Period
to 20 January 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 January 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
20 Jan 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 16 14 14
Rank change year-on-year -2 0 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 16,420 21,335 22,390
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 10.98% 12.32% 12.65%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 27.72% 30.45% 32.20%
Number of salaries quoted 13,741 19,013 20,144
UK median annual salary £47,500 £45,000 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +2.41%
10th Percentile £28,750 £27,500 £26,750
90th Percentile £75,000 £70,000 £67,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £40,000 £39,000
% change year-on-year +6.25% +2.56% +4.00%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 59,240 70,075 69,544
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.61% 40.48% 39.28%
Number of salaries quoted 48,491 58,799 60,091
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £30,000 £28,750
90th Percentile £85,000 £77,500 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +6.25%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 January 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 January 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 15,152 £47,500 +5.56% 3,654
UK excluding London -2 10,281 £42,500 +6.25% 2,762
London -3 5,751 £60,000 +9.09% 1,103
South East -3 3,377 £45,000 +5.88% 668
North of England -2 2,277 £42,500 +6.25% 801
Midlands -6 1,394 £40,000 +14.29% 516
North West 0 1,301 £45,000 +12.50% 456
South West 0 1,275 £40,000 - 342
East of England -1 1,083 £45,000 +3.45% 226
Yorkshire -3 803 £40,000 - 281
West Midlands -5 761 £40,000 +14.29% 291
East Midlands -4 633 £38,500 +4.05% 224
Scotland +4 584 £45,000 +12.50% 108
Wales -5 196 £36,000 +2.86% 83
North East -2 172 £37,500 +7.14% 64
Northern Ireland +6 131 £40,000 +2.56% 20
Channel Islands - 5 £45,000 -
Isle of Man +10 1 £67,500 +12.50%

For the 6 months to 20 January 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 15,292 (93.13%) HTML
2 14,222 (86.61%) JavaScript
3 7,448 (45.36%) Agile Software Development
4 6,743 (41.07%) C#
5 6,622 (40.33%) .NET
6 6,153 (37.47%) AngularJS
7 5,314 (32.36%) MVC
8 5,157 (31.41%) HTML5
9 4,792 (29.18%) jQuery
10 4,569 (27.83%) SQL
11 4,460 (27.16%) ASP.NET
12 4,163 (25.35%) SQL Server
13 3,619 (22.04%) CSS3
14 3,595 (21.89%) Web Development
15 3,456 (21.05%) Git (software)
16 3,373 (20.54%) Front End Development
17 3,259 (19.85%) React
18 2,987 (18.19%) PHP
19 2,873 (17.50%) Java
20 2,560 (15.59%) ASP.NET MVC
21 2,457 (14.96%) TDD
22 2,407 (14.66%) User Experience
23 2,394 (14.58%) Scrum
24 2,330 (14.19%) Microsoft
25 2,314 (14.09%) Finance
26 2,311 (14.07%) MySQL
27 2,265 (13.79%) Software Engineering
28 2,219 (13.51%) Web Services
29 2,184 (13.30%) Node.js
30 2,104 (12.81%) Microsoft Azure

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1,101 (6.71%) CMS
2 614 (3.74%) WordPress
3 553 (3.37%) Elasticsearch
4 528 (3.22%) Apache
5 402 (2.45%) IIS
6 400 (2.44%) SharePoint
7 334 (2.03%) Umbraco
8 304 (1.85%) Confluence
9 302 (1.84%) Tomcat
10 275 (1.67%) Drupal
11 171 (1.04%) nginx
12 157 (0.96%) Sitecore CMS
13 142 (0.86%) EPiServer
14 135 (0.82%) JBoss
15 90 (0.55%) WebSphere
16 82 (0.50%) Kentico
17 81 (0.49%) Apache Spark
18 73 (0.44%) Adobe Experience Manager
19 68 (0.41%) SharePoint 2013
20 61 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 593 (3.61%) Photoshop
2 319 (1.94%) Adobe Illustrator
3 184 (1.12%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 152 (0.93%) Microsoft Office
5 141 (0.86%) InVision
6 130 (0.79%) Chatbot
7 103 (0.63%) Microsoft Excel
8 48 (0.29%) Adobe After Effects
9 37 (0.23%) InDesign
10 25 (0.15%) OmniGraffle
11 20 (0.12%) Adobe Premiere
12 19 (0.12%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 19 (0.12%) MS Visio
13 18 (0.11%) AutoCAD
14 15 (0.091%) Acrobat
14 15 (0.091%) Fireworks
15 14 (0.085%) GIMP
15 14 (0.085%) InfoPath
16 12 (0.073%) Flinto
16 12 (0.073%) Weka
Business Applications
1 290 (1.77%) Magento
2 139 (0.85%) Dynamics CRM
3 46 (0.28%) Payment Gateway
4 45 (0.27%) Shopify
5 30 (0.18%) Eloqua
6 25 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
7 23 (0.14%) Actimize
8 19 (0.12%) Dynamics AX
9 12 (0.073%) Oracle BPM
10 11 (0.067%) WebTrends
11 10 (0.061%) osCommerce
12 9 (0.055%) NetSuite
12 9 (0.055%) Odoo
13 8 (0.049%) Adobe Campaign
13 8 (0.049%) SAP Business One
14 7 (0.043%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
14 7 (0.043%) SAP CO
14 7 (0.043%) SAP FI
14 7 (0.043%) SAP FI/CO
14 7 (0.043%) SAP IS-U
Cloud Services
1 2,104 (12.81%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,596 (9.72%) Amazon AWS
3 576 (3.51%) SaaS
4 480 (2.92%) GitHub
5 407 (2.48%) npm
6 182 (1.11%) Serverless
7 160 (0.97%) Office 365
8 153 (0.93%) Google Cloud Platform
9 142 (0.86%) Google Analytics
10 113 (0.69%) Amazon EC2
11 112 (0.68%) Amazon S3
12 102 (0.62%) PaaS
13 98 (0.60%) AWS Lambda
14 69 (0.42%) Google Play
15 63 (0.38%) Adobe Creative Cloud
16 60 (0.37%) IaaS
17 58 (0.35%) Cloud Computing
18 56 (0.34%) AWS CloudFormation
19 51 (0.31%) Amazon SQS
20 50 (0.30%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 329 (2.00%) HTTP
2 260 (1.58%) Internet
3 133 (0.81%) Intranet
4 70 (0.43%) TCP/IP
5 67 (0.41%) SSL
6 60 (0.37%) DNS
7 42 (0.26%) SMS
8 34 (0.21%) Firewall
9 33 (0.20%) SSH
10 30 (0.18%) HTTPS
10 30 (0.18%) Network Security
11 28 (0.17%) Skype
12 27 (0.16%) Extranet
13 23 (0.14%) FTP
14 22 (0.13%) RIP
15 21 (0.13%) Broadband
15 21 (0.13%) VoIP
16 13 (0.079%) Wireless
17 11 (0.067%) Wi-Fi
18 9 (0.055%) SNMP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,163 (25.35%) SQL Server
2 2,311 (14.07%) MySQL
3 985 (6.00%) NoSQL
4 949 (5.78%) MongoDB
5 742 (4.52%) Relational Database
6 664 (4.04%) PostgreSQL
7 295 (1.80%) Big Data
8 287 (1.75%) SQL Server Reporting Services
9 275 (1.67%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 271 (1.65%) Redis
11 213 (1.30%) SQL Server 2016
12 196 (1.19%) SQL Server 2012
13 190 (1.16%) Amazon DynamoDB
14 187 (1.14%) SQL Server 2008
15 186 (1.13%) RDBMS
16 130 (0.79%) RavenDB
17 103 (0.63%) MariaDB
18 101 (0.62%) Oracle Database
19 97 (0.59%) Hadoop
19 97 (0.59%) Power BI
Development Applications
1 3,456 (21.05%) Git (software)
2 970 (5.91%) Visual Studio
3 828 (5.04%) Jenkins
4 816 (4.97%) JIRA
5 787 (4.79%) webpack
6 749 (4.56%) gulp
7 736 (4.48%) Team Foundation Server
8 663 (4.04%) Subversion
9 577 (3.51%) Selenium
10 517 (3.15%) Grunt
11 369 (2.25%) Maven
12 363 (2.21%) NUnit
13 328 (2.00%) Jasmine
14 314 (1.91%) TeamCity
15 284 (1.73%) JUnit
16 214 (1.30%) Octopus Deploy
17 206 (1.25%) Mocha
18 199 (1.21%) Bitbucket
19 197 (1.20%) Eclipse
20 189 (1.15%) Cucumber
General
1 2,314 (14.09%) Finance
2 1,072 (6.53%) Marketing
3 811 (4.94%) Retail
4 540 (3.29%) Banking
5 401 (2.44%) Advertising
6 349 (2.13%) Games
7 280 (1.71%) Manufacturing
8 240 (1.46%) Telecoms
9 150 (0.91%) Automotive
10 143 (0.87%) Electronics
11 135 (0.82%) Publishing
12 132 (0.80%) Investment Banking
13 116 (0.71%) Legal
14 104 (0.63%) Back Office
15 103 (0.63%) Law
16 65 (0.40%) Front Office
17 51 (0.31%) Financial Institution
18 48 (0.29%) Pharmaceutical
19 38 (0.23%) Multimedia
20 31 (0.19%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 12,840 (78.20%) Developer
2 3,176 (19.34%) .NET Developer
3 2,562 (15.60%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 2,196 (13.37%) C# Developer
5 2,062 (12.56%) Senior Developer
6 1,660 (10.11%) Web Developer
7 1,563 (9.52%) Software Developer
8 1,537 (9.36%) C# .NET Developer
9 1,491 (9.08%) JavaScript Developer
10 1,398 (8.51%) Full Stack Developer
11 1,379 (8.40%) PHP Developer
12 1,030 (6.27%) Software Engineer
13 1,019 (6.21%) Java Developer
14 846 (5.15%) ASP.NET Developer
15 759 (4.62%) Junior
16 705 (4.29%) C# ASP.NET Developer
17 674 (4.10%) HTML Developer
18 669 (4.07%) Lead Developer
19 640 (3.90%) Junior Developer
20 622 (3.79%) React Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 15,292 (93.13%) HTML
2 6,622 (40.33%) .NET
3 6,153 (37.47%) AngularJS
4 5,157 (31.41%) HTML5
5 4,792 (29.18%) jQuery
6 4,460 (27.16%) ASP.NET
7 3,619 (22.04%) CSS3
8 3,259 (19.85%) React
9 2,560 (15.59%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2,219 (13.51%) Web Services
11 2,184 (13.30%) Node.js
12 2,031 (12.37%) Twitter Bootstrap
13 1,991 (12.13%) Sass
14 1,832 (11.16%) ASP.NET Web API
15 1,774 (10.80%) RESTful
16 1,668 (10.16%) .NET Framework
17 1,652 (10.06%) XML
18 1,566 (9.54%) REST
19 1,273 (7.75%) Vue.js
20 1,254 (7.64%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,407 (14.66%) User Experience
2 1,144 (6.97%) Greenfield Project
3 807 (4.91%) Mobile App
4 751 (4.57%) Fintech
5 721 (4.39%) Analytical Skills
6 554 (3.37%) Self-Motivation
7 490 (2.98%) Enterprise Software
8 168 (1.02%) Algorithms
8 168 (1.02%) Social Media
9 142 (0.86%) Data Structures
10 137 (0.83%) Graphic Design
11 120 (0.73%) N-Tier
12 110 (0.67%) Linux Command Line
13 100 (0.61%) Management Information System
14 94 (0.57%) Tandem
15 92 (0.56%) Blog
16 86 (0.52%) Virtual Team
17 79 (0.48%) W3C
18 72 (0.44%) Digital Media
18 72 (0.44%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 1,384 (8.43%) Linux
2 932 (5.68%) Windows
3 609 (3.71%) Android
4 522 (3.18%) Apple iOS
5 241 (1.47%) Unix
6 136 (0.83%) Windows Server
7 85 (0.52%) Ubuntu
8 52 (0.32%) CentOS
9 41 (0.25%) Mac OS
10 36 (0.22%) Debian
11 35 (0.21%) Windows 10
12 29 (0.18%) Windows Server 2012
13 23 (0.14%) Windows Phone
14 22 (0.13%) Mac OS X
14 22 (0.13%) openSUSE
15 20 (0.12%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16 16 (0.097%) Windows Phone 8
17 12 (0.073%) Solaris
18 9 (0.055%) VMS
19 7 (0.043%) Windows Embedded Compact
Processes & Methodologies
1 7,448 (45.36%) Agile Software Development
2 5,314 (32.36%) MVC
3 3,595 (21.89%) Web Development
4 3,373 (20.54%) Front End Development
5 2,457 (14.96%) TDD
6 2,394 (14.58%) Scrum
7 2,265 (13.79%) Software Engineering
8 1,781 (10.85%) OO
9 1,433 (8.73%) Problem-Solving
10 1,419 (8.64%) E-Commerce
11 1,341 (8.17%) Continuous Integration
12 1,260 (7.67%) Test Automation
13 1,223 (7.45%) Unit Testing
14 1,160 (7.06%) Microservices
15 1,060 (6.46%) Mentoring
16 1,057 (6.44%) Computer Science
17 1,025 (6.24%) SDLC
18 1,001 (6.10%) DevOps
19 988 (6.02%) OOP
20 981 (5.97%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 14,222 (86.61%) JavaScript
2 6,743 (41.07%) C#
3 4,569 (27.83%) SQL
4 2,987 (18.19%) PHP
5 2,873 (17.50%) Java
6 1,289 (7.85%) Python
7 993 (6.05%) ES6
8 990 (6.03%) TypeScript
9 935 (5.69%) T-SQL
10 502 (3.06%) C++
11 477 (2.90%) VB.NET
12 455 (2.77%) Ruby
13 293 (1.78%) Java 8
14 277 (1.69%) PL/SQL
15 255 (1.55%) C
16 169 (1.03%) PowerShell
17 139 (0.85%) VB
18 136 (0.83%) Bash Shell
19 129 (0.79%) Scala
20 116 (0.71%) PHP 7
Qualifications
1 1,740 (10.60%) Degree
2 642 (3.91%) Computer Science Degree
3 213 (1.30%) Security Cleared
4 145 (0.88%) SC Cleared
5 111 (0.68%) Microsoft Certification
6 56 (0.34%) Master's Degree
7 51 (0.31%) PhD
8 30 (0.18%) DBS Check
9 25 (0.15%) DV Cleared
9 25 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
10 24 (0.15%) HND
11 19 (0.12%) ISTQB
11 19 (0.12%) SAFe Agilist
12 14 (0.085%) ISEB
13 11 (0.067%) AWS Certification
13 11 (0.067%) Cisco Certification
14 9 (0.055%) CCNA
14 9 (0.055%) CISSP
14 9 (0.055%) MCSD
15 7 (0.043%) Postgraduate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 681 (4.15%) QA
2 97 (0.59%) GDPR
3 62 (0.38%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 47 (0.29%) ISO 9001
5 36 (0.22%) WCAG
6 32 (0.19%) PCI DSS
6 32 (0.19%) SLA
7 21 (0.13%) Data Quality
8 20 (0.12%) WAI
9 13 (0.079%) ISO 14001
10 12 (0.073%) PMO
11 10 (0.061%) Disclosure Scotland
12 9 (0.055%) GAMP
13 4 (0.024%) DICOM
13 4 (0.024%) JSP 440
13 4 (0.024%) MiFID
14 3 (0.018%) Actionable Recommendations
15 2 (0.012%) HL7
15 2 (0.012%) Web Application Security Consortium
16 1 (0.006%) ISO/IEC 20000
System Software
1 852 (5.19%) Docker
2 100 (0.61%) Active Directory
3 39 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
4 31 (0.19%) VMware Infrastructure
5 29 (0.18%) Firmware
6 27 (0.16%) Varnish
7 17 (0.10%) HDFS
8 13 (0.079%) vSphere
9 12 (0.073%) Hyper-V
10 9 (0.055%) VirtualBox
11 7 (0.043%) LXC
12 4 (0.024%) Apache Flume
12 4 (0.024%) iptables
12 4 (0.024%) KVM
12 4 (0.024%) Samba
12 4 (0.024%) VMware ESXi
13 3 (0.018%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 3 (0.018%) GridGain
14 1 (0.006%) vCloud
14 1 (0.006%) zsh
Systems Management
1 263 (1.60%) Kubernetes
2 142 (0.86%) Opscode Chef
3 131 (0.80%) Ansible
4 105 (0.64%) Puppet
5 93 (0.57%) Terraform
6 42 (0.26%) Kibana
7 27 (0.16%) Salt
8 25 (0.15%) logstash
9 23 (0.14%) Single Sign-On
10 18 (0.11%) HP Quality Center
11 15 (0.091%) Docker Swarm
11 15 (0.091%) HAProxy
12 13 (0.079%) Consul
13 12 (0.073%) Control-M
14 11 (0.067%) Microsoft Intune
14 11 (0.067%) SCOM
15 9 (0.055%) Capistrano
16 7 (0.043%) Graphite
16 7 (0.043%) Mesos
16 7 (0.043%) Nagios
Vendors
1 2,330 (14.19%) Microsoft
2 847 (5.16%) Oracle
3 601 (3.66%) Adobe
4 465 (2.83%) Google
5 267 (1.63%) Zend
6 217 (1.32%) Sitecore
7 204 (1.24%) Xamarin
8 199 (1.21%) SAP
9 149 (0.91%) Salesforce.com
10 112 (0.68%) IBM
11 96 (0.58%) Tableau
12 94 (0.57%) Facebook
13 81 (0.49%) ServiceNow
14 79 (0.48%) Nintex
15 76 (0.46%) Atlassian
16 60 (0.37%) Telerik
16 60 (0.37%) Twitter
17 55 (0.33%) VMware
18 53 (0.32%) Splunk
19 43 (0.26%) hybris