Period
to 2 December 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 2 December 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 17 21 15
Rank change year-on-year +4 -6 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 5,781 13,079 18,089
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.28% 9.74% 11.31%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.50% 25.45% 28.42%
Number of salaries quoted 5,957 12,170 16,409
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% - +7.95%
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,750 £28,500
90th Percentile £73,750 £75,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £43,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +3.45% +2.35% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 24,597 51,400 63,657
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 43.72% 38.30% 39.81%
Number of salaries quoted 21,149 42,440 52,541
Median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £91,250 £88,750 £83,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 2 December 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +5 5,273 £50,000 +5.26% 1,472
UK excluding London +4 3,962 £45,000 +3.45% 1,209
London -4 1,597 £65,000 +8.33% 370
South East +6 1,251 £50,000 +11.11% 256
Work from Home -3 1,011 £47,500 - 341
North of England +3 920 £45,000 +5.88% 358
Midlands +1 595 £42,500 +6.25% 240
South West +4 578 £45,000 +9.76% 124
North West +1 508 £45,000 - 209
West Midlands -1 344 £42,500 +1.80% 142
Yorkshire +3 332 £40,000 - 108
East of England +8 280 £42,500 -10.53% 121
East Midlands +1 249 £42,500 +6.25% 98
Scotland -6 217 £45,000 +5.88% 64
Wales +11 91 £42,500 +6.25% 34
North East +13 79 £43,000 +7.50% 41
Northern Ireland -6 33 £35,000 -22.22% 12
Isle of Man - 5 £49,500 -

For the 6 months to 2 December 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 5,306 (91.78%) HTML
2 4,915 (85.02%) JavaScript
3 2,400 (41.52%) Agile Software Development
4 1,942 (33.59%) .NET
5 1,887 (32.64%) C#
6 1,869 (32.33%) AngularJS
7 1,608 (27.82%) HTML5
8 1,553 (26.86%) React
9 1,552 (26.85%) SQL
10 1,468 (25.39%) Git (software)
11 1,367 (23.65%) MVC
12 1,325 (22.92%) Front End Development
13 1,258 (21.76%) PHP
14 1,239 (21.43%) Azure
15 1,214 (21.00%) jQuery
16 1,167 (20.19%) Web Development
17 1,135 (19.63%) SQL Server
18 1,092 (18.89%) CSS3
19 1,072 (18.54%) Node.js
20 989 (17.11%) ASP.NET
21 959 (16.59%) User Experience
22 901 (15.59%) TypeScript
23 873 (15.10%) DevOps
24 865 (14.96%) MySQL
25 808 (13.98%) Scrum
26 795 (13.75%) .NET Core
27 779 (13.48%) TDD
28 778 (13.46%) Vue.js
29 743 (12.85%) REST
30 739 (12.78%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 393 (6.80%) CMS
2 288 (4.98%) WordPress
3 127 (2.20%) SharePoint
4 108 (1.87%) Elasticsearch
5 104 (1.80%) Apache
5 104 (1.80%) Confluence
6 93 (1.61%) IIS
7 79 (1.37%) Drupal
8 56 (0.97%) NServiceBus
9 54 (0.93%) Umbraco
10 50 (0.86%) nginx
11 41 (0.71%) Tomcat
12 33 (0.57%) Moodle
13 27 (0.47%) EPiServer
14 26 (0.45%) Joomla!
15 20 (0.35%) Apache Spark
15 20 (0.35%) Jadu
16 19 (0.33%) Headless CMS
16 19 (0.33%) Sitecore CMS
17 13 (0.22%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 117 (2.02%) Photoshop
2 97 (1.68%) Sketch
3 75 (1.30%) InVision
4 60 (1.04%) Adobe Illustrator
5 54 (0.93%) Figma
6 45 (0.78%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 35 (0.61%) Adobe XD
8 25 (0.43%) Zeplin
9 24 (0.42%) Microsoft Excel
10 14 (0.24%) Microsoft Office
11 13 (0.22%) Chatbot
11 13 (0.22%) MS Visio
12 10 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 7 (0.12%) OmniGraffle
14 6 (0.10%) UXPin
15 5 (0.086%) InDesign
16 3 (0.052%) Moqups
17 2 (0.035%) Fireworks
17 2 (0.035%) Inkscape
17 2 (0.035%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 198 (3.43%) Magento
2 119 (2.06%) Dynamics CRM
3 95 (1.64%) Shopify
4 39 (0.67%) Payment Gateway
5 19 (0.33%) OpenCart
6 18 (0.31%) Remedy ITSM
6 18 (0.31%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
7 16 (0.28%) Adobe Campaign
8 15 (0.26%) Siebel CRM
9 10 (0.17%) Unica
10 9 (0.16%) NetSuite
11 6 (0.10%) Maximo
11 6 (0.10%) Salesforce.com CRM
12 5 (0.086%) Oracle Applications
13 3 (0.052%) Distributed Ledger
13 3 (0.052%) Odoo
13 3 (0.052%) Oracle CRM On Demand
14 2 (0.035%) JDE OneWorld
14 2 (0.035%) SAP S/4HANA
15 1 (0.017%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 1,239 (21.43%) Azure
2 652 (11.28%) AWS
3 308 (5.33%) SaaS
4 218 (3.77%) npm
5 170 (2.94%) Serverless
6 154 (2.66%) GitHub
7 141 (2.44%) GCP
8 139 (2.40%) PaaS
9 132 (2.28%) Power Platform
10 121 (2.09%) Dynamics 365
11 83 (1.44%) AWS Lambda
12 71 (1.23%) Cloud Computing
13 58 (1.00%) Azure Functions
14 49 (0.85%) IaaS
15 43 (0.74%) Google Analytics
16 42 (0.73%) Amazon EC2
17 41 (0.71%) Firebase
17 41 (0.71%) Office 365
18 40 (0.69%) Logic Apps
19 31 (0.54%) Azure Active Directory
Communications & Networking
1 131 (2.27%) HTTP
2 73 (1.26%) Internet
3 54 (0.93%) Skype
4 25 (0.43%) TCP/IP
5 21 (0.36%) SSL
6 20 (0.35%) Network Security
7 19 (0.33%) Ethernet
7 19 (0.33%) Intranet
8 18 (0.31%) MQTT
9 17 (0.29%) VPN
10 15 (0.26%) RTP
11 14 (0.24%) FTP
11 14 (0.24%) SSH
11 14 (0.24%) Wi-Fi
12 13 (0.22%) SMS
12 13 (0.22%) Wireless
13 12 (0.21%) Bluetooth
14 11 (0.19%) DNS
15 6 (0.10%) Broadband
16 5 (0.086%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,135 (19.63%) SQL Server
2 865 (14.96%) MySQL
3 284 (4.91%) NoSQL
4 276 (4.77%) MongoDB
4 276 (4.77%) Relational Database
5 206 (3.56%) PostgreSQL
6 130 (2.25%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 111 (1.92%) Redis
8 109 (1.89%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 107 (1.85%) SQL Server 2012
10 81 (1.40%) Azure SQL Database
11 59 (1.02%) Big Data
12 47 (0.81%) SQL Server 2008
13 43 (0.74%) Cosmos DB
14 39 (0.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 39 (0.67%) Power BI
15 35 (0.61%) Amazon RDS
16 32 (0.55%) SQL Server 2019
17 30 (0.52%) RDBMS
18 29 (0.50%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 1,468 (25.39%) Git (software)
2 318 (5.50%) webpack
3 270 (4.67%) JIRA
4 235 (4.07%) Team Foundation Server
5 222 (3.84%) Visual Studio
6 202 (3.49%) gulp
7 190 (3.29%) Jenkins
8 153 (2.65%) Grunt
9 149 (2.58%) Selenium
10 100 (1.73%) Subversion
11 85 (1.47%) Jasmine
12 83 (1.44%) JUnit
13 82 (1.42%) Cypress.io
14 80 (1.38%) Visual Studio Team System
15 76 (1.31%) Bitbucket
16 72 (1.25%) NUnit
17 67 (1.16%) Maven
18 66 (1.14%) PHPUnit
18 66 (1.14%) TeamCity
19 55 (0.95%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 649 (11.23%) Finance
2 393 (6.80%) Marketing
3 194 (3.36%) Public Sector
4 176 (3.04%) Retail
5 121 (2.09%) Manufacturing
6 120 (2.08%) Banking
7 116 (2.01%) Games
8 94 (1.63%) Telecoms
9 76 (1.31%) Law
10 68 (1.18%) Electronics
11 64 (1.11%) Advertising
12 57 (0.99%) Publishing
13 46 (0.80%) Automotive
14 45 (0.78%) Back Office
15 38 (0.66%) Private Banking
16 28 (0.48%) Local Government
17 26 (0.45%) Legal
18 23 (0.40%) Front Office
19 17 (0.29%) Financial Institution
20 10 (0.17%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 4,706 (81.40%) Developer
2 1,010 (17.47%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 928 (16.05%) Senior Developer
4 743 (12.85%) .NET Developer
5 681 (11.78%) PHP Developer
6 655 (11.33%) Full Stack Developer
7 489 (8.46%) Software Developer
8 482 (8.34%) C# Developer
9 453 (7.84%) Web Developer
10 448 (7.75%) JavaScript Developer
11 405 (7.01%) React Developer
12 342 (5.92%) Software Engineer
13 310 (5.36%) C# .NET Developer
14 254 (4.39%) Angular Developer
15 234 (4.05%) Lead Developer
16 205 (3.55%) Java Developer
17 201 (3.48%) Junior
18 191 (3.30%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 182 (3.15%) Senior .NET Developer
20 175 (3.03%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,306 (91.78%) HTML
2 1,942 (33.59%) .NET
3 1,869 (32.33%) AngularJS
4 1,608 (27.82%) HTML5
5 1,553 (26.86%) React
6 1,214 (21.00%) jQuery
7 1,092 (18.89%) CSS3
8 1,072 (18.54%) Node.js
9 989 (17.11%) ASP.NET
10 795 (13.75%) .NET Core
11 778 (13.46%) Vue.js
12 743 (12.85%) REST
13 725 (12.54%) Sass
14 632 (10.93%) .NET Framework
15 579 (10.02%) Twitter Bootstrap
16 571 (9.88%) Web Services
17 559 (9.67%) RESTful
18 531 (9.19%) ASP.NET Web API
19 515 (8.91%) ASP.NET MVC
20 507 (8.77%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 959 (16.59%) User Experience
2 384 (6.64%) Greenfield Project
3 322 (5.57%) Mobile App
4 297 (5.14%) Analytical Skills
5 127 (2.20%) Enterprise Software
6 118 (2.04%) Self-Motivation
7 102 (1.76%) N-Tier
8 47 (0.81%) Data Structures
9 41 (0.71%) Cloud Native
10 39 (0.67%) Hedge funds
11 38 (0.66%) Algorithms
11 38 (0.66%) e-Learning
12 32 (0.55%) Virtual Team
13 31 (0.54%) Social Media
14 29 (0.50%) Linux Command Line
14 29 (0.50%) Media Streaming
15 27 (0.47%) Embedded Systems
15 27 (0.47%) Graphic Design
16 25 (0.43%) Blog
16 25 (0.43%) Video\Live Streaming
Operating Systems
1 449 (7.77%) Linux
2 229 (3.96%) Windows
3 152 (2.63%) Android
4 145 (2.51%) Apple iOS
5 60 (1.04%) Unix
6 44 (0.76%) Windows Server
7 30 (0.52%) Ubuntu
8 29 (0.50%) CentOS
9 13 (0.22%) Debian
10 8 (0.14%) Windows Server 2008
11 6 (0.10%) Windows Server 2016
12 5 (0.086%) Fedora
12 5 (0.086%) Windows 10
12 5 (0.086%) Windows Server 2012
13 4 (0.069%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 4 (0.069%) Solaris
13 4 (0.069%) VMS
14 2 (0.035%) AIX
14 2 (0.035%) Windows 7
15 1 (0.017%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,400 (41.52%) Agile Software Development
2 1,367 (23.65%) MVC
3 1,325 (22.92%) Front End Development
4 1,167 (20.19%) Web Development
5 873 (15.10%) DevOps
6 808 (13.98%) Scrum
7 779 (13.48%) TDD
8 739 (12.78%) Software Engineering
9 661 (11.43%) OO
10 653 (11.30%) Microservices
11 501 (8.67%) E-Commerce
12 468 (8.10%) Unit Testing
13 441 (7.63%) Continuous Integration
14 432 (7.47%) Problem-Solving
14 432 (7.47%) Test Automation
15 418 (7.23%) OOP
16 336 (5.81%) Mentoring
16 336 (5.81%) SDLC
17 319 (5.52%) Computer Science
18 310 (5.36%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 4,915 (85.02%) JavaScript
2 1,887 (32.64%) C#
3 1,552 (26.85%) SQL
4 1,258 (21.76%) PHP
5 901 (15.59%) TypeScript
6 648 (11.21%) Java
7 437 (7.56%) Python
8 300 (5.19%) ES6
9 260 (4.50%) T-SQL
10 155 (2.68%) C++
11 94 (1.63%) Ruby
12 91 (1.57%) PowerShell
13 82 (1.42%) VB.NET
14 74 (1.28%) Go
15 66 (1.14%) C
16 61 (1.06%) Java 8
17 45 (0.78%) PL/SQL
18 42 (0.73%) Scala
19 41 (0.71%) Apex Code
20 39 (0.67%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 561 (9.70%) Degree
2 193 (3.34%) Computer Science Degree
3 81 (1.40%) Security Cleared
4 59 (1.02%) SC Cleared
5 13 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
6 11 (0.19%) DV Cleared
7 8 (0.14%) HND
7 8 (0.14%) Microsoft Certification
8 5 (0.086%) HNC
9 4 (0.069%) Postgraduate
10 3 (0.052%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.052%) DBS Check
10 3 (0.052%) PhD
11 2 (0.035%) CEH
11 2 (0.035%) ISTQB
11 2 (0.035%) MCPD
11 2 (0.035%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.017%) MCP
12 1 (0.017%) PMI Certification
12 1 (0.017%) Six Sigma Black Belt
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 264 (4.57%) QA
2 22 (0.38%) GDPR
3 17 (0.29%) WCAG
4 14 (0.24%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 14 (0.24%) SLA
5 6 (0.10%) PSD2
6 3 (0.052%) EMIR
6 3 (0.052%) ISO 13485
6 3 (0.052%) MiFID
6 3 (0.052%) PCI DSS
7 2 (0.035%) ISO/IEC 20000
7 2 (0.035%) NCSC
7 2 (0.035%) NIST
8 1 (0.017%) Data Quality
8 1 (0.017%) GxP
System Software
1 461 (7.97%) Docker
2 20 (0.35%) Active Directory
3 13 (0.22%) Firmware
4 7 (0.12%) vSphere
5 4 (0.069%) Kamailio
5 4 (0.069%) OpenSIPS
5 4 (0.069%) VMware Infrastructure
6 3 (0.052%) LXC
6 3 (0.052%) Squid
6 3 (0.052%) Virtual Machines
7 2 (0.035%) Citrix Hypervisor
7 2 (0.035%) Hyper-V
7 2 (0.035%) Varnish
8 1 (0.017%) Microsoft Virtual Server
8 1 (0.017%) Virtual Servers
8 1 (0.017%) VMware ESXi
Systems Management
1 238 (4.12%) Kubernetes
2 96 (1.66%) Terraform
3 28 (0.48%) Opscode Chef
4 21 (0.36%) Ansible
5 16 (0.28%) cPanel
6 15 (0.26%) MIIS
7 13 (0.22%) Kibana
7 13 (0.22%) Single Sign-On
8 11 (0.19%) HP UCMDB
9 10 (0.17%) Puppet
10 6 (0.10%) Rancher
11 5 (0.086%) Plesk
12 4 (0.069%) logstash
13 3 (0.052%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
13 3 (0.052%) HAProxy
13 3 (0.052%) vRealize
14 2 (0.035%) Capistrano
14 2 (0.035%) Grafana
15 1 (0.017%) Prometheus
15 1 (0.017%) Rundeck
Vendors
1 644 (11.14%) Microsoft
2 178 (3.08%) Google
3 171 (2.96%) Adobe
4 136 (2.35%) Oracle
5 122 (2.11%) Salesforce.com
6 98 (1.70%) Zend
7 82 (1.42%) Xamarin
8 76 (1.31%) SAP
9 59 (1.02%) ServiceNow
10 48 (0.83%) Atlassian
11 42 (0.73%) VMware
12 36 (0.62%) Nintex
13 34 (0.59%) Splunk
14 30 (0.52%) Sitecore
15 29 (0.50%) Siebel
16 24 (0.42%) IBM
16 24 (0.42%) Remedy
17 21 (0.36%) Databricks
18 20 (0.35%) Apple
19 18 (0.31%) WooCommerce