Period
to 17 July 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 July 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
17 Jul 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 15 14 15
Rank change year-on-year -1 +1 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 20,572 23,369 25,657
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 11.70% 13.16% 12.62%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 28.81% 32.36% 32.37%
Number of salaries quoted 18,077 20,692 23,021
UK median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%
10th Percentile £27,500 £27,000 £26,250
90th Percentile £72,500 £67,500 £65,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £40,000 £39,000
% change year-on-year +6.25% +2.56% +4.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 71,411 72,214 79,272
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 40.61% 40.66% 38.99%
Number of salaries quoted 59,472 60,657 68,576
UK median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £28,750 £28,750
90th Percentile £80,000 £77,500 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £41,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% +2.41% +3.75%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 17 July 2018.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 17 July 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 19,619 £45,000 +5.88% 3,285
UK excluding London -3 13,164 £42,500 +6.25% 2,363
London -4 7,054 £57,500 +4.55% 1,082
South East +3 4,777 £45,000 +12.50% 603
North of England -2 3,103 £40,000 +5.26% 692
Midlands -4 1,950 £40,000 +6.67% 416
North West -2 1,753 £40,000 +3.90% 414
South West -1 1,519 £40,000 +3.90% 287
East of England -4 1,183 £45,000 +5.88% 205
Yorkshire -1 1,156 £40,000 - 234
West Midlands -6 1,074 £40,000 +6.67% 221
East Midlands -2 871 £40,000 +14.29% 195
Scotland -19 440 £42,500 +6.25% 97
North East -5 195 £35,000 - 44
Wales -11 171 £40,000 +14.29% 40
Northern Ireland +4 41 £34,000 -9.33% 21
Isle of Man -5 2 £39,000 -13.33% 1
Channel Islands - 1 - - 1

For the 6 months to 17 July 2018, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 19,220 (93.43%) HTML
2 17,665 (85.87%) JavaScript
3 8,931 (43.41%) Agile Software Development
4 8,166 (39.69%) C#
5 8,117 (39.46%) .NET
6 7,437 (36.15%) AngularJS
7 6,945 (33.76%) MVC
8 6,720 (32.67%) HTML5
9 6,630 (32.23%) jQuery
10 6,209 (30.18%) SQL
11 5,448 (26.48%) ASP.NET
12 4,999 (24.30%) Web Development
13 4,944 (24.03%) SQL Server
14 4,862 (23.63%) CSS3
15 4,390 (21.34%) Git (software)
16 4,312 (20.96%) Front End Development
17 4,020 (19.54%) Java
18 3,913 (19.02%) PHP
19 3,888 (18.90%) React
20 3,417 (16.61%) TDD
21 3,248 (15.79%) ASP.NET MVC
22 3,110 (15.12%) User Experience
23 3,064 (14.89%) Scrum
24 3,037 (14.76%) Finance
25 2,963 (14.40%) MySQL
26 2,877 (13.99%) Node.js
27 2,653 (12.90%) Web Services
28 2,620 (12.74%) Microsoft
29 2,536 (12.33%) Sass
30 2,492 (12.11%) Degree

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1,433 (6.97%) CMS
2 866 (4.21%) WordPress
3 700 (3.40%) Apache
4 664 (3.23%) SharePoint
5 474 (2.30%) Drupal
6 445 (2.16%) Umbraco
7 425 (2.07%) IIS
8 417 (2.03%) Elasticsearch
9 387 (1.88%) Tomcat
10 289 (1.40%) Confluence
11 240 (1.17%) Sitecore CMS
12 211 (1.03%) EPiServer
13 199 (0.97%) JBoss
13 199 (0.97%) SharePoint 2013
14 191 (0.93%) nginx
15 121 (0.59%) WebSphere
16 115 (0.56%) Adobe Experience Manager
17 105 (0.51%) WebLogic
18 96 (0.47%) Oracle SOA Suite
19 86 (0.42%) Kentico
Applications
1 749 (3.64%) Photoshop
2 370 (1.80%) Adobe Illustrator
3 213 (1.04%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 140 (0.68%) Microsoft Excel
5 124 (0.60%) InVision
6 98 (0.48%) Microsoft Office
7 85 (0.41%) Chatbot
8 55 (0.27%) InDesign
9 44 (0.21%) OmniGraffle
10 41 (0.20%) InfoPath
11 39 (0.19%) GIMP
11 39 (0.19%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 38 (0.18%) MS Visio
13 33 (0.16%) UXPin
14 29 (0.14%) Adobe After Effects
15 27 (0.13%) Fireworks
16 15 (0.073%) Microsoft Project
17 14 (0.068%) Adobe Premiere
18 13 (0.063%) Camtasia
19 8 (0.039%) Acrobat
Business Applications
1 345 (1.68%) Magento
2 200 (0.97%) Dynamics CRM
3 55 (0.27%) Distributed Ledger
3 55 (0.27%) Payment Gateway
4 52 (0.25%) Eloqua
5 35 (0.17%) Shopify
6 21 (0.10%) Salesforce.com CRM
6 21 (0.10%) WebTrends
7 20 (0.097%) Remedy ITSM
8 18 (0.087%) Adobe Campaign
9 16 (0.078%) SAP Hybris
10 15 (0.073%) Dynamics NAV
10 15 (0.073%) NetSuite
11 10 (0.049%) OpenCart
12 9 (0.044%) Dynamics AX
13 8 (0.039%) SAP ERP
13 8 (0.039%) SDL Web 8
14 6 (0.029%) Movex
15 4 (0.019%) nopCommerce
16 3 (0.015%) Oracle Applications
Cloud Services
1 2,133 (10.37%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,793 (8.72%) Amazon AWS
3 630 (3.06%) SaaS
4 610 (2.97%) npm
5 599 (2.91%) GitHub
6 241 (1.17%) Office 365
7 213 (1.04%) PaaS
8 190 (0.92%) Serverless
9 172 (0.84%) Google Analytics
10 161 (0.78%) Google Cloud Platform
11 148 (0.72%) Cloud Computing
12 144 (0.70%) IaaS
13 136 (0.66%) Amazon S3
14 115 (0.56%) Amazon EC2
15 111 (0.54%) AWS Lambda
16 94 (0.46%) Slack
17 93 (0.45%) Adobe Creative Cloud
18 89 (0.43%) Yarn
19 56 (0.27%) Amazon SQS
20 50 (0.24%) DigitalOcean
Communications & Networking
1 508 (2.47%) HTTP
2 387 (1.88%) Internet
3 164 (0.80%) Intranet
4 141 (0.69%) SMS
5 106 (0.52%) TCP/IP
6 94 (0.46%) DNS
7 93 (0.45%) SSL
8 69 (0.34%) Broadband
9 44 (0.21%) Firewall
10 35 (0.17%) Skype
11 27 (0.13%) SSH
12 23 (0.11%) VPN
13 22 (0.11%) Wireless
14 21 (0.10%) DHCP
15 19 (0.092%) AMQP
16 18 (0.087%) FTP
16 18 (0.087%) Network Security
17 17 (0.083%) Extranet
17 17 (0.083%) VoIP
18 16 (0.078%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,944 (24.03%) SQL Server
2 2,963 (14.40%) MySQL
3 1,117 (5.43%) MongoDB
4 1,099 (5.34%) NoSQL
5 860 (4.18%) Relational Database
6 568 (2.76%) PostgreSQL
7 369 (1.79%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 365 (1.77%) SQL Server 2016
9 318 (1.55%) Redis
10 295 (1.43%) SQL Server 2008
11 290 (1.41%) Big Data
12 284 (1.38%) SQL Server 2012
13 279 (1.36%) SQL Server Integration Services
14 271 (1.32%) Blockchain
15 216 (1.05%) RavenDB
16 181 (0.88%) RDBMS
17 113 (0.55%) Data Warehouse
18 108 (0.52%) SQL Server Analysis Services
19 105 (0.51%) Apache Cassandra
20 92 (0.45%) Hadoop
Development Applications
1 4,390 (21.34%) Git (software)
2 1,254 (6.10%) Visual Studio
3 1,220 (5.93%) gulp
4 1,011 (4.91%) webpack
5 959 (4.66%) Subversion
6 896 (4.36%) JIRA
7 891 (4.33%) Team Foundation Server
8 885 (4.30%) Selenium
9 866 (4.21%) Jenkins
10 859 (4.18%) Grunt
11 570 (2.77%) Jasmine
12 553 (2.69%) Maven
13 506 (2.46%) JUnit
14 484 (2.35%) NUnit
15 415 (2.02%) TeamCity
16 410 (1.99%) Mocha
17 352 (1.71%) Protractor
18 336 (1.63%) Karma Test Runner
19 282 (1.37%) Bitbucket
20 241 (1.17%) Octopus Deploy
General
1 3,037 (14.76%) Finance
2 1,333 (6.48%) Marketing
3 1,144 (5.56%) Retail
4 708 (3.44%) Advertising
5 696 (3.38%) Banking
6 551 (2.68%) Games
7 326 (1.58%) Telecoms
8 302 (1.47%) Manufacturing
9 230 (1.12%) Legal
10 200 (0.97%) Automotive
11 173 (0.84%) Electronics
12 145 (0.70%) Financial Institution
13 142 (0.69%) Law
14 140 (0.68%) Investment Banking
15 127 (0.62%) Publishing
16 111 (0.54%) Back Office
17 86 (0.42%) Multimedia
18 61 (0.30%) Pharmaceutical
19 42 (0.20%) Front Office
20 33 (0.16%) Music Industry
Job Titles
1 16,928 (82.29%) Developer
2 4,264 (20.73%) .NET Developer
3 3,298 (16.03%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 3,096 (15.05%) C# Developer
5 2,826 (13.74%) Senior Developer
6 2,364 (11.49%) JavaScript Developer
7 2,167 (10.53%) C# .NET Developer
8 2,066 (10.04%) Web Developer
9 1,947 (9.46%) Software Developer
10 1,779 (8.65%) PHP Developer
11 1,608 (7.82%) Java Developer
12 1,554 (7.55%) Full Stack Developer
13 1,234 (6.00%) ASP.NET Developer
14 1,121 (5.45%) HTML Developer
15 1,082 (5.26%) C# ASP.NET Developer
16 1,012 (4.92%) Angular Developer
17 952 (4.63%) Junior
18 901 (4.38%) HTML CSS Developer
19 895 (4.35%) Software Engineer
20 884 (4.30%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 19,220 (93.43%) HTML
2 8,117 (39.46%) .NET
3 7,437 (36.15%) AngularJS
4 6,720 (32.67%) HTML5
5 6,630 (32.23%) jQuery
6 5,448 (26.48%) ASP.NET
7 4,862 (23.63%) CSS3
8 3,888 (18.90%) React
9 3,248 (15.79%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2,877 (13.99%) Node.js
11 2,653 (12.90%) Web Services
12 2,536 (12.33%) Sass
13 2,283 (11.10%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 2,162 (10.51%) .NET Framework
15 2,131 (10.36%) RESTful
16 2,053 (9.98%) XML
17 2,010 (9.77%) REST
18 1,911 (9.29%) ASP.NET Web API
19 1,716 (8.34%) Ajax
20 1,637 (7.96%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 3,110 (15.12%) User Experience
2 1,451 (7.05%) Greenfield Project
3 1,429 (6.95%) Computer Science
4 1,257 (6.11%) Mobile App
5 899 (4.37%) Analytical Skills
6 873 (4.24%) Fintech
7 683 (3.32%) Self-Motivation
8 483 (2.35%) Enterprise Software
9 213 (1.04%) Linux Command Line
10 173 (0.84%) Algorithms
11 172 (0.84%) Management Information System
12 170 (0.83%) Social Media
13 161 (0.78%) Graphic Design
14 151 (0.73%) N-Tier
15 148 (0.72%) W3C
16 135 (0.66%) Data Structures
17 125 (0.61%) Hedge funds
18 101 (0.49%) Virtual Team
19 85 (0.41%) Animation
20 84 (0.41%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 1,744 (8.48%) Linux
2 864 (4.20%) Windows
3 649 (3.15%) Android
4 566 (2.75%) Apple iOS
5 376 (1.83%) Unix
6 166 (0.81%) Windows Server
7 67 (0.33%) Ubuntu
8 58 (0.28%) Debian
9 55 (0.27%) CentOS
10 52 (0.25%) Mac OS
11 43 (0.21%) Mac OS X
12 35 (0.17%) VMS
12 35 (0.17%) Windows Server 2012
13 27 (0.13%) Windows Phone
14 19 (0.092%) Windows Phone 8
15 18 (0.087%) Nucleus RTOS
16 17 (0.083%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17 15 (0.073%) openSUSE
17 15 (0.073%) Windows Server 2008
18 10 (0.049%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 8,931 (43.41%) Agile Software Development
2 6,945 (33.76%) MVC
3 4,999 (24.30%) Web Development
4 4,312 (20.96%) Front End Development
5 3,417 (16.61%) TDD
6 3,064 (14.89%) Scrum
7 2,462 (11.97%) Software Engineering
8 2,389 (11.61%) OO
9 1,773 (8.62%) Problem-Solving
10 1,756 (8.54%) Unit Testing
11 1,728 (8.40%) Continuous Integration
12 1,698 (8.25%) E-Commerce
13 1,583 (7.69%) Test Automation
14 1,375 (6.68%) BDD
15 1,323 (6.43%) SDLC
16 1,240 (6.03%) Responsive Web Design
17 1,228 (5.97%) OOP
18 1,098 (5.34%) DevOps
19 1,081 (5.25%) Mentoring
20 1,051 (5.11%) Microservices
Programming Languages
1 17,665 (85.87%) JavaScript
2 8,166 (39.69%) C#
3 6,209 (30.18%) SQL
4 4,020 (19.54%) Java
5 3,913 (19.02%) PHP
6 1,415 (6.88%) Python
7 1,177 (5.72%) T-SQL
8 1,173 (5.70%) TypeScript
9 1,013 (4.92%) ES6
10 669 (3.25%) Ruby
11 589 (2.86%) VB.NET
12 576 (2.80%) C++
13 463 (2.25%) Java 8
14 320 (1.56%) PowerShell
15 289 (1.40%) PL/SQL
16 275 (1.34%) Scala
17 253 (1.23%) C
18 214 (1.04%) Perl
19 207 (1.01%) VB
20 187 (0.91%) Bash Shell
Qualifications
1 2,492 (12.11%) Degree
2 819 (3.98%) Computer Science Degree
3 191 (0.93%) Security Cleared
4 156 (0.76%) Microsoft Certification
5 87 (0.42%) SC Cleared
6 59 (0.29%) Master's Degree
7 47 (0.23%) DV Cleared
8 45 (0.22%) MCSD
9 44 (0.21%) Numerate Degree
10 42 (0.20%) SAFe Agilist
11 34 (0.17%) PhD
12 32 (0.16%) MCAD
13 31 (0.15%) MCTS
14 26 (0.13%) ISEB
15 23 (0.11%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
16 22 (0.11%) ITIL Certification
16 22 (0.11%) MCPD
17 21 (0.10%) DBS Check
18 18 (0.087%) ISTQB
19 16 (0.078%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 719 (3.50%) QA
2 72 (0.35%) SLA
3 53 (0.26%) WCAG
4 51 (0.25%) GCP
5 48 (0.23%) GDPR
6 42 (0.20%) PCI DSS
7 32 (0.16%) ISO 9001
8 28 (0.14%) Data Quality
9 22 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 20 (0.097%) Disclosure Scotland
10 20 (0.097%) WAI
11 10 (0.049%) PMO
12 8 (0.039%) GAMP
13 6 (0.029%) Cyber Essentials
14 5 (0.024%) PA-DSS
14 5 (0.024%) Web Application Security Consortium
15 4 (0.019%) HL7
15 4 (0.019%) MiFID
15 4 (0.019%) Sarbanes-Oxley
15 4 (0.019%) SEPA
System Software
1 855 (4.16%) Docker
2 146 (0.71%) Active Directory
3 68 (0.33%) Virtual Machines
4 32 (0.16%) Hyper-V
5 27 (0.13%) GridGain
5 27 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
6 17 (0.083%) HDFS
6 17 (0.083%) Varnish
7 14 (0.068%) VirtualBox
8 11 (0.053%) Firmware
9 10 (0.049%) LXC
9 10 (0.049%) Microsoft App-V
9 10 (0.049%) VMware ESXi
9 10 (0.049%) VMware NSX
10 5 (0.024%) Squid
11 4 (0.019%) Samba
12 2 (0.010%) Virtual Desktop
13 1 (0.005%) Apache Flume
13 1 (0.005%) Shibboleth
13 1 (0.005%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 192 (0.93%) Kubernetes
2 158 (0.77%) Ansible
3 133 (0.65%) Opscode Chef
4 105 (0.51%) Puppet
5 98 (0.48%) Terraform
6 46 (0.22%) Docker Swarm
7 35 (0.17%) Single Sign-On
8 26 (0.13%) Kibana
8 26 (0.13%) Prometheus
8 26 (0.13%) Salt
9 25 (0.12%) SCCM
9 25 (0.12%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
10 21 (0.10%) Graphite
11 20 (0.097%) Nagios
12 18 (0.087%) SCOM
13 17 (0.083%) cPanel
14 15 (0.073%) logstash
14 15 (0.073%) OPNET
15 13 (0.063%) ZABBIX
16 12 (0.058%) Plesk
Vendors
1 2,620 (12.74%) Microsoft
2 979 (4.76%) Oracle
3 811 (3.94%) Google
4 759 (3.69%) Adobe
5 316 (1.54%) Zend
6 315 (1.53%) Sitecore
7 285 (1.39%) Salesforce.com
8 284 (1.38%) Capita
9 276 (1.34%) Xamarin
10 253 (1.23%) Twitter
11 161 (0.78%) SAP
12 112 (0.54%) Facebook
13 92 (0.45%) Splunk
14 91 (0.44%) IBM
15 80 (0.39%) hybris
16 74 (0.36%) Marketo
17 73 (0.35%) VMware
18 71 (0.35%) ServiceNow
19 65 (0.32%) Atlassian
20 60 (0.29%) Nintex