Period
to 17 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies advertised in the UK excluding London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > UK excluding London
6 months to
17 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 14 14 15
Rank change year-on-year 0 +1 -2
Permanent jobs citing CSS 5,398 7,019 10,185
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK excluding London 11.54% 11.30% 12.12%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 29.80% 29.32% 31.43%
Number of salaries quoted 4,513 6,079 8,531
10th Percentile £29,800 £27,500 £26,750
25th Percentile £35,000 £33,750 £32,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
Median % change year-on-year - +5.88% +6.25%
75th Percentile £55,000 £55,000 £53,750
90th Percentile £62,500 £63,750 £62,500
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £46,000
% change year-on-year - +8.70% +2.22%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies advertised in the UK excluding London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK excluding London
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 18,114 23,936 32,401
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK excluding London 38.72% 38.55% 38.57%
Number of salaries quoted 14,814 19,969 26,547
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,000 £28,750
25th Percentile £37,500 £36,750 £35,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% +2.27%
75th Percentile £61,250 £60,000 £57,500
90th Percentile £72,500 £70,000 £68,750
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in the UK excluding London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in the UK excluding London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the UK excluding London

CSS
Salary Trend in the UK excluding London

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing CSS in the UK excluding London.

Salary trend for CSS in the UK excluding London

CSS
Salary Histogram in the UK excluding London

Salary distribution for jobs citing CSS in the UK excluding London over the 6 months to 17 April 2021.

Salary histogram for CSS in the UK excluding London

CSS
Job Locations in the UK excluding London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the UK excluding London region over the 6 months to 17 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
South East +2 1,583 £50,000 +11.11% 274
North of England +2 1,231 £42,500 -5.56% 400
Midlands +1 883 £43,000 +1.18% 288
South West -3 819 £45,000 +12.50% 186
North West +1 625 £42,500 -5.56% 213
West Midlands +2 537 £45,000 +5.88% 171
Yorkshire 0 516 £42,500 +6.25% 144
Scotland -6 372 £47,500 +5.56% 72
East Midlands 0 343 £40,000 -5.88% 117
East of England +2 319 £45,000 - 90
Wales +7 115 £38,000 +1.33% 50
North East -1 92 £42,000 +12.00% 43
Northern Ireland +2 59 £37,500 -25.00% 14
Isle of Man +3 26 £49,500 -
CSS
UK

For the 6 months to 17 April 2021, IT jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads across the UK excluding London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 5,076 (94.03%) HTML
2 4,729 (87.61%) JavaScript
3 2,004 (37.12%) Agile Software Development
4 1,962 (36.35%) C#
5 1,757 (32.55%) .NET
6 1,527 (28.29%) SQL
7 1,504 (27.86%) HTML5
8 1,466 (27.16%) React
9 1,464 (27.12%) PHP
10 1,457 (26.99%) AngularJS
11 1,312 (24.31%) MVC
12 1,305 (24.18%) Front End Development
13 1,280 (23.71%) Git (software)
14 1,180 (21.86%) jQuery
15 1,148 (21.27%) Web Development
16 1,071 (19.84%) CSS3
17 1,067 (19.77%) Azure
18 1,034 (19.16%) SQL Server
19 967 (17.91%) User Experience
20 941 (17.43%) MySQL
21 866 (16.04%) ASP.NET
22 858 (15.89%) Vue.js
23 851 (15.77%) Node.js
24 830 (15.38%) Java
25 743 (13.76%) Scrum
26 725 (13.43%) TypeScript
27 704 (13.04%) .NET Core
28 674 (12.49%) Microsoft
29 634 (11.75%) Sass
30 625 (11.58%) Software Engineering

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in the UK excluding London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 438 (8.11%) CMS
2 267 (4.95%) WordPress
3 155 (2.87%) Apache
4 119 (2.20%) IIS
5 94 (1.74%) Umbraco
6 89 (1.65%) Confluence
7 86 (1.59%) EPiServer
8 84 (1.56%) Sitecore CMS
9 60 (1.11%) Elasticsearch
10 59 (1.09%) SharePoint
11 54 (1.00%) Drupal
12 52 (0.96%) Kentico
13 51 (0.94%) Tomcat
14 50 (0.93%) nginx
15 29 (0.54%) Apache Solr
16 28 (0.52%) JBoss
17 24 (0.44%) NServiceBus
18 19 (0.35%) WebLogic
19 18 (0.33%) GemFire
20 17 (0.31%) Joomla!
Applications
1 103 (1.91%) Photoshop
2 85 (1.57%) Adobe Illustrator
3 61 (1.13%) Sketch
4 48 (0.89%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 43 (0.80%) Adobe XD
6 42 (0.78%) InVision
7 35 (0.65%) Figma
8 33 (0.61%) Microsoft Excel
9 29 (0.54%) Microsoft Office
10 16 (0.30%) Zeplin
11 14 (0.26%) InDesign
12 13 (0.24%) Microsoft PowerPoint
13 10 (0.19%) MS Visio
14 5 (0.093%) Adobe After Effects
14 5 (0.093%) Adobe Premiere
14 5 (0.093%) Chatbot
14 5 (0.093%) Spreadsheet
14 5 (0.093%) UXPin
15 4 (0.074%) GIMP
15 4 (0.074%) MadCap Flare
Business Applications
1 158 (2.93%) Magento
2 79 (1.46%) Shopify
3 42 (0.78%) Payment Gateway
4 28 (0.52%) OpenCart
5 19 (0.35%) nopCommerce
6 11 (0.20%) Dynamics CRM
7 5 (0.093%) Adobe Campaign
7 5 (0.093%) NetSuite
7 5 (0.093%) Remedy ITSM
7 5 (0.093%) WebTrends
8 4 (0.074%) Bond Adapt
8 4 (0.074%) Dynamics NAV
9 2 (0.037%) Maximo
9 2 (0.037%) Odoo
10 1 (0.019%) Salesforce.com CRM
10 1 (0.019%) SessionCam
Cloud Services
1 1,067 (19.77%) Azure
2 564 (10.45%) AWS
3 327 (6.06%) SaaS
4 124 (2.30%) npm
5 118 (2.19%) GitHub
6 114 (2.11%) GCP
7 78 (1.44%) Serverless
8 65 (1.20%) Power Platform
9 59 (1.09%) Google Analytics
10 41 (0.76%) AWS Lambda
11 40 (0.74%) Microsoft 365
12 39 (0.72%) PaaS
13 34 (0.63%) Amazon EC2
13 34 (0.63%) Cloud Computing
14 31 (0.57%) Amazon S3
15 28 (0.52%) Dynamics 365
16 27 (0.50%) Yarn
17 26 (0.48%) PowerApps
18 23 (0.43%) Power Automate
19 22 (0.41%) Adobe Creative Cloud
Communications & Networking
1 93 (1.72%) HTTP
2 67 (1.24%) Internet
3 33 (0.61%) Wireless
4 26 (0.48%) TCP/IP
5 25 (0.46%) SSL
6 23 (0.43%) Skype
7 21 (0.39%) Intranet
8 20 (0.37%) DNS
9 19 (0.35%) FTP
9 19 (0.35%) MQTT
9 19 (0.35%) Network Security
10 18 (0.33%) Ethernet
10 18 (0.33%) Wi-Fi
11 16 (0.30%) Bluetooth
11 16 (0.30%) SSH
12 9 (0.17%) Firewall
12 9 (0.17%) SMTP
13 7 (0.13%) Broadband
14 6 (0.11%) VPN
15 5 (0.093%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,034 (19.16%) SQL Server
2 941 (17.43%) MySQL
3 266 (4.93%) NoSQL
4 218 (4.04%) MongoDB
5 184 (3.41%) Relational Database
6 171 (3.17%) PostgreSQL
7 80 (1.48%) Redis
8 49 (0.91%) Azure SQL Database
9 48 (0.89%) Big Data
10 46 (0.85%) Power BI
11 42 (0.78%) MariaDB
12 35 (0.65%) SQL Server 2008
13 33 (0.61%) SQL Server 2012
14 32 (0.59%) RDBMS
15 30 (0.56%) SQL Server Reporting Services
16 29 (0.54%) SQLPlus
17 25 (0.46%) Amazon RDS
18 22 (0.41%) SQL Server Integration Services
19 20 (0.37%) Oracle Database
20 19 (0.35%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 1,280 (23.71%) Git (software)
2 238 (4.41%) JIRA
3 218 (4.04%) Visual Studio
4 202 (3.74%) webpack
5 184 (3.41%) gulp
6 153 (2.83%) Jenkins
7 109 (2.02%) Team Foundation Server
8 102 (1.89%) Subversion
9 101 (1.87%) Grunt
10 88 (1.63%) Bitbucket
11 87 (1.61%) JUnit
11 87 (1.61%) Selenium
12 78 (1.44%) NUnit
13 71 (1.32%) Maven
14 69 (1.28%) Cypress.io
15 60 (1.11%) Visual Studio Team System
16 59 (1.09%) TeamCity
17 52 (0.96%) Gradle
18 51 (0.94%) Cucumber
18 51 (0.94%) PHPUnit
General
1 424 (7.85%) Finance
2 321 (5.95%) Marketing
3 241 (4.46%) Retail
4 207 (3.83%) Games
5 163 (3.02%) Public Sector
6 115 (2.13%) Manufacturing
7 90 (1.67%) Law
8 79 (1.46%) Multimedia
9 78 (1.44%) Telecoms
10 75 (1.39%) Banking
11 59 (1.09%) Electronics
12 48 (0.89%) Back Office
13 44 (0.82%) Automotive
14 35 (0.65%) Local Government
15 25 (0.46%) Legal
16 20 (0.37%) Pharmaceutical
16 20 (0.37%) Publishing
17 14 (0.26%) Advertising
18 13 (0.24%) Aerospace
19 10 (0.19%) Investment Banking
Job Titles
1 4,401 (81.53%) Developer
2 931 (17.25%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 868 (16.08%) Senior Developer
4 739 (13.69%) .NET Developer
5 692 (12.82%) PHP Developer
6 628 (11.63%) Software Developer
7 587 (10.87%) Full Stack Developer
8 519 (9.61%) C# Developer
9 499 (9.24%) Web Developer
10 387 (7.17%) C# .NET Developer
11 380 (7.04%) React Developer
12 323 (5.98%) JavaScript Developer
13 298 (5.52%) Software Engineer
14 219 (4.06%) Junior
15 217 (4.02%) C# Software Developer
16 213 (3.95%) .NET Software Developer
17 188 (3.48%) Junior Developer
17 188 (3.48%) Senior .NET Developer
18 182 (3.37%) Lead Developer
19 173 (3.20%) Java Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,076 (94.03%) HTML
2 1,757 (32.55%) .NET
3 1,504 (27.86%) HTML5
4 1,466 (27.16%) React
5 1,457 (26.99%) AngularJS
6 1,180 (21.86%) jQuery
7 1,071 (19.84%) CSS3
8 866 (16.04%) ASP.NET
9 858 (15.89%) Vue.js
10 851 (15.77%) Node.js
11 704 (13.04%) .NET Core
12 634 (11.75%) Sass
13 587 (10.87%) Twitter Bootstrap
14 585 (10.84%) RESTful
15 580 (10.74%) Laravel
16 546 (10.11%) REST
17 542 (10.04%) .NET Framework
18 502 (9.30%) Web Services
19 373 (6.91%) ASP.NET Web API
20 359 (6.65%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 967 (17.91%) User Experience
2 382 (7.08%) Greenfield Project
3 293 (5.43%) Analytical Skills
4 268 (4.96%) Mobile App
5 188 (3.48%) Self-Motivation
6 147 (2.72%) Enterprise Software
7 125 (2.32%) Data Structures
8 56 (1.04%) Linux Command Line
9 46 (0.85%) N-Tier
10 39 (0.72%) Graphic Design
11 37 (0.69%) NHS
12 31 (0.57%) Management Information System
13 24 (0.44%) Cloud Native
14 23 (0.43%) Life Science
15 19 (0.35%) Algorithms
15 19 (0.35%) Smartphone
15 19 (0.35%) Virtual Team
16 18 (0.33%) Embedded Systems
16 18 (0.33%) iPad
16 18 (0.33%) Public Cloud
Operating Systems
1 526 (9.74%) Linux
2 297 (5.50%) Windows
3 110 (2.04%) Android
4 105 (1.95%) Apple iOS
5 71 (1.32%) Windows Server
6 50 (0.93%) Unix
7 44 (0.82%) Ubuntu
8 15 (0.28%) CentOS
9 11 (0.20%) Debian
10 7 (0.13%) Windows 7
11 6 (0.11%) Windows 10
12 3 (0.056%) VMS
12 3 (0.056%) Windows Server 2016
13 2 (0.037%) Windows Server 2012
14 1 (0.019%) Alpine Linux
14 1 (0.019%) Amazon Linux
14 1 (0.019%) Mac OS X
14 1 (0.019%) Windows 8
Processes & Methodologies
1 2,004 (37.12%) Agile Software Development
2 1,312 (24.31%) MVC
3 1,305 (24.18%) Front End Development
4 1,148 (21.27%) Web Development
5 743 (13.76%) Scrum
6 625 (11.58%) Software Engineering
7 607 (11.24%) E-Commerce
8 606 (11.23%) DevOps
9 568 (10.52%) TDD
10 552 (10.23%) OO
11 532 (9.86%) Microservices
12 522 (9.67%) OOP
13 465 (8.61%) Unit Testing
14 417 (7.73%) Problem-Solving
15 346 (6.41%) Mentoring
16 322 (5.97%) SDLC
17 280 (5.19%) Computer Science
18 279 (5.17%) Test Automation
19 234 (4.33%) Fintech
20 225 (4.17%) Continuous Integration
Programming Languages
1 4,729 (87.61%) JavaScript
2 1,962 (36.35%) C#
3 1,527 (28.29%) SQL
4 1,464 (27.12%) PHP
5 830 (15.38%) Java
6 725 (13.43%) TypeScript
7 510 (9.45%) Python
8 248 (4.59%) ES6
9 238 (4.41%) T-SQL
10 134 (2.48%) Java 8
11 83 (1.54%) VB.NET
12 78 (1.44%) Ruby
13 68 (1.26%) C++
14 63 (1.17%) PHP 7
15 54 (1.00%) Go
16 48 (0.89%) PowerShell
17 45 (0.83%) Bash Shell
18 43 (0.80%) VB
19 39 (0.72%) C
20 32 (0.59%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 441 (8.17%) Degree
2 110 (2.04%) Computer Science Degree
3 107 (1.98%) OCP
3 107 (1.98%) Oracle Certification
4 94 (1.74%) CIW
4 94 (1.74%) OCA
5 73 (1.35%) Security Cleared
6 63 (1.17%) SC Cleared
7 42 (0.78%) Microsoft Certification
8 16 (0.30%) HND
9 12 (0.22%) AWS Certification
10 9 (0.17%) ISTQB
11 6 (0.11%) DV Cleared
12 5 (0.093%) Master's Degree
13 4 (0.074%) BPSS Clearance
13 4 (0.074%) HNC
13 4 (0.074%) PhD
13 4 (0.074%) PRINCE2 Certification
13 4 (0.074%) Six Sigma Black Belt
14 3 (0.056%) ISEB
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 182 (3.37%) QA
2 35 (0.65%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 27 (0.50%) WCAG
4 19 (0.35%) GDPR
5 15 (0.28%) WAI
6 12 (0.22%) SLA
7 10 (0.19%) PCI DSS
8 7 (0.13%) Actionable Recommendations
9 5 (0.093%) ISO/IEC 20000
10 2 (0.037%) Good Clinical Practice
10 2 (0.037%) PMO
11 1 (0.019%) GRC
System Software
1 470 (8.71%) Docker
2 25 (0.46%) VMware Infrastructure
3 15 (0.28%) Active Directory
4 13 (0.24%) HDFS
5 5 (0.093%) Virtual Machines
6 4 (0.074%) Firmware
6 4 (0.074%) KVM
6 4 (0.074%) Virtual Servers
7 2 (0.037%) Varnish
8 1 (0.019%) Terminal Services
8 1 (0.019%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 204 (3.78%) Kubernetes
2 66 (1.22%) Terraform
3 53 (0.98%) Ansible
4 24 (0.44%) Puppet
5 20 (0.37%) Opscode Chef
6 12 (0.22%) MIIS
6 12 (0.22%) Packer
7 9 (0.17%) Single Sign-On
8 7 (0.13%) HP Fortify
9 5 (0.093%) HP UCMDB
10 4 (0.074%) vRealize
11 3 (0.056%) Kibana
11 3 (0.056%) Plesk
11 3 (0.056%) Prometheus
12 2 (0.037%) Istio
12 2 (0.037%) Salt
13 1 (0.019%) cPanel
13 1 (0.019%) Icinga
13 1 (0.019%) Microsoft Clustering
13 1 (0.019%) Rundeck
Vendors
1 674 (12.49%) Microsoft
2 206 (3.82%) Oracle
3 204 (3.78%) Adobe
4 157 (2.91%) Google
5 109 (2.02%) Sitecore
6 80 (1.48%) Zend
7 61 (1.13%) Xamarin
8 59 (1.09%) Salesforce.com
9 52 (0.96%) SAP
10 44 (0.82%) VMware
11 37 (0.69%) WooCommerce
12 25 (0.46%) Atlassian
13 19 (0.35%) IBM
14 18 (0.33%) Telerik
15 17 (0.31%) Okta
16 14 (0.26%) Apple
17 13 (0.24%) Blue Prism
18 12 (0.22%) HP
19 11 (0.20%) Sage
20 9 (0.17%) Xceptor