Period
to 25 May 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 25 May 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
25 May 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 20 15 14
Rank change year-on-year -5 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing CSS 14,900 20,728 22,404
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 10.27% 11.92% 13.25%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 26.66% 29.42% 32.68%
Number of salaries quoted 12,521 18,362 19,798
UK median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year - +5.88% -
10th Percentile £27,500 £27,500 £27,500
90th Percentile £75,000 £71,250 £67,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £40,000 £40,000
% change year-on-year +6.25% - +3.90%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 55,885 70,461 68,564
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 38.51% 40.52% 40.56%
Number of salaries quoted 45,753 58,936 58,311
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% -
10th Percentile £31,250 £31,250 £29,000
90th Percentile £85,000 £80,000 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% +2.41%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 May 2019.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 25 May 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -6 13,671 £47,500 +5.56% 1,085
UK excluding London -3 9,588 £42,500 +6.25% 769
London -6 4,945 £60,000 +9.09% 368
South East -6 3,132 £45,000 +5.88% 182
North of England -3 2,063 £42,500 +6.25% 231
Midlands -3 1,367 £40,000 +3.90% 161
South West -3 1,274 £40,000 - 82
North West -2 1,246 £42,500 +6.25% 148
East of England +2 872 £47,500 +5.56% 62
West Midlands -6 732 £40,000 - 68
Yorkshire -12 688 £40,000 - 69
East Midlands -2 631 £38,500 -1.28% 91
Scotland +10 612 £40,125 +0.31% 19
Wales +5 185 £35,000 -12.50% 23
North East -5 129 £39,750 +22.31% 14
Northern Ireland +9 112 £47,500 +18.75% 8
Channel Islands +7 3 £75,000 -

For the 6 months to 25 May 2019, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 13,827 (92.80%) HTML
2 12,788 (85.83%) JavaScript
3 6,561 (44.03%) Agile Software Development
4 6,050 (40.60%) C#
5 5,823 (39.08%) .NET
6 5,153 (34.58%) AngularJS
7 4,580 (30.74%) MVC
8 4,357 (29.24%) HTML5
9 4,129 (27.71%) SQL
10 4,083 (27.40%) jQuery
11 3,990 (26.78%) ASP.NET
12 3,536 (23.73%) SQL Server
13 3,271 (21.95%) Git (software)
14 3,172 (21.29%) Front End Development
15 3,061 (20.54%) React
16 3,035 (20.37%) Web Development
17 2,952 (19.81%) CSS3
18 2,931 (19.67%) PHP
19 2,373 (15.93%) Java
20 2,223 (14.92%) User Experience
21 2,207 (14.81%) MySQL
22 2,122 (14.24%) TDD
23 2,095 (14.06%) Microsoft
24 2,091 (14.03%) Software Engineering
25 2,083 (13.98%) ASP.NET MVC
26 2,079 (13.95%) Web Services
27 2,049 (13.75%) Node.js
28 2,040 (13.69%) Scrum
29 1,939 (13.01%) Microsoft Azure
30 1,888 (12.67%) Finance

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 805 (5.40%) CMS
2 612 (4.11%) WordPress
3 514 (3.45%) Apache
4 440 (2.95%) Elasticsearch
5 372 (2.50%) SharePoint
6 356 (2.39%) IIS
7 287 (1.93%) Umbraco
8 276 (1.85%) Drupal
9 262 (1.76%) Confluence
10 210 (1.41%) Tomcat
11 173 (1.16%) nginx
12 122 (0.82%) JBoss
13 102 (0.68%) Sitecore CMS
14 68 (0.46%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 65 (0.44%) WebSphere
16 63 (0.42%) Kentico
17 55 (0.37%) Apache Spark
17 55 (0.37%) Joomla!
18 50 (0.34%) EPiServer
19 47 (0.32%) Oracle SOA Suite
Applications
1 458 (3.07%) Photoshop
2 332 (2.23%) Sketch
3 261 (1.75%) Adobe Illustrator
4 156 (1.05%) InVision
5 153 (1.03%) Microsoft Office
6 143 (0.96%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 97 (0.65%) Adobe XD
8 91 (0.61%) Chatbot
9 71 (0.48%) Microsoft Excel
10 45 (0.30%) Zeplin
11 39 (0.26%) Adobe After Effects
11 39 (0.26%) Marvel
12 30 (0.20%) InDesign
13 23 (0.15%) Adobe Premiere
13 23 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
14 19 (0.13%) AutoCAD
14 19 (0.13%) OmniGraffle
15 18 (0.12%) Fireworks
16 16 (0.11%) MS Visio
17 15 (0.10%) Figma
Business Applications
1 395 (2.65%) Magento
2 146 (0.98%) Dynamics CRM
3 73 (0.49%) Payment Gateway
4 55 (0.37%) Shopify
5 42 (0.28%) Dynamics AX
6 18 (0.12%) NetSuite
7 16 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
8 11 (0.074%) Dynamics NAV
9 10 (0.067%) nopCommerce
9 10 (0.067%) SAP Business One
9 10 (0.067%) WebTrends
10 8 (0.054%) osCommerce
10 8 (0.054%) SAP CO
10 8 (0.054%) SAP FI
10 8 (0.054%) SAP FI/CO
11 7 (0.047%) SAP IS-U
12 6 (0.040%) Remedy ITSM
13 5 (0.034%) Adobe Campaign
14 4 (0.027%) OPENHousing
14 4 (0.027%) SAP Business ByDesign
Cloud Services
1 1,939 (13.01%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,641 (11.01%) Amazon AWS
3 650 (4.36%) SaaS
4 428 (2.87%) GitHub
5 336 (2.26%) npm
6 276 (1.85%) Google Cloud Platform
7 264 (1.77%) Serverless
8 172 (1.15%) AWS Lambda
9 168 (1.13%) PaaS
10 151 (1.01%) Google Analytics
11 144 (0.97%) Amazon S3
12 141 (0.95%) Office 365
13 128 (0.86%) Power Platform
14 116 (0.78%) Cloud Computing
15 104 (0.70%) Amazon EC2
16 103 (0.69%) Amazon CloudWatch
17 101 (0.68%) Adobe Creative Cloud
18 77 (0.52%) Dynamics 365
19 75 (0.50%) Amazon Kinesis
20 63 (0.42%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 225 (1.51%) Internet
2 193 (1.30%) HTTP
3 99 (0.66%) Intranet
4 59 (0.40%) DNS
5 54 (0.36%) Broadband
6 40 (0.27%) SSH
7 39 (0.26%) SSL
8 37 (0.25%) TCP/IP
9 30 (0.20%) Skype
10 25 (0.17%) Firewall
11 24 (0.16%) FTP
12 23 (0.15%) RIP
13 21 (0.14%) Network Security
14 20 (0.13%) HTTPS
14 20 (0.13%) SMS
15 17 (0.11%) Extranet
16 14 (0.094%) MQTT
17 12 (0.081%) VPN
18 10 (0.067%) VoIP
18 10 (0.067%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 3,536 (23.73%) SQL Server
2 2,207 (14.81%) MySQL
3 806 (5.41%) NoSQL
4 675 (4.53%) MongoDB
5 670 (4.50%) Relational Database
6 505 (3.39%) PostgreSQL
7 318 (2.13%) Redis
8 314 (2.11%) Big Data
9 313 (2.10%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 284 (1.91%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 231 (1.55%) Amazon DynamoDB
12 186 (1.25%) SQL Server 2008
13 144 (0.97%) RDBMS
14 137 (0.92%) SQL Server 2012
15 131 (0.88%) SQL Server 2016
16 104 (0.70%) Power BI
17 85 (0.57%) Hadoop
17 85 (0.57%) MariaDB
18 80 (0.54%) SQL Server 2014
19 79 (0.53%) Oracle Database
Development Applications
1 3,271 (21.95%) Git (software)
2 776 (5.21%) Visual Studio
3 769 (5.16%) JIRA
4 676 (4.54%) webpack
5 604 (4.05%) Jenkins
6 587 (3.94%) gulp
7 568 (3.81%) Team Foundation Server
8 558 (3.74%) Subversion
9 426 (2.86%) Grunt
10 387 (2.60%) Selenium
11 339 (2.28%) Jasmine
12 318 (2.13%) Maven
13 247 (1.66%) NUnit
14 215 (1.44%) Mocha
15 206 (1.38%) TeamCity
16 202 (1.36%) Visual Studio Team System
17 167 (1.12%) JUnit
18 164 (1.10%) Bitbucket
19 152 (1.02%) Cucumber
20 143 (0.96%) Eclipse
General
1 1,888 (12.67%) Finance
2 1,059 (7.11%) Marketing
3 847 (5.68%) Retail
4 398 (2.67%) Banking
5 301 (2.02%) Games
6 264 (1.77%) Advertising
7 231 (1.55%) Telecoms
8 214 (1.44%) Manufacturing
9 108 (0.72%) Automotive
10 103 (0.69%) Publishing
11 99 (0.66%) Electronics
12 92 (0.62%) Legal
13 87 (0.58%) Law
14 79 (0.53%) Investment Banking
15 67 (0.45%) Back Office
16 66 (0.44%) Pharmaceutical
17 62 (0.42%) Financial Institution
17 62 (0.42%) Front Office
18 27 (0.18%) Billing
19 21 (0.14%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 11,734 (78.75%) Developer
2 2,804 (18.82%) .NET Developer
3 2,305 (15.47%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 1,933 (12.97%) C# Developer
5 1,897 (12.73%) Senior Developer
6 1,430 (9.60%) Software Developer
7 1,405 (9.43%) C# .NET Developer
8 1,359 (9.12%) PHP Developer
9 1,323 (8.88%) Full Stack Developer
10 1,319 (8.85%) Web Developer
11 1,212 (8.13%) JavaScript Developer
12 951 (6.38%) Software Engineer
13 818 (5.49%) Junior
14 816 (5.48%) Java Developer
15 677 (4.54%) React Developer
16 663 (4.45%) ASP.NET Developer
17 658 (4.42%) Junior Developer
18 580 (3.89%) C# ASP.NET Developer
19 543 (3.64%) Designer
20 532 (3.57%) Angular Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 13,827 (92.80%) HTML
2 5,823 (39.08%) .NET
3 5,153 (34.58%) AngularJS
4 4,357 (29.24%) HTML5
5 4,083 (27.40%) jQuery
6 3,990 (26.78%) ASP.NET
7 3,061 (20.54%) React
8 2,952 (19.81%) CSS3
9 2,083 (13.98%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2,079 (13.95%) Web Services
11 2,049 (13.75%) Node.js
12 1,804 (12.11%) Sass
13 1,551 (10.41%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 1,494 (10.03%) .NET Framework
15 1,481 (9.94%) ASP.NET Web API
16 1,478 (9.92%) RESTful
17 1,441 (9.67%) REST
18 1,372 (9.21%) XML
19 1,146 (7.69%) Vue.js
20 1,100 (7.38%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 2,223 (14.92%) User Experience
2 1,029 (6.91%) Greenfield Project
3 700 (4.70%) Mobile App
4 690 (4.63%) Fintech
5 584 (3.92%) Analytical Skills
6 437 (2.93%) Enterprise Software
7 391 (2.62%) Self-Motivation
8 208 (1.40%) Algorithms
9 172 (1.15%) Data Structures
10 154 (1.03%) Social Media
11 100 (0.67%) Blog
12 99 (0.66%) Graphic Design
13 93 (0.62%) Management Information System
14 91 (0.61%) N-Tier
15 81 (0.54%) Robotics
15 81 (0.54%) Tandem
16 79 (0.53%) Linux Command Line
17 77 (0.52%) Hedge funds
17 77 (0.52%) Life Science
18 73 (0.49%) Cloud Native
Operating Systems
1 1,237 (8.30%) Linux
2 783 (5.26%) Windows
3 454 (3.05%) Android
4 410 (2.75%) Apple iOS
5 174 (1.17%) Unix
6 145 (0.97%) Windows Server
7 76 (0.51%) Ubuntu
8 66 (0.44%) Debian
9 45 (0.30%) CentOS
10 34 (0.23%) Mac OS
11 24 (0.16%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 24 (0.16%) Windows 10
12 20 (0.13%) Mac OS X
13 18 (0.12%) Windows Phone
14 16 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
15 14 (0.094%) openSUSE
16 11 (0.074%) Fedora
17 10 (0.067%) Windows Phone 8
18 9 (0.060%) AIX
18 9 (0.060%) Windows 7
Processes & Methodologies
1 6,561 (44.03%) Agile Software Development
2 4,580 (30.74%) MVC
3 3,172 (21.29%) Front End Development
4 3,035 (20.37%) Web Development
5 2,122 (14.24%) TDD
6 2,091 (14.03%) Software Engineering
7 2,040 (13.69%) Scrum
8 1,744 (11.70%) OO
9 1,303 (8.74%) Problem-Solving
10 1,253 (8.41%) Unit Testing
11 1,215 (8.15%) Continuous Integration
12 1,186 (7.96%) E-Commerce
13 1,132 (7.60%) OOP
14 1,124 (7.54%) DevOps
15 1,109 (7.44%) Test Automation
16 1,030 (6.91%) Mentoring
17 1,023 (6.87%) Microservices
18 1,013 (6.80%) Computer Science
19 929 (6.23%) SDLC
20 822 (5.52%) BDD
Programming Languages
1 12,788 (85.83%) JavaScript
2 6,050 (40.60%) C#
3 4,129 (27.71%) SQL
4 2,931 (19.67%) PHP
5 2,373 (15.93%) Java
6 1,188 (7.97%) Python
7 1,032 (6.93%) ES6
8 991 (6.65%) TypeScript
9 789 (5.30%) T-SQL
10 466 (3.13%) C++
11 375 (2.52%) VB.NET
12 366 (2.46%) Ruby
13 261 (1.75%) Java 8
14 237 (1.59%) C
15 206 (1.38%) PL/SQL
16 186 (1.25%) PowerShell
17 141 (0.95%) PHP 7
18 128 (0.86%) Bash Shell
19 110 (0.74%) Scala
20 104 (0.70%) VB
Qualifications
1 1,529 (10.26%) Degree
2 524 (3.52%) Computer Science Degree
3 242 (1.62%) Security Cleared
4 168 (1.13%) SC Cleared
5 125 (0.84%) Microsoft Certification
6 54 (0.36%) HND
7 46 (0.31%) Master's Degree
8 41 (0.28%) Numerate Degree
9 30 (0.20%) DV Cleared
10 27 (0.18%) PhD
11 17 (0.11%) MCSD
12 16 (0.11%) ISTQB
13 14 (0.094%) ISEB
14 12 (0.081%) MCP
14 12 (0.081%) MCSE
15 11 (0.074%) DBS Check
16 10 (0.067%) PMI Certification
16 10 (0.067%) Postgraduate
17 7 (0.047%) CIPD
18 6 (0.040%) AWS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 585 (3.93%) QA
2 66 (0.44%) GDPR
3 65 (0.44%) WAI
4 32 (0.21%) SLA
5 24 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 16 (0.11%) WCAG
7 12 (0.081%) PCI DSS
8 11 (0.074%) PMO
9 10 (0.067%) MiFID
10 9 (0.060%) GAMP
11 7 (0.047%) Data Quality
12 6 (0.040%) ISO 9001
13 5 (0.034%) HL7
14 3 (0.020%) Actionable Recommendations
14 3 (0.020%) ISO 14001
15 1 (0.007%) Dublin Core
15 1 (0.007%) PSD2
15 1 (0.007%) SEPA
System Software
1 939 (6.30%) Docker
2 107 (0.72%) Active Directory
3 49 (0.33%) Varnish
4 36 (0.24%) Firmware
5 22 (0.15%) VMware Infrastructure
6 15 (0.10%) vSphere
7 11 (0.074%) Virtual Machines
8 8 (0.054%) Hyper-V
9 7 (0.047%) Forefront TMG
9 7 (0.047%) HDFS
10 5 (0.034%) KVM
11 4 (0.027%) Apache ZooKeeper
11 4 (0.027%) GridGain
11 4 (0.027%) VMware ESXi
12 3 (0.020%) iptables
12 3 (0.020%) Samba
13 2 (0.013%) vCloud
13 2 (0.013%) zsh
14 1 (0.007%) VirtualBox
14 1 (0.007%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 343 (2.30%) Kubernetes
2 118 (0.79%) Opscode Chef
3 106 (0.71%) Ansible
4 89 (0.60%) Terraform
5 68 (0.46%) Kibana
6 60 (0.40%) Puppet
7 59 (0.40%) logstash
8 17 (0.11%) Grafana
9 15 (0.10%) Consul
10 14 (0.094%) Salt
11 13 (0.087%) Data Guard
12 12 (0.081%) HP Quality Center
13 11 (0.074%) Prometheus
14 10 (0.067%) Control-M
15 9 (0.060%) Microsoft Intune
15 9 (0.060%) SCOM
16 8 (0.054%) Business Desktop Deployment
16 8 (0.054%) Mesos
16 8 (0.054%) Plesk
16 8 (0.054%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 2,095 (14.06%) Microsoft
2 628 (4.21%) Oracle
3 577 (3.87%) Adobe
4 564 (3.79%) Google
5 248 (1.66%) Zend
6 157 (1.05%) SAP
7 146 (0.98%) Sitecore
7 146 (0.98%) Xamarin
8 122 (0.82%) Salesforce.com
9 99 (0.66%) ServiceNow
10 93 (0.62%) Splunk
11 92 (0.62%) Atlassian
12 65 (0.44%) IBM
13 62 (0.42%) Nintex
14 60 (0.40%) Facebook
15 59 (0.40%) VMware
16 58 (0.39%) Tableau
17 54 (0.36%) WooCommerce
18 45 (0.30%) Twitter
19 44 (0.30%) WorldPay