Period
to 16 November 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 16 November 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
16 Nov 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 15 15 15
Rank change year-on-year 0 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 18,469 22,221 24,137
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 11.33% 12.33% 12.66%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 28.46% 30.75% 32.42%
Number of salaries quoted 15,808 19,791 21,762
UK median annual salary £46,500 £43,500 £42,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +6.90% +2.35% +6.25%
10th Percentile £28,000 £27,250 £26,250
90th Percentile £75,000 £68,750 £67,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £42,500 £40,000 £38,500
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.90% +2.67%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 64,897 72,262 74,456
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 39.81% 40.09% 39.05%
Number of salaries quoted 53,611 60,024 64,572
UK median annual salary £52,500 £50,000 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.00% +5.26% +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,750 £28,750
90th Percentile £83,750 £77,500 £76,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £42,500 £42,000
% change year-on-year +5.88% +1.19% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for salaries quoted in permanent IT jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

The salary distribution of IT jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 16 November 2018.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 16 November 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 17,316 £47,500 +5.56% 3,790
UK excluding London -2 11,474 £42,500 +6.25% 2,822
London +2 6,612 £60,000 +9.09% 1,180
South East 0 3,976 £45,000 +5.88% 625
North of England -2 2,612 £40,000 - 822
Midlands -4 1,640 £40,000 +14.29% 540
North West -3 1,469 £42,500 +6.25% 446
South West 0 1,349 £40,000 - 341
East of England -2 1,110 £45,000 +5.88% 284
Yorkshire -4 954 £40,000 +6.67% 283
West Midlands -3 915 £40,000 +14.29% 303
East Midlands -4 725 £40,000 +8.11% 236
Scotland 0 539 £45,000 +12.50% 125
Wales -7 191 £37,500 +7.14% 68
North East 0 188 £37,500 - 93
Northern Ireland +6 85 £37,500 - 19
Channel Islands - 4 £45,000 - 1
Isle of Man +11 1 £67,500 +12.50%

For the 6 months to 16 November 2018, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 17,199 (93.12%) HTML
2 15,946 (86.34%) JavaScript
3 8,328 (45.09%) Agile Software Development
4 7,363 (39.87%) C#
5 7,281 (39.42%) .NET
6 6,944 (37.60%) AngularJS
7 6,084 (32.94%) MVC
8 5,986 (32.41%) HTML5
9 5,577 (30.20%) jQuery
10 5,362 (29.03%) SQL
11 4,862 (26.33%) ASP.NET
12 4,566 (24.72%) SQL Server
13 4,312 (23.35%) CSS3
14 4,268 (23.11%) Web Development
15 3,890 (21.06%) Git (software)
16 3,691 (19.98%) Front End Development
17 3,671 (19.88%) React
18 3,469 (18.78%) Java
19 3,408 (18.45%) PHP
20 2,910 (15.76%) TDD
21 2,888 (15.64%) ASP.NET MVC
22 2,832 (15.33%) Finance
23 2,827 (15.31%) Scrum
24 2,790 (15.11%) User Experience
25 2,616 (14.16%) MySQL
26 2,450 (13.27%) Node.js
27 2,443 (13.23%) Microsoft
28 2,432 (13.17%) Web Services
29 2,408 (13.04%) Software Engineering
30 2,320 (12.56%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 1,250 (6.77%) CMS
2 746 (4.04%) WordPress
3 568 (3.08%) Elasticsearch
4 553 (2.99%) Apache
5 472 (2.56%) SharePoint
6 422 (2.28%) IIS
7 404 (2.19%) Umbraco
8 344 (1.86%) Drupal
9 343 (1.86%) Tomcat
10 301 (1.63%) Confluence
11 200 (1.08%) Sitecore CMS
12 198 (1.07%) EPiServer
13 167 (0.90%) nginx
14 164 (0.89%) JBoss
15 101 (0.55%) Adobe Experience Manager
16 97 (0.53%) Kentico
17 86 (0.47%) SharePoint 2013
18 85 (0.46%) Apache Spark
19 81 (0.44%) Oracle SOA Suite
19 81 (0.44%) WebLogic
Applications
1 709 (3.84%) Photoshop
2 356 (1.93%) Adobe Illustrator
3 214 (1.16%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 123 (0.67%) Microsoft Excel
5 122 (0.66%) InVision
6 120 (0.65%) Microsoft Office
7 83 (0.45%) Chatbot
8 53 (0.29%) InDesign
9 43 (0.23%) Adobe After Effects
10 27 (0.15%) GIMP
11 26 (0.14%) OmniGraffle
12 25 (0.14%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 22 (0.12%) MS Visio
14 20 (0.11%) Fireworks
15 17 (0.092%) Acrobat
16 13 (0.070%) InfoPath
16 13 (0.070%) Mingle
17 12 (0.065%) Microsoft Project
17 12 (0.065%) UXPin
18 11 (0.060%) Adobe Captivate
Business Applications
1 282 (1.53%) Magento
2 209 (1.13%) Dynamics CRM
3 55 (0.30%) Shopify
4 48 (0.26%) Eloqua
5 47 (0.25%) Payment Gateway
6 23 (0.12%) Dynamics AX
7 21 (0.11%) Adobe Campaign
8 19 (0.10%) Actimize
9 18 (0.097%) WebTrends
10 15 (0.081%) SAP Hybris
11 12 (0.065%) Oracle BPM
12 11 (0.060%) OpenCart
13 9 (0.049%) SDL Web 8
14 8 (0.043%) Odoo
15 7 (0.038%) Distributed Ledger
15 7 (0.038%) NetSuite
15 7 (0.038%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
15 7 (0.038%) Remedy ITSM
16 4 (0.022%) Salesforce.com CRM
16 4 (0.022%) SAP Business One
Cloud Services
1 2,225 (12.05%) Microsoft Azure
2 1,767 (9.57%) Amazon AWS
3 648 (3.51%) SaaS
4 549 (2.97%) GitHub
5 511 (2.77%) npm
6 229 (1.24%) Serverless
7 166 (0.90%) Google Cloud Platform
8 165 (0.89%) Google Analytics
9 154 (0.83%) Office 365
10 133 (0.72%) Amazon EC2
11 132 (0.71%) Amazon S3
12 121 (0.66%) AWS Lambda
13 119 (0.64%) PaaS
14 77 (0.42%) Cloud Computing
15 70 (0.38%) Adobe Creative Cloud
15 70 (0.38%) IaaS
16 69 (0.37%) Google Play
17 64 (0.35%) Yarn
18 58 (0.31%) Dynamics 365
19 55 (0.30%) AWS CloudFormation
Communications & Networking
1 402 (2.18%) HTTP
2 322 (1.74%) Internet
3 148 (0.80%) Intranet
4 95 (0.51%) TCP/IP
5 77 (0.42%) SMS
6 69 (0.37%) SSL
7 68 (0.37%) DNS
8 45 (0.24%) Firewall
9 38 (0.21%) Skype
10 36 (0.19%) Broadband
11 26 (0.14%) SSH
12 24 (0.13%) VoIP
13 23 (0.12%) Extranet
14 19 (0.10%) Network Security
15 18 (0.097%) Wireless
16 17 (0.092%) FTP
16 17 (0.092%) HTTPS
17 14 (0.076%) LAN
17 14 (0.076%) SNMP
18 12 (0.065%) WAN
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,566 (24.72%) SQL Server
2 2,616 (14.16%) MySQL
3 1,087 (5.89%) MongoDB
4 1,074 (5.82%) NoSQL
5 829 (4.49%) Relational Database
6 637 (3.45%) PostgreSQL
7 344 (1.86%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 317 (1.72%) Big Data
9 293 (1.59%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 279 (1.51%) Redis
11 266 (1.44%) SQL Server 2016
12 260 (1.41%) SQL Server 2012
13 219 (1.19%) RDBMS
14 217 (1.17%) SQL Server 2008
15 188 (1.02%) Blockchain
16 163 (0.88%) RavenDB
17 133 (0.72%) Amazon DynamoDB
18 113 (0.61%) Power BI
19 107 (0.58%) Data Warehouse
20 103 (0.56%) SQL Server Analysis Services
Development Applications
1 3,890 (21.06%) Git (software)
2 1,106 (5.99%) Visual Studio
3 972 (5.26%) gulp
4 964 (5.22%) Jenkins
5 946 (5.12%) JIRA
6 909 (4.92%) Team Foundation Server
7 889 (4.81%) webpack
8 808 (4.37%) Subversion
9 742 (4.02%) Selenium
10 654 (3.54%) Grunt
11 475 (2.57%) Maven
12 433 (2.34%) Jasmine
13 412 (2.23%) NUnit
14 393 (2.13%) TeamCity
15 387 (2.10%) JUnit
16 279 (1.51%) Mocha
17 260 (1.41%) Octopus Deploy
17 260 (1.41%) Protractor
18 254 (1.38%) Karma Test Runner
19 242 (1.31%) Cucumber
General
1 2,832 (15.33%) Finance
2 1,211 (6.56%) Marketing
3 925 (5.01%) Retail
4 626 (3.39%) Banking
5 512 (2.77%) Advertising
6 503 (2.72%) Games
7 335 (1.81%) Manufacturing
8 280 (1.52%) Telecoms
9 186 (1.01%) Automotive
10 182 (0.99%) Electronics
11 154 (0.83%) Investment Banking
11 154 (0.83%) Legal
12 152 (0.82%) Publishing
13 142 (0.77%) Law
14 116 (0.63%) Back Office
15 104 (0.56%) Financial Institution
16 70 (0.38%) Multimedia
17 60 (0.32%) Front Office
18 45 (0.24%) Pharmaceutical
19 26 (0.14%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 14,662 (79.39%) Developer
2 3,523 (19.08%) .NET Developer
3 2,830 (15.32%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
4 2,607 (14.12%) C# Developer
5 2,345 (12.70%) Senior Developer
6 1,883 (10.20%) Web Developer
7 1,799 (9.74%) JavaScript Developer
8 1,736 (9.40%) C# .NET Developer
9 1,734 (9.39%) Software Developer
10 1,590 (8.61%) PHP Developer
11 1,541 (8.34%) Full Stack Developer
12 1,316 (7.13%) Java Developer
13 1,027 (5.56%) ASP.NET Developer
13 1,027 (5.56%) Software Engineer
14 862 (4.67%) HTML Developer
15 861 (4.66%) C# ASP.NET Developer
16 848 (4.59%) Junior
17 759 (4.11%) Lead Developer
18 756 (4.09%) Angular Developer
19 753 (4.08%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 17,199 (93.12%) HTML
2 7,281 (39.42%) .NET
3 6,944 (37.60%) AngularJS
4 5,986 (32.41%) HTML5
5 5,577 (30.20%) jQuery
6 4,862 (26.33%) ASP.NET
7 4,312 (23.35%) CSS3
8 3,671 (19.88%) React
9 2,888 (15.64%) ASP.NET MVC
10 2,450 (13.27%) Node.js
11 2,432 (13.17%) Web Services
12 2,320 (12.56%) Sass
13 2,264 (12.26%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 2,012 (10.89%) ASP.NET Web API
15 1,980 (10.72%) RESTful
16 1,945 (10.53%) .NET Framework
17 1,836 (9.94%) REST
18 1,755 (9.50%) XML
19 1,400 (7.58%) Ajax
20 1,391 (7.53%) Spring
Miscellaneous
1 2,790 (15.11%) User Experience
2 1,239 (6.71%) Computer Science
3 1,200 (6.50%) Greenfield Project
4 994 (5.38%) Mobile App
5 860 (4.66%) Analytical Skills
6 855 (4.63%) Fintech
7 611 (3.31%) Self-Motivation
8 530 (2.87%) Enterprise Software
9 172 (0.93%) Graphic Design
10 171 (0.93%) N-Tier
11 166 (0.90%) Algorithms
12 159 (0.86%) Social Media
13 143 (0.77%) Linux Command Line
14 142 (0.77%) Data Structures
15 117 (0.63%) W3C
16 114 (0.62%) Management Information System
17 108 (0.58%) Tandem
17 108 (0.58%) Virtual Team
18 101 (0.55%) Hedge funds
19 93 (0.50%) Blog
Operating Systems
1 1,570 (8.50%) Linux
2 891 (4.82%) Windows
3 666 (3.61%) Android
4 576 (3.12%) Apple iOS
5 314 (1.70%) Unix
6 148 (0.80%) Windows Server
7 74 (0.40%) Ubuntu
8 54 (0.29%) CentOS
9 53 (0.29%) Mac OS
10 41 (0.22%) Windows Server 2012
11 38 (0.21%) Debian
12 30 (0.16%) Mac OS X
13 25 (0.14%) Windows 10
14 24 (0.13%) VMS
15 21 (0.11%) openSUSE
15 21 (0.11%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16 12 (0.065%) Solaris
16 12 (0.065%) Windows 7
17 11 (0.060%) Windows Server 2008
18 9 (0.049%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 8,328 (45.09%) Agile Software Development
2 6,084 (32.94%) MVC
3 4,268 (23.11%) Web Development
4 3,691 (19.98%) Front End Development
5 2,910 (15.76%) TDD
6 2,827 (15.31%) Scrum
7 2,408 (13.04%) Software Engineering
8 2,101 (11.38%) OO
9 1,682 (9.11%) Problem-Solving
10 1,574 (8.52%) Continuous Integration
11 1,547 (8.38%) E-Commerce
12 1,479 (8.01%) Unit Testing
13 1,473 (7.98%) Test Automation
14 1,268 (6.87%) Microservices
15 1,197 (6.48%) BDD
16 1,102 (5.97%) OOP
17 1,095 (5.93%) SDLC
18 1,067 (5.78%) Mentoring
19 1,052 (5.70%) DevOps
20 1,019 (5.52%) Web Application Development
Programming Languages
1 15,946 (86.34%) JavaScript
2 7,363 (39.87%) C#
3 5,362 (29.03%) SQL
4 3,469 (18.78%) Java
5 3,408 (18.45%) PHP
6 1,405 (7.61%) Python
7 1,135 (6.15%) TypeScript
8 1,121 (6.07%) T-SQL
9 1,053 (5.70%) ES6
10 526 (2.85%) VB.NET
11 521 (2.82%) C++
12 518 (2.80%) Ruby
13 375 (2.03%) Java 8
14 289 (1.56%) PL/SQL
15 272 (1.47%) C
16 210 (1.14%) PowerShell
17 179 (0.97%) Scala
18 155 (0.84%) Bash Shell
19 150 (0.81%) Perl
20 140 (0.76%) VB
Qualifications
1 2,099 (11.36%) Degree
2 722 (3.91%) Computer Science Degree
3 186 (1.01%) Security Cleared
4 120 (0.65%) SC Cleared
5 113 (0.61%) Microsoft Certification
6 57 (0.31%) Master's Degree
7 45 (0.24%) PhD
8 44 (0.24%) Numerate Degree
9 41 (0.22%) DBS Check
10 35 (0.19%) SAFe Agilist
11 34 (0.18%) DV Cleared
12 26 (0.14%) ISTQB
13 16 (0.087%) ISEB
13 16 (0.087%) ITIL Certification
14 13 (0.070%) Cisco Certification
14 13 (0.070%) HND
14 13 (0.070%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
15 9 (0.049%) CCNA
15 9 (0.049%) Sun Certification
16 8 (0.043%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 753 (4.08%) QA
2 100 (0.54%) GDPR
3 70 (0.38%) SLA
4 55 (0.30%) WCAG
5 51 (0.28%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 46 (0.25%) ISO 9001
7 31 (0.17%) PCI DSS
8 30 (0.16%) Data Quality
9 23 (0.12%) WAI
10 16 (0.087%) Disclosure Scotland
11 11 (0.060%) ISO 14001
12 8 (0.043%) DICOM
13 6 (0.032%) PMO
14 4 (0.022%) JSP 440
15 3 (0.016%) HL7
16 2 (0.011%) ISO/IEC 20000
16 2 (0.011%) PA-DSS
16 2 (0.011%) Web Application Security Consortium
17 1 (0.005%) ISO 22301
17 1 (0.005%) Section 508
System Software
1 907 (4.91%) Docker
2 95 (0.51%) Active Directory
3 70 (0.38%) Virtual Machines
4 35 (0.19%) VMware Infrastructure
5 23 (0.12%) Varnish
6 22 (0.12%) GridGain
7 18 (0.097%) Firmware
8 14 (0.076%) VirtualBox
9 13 (0.070%) HDFS
9 13 (0.070%) LXC
10 11 (0.060%) Hyper-V
11 4 (0.022%) Apache Flume
12 3 (0.016%) KVM
12 3 (0.016%) VMware NSX
13 2 (0.011%) Apache ZooKeeper
13 2 (0.011%) Forefront TMG
13 2 (0.011%) Virtual Desktop
13 2 (0.011%) vSphere
14 1 (0.005%) vCloud
14 1 (0.005%) XenDesktop
Systems Management
1 258 (1.40%) Kubernetes
2 177 (0.96%) Ansible
3 153 (0.83%) Opscode Chef
4 128 (0.69%) Puppet
5 103 (0.56%) Terraform
6 33 (0.18%) Kibana
6 33 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
7 32 (0.17%) Docker Swarm
8 31 (0.17%) Salt
9 22 (0.12%) HP Quality Center
10 19 (0.10%) logstash
11 14 (0.076%) cPanel
12 13 (0.070%) Grafana
12 13 (0.070%) Graphite
13 12 (0.065%) HAProxy
13 12 (0.065%) Prometheus
14 10 (0.054%) Nagios
14 10 (0.054%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
15 9 (0.049%) Microsoft Intune
16 8 (0.043%) Packer
Vendors
1 2,443 (13.23%) Microsoft
2 953 (5.16%) Oracle
3 733 (3.97%) Adobe
4 610 (3.30%) Google
5 284 (1.54%) Zend
6 267 (1.45%) Sitecore
7 259 (1.40%) Xamarin
8 198 (1.07%) Salesforce.com
9 191 (1.03%) SAP
10 154 (0.83%) Twitter
11 123 (0.67%) IBM
12 103 (0.56%) Nintex
13 102 (0.55%) Facebook
14 98 (0.53%) Tableau
15 80 (0.43%) ServiceNow
16 77 (0.42%) Atlassian
17 72 (0.39%) Telerik
18 51 (0.28%) Marketo
19 50 (0.27%) Splunk
20 49 (0.27%) VMware