Period
to 20 January 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 20 January 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK
6 months to
20 Jan 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 17 21 16
Rank change year-on-year +4 -5 -2
Permanent jobs citing CSS 6,531 12,165 16,420
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 10.28% 9.70% 10.98%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 23.99% 24.96% 27.72%
Number of salaries quoted 6,819 11,386 14,832
Median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +5.26% - +5.56%
10th Percentile £31,250 £29,750 £28,750
90th Percentile £73,750 £76,250 £75,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £44,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +2.27% +3.53% +6.25%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 27,229 48,731 59,238
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 42.84% 38.87% 39.60%
Number of salaries quoted 23,078 40,364 49,044
Median annual salary £56,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median salary % change year-on-year +2.73% +4.76% +5.00%
10th Percentile £35,000 £32,500 £31,250
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £46,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +7.53% +3.33% +5.88%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK

CSS
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS over the 6 months to 20 January 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK

CSS
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 January 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +4 5,893 £50,000 +5.26% 1,593
UK excluding London +2 4,570 £45,000 +2.27% 1,294
London -6 1,676 £65,000 +4.00% 425
South East +6 1,361 £50,000 +11.11% 251
Work from Home -5 1,261 £47,500 - 380
North of England +5 1,087 £43,500 -3.33% 413
Midlands +1 705 £42,500 +6.25% 234
South West +4 664 £45,500 +7.06% 161
North West +4 576 £45,000 - 239
Yorkshire +4 417 £42,000 +5.00% 136
West Midlands 0 410 £42,500 - 135
East of England +9 327 £44,000 -2.22% 101
East Midlands 0 293 £45,000 +12.50% 98
Scotland -5 282 £45,000 +5.88% 73
Wales +8 102 £40,000 - 39
North East +6 93 £45,000 +12.50% 38
Northern Ireland -4 39 £35,000 -30.00% 21
Isle of Man - 12 £49,500 - 1

For the 6 months to 20 January 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for CSS.

1 6,012 (92.05%) HTML
2 5,614 (85.96%) JavaScript
3 2,673 (40.93%) Agile Software Development
4 2,196 (33.62%) C#
5 2,174 (33.29%) .NET
6 1,924 (29.46%) AngularJS
7 1,860 (28.48%) HTML5
8 1,842 (28.20%) React
9 1,751 (26.81%) SQL
10 1,593 (24.39%) Git (software)
11 1,559 (23.87%) Front End Development
12 1,540 (23.58%) MVC
13 1,427 (21.85%) PHP
14 1,426 (21.83%) Azure
15 1,376 (21.07%) jQuery
16 1,310 (20.06%) CSS3
17 1,284 (19.66%) Web Development
18 1,266 (19.38%) SQL Server
19 1,204 (18.44%) Node.js
20 1,171 (17.93%) User Experience
21 1,070 (16.38%) ASP.NET
22 1,044 (15.99%) TypeScript
23 1,012 (15.50%) MySQL
24 967 (14.81%) DevOps
25 911 (13.95%) Vue.js
26 884 (13.54%) Scrum
27 883 (13.52%) .NET Core
28 841 (12.88%) TDD
29 832 (12.74%) Java
30 803 (12.30%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 463 (7.09%) CMS
2 319 (4.88%) WordPress
3 175 (2.68%) SharePoint
4 135 (2.07%) IIS
5 122 (1.87%) Apache
6 119 (1.82%) Confluence
7 101 (1.55%) Drupal
8 94 (1.44%) Umbraco
9 84 (1.29%) Elasticsearch
10 71 (1.09%) Sitecore CMS
11 60 (0.92%) EPiServer
12 54 (0.83%) NServiceBus
13 48 (0.73%) Tomcat
14 47 (0.72%) nginx
15 41 (0.63%) Kentico
16 28 (0.43%) Joomla!
17 25 (0.38%) Moodle
18 20 (0.31%) Apache Solr
18 20 (0.31%) Apache Spark
19 19 (0.29%) Adobe Experience Manager
Applications
1 143 (2.19%) Photoshop
2 120 (1.84%) Sketch
3 91 (1.39%) InVision
4 81 (1.24%) Adobe Illustrator
5 69 (1.06%) Figma
6 56 (0.86%) Adobe Creative Suite
7 48 (0.73%) Adobe XD
8 26 (0.40%) Microsoft Excel
8 26 (0.40%) Zeplin
9 25 (0.38%) Microsoft Office
10 14 (0.21%) MS Visio
11 12 (0.18%) Chatbot
11 12 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
12 7 (0.11%) InDesign
13 5 (0.077%) UXPin
14 4 (0.061%) Adobe After Effects
15 3 (0.046%) GIMP
15 3 (0.046%) Spreadsheet
16 2 (0.031%) Adobe Premiere
16 2 (0.031%) CINEMA 4D
Business Applications
1 200 (3.06%) Magento
2 136 (2.08%) Dynamics CRM
3 103 (1.58%) Shopify
4 43 (0.66%) Payment Gateway
5 27 (0.41%) OpenCart
6 19 (0.29%) nopCommerce
7 18 (0.28%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
8 15 (0.23%) Siebel CRM
9 14 (0.21%) Adobe Campaign
10 10 (0.15%) Unica
11 9 (0.14%) Remedy ITSM
12 8 (0.12%) Maximo
13 7 (0.11%) NetSuite
14 6 (0.092%) Salesforce.com CRM
15 5 (0.077%) Oracle Applications
16 4 (0.061%) Bond Adapt
16 4 (0.061%) Dynamics NAV
17 3 (0.046%) Odoo
17 3 (0.046%) Oracle CRM On Demand
17 3 (0.046%) SAP S/4HANA
Cloud Services
1 1,426 (21.83%) Azure
2 767 (11.74%) AWS
3 403 (6.17%) SaaS
4 196 (3.00%) npm
5 186 (2.85%) Serverless
6 169 (2.59%) PaaS
7 167 (2.56%) Power Platform
8 159 (2.43%) GCP
9 144 (2.20%) GitHub
10 143 (2.19%) Dynamics 365
11 88 (1.35%) AWS Lambda
12 76 (1.16%) Cloud Computing
13 62 (0.95%) Azure Functions
14 60 (0.92%) Google Analytics
15 56 (0.86%) IaaS
16 55 (0.84%) Amazon EC2
17 52 (0.80%) Azure Active Directory
18 45 (0.69%) Office 365
19 43 (0.66%) Logic Apps
20 41 (0.63%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 150 (2.30%) HTTP
2 80 (1.22%) Internet
3 43 (0.66%) Skype
4 25 (0.38%) Intranet
5 24 (0.37%) TCP/IP
6 23 (0.35%) Network Security
7 22 (0.34%) SSL
8 19 (0.29%) Ethernet
8 19 (0.29%) MQTT
8 19 (0.29%) Wireless
9 18 (0.28%) VPN
10 16 (0.24%) FTP
11 15 (0.23%) SSH
12 14 (0.21%) Wi-Fi
13 13 (0.20%) SMS
14 12 (0.18%) Bluetooth
14 12 (0.18%) DNS
14 12 (0.18%) RTP
15 6 (0.092%) Broadband
15 6 (0.092%) VoIP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,266 (19.38%) SQL Server
2 1,012 (15.50%) MySQL
3 314 (4.81%) NoSQL
4 305 (4.67%) MongoDB
5 294 (4.50%) Relational Database
6 238 (3.64%) PostgreSQL
7 111 (1.70%) Redis
8 109 (1.67%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 102 (1.56%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 100 (1.53%) Azure SQL Database
11 98 (1.50%) SQL Server 2012
12 79 (1.21%) Big Data
13 54 (0.83%) Power BI
14 53 (0.81%) Cosmos DB
14 53 (0.81%) SQL Server 2008
15 49 (0.75%) Amazon RDS
16 42 (0.64%) Amazon DynamoDB
17 37 (0.57%) RDBMS
18 35 (0.54%) SQL Server 2019
19 33 (0.51%) Data Lake
Development Applications
1 1,593 (24.39%) Git (software)
2 309 (4.73%) webpack
3 279 (4.27%) JIRA
4 265 (4.06%) Visual Studio
5 263 (4.03%) Team Foundation Server
6 226 (3.46%) gulp
7 187 (2.86%) Jenkins
8 160 (2.45%) Grunt
9 146 (2.24%) Selenium
10 118 (1.81%) Visual Studio Team System
11 104 (1.59%) Cypress.io
12 94 (1.44%) JUnit
13 92 (1.41%) Bitbucket
14 86 (1.32%) Jasmine
15 84 (1.29%) Subversion
16 78 (1.19%) Maven
17 77 (1.18%) NUnit
18 74 (1.13%) PHPUnit
19 64 (0.98%) TeamCity
20 58 (0.89%) Karma Test Runner
General
1 731 (11.19%) Finance
2 412 (6.31%) Marketing
3 225 (3.45%) Retail
4 221 (3.38%) Public Sector
5 158 (2.42%) Games
6 145 (2.22%) Banking
7 127 (1.94%) Manufacturing
8 104 (1.59%) Telecoms
9 76 (1.16%) Back Office
10 71 (1.09%) Law
11 69 (1.06%) Advertising
12 66 (1.01%) Electronics
13 59 (0.90%) Automotive
14 45 (0.69%) Publishing
15 42 (0.64%) Local Government
16 41 (0.63%) Private Banking
17 37 (0.57%) Multimedia
18 35 (0.54%) Legal
19 24 (0.37%) Front Office
20 21 (0.32%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 5,316 (81.40%) Developer
2 1,159 (17.75%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 1,099 (16.83%) Senior Developer
4 839 (12.85%) .NET Developer
5 794 (12.16%) Full Stack Developer
6 710 (10.87%) PHP Developer
7 599 (9.17%) Software Developer
8 561 (8.59%) C# Developer
9 506 (7.75%) React Developer
10 505 (7.73%) Web Developer
11 504 (7.72%) JavaScript Developer
12 393 (6.02%) C# .NET Developer
13 360 (5.51%) Software Engineer
14 279 (4.27%) Angular Developer
15 255 (3.90%) Lead Developer
16 244 (3.74%) Senior .NET Developer
17 238 (3.64%) Java Developer
17 238 (3.64%) Senior Front-End Developer
18 211 (3.23%) Junior
19 189 (2.89%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 6,012 (92.05%) HTML
2 2,174 (33.29%) .NET
3 1,924 (29.46%) AngularJS
4 1,860 (28.48%) HTML5
5 1,842 (28.20%) React
6 1,376 (21.07%) jQuery
7 1,310 (20.06%) CSS3
8 1,204 (18.44%) Node.js
9 1,070 (16.38%) ASP.NET
10 911 (13.95%) Vue.js
11 883 (13.52%) .NET Core
12 803 (12.30%) Sass
13 750 (11.48%) REST
14 739 (11.32%) Twitter Bootstrap
15 678 (10.38%) .NET Framework
16 620 (9.49%) RESTful
17 604 (9.25%) Web Services
18 571 (8.74%) ASP.NET Web API
19 534 (8.18%) Redux
20 526 (8.05%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 1,171 (17.93%) User Experience
2 445 (6.81%) Greenfield Project
3 370 (5.67%) Analytical Skills
4 332 (5.08%) Mobile App
5 182 (2.79%) Self-Motivation
6 179 (2.74%) Enterprise Software
7 133 (2.04%) N-Tier
8 58 (0.89%) Data Structures
9 55 (0.84%) Cloud Native
10 51 (0.78%) Virtual Team
11 40 (0.61%) Graphic Design
11 40 (0.61%) Social Media
12 38 (0.58%) Linux Command Line
13 35 (0.54%) Algorithms
14 34 (0.52%) Management Information System
15 33 (0.51%) Client/Server
15 33 (0.51%) Public Cloud
16 32 (0.49%) e-Learning
17 28 (0.43%) Reinsurance
18 27 (0.41%) Hedge funds
Operating Systems
1 513 (7.85%) Linux
2 324 (4.96%) Windows
3 148 (2.27%) Android
4 141 (2.16%) Apple iOS
5 73 (1.12%) Windows Server
6 55 (0.84%) Unix
7 32 (0.49%) Ubuntu
8 26 (0.40%) CentOS
9 17 (0.26%) Debian
10 8 (0.12%) Windows Server 2008
11 7 (0.11%) VMS
12 6 (0.092%) Fedora
12 6 (0.092%) Windows 7
13 5 (0.077%) Solaris
13 5 (0.077%) Windows 10
13 5 (0.077%) Windows Server 2016
14 4 (0.061%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
14 4 (0.061%) Windows Server 2012
15 3 (0.046%) AIX
16 1 (0.015%) Amazon Linux
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,673 (40.93%) Agile Software Development
2 1,559 (23.87%) Front End Development
3 1,540 (23.58%) MVC
4 1,284 (19.66%) Web Development
5 967 (14.81%) DevOps
6 884 (13.54%) Scrum
7 841 (12.88%) TDD
8 793 (12.14%) Software Engineering
9 745 (11.41%) OO
10 740 (11.33%) Microservices
11 603 (9.23%) E-Commerce
12 514 (7.87%) Unit Testing
13 502 (7.69%) Test Automation
14 479 (7.33%) Problem-Solving
15 467 (7.15%) Continuous Integration
16 441 (6.75%) OOP
17 383 (5.86%) SDLC
18 372 (5.70%) Mentoring
19 352 (5.39%) Computer Science
20 345 (5.28%) Fintech
Programming Languages
1 5,614 (85.96%) JavaScript
2 2,196 (33.62%) C#
3 1,751 (26.81%) SQL
4 1,427 (21.85%) PHP
5 1,044 (15.99%) TypeScript
6 832 (12.74%) Java
7 524 (8.02%) Python
8 349 (5.34%) ES6
9 305 (4.67%) T-SQL
10 134 (2.05%) C++
11 124 (1.90%) PowerShell
12 112 (1.71%) Ruby
13 85 (1.30%) VB.NET
14 81 (1.24%) Go
15 77 (1.18%) Java 8
16 59 (0.90%) C
17 50 (0.77%) Scala
18 45 (0.69%) VB
19 41 (0.63%) PHP 7
19 41 (0.63%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 616 (9.43%) Degree
2 185 (2.83%) Computer Science Degree
3 96 (1.47%) Security Cleared
4 77 (1.18%) SC Cleared
5 15 (0.23%) Numerate Degree
6 14 (0.21%) CIW
6 14 (0.21%) OCA
6 14 (0.21%) OCP
6 14 (0.21%) Oracle Certification
7 12 (0.18%) Microsoft Certification
8 11 (0.17%) DV Cleared
9 9 (0.14%) HND
10 8 (0.12%) SANS
11 7 (0.11%) Postgraduate
12 6 (0.092%) HNC
13 5 (0.077%) Six Sigma Black Belt
14 4 (0.061%) DBS Check
14 4 (0.061%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
14 4 (0.061%) PMI Certification
15 3 (0.046%) AWS Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 289 (4.43%) QA
2 29 (0.44%) WCAG
3 28 (0.43%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 21 (0.32%) GDPR
5 17 (0.26%) SLA
6 14 (0.21%) WAI
7 6 (0.092%) PSD2
8 4 (0.061%) ISO/IEC 20000
9 3 (0.046%) EMIR
9 3 (0.046%) ISO 13485
9 3 (0.046%) MiFID
9 3 (0.046%) PCI DSS
10 2 (0.031%) NCSC
10 2 (0.031%) NIST
11 1 (0.015%) Data Quality
11 1 (0.015%) PMO
System Software
1 517 (7.92%) Docker
2 26 (0.40%) Active Directory
3 10 (0.15%) Firmware
4 6 (0.092%) VMware Infrastructure
5 4 (0.061%) Kamailio
5 4 (0.061%) KVM
5 4 (0.061%) OpenSIPS
5 4 (0.061%) Virtual Machines
6 3 (0.046%) LXC
7 2 (0.031%) Citrix Hypervisor
7 2 (0.031%) Varnish
8 1 (0.015%) Hyper-V
8 1 (0.015%) VMware ESXi
8 1 (0.015%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 270 (4.13%) Kubernetes
2 118 (1.81%) Terraform
3 46 (0.70%) Opscode Chef
4 32 (0.49%) Ansible
5 23 (0.35%) Puppet
6 18 (0.28%) MIIS
7 13 (0.20%) Single Sign-On
8 10 (0.15%) Kibana
9 9 (0.14%) HP UCMDB
10 8 (0.12%) cPanel
11 6 (0.092%) Docker Swarm
11 6 (0.092%) Prometheus
12 5 (0.077%) Plesk
13 4 (0.061%) Rancher
14 3 (0.046%) Grafana
14 3 (0.046%) HAProxy
15 2 (0.031%) Capistrano
15 2 (0.031%) Salt
15 2 (0.031%) vRealize
16 1 (0.015%) Computer Emergency Response Teams
Vendors
1 752 (11.51%) Microsoft
2 245 (3.75%) Adobe
3 218 (3.34%) Google
4 151 (2.31%) Oracle
5 117 (1.79%) Salesforce.com
6 96 (1.47%) Sitecore
7 93 (1.42%) Zend
8 76 (1.16%) Xamarin
9 74 (1.13%) SAP
10 55 (0.84%) Atlassian
10 55 (0.84%) Nintex
11 37 (0.57%) ServiceNow
12 35 (0.54%) VMware
13 33 (0.51%) IBM
14 32 (0.49%) Databricks
15 29 (0.44%) Siebel
16 28 (0.43%) Splunk
17 26 (0.40%) Apple
18 25 (0.38%) WooCommerce
19 18 (0.28%) Sparx