Period
to 2 December 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 2 December 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
2 Dec 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 6 5 5
Rank change year-on-year -1 0 0
Permanent jobs citing SQL 22,660 10,584 24,744
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 17.57% 19.01% 18.42%
As % of the Programming Languages category 33.02% 32.21% 34.24%
Number of salaries quoted 16,580 9,216 20,917
10th Percentile £33,783 £32,500 £29,500
25th Percentile £41,500 £40,750 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £52,500 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.76% +5.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £71,250 £68,750 £65,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £85,000 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +11.76% -

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 68,619 32,855 72,257
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 53.19% 59.01% 53.80%
Number of salaries quoted 46,199 28,318 60,141
10th Percentile £36,250 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £45,000 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £80,000 £73,750 £71,250
90th Percentile £97,500 £90,000 £87,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Salary trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 2 December 2021.

Salary histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 2 December 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 19,998 £55,000 +4.76% 3,630
UK excluding London -1 11,393 £47,500 - 2,364
London -1 9,515 £65,000 - 1,456
Work from Home -2 5,251 £55,000 +10.00% 820
South East +2 3,166 £50,000 - 512
North of England -3 3,044 £47,500 - 704
Midlands -2 1,884 £45,000 - 490
North West -3 1,428 £50,000 +2.04% 404
Yorkshire -2 1,378 £45,000 -5.26% 205
West Midlands -1 1,303 £45,000 - 322
South West -4 1,130 £45,000 - 243
East of England +2 955 £52,500 +16.67% 200
Scotland +3 834 £49,350 +3.89% 142
East Midlands -3 576 £45,000 - 162
North East 0 239 £45,000 - 96
Wales -9 232 £47,500 +11.76% 49
Northern Ireland +2 164 £39,875 -6.18% 24
Channel Islands -2 13 £72,500 +31.82%
Isle of Man +1 10 £37,500 -22.68%

For the 6 months to 2 December 2021, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 7,734 (34.13%) Agile Software Development
2 6,989 (30.84%) Azure
3 6,308 (27.84%) C#
4 5,799 (25.59%) Python
5 5,590 (24.67%) .NET
6 5,402 (23.84%) Social Skills
7 5,127 (22.63%) SQL Server
8 4,973 (21.95%) JavaScript
9 4,922 (21.72%) Finance
10 4,730 (20.87%) AWS
11 4,723 (20.84%) Microsoft
12 4,449 (19.63%) Business Intelligence
13 4,419 (19.50%) Analytics
14 4,264 (18.82%) Java
15 3,791 (16.73%) DevOps
16 3,637 (16.05%) Software Engineering
17 3,402 (15.01%) Problem-Solving
18 3,141 (13.86%) Power Platform
19 3,020 (13.33%) Power BI
20 2,899 (12.79%) Analytical Skills
21 2,828 (12.48%) Degree
22 2,719 (12.00%) Data Warehouse
23 2,694 (11.89%) React
24 2,665 (11.76%) Full Stack Development
25 2,645 (11.67%) ETL
26 2,591 (11.43%) Microservices
27 2,469 (10.90%) HTML
28 2,428 (10.71%) Docker
29 2,419 (10.68%) Git (software)
30 2,408 (10.63%) NoSQL

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 841 (3.71%) Apache Spark
2 560 (2.47%) SharePoint
3 523 (2.31%) Apache
4 455 (2.01%) Elasticsearch
5 435 (1.92%) IIS
6 388 (1.71%) CMS
7 376 (1.66%) Confluence
8 366 (1.62%) SAS
9 270 (1.19%) Apache Airflow
10 177 (0.78%) Tomcat
11 148 (0.65%) Umbraco
12 145 (0.64%) WebLogic
13 131 (0.58%) EPiServer
14 130 (0.57%) nginx
15 119 (0.53%) MS Exchange
16 106 (0.47%) WordPress
17 87 (0.38%) Kentico
18 82 (0.36%) Sitecore CMS
19 81 (0.36%) Jupyter
20 71 (0.31%) Oracle Workflow
Applications
1 1,381 (6.09%) Microsoft Excel
2 706 (3.12%) Microsoft Office
3 193 (0.85%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 119 (0.53%) Spreadsheet
5 92 (0.41%) MS Visio
6 42 (0.19%) Chatbot
6 42 (0.19%) SPSS
7 32 (0.14%) Figma
8 25 (0.11%) InVision
9 21 (0.093%) Sketch
10 18 (0.079%) Microsoft Project
11 15 (0.066%) Adobe Illustrator
11 15 (0.066%) Photoshop
12 11 (0.049%) Adobe Creative Suite
13 10 (0.044%) GIMP
14 7 (0.031%) SOLIDWORKS
15 5 (0.022%) Adobe XD
15 5 (0.022%) AutoCAD
15 5 (0.022%) Simulink
15 5 (0.022%) Stata
Business Applications
1 202 (0.89%) Dynamics CRM
2 150 (0.66%) NetSuite
3 84 (0.37%) Oracle EBS
4 72 (0.32%) Dynamics NAV
5 58 (0.26%) SAP Business One
6 56 (0.25%) Dynamics AX
7 48 (0.21%) Oracle EBS R12
8 42 (0.19%) SAP Business ByDesign
9 40 (0.18%) Adobe Campaign
10 34 (0.15%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
10 34 (0.15%) SAP BPC
11 32 (0.14%) SAP S/4HANA
12 31 (0.14%) Oracle Payables
13 30 (0.13%) Oracle Applications
14 29 (0.13%) Oracle Receivables
15 27 (0.12%) Magento
16 26 (0.11%) IBM Planning Analytics
16 26 (0.11%) SAP ERP
17 25 (0.11%) Oracle ERP
18 24 (0.11%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 6,989 (30.84%) Azure
2 4,730 (20.87%) AWS
3 3,141 (13.86%) Power Platform
4 1,723 (7.60%) GCP
5 1,308 (5.77%) SaaS
6 1,131 (4.99%) Serverless
7 919 (4.06%) Microsoft 365
8 792 (3.50%) GitHub
9 765 (3.38%) Azure Data Factory
10 636 (2.81%) PaaS
11 555 (2.45%) Amazon S3
12 546 (2.41%) AWS Lambda
13 484 (2.14%) Snowflake
14 473 (2.09%) Amazon EC2
15 404 (1.78%) IaaS
16 393 (1.73%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 310 (1.37%) Azure Service Bus
18 289 (1.28%) Amazon ECS
19 288 (1.27%) Dynamics 365
20 275 (1.21%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 392 (1.73%) Firewall
2 369 (1.63%) HTTP
3 348 (1.54%) DNS
4 225 (0.99%) DHCP
5 187 (0.83%) TCP/IP
5 187 (0.83%) VPN
6 162 (0.71%) Internet
7 157 (0.69%) SAN
8 155 (0.68%) WAN
9 141 (0.62%) LAN
10 123 (0.54%) SSL
11 110 (0.49%) Broadband
12 79 (0.35%) VLAN
13 75 (0.33%) FTP
14 63 (0.28%) SMTP
15 61 (0.27%) Network Security
16 59 (0.26%) VoIP
17 56 (0.25%) AMQP
18 50 (0.22%) SMS
19 42 (0.19%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 5,127 (22.63%) SQL Server
2 3,020 (13.33%) Power BI
3 2,719 (12.00%) Data Warehouse
4 2,408 (10.63%) NoSQL
5 1,903 (8.40%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 1,789 (7.89%) Relational Database
7 1,618 (7.14%) Tableau
8 1,513 (6.68%) PostgreSQL
9 1,496 (6.60%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 1,461 (6.45%) MySQL
11 1,307 (5.77%) Big Data
12 1,251 (5.52%) MongoDB
13 924 (4.08%) Data Lake
14 883 (3.90%) Azure SQL Database
15 846 (3.73%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 705 (3.11%) Hadoop
17 591 (2.61%) Redis
18 534 (2.36%) RDBMS
19 509 (2.25%) Oracle Database
20 472 (2.08%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 2,419 (10.68%) Git (software)
2 1,193 (5.26%) JIRA
3 1,107 (4.89%) Jenkins
4 799 (3.53%) Visual Studio
5 604 (2.67%) Selenium
6 548 (2.42%) Team Foundation Server
7 330 (1.46%) Maven
8 312 (1.38%) Octopus Deploy
9 297 (1.31%) JUnit
10 293 (1.29%) TeamCity
11 289 (1.28%) NUnit
12 261 (1.15%) Subversion
13 244 (1.08%) GitLab
14 225 (0.99%) Cucumber
15 214 (0.94%) Postman
16 201 (0.89%) Bitbucket
17 183 (0.81%) Cypress.io
18 176 (0.78%) SpecFlow
19 172 (0.76%) webpack
20 164 (0.72%) SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)
General
1 5,402 (23.84%) Social Skills
2 4,922 (21.72%) Finance
3 2,899 (12.79%) Analytical Skills
4 1,070 (4.72%) Retail
5 1,067 (4.71%) Banking
6 1,030 (4.55%) Marketing
7 608 (2.68%) Public Sector
8 539 (2.38%) Law
9 485 (2.14%) Organisational Skills
10 465 (2.05%) Legal
11 446 (1.97%) Manufacturing
12 433 (1.91%) Front Office
13 429 (1.89%) Games
14 406 (1.79%) Inclusion and Diversity
15 397 (1.75%) Presentation Skills
16 365 (1.61%) Advertising
17 264 (1.17%) Telecoms
18 236 (1.04%) Pharmaceutical
19 227 (1.00%) Publishing
20 217 (0.96%) Back Office
Job Titles
1 8,513 (37.57%) Developer
2 3,328 (14.69%) Analyst
3 1,811 (7.99%) Software Engineer
4 1,672 (7.38%) Data Engineer
5 1,670 (7.37%) Senior Developer
6 1,639 (7.23%) .NET Developer
7 1,434 (6.33%) Software Developer
8 1,329 (5.86%) C# Developer
9 1,056 (4.66%) Data Analyst
10 1,027 (4.53%) Full Stack Developer
11 942 (4.16%) SQL Developer
12 916 (4.04%) Java Developer
13 808 (3.57%) Architect
14 743 (3.28%) Business Intelligence Developer
15 689 (3.04%) Applications Support
16 637 (2.81%) C# .NET Developer
17 574 (2.53%) Support Analyst
18 569 (2.51%) Python Engineer
19 555 (2.45%) Consultant
20 535 (2.36%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,590 (24.67%) .NET
2 2,694 (11.89%) React
3 2,469 (10.90%) HTML
4 2,280 (10.06%) CSS
5 2,186 (9.65%) AngularJS
6 1,934 (8.53%) .NET Core
7 1,823 (8.05%) Web Services
8 1,676 (7.40%) REST
9 1,557 (6.87%) ASP.NET
10 1,452 (6.41%) Node.js
11 1,425 (6.29%) .NET Framework
12 1,409 (6.22%) Spring
13 1,129 (4.98%) XML
14 1,082 (4.77%) RESTful
15 954 (4.21%) Kafka
16 900 (3.97%) JSON
17 838 (3.70%) Vue.js
18 805 (3.55%) jQuery
19 798 (3.52%) ASP.NET Web API
20 669 (2.95%) Entity Framework
Miscellaneous
1 922 (4.07%) User Experience
2 796 (3.51%) Greenfield Project
3 750 (3.31%) Algorithms
4 657 (2.90%) Self-Motivation
5 599 (2.64%) Data Structures
6 590 (2.60%) Management Information System
7 471 (2.08%) Enterprise Software
8 434 (1.92%) Mobile App
9 410 (1.81%) Hedge funds
10 405 (1.79%) Equities
11 283 (1.25%) Virtual Team
12 276 (1.22%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
13 268 (1.18%) Public Cloud
14 263 (1.16%) Cloud Native
15 252 (1.11%) Derivative
16 250 (1.10%) Clustering
17 233 (1.03%) Legacy Systems
18 226 (1.00%) Life Science
19 224 (0.99%) Fixed Income
20 196 (0.86%) Data Centre
Operating Systems
1 2,063 (9.10%) Windows
2 1,978 (8.73%) Linux
3 779 (3.44%) Windows Server
4 750 (3.31%) Unix
5 279 (1.23%) Android
6 260 (1.15%) Apple iOS
7 239 (1.05%) Windows Server 2012
8 220 (0.97%) Windows 10
9 213 (0.94%) Windows Server 2016
10 135 (0.60%) Windows Server 2019
11 119 (0.53%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 90 (0.40%) Windows Server 2008
13 86 (0.38%) CentOS
14 79 (0.35%) VMS
15 62 (0.27%) Windows 7
16 52 (0.23%) Solaris
17 48 (0.21%) Ubuntu
18 47 (0.21%) Mac OS X
19 35 (0.15%) Mac OS
20 18 (0.079%) AIX
Processes & Methodologies
1 7,734 (34.13%) Agile Software Development
2 4,449 (19.63%) Business Intelligence
3 4,419 (19.50%) Analytics
4 3,791 (16.73%) DevOps
5 3,637 (16.05%) Software Engineering
6 3,402 (15.01%) Problem-Solving
7 2,665 (11.76%) Full Stack Development
8 2,645 (11.67%) ETL
9 2,591 (11.43%) Microservices
10 2,390 (10.55%) Scrum
11 2,215 (9.77%) Data Modelling
12 2,197 (9.70%) Test Automation
13 2,052 (9.06%) TDD
14 1,998 (8.82%) Computer Science
15 1,969 (8.69%) Visualisation
16 1,915 (8.45%) Data Science
17 1,776 (7.84%) MVC
18 1,769 (7.81%) Mentoring
19 1,548 (6.83%) SDLC
20 1,422 (6.28%) Data Analysis
Programming Languages
1 6,308 (27.84%) C#
2 5,799 (25.59%) Python
3 4,973 (21.95%) JavaScript
4 4,264 (18.82%) Java
5 2,296 (10.13%) T-SQL
6 1,630 (7.19%) TypeScript
7 1,442 (6.36%) PowerShell
8 960 (4.24%) PHP
9 952 (4.20%) R
10 853 (3.76%) PL/SQL
11 628 (2.77%) Scala
12 596 (2.63%) C++
12 596 (2.63%) VBA
13 545 (2.41%) Bash Shell
14 532 (2.35%) C
15 437 (1.93%) Go
16 361 (1.59%) Shell Script
17 356 (1.57%) Java 8
18 328 (1.45%) VB
18 328 (1.45%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 2,828 (12.48%) Degree
2 874 (3.86%) Computer Science Degree
3 729 (3.22%) Security Cleared
4 597 (2.63%) SC Cleared
5 310 (1.37%) Microsoft Certification
6 243 (1.07%) Master's Degree
7 159 (0.70%) PhD
8 139 (0.61%) Numerate Degree
9 118 (0.52%) MCSE
10 112 (0.49%) ISTQB
11 96 (0.42%) ISEB
12 93 (0.41%) MCSA
13 89 (0.39%) Cisco Certification
14 84 (0.37%) CCNA
15 68 (0.30%) ITIL Certification
16 54 (0.24%) AWS Certification
16 54 (0.24%) HND
17 50 (0.22%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
18 48 (0.21%) DBS Check
19 47 (0.21%) Citrix Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,522 (6.72%) QA
2 1,022 (4.51%) Data Quality
3 366 (1.62%) SLA
4 318 (1.40%) GDPR
5 202 (0.89%) Accessibility
6 133 (0.59%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 57 (0.25%) PCI DSS
8 45 (0.20%) GRC
9 41 (0.18%) PMO
10 34 (0.15%) GxP
10 34 (0.15%) PSD2
11 29 (0.13%) Good Clinical Practice
12 24 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 22 (0.097%) NCSC
13 22 (0.097%) NIST
14 21 (0.093%) IFRS
15 20 (0.088%) Actionable Recommendations
15 20 (0.088%) HL7
16 19 (0.084%) 21 CFR Part 11
17 16 (0.071%) CDISC
System Software
1 2,428 (10.71%) Docker
2 919 (4.06%) Active Directory
3 427 (1.88%) VMware Infrastructure
4 287 (1.27%) Hyper-V
5 117 (0.52%) Virtual Machines
6 86 (0.38%) vSphere
7 72 (0.32%) XenApp
8 71 (0.31%) VMware ESXi
9 61 (0.27%) HDFS
10 46 (0.20%) XenDesktop
11 42 (0.19%) Virtual Servers
12 34 (0.15%) VirtualBox
13 33 (0.15%) Virtual Desktop
14 22 (0.097%) Oracle RAC
15 19 (0.084%) Apache ZooKeeper
16 18 (0.079%) Firmware
16 18 (0.079%) Terminal Services
17 14 (0.062%) Microsoft App-V
18 13 (0.057%) VMware Server
18 13 (0.057%) VMware Workstation
Systems Management
1 1,946 (8.59%) Kubernetes
2 1,186 (5.23%) Terraform
3 614 (2.71%) Ansible
4 309 (1.36%) Grafana
5 306 (1.35%) Puppet
6 254 (1.12%) Opscode Chef
7 221 (0.98%) Prometheus
8 190 (0.84%) SCCM
9 162 (0.71%) Microsoft Intune
10 103 (0.45%) Single Sign-On
11 88 (0.39%) WSUS
12 77 (0.34%) Kibana
13 52 (0.23%) logstash
14 50 (0.22%) SCOM
15 49 (0.22%) Docker Swarm
16 46 (0.20%) ZABBIX
17 44 (0.19%) Microsoft Clustering
18 43 (0.19%) Graphite
19 42 (0.19%) Opsgenie
20 40 (0.18%) Consul
Vendors
1 4,723 (20.84%) Microsoft
2 2,330 (10.28%) Oracle
3 1,374 (6.06%) Google
4 716 (3.16%) Databricks
5 681 (3.01%) VMware
6 616 (2.72%) SAP
7 510 (2.25%) Salesforce.com
8 294 (1.30%) Citrix
9 246 (1.09%) Informatica
10 230 (1.02%) Alteryx
11 205 (0.90%) Adobe
12 199 (0.88%) IBM
13 182 (0.80%) Talend
14 181 (0.80%) Red Hat
15 173 (0.76%) Veeam
16 154 (0.68%) Cisco
16 154 (0.68%) Splunk
17 139 (0.61%) ServiceNow
18 128 (0.56%) MuleSoft
19 124 (0.55%) Atlassian