Period
to 26 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 26 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
26 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 18 22 15
Rank change year-on-year +4 -7 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 5,109 12,945 18,883
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.36% 9.52% 11.46%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.66% 25.31% 28.66%
Number of salaries quoted 5,157 12,030 17,320
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £46,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% +2.15% +3.33%
10th Percentile £31,750 £28,975 £28,000
90th Percentile £72,700 £75,000 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £43,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +3.45% +2.35% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 21,597 51,142 65,896
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 43.81% 37.61% 40.00%
Number of salaries quoted 18,425 42,068 54,442
Median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £51,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +4.55% +6.80% +3.00%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £93,750 £87,500 £82,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £45,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year +11.11% - +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 26 October 2020.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 26 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 4,727 £50,000 +5.26% 1,483
UK excluding London +4 3,500 £45,000 +3.45% 1,184
London -4 1,436 £64,500 +7.50% 389
South East +5 1,117 £50,000 +11.11% 263
North of England +2 874 £45,000 +5.88% 354
Work from Home -2 782 £47,500 - 303
Midlands +2 529 £42,500 +6.25% 220
North West +3 506 £45,000 - 204
South West +8 499 £45,000 +5.88% 161
West Midlands +1 302 £42,500 +3.66% 124
Yorkshire +12 286 £40,000 - 110
East of England +9 231 £45,000 -1.30% 91
East Midlands +1 226 £42,500 +6.25% 96
Scotland -4 146 £42,500 - 49
Wales +6 84 £41,000 +2.50% 38
North East +13 81 £42,750 -1.72% 40
Northern Ireland -9 25 £35,000 -17.65% 8
Channel Islands - 1 £65,000 -

For the 6 months to 26 October 2020, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 4,708 (92.15%) HTML
2 4,320 (84.56%) JavaScript
3 2,090 (40.91%) Agile Software Development
4 1,750 (34.25%) .NET
5 1,719 (33.65%) AngularJS
6 1,667 (32.63%) C#
7 1,388 (27.17%) HTML5
8 1,369 (26.80%) SQL
9 1,367 (26.76%) React
10 1,271 (24.88%) Git (software)
11 1,268 (24.82%) MVC
12 1,142 (22.35%) Front End Development
13 1,122 (21.96%) jQuery
14 1,102 (21.57%) PHP
15 1,049 (20.53%) Web Development
16 1,041 (20.38%) SQL Server
17 997 (19.51%) ASP.NET
18 970 (18.99%) Azure
19 952 (18.63%) CSS3
20 892 (17.46%) Node.js
21 780 (15.27%) MySQL
22 778 (15.23%) User Experience
23 773 (15.13%) TypeScript
24 760 (14.88%) DevOps
25 717 (14.03%) Vue.js
26 716 (14.01%) TDD
27 701 (13.72%) Software Engineering
28 696 (13.62%) Scrum
29 689 (13.49%) REST
30 673 (13.17%) .NET Core

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 326 (6.38%) CMS
2 226 (4.42%) WordPress
3 101 (1.98%) IIS
4 97 (1.90%) Apache
4 97 (1.90%) Elasticsearch
5 96 (1.88%) Confluence
6 72 (1.41%) SharePoint
7 70 (1.37%) Drupal
8 55 (1.08%) NServiceBus
9 42 (0.82%) nginx
10 41 (0.80%) Umbraco
11 33 (0.65%) Moodle
12 28 (0.55%) EPiServer
13 27 (0.53%) Tomcat
14 19 (0.37%) Joomla!
15 18 (0.35%) Apache Spark
15 18 (0.35%) Jadu
16 14 (0.27%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 14 (0.27%) Headless CMS
17 12 (0.23%) Apache Solr
Applications
1 100 (1.96%) Photoshop
2 84 (1.64%) Sketch
3 60 (1.17%) InVision
4 58 (1.14%) Adobe Illustrator
5 53 (1.04%) Figma
6 33 (0.65%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 29 (0.57%) Adobe XD
8 25 (0.49%) Zeplin
9 24 (0.47%) Microsoft Excel
10 16 (0.31%) Microsoft Office
11 12 (0.23%) Chatbot
12 10 (0.20%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 10 (0.20%) MS Visio
13 8 (0.16%) UXPin
14 7 (0.14%) InDesign
14 7 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
15 3 (0.059%) Moqups
16 2 (0.039%) Fireworks
16 2 (0.039%) Inkscape
17 1 (0.020%) Microsoft Project
Business Applications
1 166 (3.25%) Magento
2 87 (1.70%) Dynamics CRM
3 73 (1.43%) Shopify
4 37 (0.72%) Payment Gateway
5 29 (0.57%) Remedy ITSM
6 15 (0.29%) Siebel CRM
7 13 (0.25%) Adobe Campaign
8 10 (0.20%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 10 (0.20%) Unica
9 6 (0.12%) Eloqua
9 6 (0.12%) Maximo
9 6 (0.12%) NetSuite
9 6 (0.12%) Oracle Applications
9 6 (0.12%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 4 (0.078%) OpenCart
10 4 (0.078%) Oracle CRM On Demand
11 3 (0.059%) Distributed Ledger
11 3 (0.059%) WebTrends
12 2 (0.039%) SAP Hybris
12 2 (0.039%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 970 (18.99%) Azure
2 551 (10.78%) AWS
3 287 (5.62%) SaaS
4 200 (3.91%) npm
5 139 (2.72%) GitHub
6 136 (2.66%) Serverless
7 111 (2.17%) GCP
8 99 (1.94%) Power Platform
9 84 (1.64%) Dynamics 365
10 78 (1.53%) AWS Lambda
11 76 (1.49%) PaaS
12 71 (1.39%) Cloud Computing
13 37 (0.72%) IaaS
14 35 (0.69%) Amazon EC2
15 33 (0.65%) Firebase
16 32 (0.63%) Azure Functions
16 32 (0.63%) Google Analytics
17 25 (0.49%) Office 365
18 20 (0.39%) Amazon S3
18 20 (0.39%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 122 (2.39%) HTTP
2 66 (1.29%) Internet
3 58 (1.14%) Skype
4 25 (0.49%) SSL
5 22 (0.43%) Network Security
6 20 (0.39%) Intranet
7 19 (0.37%) VPN
8 16 (0.31%) TCP/IP
9 14 (0.27%) FTP
10 12 (0.23%) Ethernet
10 12 (0.23%) RTP
11 10 (0.20%) MQTT
12 8 (0.16%) Broadband
12 8 (0.16%) DNS
12 8 (0.16%) SMS
12 8 (0.16%) SSH
13 7 (0.14%) Wi-Fi
14 6 (0.12%) Bluetooth
14 6 (0.12%) Firewall
15 4 (0.078%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,041 (20.38%) SQL Server
2 780 (15.27%) MySQL
3 273 (5.34%) MongoDB
4 242 (4.74%) NoSQL
5 233 (4.56%) Relational Database
6 171 (3.35%) PostgreSQL
7 136 (2.66%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 106 (2.07%) SQL Server 2012
9 105 (2.06%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 99 (1.94%) Redis
11 62 (1.21%) Big Data
12 55 (1.08%) SQL Server 2008
13 52 (1.02%) Azure SQL Database
14 46 (0.90%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 40 (0.78%) Power BI
16 33 (0.65%) Amazon RDS
17 31 (0.61%) Cosmos DB
18 30 (0.59%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 27 (0.53%) Hadoop
19 27 (0.53%) SQL Server 2019
Development Applications
1 1,271 (24.88%) Git (software)
2 289 (5.66%) webpack
3 257 (5.03%) JIRA
4 205 (4.01%) Team Foundation Server
5 199 (3.90%) Visual Studio
6 184 (3.60%) Jenkins
7 170 (3.33%) gulp
8 142 (2.78%) Grunt
9 137 (2.68%) Selenium
10 93 (1.82%) Subversion
11 82 (1.61%) Jasmine
12 79 (1.55%) Bitbucket
13 74 (1.45%) Cypress.io
14 69 (1.35%) TeamCity
15 66 (1.29%) JUnit
16 64 (1.25%) NUnit
17 57 (1.12%) Octopus Deploy
18 53 (1.04%) Babel
18 53 (1.04%) Visual Studio Team System
19 51 (1.00%) PHPUnit
General
1 637 (12.47%) Finance
2 357 (6.99%) Marketing
3 147 (2.88%) Retail
4 145 (2.84%) Public Sector
5 97 (1.90%) Games
6 96 (1.88%) Manufacturing
7 93 (1.82%) Banking
8 81 (1.59%) Telecoms
9 64 (1.25%) Law
10 53 (1.04%) Electronics
11 51 (1.00%) Advertising
12 50 (0.98%) Publishing
13 34 (0.67%) Private Banking
14 32 (0.63%) Automotive
15 31 (0.61%) Back Office
16 30 (0.59%) Local Government
17 29 (0.57%) Legal
18 24 (0.47%) Front Office
19 23 (0.45%) Financial Institution
20 8 (0.16%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 4,092 (80.09%) Developer
2 897 (17.56%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 778 (15.23%) Senior Developer
4 677 (13.25%) .NET Developer
5 607 (11.88%) PHP Developer
6 497 (9.73%) Full Stack Developer
7 435 (8.51%) C# Developer
8 407 (7.97%) Software Developer
9 394 (7.71%) JavaScript Developer
10 380 (7.44%) Web Developer
11 371 (7.26%) React Developer
12 339 (6.64%) Software Engineer
13 270 (5.28%) C# .NET Developer
14 221 (4.33%) Angular Developer
15 191 (3.74%) Java Developer
16 184 (3.60%) Lead Developer
17 176 (3.44%) Junior
18 157 (3.07%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 153 (2.99%) Senior .NET Developer
20 147 (2.88%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,708 (92.15%) HTML
2 1,750 (34.25%) .NET
3 1,719 (33.65%) AngularJS
4 1,388 (27.17%) HTML5
5 1,367 (26.76%) React
6 1,122 (21.96%) jQuery
7 997 (19.51%) ASP.NET
8 952 (18.63%) CSS3
9 892 (17.46%) Node.js
10 717 (14.03%) Vue.js
11 689 (13.49%) REST
12 673 (13.17%) .NET Core
13 634 (12.41%) Sass
14 557 (10.90%) .NET Framework
15 533 (10.43%) Web Services
16 517 (10.12%) ASP.NET MVC
17 500 (9.79%) ASP.NET Web API
18 492 (9.63%) RESTful
19 483 (9.45%) XML
20 445 (8.71%) Twitter Bootstrap
Miscellaneous
1 778 (15.23%) User Experience
2 377 (7.38%) Greenfield Project
3 279 (5.46%) Mobile App
4 230 (4.50%) Analytical Skills
5 121 (2.37%) Self-Motivation
6 100 (1.96%) Enterprise Software
7 61 (1.19%) N-Tier
8 43 (0.84%) Hedge funds
9 37 (0.72%) e-Learning
10 36 (0.70%) Cloud Native
11 32 (0.63%) Media Streaming
12 31 (0.61%) Social Media
13 30 (0.59%) Data Structures
14 27 (0.53%) Linux Command Line
15 25 (0.49%) Algorithms
15 25 (0.49%) Blog
16 23 (0.45%) Video\Live Streaming
17 22 (0.43%) Client/Server
17 22 (0.43%) Virtual Team
18 21 (0.41%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 405 (7.93%) Linux
2 211 (4.13%) Windows
3 119 (2.33%) Android
4 118 (2.31%) Apple iOS
5 60 (1.17%) Unix
6 44 (0.86%) Windows Server
7 22 (0.43%) Ubuntu
8 20 (0.39%) CentOS
9 10 (0.20%) Windows Server 2016
10 9 (0.18%) Windows 10
11 7 (0.14%) Windows Server 2008
11 7 (0.14%) Windows Server 2012
12 5 (0.098%) Fedora
13 4 (0.078%) Windows 7
14 3 (0.059%) Solaris
15 1 (0.020%) AIX
15 1 (0.020%) Debian
15 1 (0.020%) tvOS
15 1 (0.020%) VMS
15 1 (0.020%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,090 (40.91%) Agile Software Development
2 1,268 (24.82%) MVC
3 1,142 (22.35%) Front End Development
4 1,049 (20.53%) Web Development
5 760 (14.88%) DevOps
6 716 (14.01%) TDD
7 701 (13.72%) Software Engineering
8 696 (13.62%) Scrum
9 592 (11.59%) OO
10 525 (10.28%) Microservices
11 447 (8.75%) E-Commerce
12 423 (8.28%) OOP
13 397 (7.77%) Unit Testing
14 371 (7.26%) Continuous Integration
14 371 (7.26%) Problem-Solving
15 358 (7.01%) Test Automation
16 303 (5.93%) Computer Science
17 299 (5.85%) SDLC
18 292 (5.72%) Mentoring
19 282 (5.52%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 4,320 (84.56%) JavaScript
2 1,667 (32.63%) C#
3 1,369 (26.80%) SQL
4 1,102 (21.57%) PHP
5 773 (15.13%) TypeScript
6 569 (11.14%) Java
7 373 (7.30%) Python
8 295 (5.77%) ES6
9 227 (4.44%) T-SQL
10 139 (2.72%) C++
11 89 (1.74%) Ruby
12 87 (1.70%) VB.NET
13 64 (1.25%) PowerShell
14 61 (1.19%) C
15 55 (1.08%) Go
16 51 (1.00%) Java 8
17 49 (0.96%) PL/SQL
18 38 (0.74%) Scala
19 36 (0.70%) Apex Code
19 36 (0.70%) Apple Swift
Qualifications
1 535 (10.47%) Degree
2 202 (3.95%) Computer Science Degree
3 77 (1.51%) Security Cleared
4 57 (1.12%) SC Cleared
5 14 (0.27%) Numerate Degree
6 12 (0.23%) DV Cleared
7 11 (0.22%) Microsoft Certification
8 8 (0.16%) HND
9 6 (0.12%) AWS Certification
10 5 (0.098%) HNC
11 4 (0.078%) Postgraduate
12 3 (0.059%) DBS Check
12 3 (0.059%) MCPD
12 3 (0.059%) PhD
13 2 (0.039%) CEH
13 2 (0.039%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
13 2 (0.039%) SAP Certification
14 1 (0.020%) Analytics IQ
14 1 (0.020%) CTC Cleared
14 1 (0.020%) Master's Degree
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 244 (4.78%) QA
2 25 (0.49%) GDPR
3 9 (0.18%) SLA
4 8 (0.16%) Data Quality
4 8 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 8 (0.16%) WCAG
5 5 (0.098%) PCI DSS
5 5 (0.098%) PSD2
6 4 (0.078%) MiFID
7 3 (0.059%) EMIR
8 2 (0.039%) NCSC
8 2 (0.039%) NIST
9 1 (0.020%) GxP
9 1 (0.020%) PMO
System Software
1 439 (8.59%) Docker
2 9 (0.18%) Firmware
2 9 (0.18%) vSphere
3 8 (0.16%) Active Directory
4 7 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
5 5 (0.098%) Squid
6 3 (0.059%) LXC
6 3 (0.059%) Virtual Machines
7 2 (0.039%) Citrix Hypervisor
7 2 (0.039%) Hyper-V
7 2 (0.039%) Microsoft Virtual Server
7 2 (0.039%) Varnish
7 2 (0.039%) Virtual Servers
8 1 (0.020%) Kamailio
8 1 (0.020%) OpenSIPS
Systems Management
1 210 (4.11%) Kubernetes
2 60 (1.17%) Terraform
3 24 (0.47%) Ansible
4 17 (0.33%) HP UCMDB
5 16 (0.31%) cPanel
6 13 (0.25%) MIIS
6 13 (0.25%) Opscode Chef
7 10 (0.20%) Kibana
8 8 (0.16%) Single Sign-On
9 6 (0.12%) Puppet
9 6 (0.12%) Rancher
10 4 (0.078%) logstash
11 3 (0.059%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
11 3 (0.059%) Plesk
11 3 (0.059%) vRealize
12 2 (0.039%) Capistrano
12 2 (0.039%) Grafana
12 2 (0.039%) HAProxy
12 2 (0.039%) TeamSite
13 1 (0.020%) Nagios
Vendors
1 583 (11.41%) Microsoft
2 143 (2.80%) Oracle
3 137 (2.68%) Adobe
3 137 (2.68%) Google
4 121 (2.37%) Zend
5 115 (2.25%) Salesforce.com
6 74 (1.45%) ServiceNow
7 67 (1.31%) SAP
8 59 (1.15%) Xamarin
9 51 (1.00%) Atlassian
10 39 (0.76%) VMware
11 34 (0.67%) Remedy
12 31 (0.61%) Splunk
13 30 (0.59%) Siebel
14 25 (0.49%) IBM
15 21 (0.41%) Apple
16 18 (0.35%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
17 17 (0.33%) BMC
17 17 (0.33%) hybris
17 17 (0.33%) Sitecore