,140 (13.90%) REST
12 2,080 (13.51%) jQuery
13 1,784 (11.59%) RESTful
14 1,538 (9.99%) Redux
15 1,442 (9.37%) .NET Core
16 1,327 (8.62%) .NET Framework
17 1,308 (8.50%) Web Services
18 1,264 (8.21%) GraphQL
19 1,180 (7.66%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 1,177 (7.65%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 3,672 (23.85%) User Experience
2 1,203 (7.81%) Mobile App
3 1,168 (7.59%) Data Structures
4 715 (4.64%) Self-Motivation
5 582 (3.78%) Algorithms
6 530 (3.44%) Virtual Team
7 493 (3.20%) Greenfield Project
8 391 (2.54%) Enterprise Software
9 343 (2.23%) Linux Command Line
10 297 (1.93%) Blog
11 266 (1.73%) Life Science
12 229 (1.49%) Cloud Native
13 200 (1.30%) Social Media
14 161 (1.05%) Low-Code
14 161 (1.05%) NHS
15 158 (1.03%) W3C
16 153 (0.99%) Graphic Design
17 146 (0.95%) Sports Betting
18 135 (0.88%) Hackathon
19 133 (0.86%) Social Network
Operating Systems
1 1,221 (7.93%) Linux
2 726 (4.72%) Android
3 678 (4.40%) Apple iOS
4 466 (3.03%) Windows
5 418 (2.72%) Unix
6 284 (1.84%) Ubuntu
7 67 (0.44%) Windows Server
8 58 (0.38%) Debian
9 56 (0.36%) VMS
10 32 (0.21%) Mac OS
11 22 (0.14%) CentOS
11 22 (0.14%) tvOS
12 18 (0.12%) Windows Server 2012
12 18 (0.12%) Windows Server 2016
13 16 (0.10%) Windows Phone
14 15 (0.097%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 15 (0.097%) Windows Server 2019
15 8 (0.052%) Alpine Linux
15 8 (0.052%) Scientific Linux
16 5 (0.032%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 7,412 (48.15%) Agile
2 4,370 (28.39%) Software Engineering
3 3,900 (25.33%) Full Stack Development
4 3,306 (21.47%) Front End Development
5 3,021 (19.62%) Web Development
6 2,921 (18.97%) DevOps
7 2,718 (17.66%) MVC
8 2,672 (17.36%) CI/CD
9 2,481 (16.12%) TDD
10 2,356 (15.30%) Problem-Solving
11 2,228 (14.47%) Scrum
12 2,085 (13.54%) Mentoring
13 2,020 (13.12%) Test Automation
14 1,983 (12.88%) Microservices
15 1,816 (11.80%) OO
16 1,773 (11.52%) UX Design
17 1,766 (11.47%) Computer Science
18 1,626 (10.56%) OOP
19 1,568 (10.19%) Unit Testing
20 1,552 (10.08%) Continuous Integration
Programming Languages
1 12,677 (82.34%) JavaScript
2 4,331 (28.13%) C#
3 3,935 (25.56%) SQL
4 3,897 (25.31%) TypeScript
5 3,727 (24.21%) Java
6 2,933 (19.05%) Python
7 2,253 (14.63%) PHP
8 1,378 (8.95%) ES6
9 1,295 (8.41%) Ruby
10 961 (6.24%) Go
11 435 (2.83%) T-SQL
12 434 (2.82%) C
13 431 (2.80%) C++
14 379 (2.46%) PowerShell
15 347 (2.25%) Objective-C
16 247 (1.60%) Kotlin
17 243 (1.58%) Perl
18 231 (1.50%) Shell Script
19 217 (1.41%) Scala
20 166 (1.08%) Bash
Qualifications
1 2,165 (14.06%) Degree
2 1,055 (6.85%) Computer Science Degree
3 562 (3.65%) Security Cleared
4 548 (3.56%) OCP
4 548 (3.56%) Oracle Certification
5 541 (3.51%) CIW
5 541 (3.51%) OCA
6 348 (2.26%) SC Cleared
7 235 (1.53%) Master's Degree
8 160 (1.04%) Microsoft Certification
9 105 (0.68%) PMI Certification
10 55 (0.36%) DBS Check
11 52 (0.34%) BPSS Clearance
12 42 (0.27%) AWS Certification
13 30 (0.19%) DV Cleared
14 27 (0.18%) PhD
15 24 (0.16%) Numerate Degree
16 20 (0.13%) ISTQB
17 19 (0.12%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
18 17 (0.11%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,396 (9.07%) Accessibility
2 1,276 (8.29%) QA
3 197 (1.28%) WCAG
4 126 (0.82%) GDPR
5 78 (0.51%) Data Quality
6 51 (0.33%) WAI
7 33 (0.21%) ISO/IEC 27001
8 17 (0.11%) GRC
9 13 (0.084%) SLA
10 12 (0.078%) ISO 13485
11 11 (0.071%) HIPAA
12 9 (0.058%) PCI DSS
13 8 (0.052%) GLP
13 8 (0.052%) IEC 62304
13 8 (0.052%) MiFID
14 4 (0.026%) Disclosure Scotland
14 4 (0.026%) GMP
14 4 (0.026%) HL7
14 4 (0.026%) Sarbanes-Oxley
15 3 (0.019%) NCSC
System Software
1 2,908 (18.89%) Docker
2 59 (0.38%) Active Directory
3 24 (0.16%) VMware Infrastructure
4 22 (0.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
5 11 (0.071%) VirtualBox
6 9 (0.058%) LXC
6 9 (0.058%) Virtual Machines
7 8 (0.052%) iptables
7 8 (0.052%) Lustre
7 8 (0.052%) Slurm Workload Manager
7 8 (0.052%) Varnish
8 7 (0.045%) HDFS
9 5 (0.032%) VMware ESXi
10 4 (0.026%) Hyper-V
10 4 (0.026%) Virtual Servers
11 2 (0.013%) Oracle RAC
11 2 (0.013%) vCloud
11 2 (0.013%) vSphere
12 1 (0.006%) Firmware
12 1 (0.006%) KVM
Systems Management
1 1,453 (9.44%) Kubernetes
2 763 (4.96%) Terraform
3 122 (0.79%) Ansible
4 73 (0.47%) Prometheus
5 58 (0.38%) Bugsnag
5 58 (0.38%) Grafana
6 49 (0.32%) Opscode Chef
7 42 (0.27%) Kibana
8 39 (0.25%) Single Sign-On
9 35 (0.23%) Puppet
10 28 (0.18%) Docker Swarm
11 26 (0.17%) HP Quality Center
12 25 (0.16%) Hadoop YARN
13 23 (0.15%) HP Fortify
14 18 (0.12%) Panaseer
14 18 (0.12%) SCCM
15 17 (0.11%) MIIS
16 15 (0.097%) cPanel
17 14 (0.091%) Rancher
17 14 (0.091%) yum
Vendors
1 2,292 (14.89%) Microsoft
2 1,231 (8.00%) Google
3 931 (6.05%) Oracle
4 643 (4.18%) Adobe
5 301 (1.96%) Xamarin
6 206 (1.34%) Salesforce.com
7 161 (1.05%) Zend
8 139 (0.90%) SAP
9 138 (0.90%) Sitecore
10 130 (0.84%) Sun
11 119 (0.77%) Apple
12 108 (0.70%) Facebook
13 99 (0.64%) Sony
14 82 (0.53%) ServiceNow
15 79 (0.51%) NEC
16 76 (0.49%) YouTube
17 75 (0.49%) IBM
18 67 (0.44%) Civica
19 64 (0.42%) Atlassian
20 63 (0.41%) Netlify