Period
to 18 September 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 18 September 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
18 Sep 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 22 15 15
Rank change year-on-year -7 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 13,426 19,367 22,476
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 9.48% 11.55% 12.74%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 25.37% 28.84% 31.61%
Number of salaries quoted 11,538 16,876 19,937
UK median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £43,000
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.56% +4.65% +1.18%
10th Percentile £28,750 £27,500 £27,000
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £68,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £42,500 £40,000
% change year-on-year - +6.25% +3.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 52,929 67,154 71,103
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 37.38% 40.03% 40.31%
Number of salaries quoted 43,379 55,683 58,825
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
10th Percentile £32,250 £31,250 £29,000
90th Percentile £87,500 £82,500 £77,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +2.41%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 18 September 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 18 September 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -7 12,323 £47,500 +4.40% 2,934
UK excluding London -5 8,622 £42,500 - 2,310
London -6 4,492 £60,000 - 827
South East -6 2,916 £45,000 - 544
North of England -5 1,861 £42,500 +6.25% 662
Midlands -2 1,265 £40,000 - 415
North West -2 1,219 £42,500 - 407
South West -7 1,114 £42,500 +6.25% 259
West Midlands -4 666 £40,000 - 203
East of England -5 643 £45,000 +5.88% 227
Scotland +8 616 £42,500 -5.56% 141
East Midlands -2 588 £40,000 - 211
Yorkshire -19 549 £40,000 - 194
Wales +1 167 £40,000 -5.88% 50
North East -15 94 £43,500 +16.00% 61
Northern Ireland -3 53 £42,500 +25.00% 13
Channel Islands +8 1 - -
Isle of Man +1 1 £55,000 +4.76%

For the 6 months to 18 September 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 12,414 (92.46%) HTML
2 11,452 (85.30%) JavaScript
3 5,785 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
4 5,190 (38.66%) C#
5 4,970 (37.02%) .NET
6 4,584 (34.14%) AngularJS
7 3,847 (28.65%) MVC
8 3,823 (28.47%) HTML5
9 3,421 (25.48%) SQL
10 3,417 (25.45%) jQuery
11 3,286 (24.47%) ASP.NET
12 3,110 (23.16%) React
13 3,006 (22.39%) Front End Development
14 2,986 (22.24%) Git (software)
15 2,930 (21.82%) SQL Server
16 2,877 (21.43%) Web Development
17 2,576 (19.19%) PHP
18 2,575 (19.18%) CSS3
19 2,337 (17.41%) User Experience
20 2,063 (15.37%) TDD
21 2,021 (15.05%) Java
22 1,998 (14.88%) MySQL
23 1,895 (14.11%) Node.js
24 1,824 (13.59%) Scrum
25 1,811 (13.49%) Azure
26 1,777 (13.24%) Sass
27 1,747 (13.01%) Microsoft
28 1,720 (12.81%) ASP.NET MVC
29 1,696 (12.63%) Web Services
30 1,683 (12.54%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 786 (5.85%) CMS
2 664 (4.95%) WordPress
3 337 (2.51%) Elasticsearch
4 288 (2.15%) SharePoint
5 268 (2.00%) Umbraco
6 248 (1.85%) Apache
6 248 (1.85%) Drupal
7 220 (1.64%) Confluence
7 220 (1.64%) IIS
8 174 (1.30%) Tomcat
9 112 (0.83%) nginx
10 90 (0.67%) JBoss
11 86 (0.64%) Sitecore CMS
12 82 (0.61%) EPiServer
13 74 (0.55%) Joomla!
14 70 (0.52%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 52 (0.39%) Oracle SOA Suite
16 51 (0.38%) Kentico
17 43 (0.32%) Apache Spark
18 40 (0.30%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 421 (3.14%) Photoshop
2 312 (2.32%) Sketch
3 214 (1.59%) Adobe Illustrator
4 160 (1.19%) InVision
5 145 (1.08%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 111 (0.83%) Microsoft Office
7 99 (0.74%) Adobe XD
8 76 (0.57%) Microsoft Excel
9 56 (0.42%) Zeplin
10 39 (0.29%) InDesign
11 31 (0.23%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 29 (0.22%) Figma
13 28 (0.21%) MS Visio
14 27 (0.20%) Marvel
15 22 (0.16%) OmniGraffle
16 21 (0.16%) InfoPath
17 19 (0.14%) Adobe After Effects
17 19 (0.14%) Microsoft Project
18 18 (0.13%) Acrobat
19 17 (0.13%) Chatbot
Business Applications
1 329 (2.45%) Magento
2 127 (0.95%) Dynamics CRM
3 84 (0.63%) Payment Gateway
4 60 (0.45%) Shopify
5 24 (0.18%) Dynamics AX
6 21 (0.16%) NetSuite
7 19 (0.14%) Dynamics NAV
7 19 (0.14%) SAP Hybris
8 15 (0.11%) WebTrends
9 10 (0.074%) Adobe Campaign
9 10 (0.074%) OpenCart
10 9 (0.067%) nopCommerce
10 9 (0.067%) SDL Web 8
11 5 (0.037%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 5 (0.037%) Unica
12 4 (0.030%) OpenText MBPM
12 4 (0.030%) Oracle BPM
12 4 (0.030%) Remedy ITSM
12 4 (0.030%) StreamServe
13 3 (0.022%) Oracle Applications
Cloud Services
1 1,811 (13.49%) Azure
2 1,517 (11.30%) AWS
3 670 (4.99%) SaaS
4 408 (3.04%) GitHub
5 384 (2.86%) npm
6 339 (2.52%) Serverless
7 300 (2.23%) GCP
8 195 (1.45%) AWS Lambda
9 144 (1.07%) Office 365
10 140 (1.04%) Google Analytics
11 132 (0.98%) PaaS
12 123 (0.92%) Amazon S3
13 113 (0.84%) Amazon EC2
14 108 (0.80%) Power Platform
15 92 (0.69%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 89 (0.66%) Cloud Computing
17 75 (0.56%) Amazon CloudWatch
18 74 (0.55%) Yarn
19 73 (0.54%) Amazon ECS
20 59 (0.44%) Dynamics 365
Communications & Networking
1 237 (1.77%) Internet
2 209 (1.56%) HTTP
3 65 (0.48%) Intranet
4 43 (0.32%) TCP/IP
5 34 (0.25%) DNS
6 29 (0.22%) Firewall
7 22 (0.16%) Broadband
7 22 (0.16%) SSH
8 20 (0.15%) VPN
9 18 (0.13%) Network Security
10 17 (0.13%) Skype
10 17 (0.13%) WebEx
11 16 (0.12%) SSL
12 15 (0.11%) VoIP
13 14 (0.10%) HTTPS
13 14 (0.10%) Remote Desktop
14 10 (0.074%) DAB
15 9 (0.067%) Extranet
15 9 (0.067%) FTP
16 8 (0.060%) SMS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 2,930 (21.82%) SQL Server
2 1,998 (14.88%) MySQL
3 644 (4.80%) NoSQL
4 532 (3.96%) MongoDB
5 491 (3.66%) Relational Database
6 378 (2.82%) PostgreSQL
7 251 (1.87%) Redis
8 238 (1.77%) Big Data
9 200 (1.49%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 186 (1.39%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 156 (1.16%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 148 (1.10%) SQL Server 2012
13 138 (1.03%) RDBMS
14 114 (0.85%) SQL Server 2008
15 104 (0.77%) SQL Server 2016
16 91 (0.68%) Power BI
17 84 (0.63%) MariaDB
18 68 (0.51%) GIS
19 59 (0.44%) Azure SQL Database
19 59 (0.44%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 2,986 (22.24%) Git (software)
2 730 (5.44%) webpack
3 715 (5.33%) JIRA
4 693 (5.16%) Visual Studio
5 570 (4.25%) Jenkins
6 482 (3.59%) gulp
7 434 (3.23%) Team Foundation Server
8 428 (3.19%) Subversion
9 385 (2.87%) Selenium
10 366 (2.73%) Grunt
11 335 (2.50%) Jasmine
12 244 (1.82%) TeamCity
13 226 (1.68%) Maven
14 204 (1.52%) Bitbucket
15 189 (1.41%) NUnit
16 182 (1.36%) Visual Studio Team System
17 171 (1.27%) Mocha
18 166 (1.24%) JUnit
19 156 (1.16%) Karma Test Runner
20 131 (0.98%) Cucumber
General
1 1,625 (12.10%) Finance
2 914 (6.81%) Marketing
3 766 (5.71%) Retail
4 335 (2.50%) Banking
5 283 (2.11%) Public Sector
6 256 (1.91%) Advertising
7 249 (1.85%) Games
8 232 (1.73%) Manufacturing
9 178 (1.33%) Telecoms
10 123 (0.92%) Law
11 116 (0.86%) Electronics
12 101 (0.75%) Automotive
13 99 (0.74%) Legal
14 89 (0.66%) Publishing
15 59 (0.44%) Investment Banking
16 56 (0.42%) Financial Institution
17 50 (0.37%) Pharmaceutical
18 44 (0.33%) Multimedia
19 40 (0.30%) Back Office
20 37 (0.28%) Front Office
Job Titles
1 10,538 (78.49%) Developer
2 2,246 (16.73%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 2,230 (16.61%) .NET Developer
4 1,806 (13.45%) Senior Developer
5 1,594 (11.87%) C# Developer
6 1,321 (9.84%) Software Developer
7 1,306 (9.73%) PHP Developer
8 1,138 (8.48%) Web Developer
9 1,101 (8.20%) C# .NET Developer
10 1,095 (8.16%) Full Stack Developer
11 1,086 (8.09%) JavaScript Developer
12 755 (5.62%) Software Engineer
13 739 (5.50%) React Developer
14 683 (5.09%) Java Developer
15 657 (4.89%) Junior
16 573 (4.27%) Junior Developer
17 512 (3.81%) Designer
18 486 (3.62%) Angular Developer
19 482 (3.59%) ASP.NET Developer
20 447 (3.33%) C# ASP.NET Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 12,414 (92.46%) HTML
2 4,970 (37.02%) .NET
3 4,584 (34.14%) AngularJS
4 3,823 (28.47%) HTML5
5 3,417 (25.45%) jQuery
6 3,286 (24.47%) ASP.NET
7 3,110 (23.16%) React
8 2,575 (19.18%) CSS3
9 1,895 (14.11%) Node.js
10 1,777 (13.24%) Sass
11 1,720 (12.81%) ASP.NET MVC
12 1,696 (12.63%) Web Services
13 1,504 (11.20%) REST
14 1,379 (10.27%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 1,274 (9.49%) .NET Framework
16 1,249 (9.30%) ASP.NET Web API
17 1,156 (8.61%) Vue.js
18 1,145 (8.53%) RESTful
19 1,104 (8.22%) XML
20 1,012 (7.54%) .NET Core
Miscellaneous
1 2,337 (17.41%) User Experience
2 890 (6.63%) Greenfield Project
3 784 (5.84%) Mobile App
4 572 (4.26%) Analytical Skills
5 367 (2.73%) Self-Motivation
6 365 (2.72%) Enterprise Software
7 192 (1.43%) Algorithms
8 169 (1.26%) Data Structures
9 122 (0.91%) Social Media
10 99 (0.74%) Management Information System
11 91 (0.68%) Graphic Design
12 90 (0.67%) Hedge funds
13 80 (0.60%) Tandem
14 77 (0.57%) Cloud Native
14 77 (0.57%) Robotics
15 68 (0.51%) Blog
15 68 (0.51%) Virtual Team
16 62 (0.46%) N-Tier
17 61 (0.45%) Life Science
18 59 (0.44%) Linux Command Line
Operating Systems
1 1,046 (7.79%) Linux
2 576 (4.29%) Windows
3 429 (3.20%) Android
4 416 (3.10%) Apple iOS
5 135 (1.01%) Unix
6 109 (0.81%) Windows Server
7 64 (0.48%) Debian
8 50 (0.37%) Mac OS
9 46 (0.34%) CentOS
9 46 (0.34%) Ubuntu
10 29 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
11 25 (0.19%) Windows 10
12 23 (0.17%) AIX
13 22 (0.16%) Mac OS X
14 21 (0.16%) Windows 7
15 19 (0.14%) Windows XP
16 18 (0.13%) Windows Server 2003
17 15 (0.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
18 14 (0.10%) Windows 2000
18 14 (0.10%) Windows Server 2008
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,785 (43.09%) Agile Software Development
2 3,847 (28.65%) MVC
3 3,006 (22.39%) Front End Development
4 2,877 (21.43%) Web Development
5 2,063 (15.37%) TDD
6 1,824 (13.59%) Scrum
7 1,683 (12.54%) Software Engineering
8 1,537 (11.45%) OO
9 1,364 (10.16%) DevOps
10 1,282 (9.55%) Problem-Solving
11 1,156 (8.61%) Unit Testing
12 1,096 (8.16%) E-Commerce
13 1,037 (7.72%) OOP
14 1,031 (7.68%) Computer Science
15 1,022 (7.61%) Continuous Integration
16 957 (7.13%) Test Automation
17 914 (6.81%) SDLC
18 889 (6.62%) Mentoring
19 885 (6.59%) Microservices
20 848 (6.32%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 11,452 (85.30%) JavaScript
2 5,190 (38.66%) C#
3 3,421 (25.48%) SQL
4 2,576 (19.19%) PHP
5 2,021 (15.05%) Java
6 1,214 (9.04%) TypeScript
7 963 (7.17%) Python
8 947 (7.05%) ES6
9 698 (5.20%) T-SQL
10 397 (2.96%) VB.NET
11 303 (2.26%) Ruby
12 290 (2.16%) Java 8
13 229 (1.71%) C++
14 184 (1.37%) C
15 168 (1.25%) PowerShell
16 129 (0.96%) PL/SQL
17 125 (0.93%) PHP 7
18 124 (0.92%) Scala
19 99 (0.74%) PHP 5
20 98 (0.73%) ES7
Qualifications
1 1,419 (10.57%) Degree
2 497 (3.70%) Computer Science Degree
3 151 (1.12%) Security Cleared
4 106 (0.79%) Microsoft Certification
5 79 (0.59%) SC Cleared
6 36 (0.27%) MCP
7 35 (0.26%) DV Cleared
8 32 (0.24%) Master's Degree
8 32 (0.24%) Numerate Degree
9 23 (0.17%) ISTQB
10 22 (0.16%) ISEB
11 20 (0.15%) HND
12 16 (0.12%) DBS Check
13 15 (0.11%) MCSD
14 14 (0.10%) MCSE
15 8 (0.060%) Postgraduate
16 7 (0.052%) CCNA
16 7 (0.052%) Cisco Certification
16 7 (0.052%) PhD
16 7 (0.052%) SANS
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 492 (3.66%) QA
2 55 (0.41%) GDPR
3 52 (0.39%) WAI
4 38 (0.28%) SLA
5 22 (0.16%) WCAG
6 19 (0.14%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 15 (0.11%) PCI DSS
8 10 (0.074%) PMO
9 7 (0.052%) Cyber Essentials
10 5 (0.037%) Data Quality
11 4 (0.030%) ISO/IEC 20000
12 2 (0.015%) ISO 9001
13 1 (0.007%) Dublin Core
13 1 (0.007%) ISO 14001
13 1 (0.007%) PSD2
13 1 (0.007%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 924 (6.88%) Docker
2 84 (0.63%) Active Directory
3 22 (0.16%) Forefront TMG
4 21 (0.16%) Varnish
5 20 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
6 13 (0.097%) Firmware
7 8 (0.060%) vCloud
7 8 (0.060%) Virtual Machines
8 7 (0.052%) Hyper-V
9 4 (0.030%) KVM
10 3 (0.022%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 1 (0.007%) GridGain
11 1 (0.007%) Shibboleth
11 1 (0.007%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 361 (2.69%) Kubernetes
2 132 (0.98%) Opscode Chef
3 131 (0.98%) Ansible
4 97 (0.72%) Terraform
5 40 (0.30%) Kibana
6 38 (0.28%) Puppet
7 33 (0.25%) logstash
8 24 (0.18%) SCCM
9 18 (0.13%) Single Sign-On
10 14 (0.10%) Ganglia
10 14 (0.10%) TeamSite
11 13 (0.097%) Docker Swarm
11 13 (0.097%) Grafana
12 11 (0.082%) Consul
12 11 (0.082%) HP Quality Center
12 11 (0.082%) Matomo
13 9 (0.067%) Data Guard
14 8 (0.060%) HAProxy
14 8 (0.060%) Oracle RMAN
14 8 (0.060%) Prometheus
Vendors
1 1,747 (13.01%) Microsoft
2 625 (4.66%) Adobe
3 573 (4.27%) Oracle
4 477 (3.55%) Google
5 256 (1.91%) Zend
6 156 (1.16%) Salesforce.com
7 146 (1.09%) Xamarin
8 145 (1.08%) SAP
9 123 (0.92%) Atlassian
10 121 (0.90%) Sitecore
11 96 (0.72%) Splunk
12 65 (0.48%) ServiceNow
13 59 (0.44%) IBM
14 54 (0.40%) Nintex
15 53 (0.39%) Facebook
16 51 (0.38%) WorldPay
17 47 (0.35%) Cypress Semiconductor
18 46 (0.34%) WooCommerce
19 43 (0.32%) Red Hat
20 39 (0.29%) Twitter