Period
to 21 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 21 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
21 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 5 4 4
Rank change year-on-year -1 0 0
Permanent jobs citing SQL 15,192 20,200 29,145
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 18.03% 18.60% 19.63%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.84% 34.06% 36.08%
Number of salaries quoted 12,510 16,875 24,506
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,000 £30,000
25th Percentile £38,750 £37,500 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +7.53%
75th Percentile £67,500 £66,250 £65,000
90th Percentile £83,750 £81,250 £78,750
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,500 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year +1.11% +5.88% -

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 46,254 59,300 80,769
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 54.90% 54.61% 54.39%
Number of salaries quoted 37,369 49,394 66,794
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £40,000 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £70,000
90th Percentile £90,000 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £46,250 £45,000
% change year-on-year +8.11% +2.78% +2.27%

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Salary trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 21 April 2021.

Salary histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 21 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 13,598 £52,500 +5.00% 2,783
UK excluding London -2 8,689 £45,500 +1.11% 1,929
London -3 5,579 £65,000 +4.00% 1,018
Work from Home +4 3,072 £50,000 - 607
North of England -1 2,396 £47,500 +5.56% 527
South East -2 2,264 £50,000 +11.11% 461
Midlands -1 1,501 £44,000 +3.53% 346
North West 0 1,165 £47,500 - 287
South West +1 1,092 £45,000 +5.88% 209
Yorkshire -1 1,009 £47,500 +11.76% 181
West Midlands -1 939 £45,000 - 245
Scotland -2 576 £47,500 +5.56% 112
East Midlands +4 556 £42,500 +3.66% 99
East of England 0 554 £47,500 +5.56% 204
North East +4 224 £42,500 +13.33% 59
Wales -1 211 £42,000 -0.59% 55
Northern Ireland 0 89 £35,000 -12.50% 13
Isle of Man -1 31 £49,500 +4.21% 3

For the 6 months to 21 April 2021, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 4,855 (31.96%) Azure
2 4,646 (30.58%) Agile Software Development
3 4,605 (30.31%) C#
4 4,066 (26.76%) .NET
5 4,048 (26.65%) JavaScript
6 3,726 (24.53%) SQL Server
7 3,636 (23.93%) Python
8 3,376 (22.22%) Microsoft
9 3,133 (20.62%) Finance
10 2,789 (18.36%) Java
11 2,767 (18.21%) DevOps
12 2,756 (18.14%) AWS
13 2,731 (17.98%) Business Intelligence
14 2,367 (15.58%) HTML
15 2,340 (15.40%) Analytics
16 2,278 (14.99%) CSS
17 2,047 (13.47%) Software Engineering
18 1,962 (12.91%) Degree
19 1,925 (12.67%) Power Platform
20 1,884 (12.40%) Docker
21 1,806 (11.89%) Git (software)
22 1,805 (11.88%) Power BI
23 1,729 (11.38%) Problem-Solving
24 1,711 (11.26%) Microservices
25 1,688 (11.11%) Windows
26 1,668 (10.98%) Analytical Skills
27 1,663 (10.95%) T-SQL
28 1,643 (10.81%) Linux
29 1,628 (10.72%) .NET Core
30 1,611 (10.60%) Data Warehouse

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 605 (3.98%) SharePoint
2 527 (3.47%) Apache Spark
3 316 (2.08%) Apache
4 298 (1.96%) IIS
5 241 (1.59%) Confluence
6 226 (1.49%) SAS
7 219 (1.44%) Elasticsearch
8 210 (1.38%) CMS
9 207 (1.36%) Apache Airflow
10 106 (0.70%) MS Exchange
10 106 (0.70%) Tomcat
11 104 (0.68%) nginx
12 68 (0.45%) EPiServer
13 66 (0.43%) Luigi
14 59 (0.39%) BizTalk Server
14 59 (0.39%) WebSphere
15 56 (0.37%) WordPress
16 52 (0.34%) JBoss
17 50 (0.33%) WebLogic
18 47 (0.31%) Umbraco
Applications
1 860 (5.66%) Microsoft Excel
2 393 (2.59%) Microsoft Office
3 91 (0.60%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 81 (0.53%) MS Visio
5 70 (0.46%) Spreadsheet
6 25 (0.16%) SPSS
7 20 (0.13%) Microsoft Project
8 18 (0.12%) Sketch
9 16 (0.11%) Photoshop
10 10 (0.066%) AutoCAD
10 10 (0.066%) InVision
11 9 (0.059%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 9 (0.059%) Chatbot
12 8 (0.053%) Figma
13 7 (0.046%) Adobe Illustrator
14 6 (0.039%) InfoPath
15 5 (0.033%) Revit
15 5 (0.033%) Stata
16 4 (0.026%) Gliffy
17 3 (0.020%) SPSS Modeler
Business Applications
1 281 (1.85%) Dynamics CRM
2 82 (0.54%) Dynamics AX
3 75 (0.49%) NetSuite
4 65 (0.43%) Dynamics NAV
5 48 (0.32%) Oracle EBS
6 38 (0.25%) SAP Business One
7 37 (0.24%) Oracle ERP
8 32 (0.21%) Magento
9 21 (0.14%) SAP S/4HANA
10 20 (0.13%) Elite 3E
11 18 (0.12%) Oracle Applications
11 18 (0.12%) Oracle Payables
11 18 (0.12%) Oracle Receivables
12 17 (0.11%) Oracle EBS R12
12 17 (0.11%) Payment Gateway
12 17 (0.11%) Summit
13 16 (0.11%) Oracle Assets
13 16 (0.11%) Oracle Financials
14 15 (0.099%) Sentinel
15 14 (0.092%) Sage 1000
Cloud Services
1 4,855 (31.96%) Azure
2 2,756 (18.14%) AWS
3 1,925 (12.67%) Power Platform
4 855 (5.63%) GCP
5 734 (4.83%) SaaS
6 683 (4.50%) Serverless
7 603 (3.97%) Microsoft 365
8 519 (3.42%) PaaS
9 449 (2.96%) Azure Data Factory
10 325 (2.14%) Azure Active Directory
11 317 (2.09%) IaaS
12 294 (1.94%) AWS Lambda
13 286 (1.88%) Dynamics 365
14 269 (1.77%) GitHub
15 267 (1.76%) Amazon S3
16 254 (1.67%) Azure Service Bus
17 253 (1.67%) Amazon EC2
18 237 (1.56%) Azure Cosmos DB
19 201 (1.32%) Azure Synapse Analytics
20 184 (1.21%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 306 (2.01%) Firewall
2 199 (1.31%) DNS
3 173 (1.14%) HTTP
4 142 (0.93%) TCP/IP
5 124 (0.82%) DHCP
5 124 (0.82%) SAN
6 120 (0.79%) Internet
7 113 (0.74%) WAN
8 106 (0.70%) VPN
9 94 (0.62%) LAN
10 71 (0.47%) SSH
10 71 (0.47%) VoIP
11 54 (0.36%) FTP
12 53 (0.35%) Network Security
13 47 (0.31%) Skype
14 44 (0.29%) Wireless
15 41 (0.27%) Intranet
16 39 (0.26%) NAS
17 38 (0.25%) VLAN
18 37 (0.24%) SSL
Database & Business Intelligence
1 3,726 (24.53%) SQL Server
2 1,805 (11.88%) Power BI
3 1,611 (10.60%) Data Warehouse
4 1,507 (9.92%) NoSQL
5 1,345 (8.85%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 1,314 (8.65%) SQL Server Reporting Services
7 1,041 (6.85%) Relational Database
8 994 (6.54%) PostgreSQL
9 957 (6.30%) MySQL
10 889 (5.85%) Tableau
11 779 (5.13%) Azure SQL Database
12 777 (5.11%) Big Data
13 625 (4.11%) SQL Server Analysis Services
14 622 (4.09%) MongoDB
15 456 (3.00%) Hadoop
16 450 (2.96%) Data Lake
17 355 (2.34%) Amazon Redshift
18 347 (2.28%) Redis
19 278 (1.83%) Oracle Database
20 268 (1.76%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 1,806 (11.89%) Git (software)
2 951 (6.26%) Jenkins
3 704 (4.63%) JIRA
4 528 (3.48%) Visual Studio
5 515 (3.39%) Selenium
6 429 (2.82%) Team Foundation Server
7 272 (1.79%) Maven
8 258 (1.70%) JUnit
9 253 (1.67%) Subversion
10 213 (1.40%) Cucumber
11 212 (1.40%) TeamCity
12 190 (1.25%) Visual Studio Team System
13 172 (1.13%) Bitbucket
14 157 (1.03%) Octopus Deploy
15 144 (0.95%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 138 (0.91%) GitLab
17 132 (0.87%) SpecFlow
18 130 (0.86%) Cypress.io
19 127 (0.84%) Gradle
20 122 (0.80%) NUnit
General
1 3,133 (20.62%) Finance
2 681 (4.48%) Marketing
3 644 (4.24%) Banking
4 458 (3.01%) Retail
5 362 (2.38%) Public Sector
6 335 (2.21%) Manufacturing
7 310 (2.04%) Law
8 274 (1.80%) Front Office
9 241 (1.59%) Back Office
10 222 (1.46%) Games
11 196 (1.29%) Telecoms
12 188 (1.24%) Legal
13 182 (1.20%) Advertising
14 110 (0.72%) Financial Institution
15 104 (0.68%) Electronics
16 102 (0.67%) Investment Banking
17 100 (0.66%) Multimedia
18 68 (0.45%) Billing
19 56 (0.37%) Automotive
20 54 (0.36%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 6,553 (43.13%) Developer
2 2,120 (13.95%) Analyst
3 1,408 (9.27%) .NET Developer
3 1,408 (9.27%) Senior Developer
4 1,223 (8.05%) C# Developer
5 1,047 (6.89%) Software Developer
6 987 (6.50%) Software Engineer
7 956 (6.29%) Data Engineer
8 802 (5.28%) SQL Developer
9 749 (4.93%) Full Stack Developer
10 662 (4.36%) Java Developer
11 649 (4.27%) C# .NET Developer
12 617 (4.06%) Data Analyst
13 574 (3.78%) Applications Support
14 551 (3.63%) Azure Engineer
15 492 (3.24%) Architect
16 459 (3.02%) Business Intelligence Developer
17 412 (2.71%) Consultant
18 411 (2.71%) Support Analyst
19 393 (2.59%) Junior
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 4,066 (26.76%) .NET
2 2,367 (15.58%) HTML
3 2,278 (14.99%) CSS
4 1,628 (10.72%) .NET Core
5 1,570 (10.33%) AngularJS
6 1,512 (9.95%) React
7 1,354 (8.91%) ASP.NET
8 1,189 (7.83%) Web Services
9 1,120 (7.37%) REST
10 959 (6.31%) .NET Framework
11 789 (5.19%) Node.js
12 787 (5.18%) jQuery
13 764 (5.03%) RESTful
14 713 (4.69%) HTML5
14 713 (4.69%) Spring
15 704 (4.63%) XML
16 673 (4.43%) Vue.js
17 599 (3.94%) ASP.NET Web API
18 563 (3.71%) Kafka
19 554 (3.65%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 1,668 (10.98%) Analytical Skills
2 590 (3.88%) Greenfield Project
3 435 (2.86%) Self-Motivation
4 410 (2.70%) User Experience
5 378 (2.49%) Data Structures
6 358 (2.36%) Mobile App
7 342 (2.25%) Hedge funds
8 335 (2.21%) Management Information System
9 334 (2.20%) Algorithms
10 238 (1.57%) Enterprise Software
11 220 (1.45%) Equities
12 206 (1.36%) Data Centre
13 194 (1.28%) Derivative
14 171 (1.13%) N-Tier
15 150 (0.99%) Virtual Team
16 148 (0.97%) Fixed Income
17 140 (0.92%) Organisational Skills
18 134 (0.88%) Public Cloud
19 131 (0.86%) Linux Command Line
20 127 (0.84%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
Operating Systems
1 1,688 (11.11%) Windows
2 1,643 (10.81%) Linux
3 614 (4.04%) Windows Server
4 506 (3.33%) Unix
5 192 (1.26%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
6 188 (1.24%) Android
7 159 (1.05%) Apple iOS
8 134 (0.88%) Windows 10
9 128 (0.84%) Windows Server 2016
10 110 (0.72%) Windows Server 2012
11 101 (0.66%) Ubuntu
12 81 (0.53%) Windows Server 2008
13 79 (0.52%) CentOS
14 63 (0.41%) Windows 7
15 47 (0.31%) Windows Server 2019
16 46 (0.30%) Solaris
17 33 (0.22%) Alpine Linux
18 20 (0.13%) Debian
19 19 (0.13%) Windows Server 2003
20 16 (0.11%) AIX
Processes & Methodologies
1 4,646 (30.58%) Agile Software Development
2 2,767 (18.21%) DevOps
3 2,731 (17.98%) Business Intelligence
4 2,340 (15.40%) Analytics
5 2,047 (13.47%) Software Engineering
6 1,729 (11.38%) Problem-Solving
7 1,711 (11.26%) Microservices
8 1,563 (10.29%) ETL
9 1,550 (10.20%) MVC
10 1,356 (8.93%) Scrum
11 1,350 (8.89%) TDD
12 1,304 (8.58%) Test Automation
13 1,198 (7.89%) Computer Science
14 1,125 (7.41%) Data Modelling
15 1,108 (7.29%) Continuous Integration
16 1,078 (7.10%) Visualisation
17 1,050 (6.91%) OO
18 1,039 (6.84%) Mentoring
19 979 (6.44%) Migration
20 953 (6.27%) Data Science
Programming Languages
1 4,605 (30.31%) C#
2 4,048 (26.65%) JavaScript
3 3,636 (23.93%) Python
4 2,789 (18.36%) Java
5 1,663 (10.95%) T-SQL
6 951 (6.26%) PowerShell
7 851 (5.60%) PHP
7 851 (5.60%) TypeScript
8 558 (3.67%) C++
9 525 (3.46%) PL/SQL
10 512 (3.37%) R
11 380 (2.50%) Bash Shell
12 349 (2.30%) Scala
13 344 (2.26%) C
14 297 (1.95%) Go
15 274 (1.80%) Ruby
16 249 (1.64%) VB.NET
17 237 (1.56%) VB
18 232 (1.53%) VBA
19 204 (1.34%) Java 8
Qualifications
1 1,962 (12.91%) Degree
2 586 (3.86%) Computer Science Degree
3 486 (3.20%) Security Cleared
4 369 (2.43%) SC Cleared
5 228 (1.50%) Microsoft Certification
6 179 (1.18%) Numerate Degree
7 92 (0.61%) ISTQB
7 92 (0.61%) PhD
8 71 (0.47%) MCSE
9 68 (0.45%) ISEB
10 65 (0.43%) DV Cleared
11 62 (0.41%) Master's Degree
12 47 (0.31%) CCNA
12 47 (0.31%) Cisco Certification
13 46 (0.30%) BPSS Clearance
14 44 (0.29%) Oracle Certification
15 43 (0.28%) ITIL Certification
16 40 (0.26%) AWS Certification
16 40 (0.26%) DBS Check
16 40 (0.26%) MCSA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 791 (5.21%) QA
2 460 (3.03%) Data Quality
3 190 (1.25%) SLA
4 158 (1.04%) GDPR
5 72 (0.47%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 39 (0.26%) PCI DSS
7 29 (0.19%) NIST
8 28 (0.18%) GRC
9 20 (0.13%) CDISC
10 16 (0.11%) Good Clinical Practice
11 14 (0.092%) ISO 9001
12 11 (0.072%) COBIT
12 11 (0.072%) PMO
13 10 (0.066%) Sarbanes-Oxley
14 9 (0.059%) 21 CFR Part 11
14 9 (0.059%) PSD2
15 7 (0.046%) GAMP
15 7 (0.046%) MiFID
16 6 (0.039%) EMIR
16 6 (0.039%) ISO 13485
System Software
1 1,884 (12.40%) Docker
2 743 (4.89%) Active Directory
3 338 (2.22%) VMware Infrastructure
4 214 (1.41%) Hyper-V
5 63 (0.41%) Virtual Machines
6 61 (0.40%) vSphere
7 55 (0.36%) VirtualBox
8 50 (0.33%) HDFS
9 47 (0.31%) VMware ESXi
10 46 (0.30%) XenApp
11 40 (0.26%) XenDesktop
12 29 (0.19%) Oracle RAC
13 28 (0.18%) Virtual Desktop
14 20 (0.13%) Virtual Servers
15 17 (0.11%) Firmware
15 17 (0.11%) Terminal Services
16 11 (0.072%) Postfix
17 8 (0.053%) Microsoft Virtual Server
17 8 (0.053%) NFS
17 8 (0.053%) VMware Server
Systems Management
1 1,436 (9.45%) Kubernetes
2 826 (5.44%) Terraform
3 504 (3.32%) Ansible
4 227 (1.49%) Opscode Chef
4 227 (1.49%) Puppet
5 172 (1.13%) SCCM
6 132 (0.87%) Grafana
7 131 (0.86%) Prometheus
8 99 (0.65%) Microsoft Intune
9 87 (0.57%) Docker Swarm
10 65 (0.43%) Packer
11 48 (0.32%) Failover Clustering
12 42 (0.28%) SCOM
13 32 (0.21%) Single Sign-On
13 32 (0.21%) WSUS
14 29 (0.19%) Oracle RMAN
15 27 (0.18%) Consul
16 26 (0.17%) Nagios
17 25 (0.16%) MIIS
18 23 (0.15%) Nessus
Vendors
1 3,376 (22.22%) Microsoft
2 1,590 (10.47%) Oracle
3 662 (4.36%) Google
4 514 (3.38%) VMware
5 329 (2.17%) Databricks
6 308 (2.03%) SAP
7 271 (1.78%) Salesforce.com
8 206 (1.36%) IBM
9 180 (1.18%) Citrix
10 179 (1.18%) Red Hat
11 163 (1.07%) Informatica
12 161 (1.06%) Cisco
13 155 (1.02%) Talend
14 131 (0.86%) EnterpriseDB
15 118 (0.78%) Sybase
16 116 (0.76%) Xamarin
17 113 (0.74%) Alteryx
18 104 (0.68%) Cloudera
19 98 (0.65%) Nintex
20 97 (0.64%) Atlassian