Period
to 20 September 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 20 September 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
20 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 7 5
Rank change year-on-year 0 -2 0
Permanent jobs citing SQL 21,712 8,972 26,513
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 17.93% 18.27% 18.76%
As % of the Programming Languages category 33.11% 31.03% 35.08%
Number of salaries quoted 15,899 7,719 22,305
10th Percentile £33,500 £32,500 £29,500
25th Percentile £41,250 £41,250 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £53,750 £52,500 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +2.38% +5.00% +5.26%
75th Percentile £70,125 £70,000 £65,000
90th Percentile £87,500 £87,500 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £47,500 £47,500 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +11.76% -

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 65,572 28,910 75,585
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 54.16% 58.85% 53.48%
Number of salaries quoted 43,910 24,410 62,262
10th Percentile £35,000 £33,750 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £38,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £77,500 £75,000 £70,000
90th Percentile £95,000 £92,500 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £45,000
% change year-on-year - +11.11% -

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Salary trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 20 September 2021.

Salary histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 19 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 20 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -1 19,305 £55,000 +4.76% 3,145
UK excluding London -1 11,062 £47,500 - 2,068
London +1 9,053 £67,500 - 1,266
Work from Home -2 4,888 £52,500 - 696
South East +2 3,137 £50,000 - 440
North of England -1 2,962 £47,500 - 553
Midlands -1 1,813 £45,000 - 457
Yorkshire +3 1,365 £45,000 - 192
North West -3 1,337 £48,500 -3.00% 302
West Midlands -1 1,259 £45,000 - 304
South West -3 1,183 £45,000 - 224
East of England +2 831 £52,500 +16.67% 190
Scotland +3 728 £47,500 - 138
East Midlands -3 553 £42,500 -5.56% 152
North East +5 262 £45,000 - 59
Wales -9 232 £45,000 +5.88% 41
Northern Ireland +6 171 £37,000 -7.50% 23
Isle of Man +4 30 £37,500 -21.05%
Channel Islands -2 5 £85,000 +54.55% 3

For the 6 months to 20 September 2021, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 7,448 (34.30%) Agile Software Development
2 6,591 (30.36%) Azure
3 6,278 (28.91%) C#
4 5,693 (26.22%) .NET
5 5,387 (24.81%) Python
6 5,195 (23.93%) JavaScript
7 4,911 (22.62%) SQL Server
8 4,871 (22.43%) Social Skills
9 4,671 (21.51%) Finance
10 4,605 (21.21%) Microsoft
11 4,481 (20.64%) AWS
12 4,222 (19.45%) Java
13 4,106 (18.91%) Business Intelligence
14 3,797 (17.49%) Analytics
15 3,689 (16.99%) DevOps
16 3,469 (15.98%) Software Engineering
17 3,005 (13.84%) Problem-Solving
18 2,922 (13.46%) Power Platform
19 2,894 (13.33%) Microservices
20 2,804 (12.91%) Degree
21 2,784 (12.82%) Power BI
22 2,758 (12.70%) React
23 2,742 (12.63%) Docker
24 2,634 (12.13%) HTML
25 2,591 (11.93%) Git (software)
26 2,553 (11.76%) NoSQL
27 2,534 (11.67%) Full Stack Development
28 2,517 (11.59%) Analytical Skills
29 2,516 (11.59%) Data Warehouse
30 2,499 (11.51%) CSS

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 845 (3.89%) Apache Spark
2 588 (2.71%) SharePoint
3 525 (2.42%) Apache
4 451 (2.08%) Elasticsearch
5 444 (2.04%) IIS
6 413 (1.90%) CMS
7 325 (1.50%) Confluence
8 318 (1.46%) Apache Airflow
9 300 (1.38%) SAS
10 184 (0.85%) Tomcat
11 163 (0.75%) nginx
12 144 (0.66%) Umbraco
13 140 (0.64%) WebLogic
14 137 (0.63%) EPiServer
15 115 (0.53%) WordPress
16 98 (0.45%) MS Exchange
17 66 (0.30%) Jupyter
17 66 (0.30%) Sitecore CMS
18 64 (0.29%) Kentico
19 59 (0.27%) BizTalk Server
Applications
1 1,217 (5.61%) Microsoft Excel
2 671 (3.09%) Microsoft Office
3 169 (0.78%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 109 (0.50%) MS Visio
5 88 (0.41%) Spreadsheet
6 35 (0.16%) Photoshop
7 32 (0.15%) Figma
8 31 (0.14%) SPSS
9 29 (0.13%) Chatbot
9 29 (0.13%) Sketch
10 26 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
10 26 (0.12%) Microsoft Project
11 25 (0.12%) InVision
12 17 (0.078%) GIMP
13 11 (0.051%) InfoPath
13 11 (0.051%) SOLIDWORKS
14 9 (0.041%) Stata
15 7 (0.032%) Adobe Creative Suite
15 7 (0.032%) AutoCAD
16 6 (0.028%) Siemens NX
Business Applications
1 268 (1.23%) Dynamics CRM
2 112 (0.52%) NetSuite
3 78 (0.36%) Dynamics NAV
4 74 (0.34%) Dynamics AX
5 67 (0.31%) Oracle EBS
6 43 (0.20%) SAP Business One
7 42 (0.19%) Shopify
8 38 (0.18%) Adobe Campaign
8 38 (0.18%) SAP BPC
9 37 (0.17%) SAP ERP
10 31 (0.14%) Oracle EBS R12
11 30 (0.14%) Oracle Applications
12 29 (0.13%) Magento
13 28 (0.13%) Oracle ERP
13 28 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
14 27 (0.12%) IBM Planning Analytics
15 25 (0.12%) Sentinel
16 24 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
17 18 (0.083%) Unit4 Business World
18 17 (0.078%) Oracle Receivables
Cloud Services
1 6,591 (30.36%) Azure
2 4,481 (20.64%) AWS
3 2,922 (13.46%) Power Platform
4 1,559 (7.18%) GCP
5 1,189 (5.48%) Serverless
6 1,132 (5.21%) SaaS
7 849 (3.91%) Microsoft 365
8 746 (3.44%) GitHub
9 668 (3.08%) Azure Data Factory
10 582 (2.68%) PaaS
11 581 (2.68%) AWS Lambda
12 560 (2.58%) Amazon S3
13 505 (2.33%) Amazon EC2
14 472 (2.17%) Snowflake
15 418 (1.93%) Azure Cosmos DB
16 364 (1.68%) IaaS
17 318 (1.46%) Dynamics 365
18 306 (1.41%) Azure Service Bus
19 290 (1.34%) Azure Active Directory
20 268 (1.23%) PowerApps
Communications & Networking
1 447 (2.06%) HTTP
2 403 (1.86%) Firewall
3 346 (1.59%) DNS
4 210 (0.97%) DHCP
5 190 (0.88%) TCP/IP
6 184 (0.85%) Internet
7 179 (0.82%) VPN
8 130 (0.60%) SAN
9 116 (0.53%) WAN
10 108 (0.50%) LAN
11 103 (0.47%) SSL
12 92 (0.42%) Broadband
13 85 (0.39%) FTP
14 84 (0.39%) SMTP
15 69 (0.32%) VoIP
16 66 (0.30%) VLAN
17 65 (0.30%) AMQP
18 57 (0.26%) Skype
18 57 (0.26%) SMS
19 56 (0.26%) Network Security
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,911 (22.62%) SQL Server
2 2,784 (12.82%) Power BI
3 2,553 (11.76%) NoSQL
4 2,516 (11.59%) Data Warehouse
5 1,700 (7.83%) Relational Database
6 1,680 (7.74%) SQL Server Integration Services
7 1,537 (7.08%) PostgreSQL
8 1,504 (6.93%) Tableau
9 1,425 (6.56%) SQL Server Reporting Services
10 1,391 (6.41%) MySQL
11 1,263 (5.82%) Big Data
12 1,192 (5.49%) MongoDB
13 857 (3.95%) Azure SQL Database
14 836 (3.85%) Data Lake
15 825 (3.80%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 636 (2.93%) Redis
17 635 (2.92%) Hadoop
18 518 (2.39%) Oracle Database
19 515 (2.37%) RDBMS
20 446 (2.05%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 2,591 (11.93%) Git (software)
2 1,220 (5.62%) Jenkins
3 1,169 (5.38%) JIRA
4 783 (3.61%) Visual Studio
5 644 (2.97%) Selenium
6 518 (2.39%) Team Foundation Server
7 400 (1.84%) TeamCity
8 353 (1.63%) Maven
9 352 (1.62%) Octopus Deploy
10 336 (1.55%) JUnit
11 281 (1.29%) Subversion
12 268 (1.23%) NUnit
13 243 (1.12%) Cucumber
14 238 (1.10%) GitLab
15 232 (1.07%) webpack
16 196 (0.90%) SpecFlow
17 195 (0.90%) Atlassian Bamboo
18 186 (0.86%) Postman
19 185 (0.85%) Bitbucket
19 185 (0.85%) Cypress.io
General
1 4,871 (22.43%) Social Skills
2 4,671 (21.51%) Finance
3 2,517 (11.59%) Analytical Skills
4 1,011 (4.66%) Banking
5 999 (4.60%) Marketing
6 859 (3.96%) Retail
7 580 (2.67%) Public Sector
8 513 (2.36%) Law
9 440 (2.03%) Games
10 423 (1.95%) Legal
11 399 (1.84%) Presentation Skills
12 396 (1.82%) Manufacturing
13 394 (1.81%) Front Office
14 352 (1.62%) Organisational Skills
15 336 (1.55%) Inclusion and Diversity
16 314 (1.45%) Advertising
17 260 (1.20%) Telecoms
18 255 (1.17%) Pharmaceutical
19 239 (1.10%) Back Office
20 198 (0.91%) Investment Banking
Job Titles
1 8,573 (39.49%) Developer
2 2,893 (13.32%) Analyst
3 1,851 (8.53%) Software Engineer
4 1,733 (7.98%) Senior Developer
5 1,623 (7.48%) .NET Developer
6 1,548 (7.13%) Software Developer
7 1,471 (6.78%) Data Engineer
8 1,331 (6.13%) C# Developer
9 970 (4.47%) SQL Developer
10 964 (4.44%) Data Analyst
11 945 (4.35%) Java Developer
12 939 (4.32%) Full Stack Developer
13 863 (3.97%) Architect
14 703 (3.24%) Business Intelligence Developer
15 698 (3.21%) C# .NET Developer
16 591 (2.72%) Applications Support
17 555 (2.56%) Azure Engineer
18 554 (2.55%) Python Engineer
19 509 (2.34%) Consultant
20 478 (2.20%) Support Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,693 (26.22%) .NET
2 2,758 (12.70%) React
3 2,634 (12.13%) HTML
4 2,499 (11.51%) CSS
5 2,462 (11.34%) AngularJS
6 2,075 (9.56%) .NET Core
7 1,928 (8.88%) REST
8 1,739 (8.01%) Web Services
9 1,580 (7.28%) ASP.NET
10 1,535 (7.07%) Node.js
11 1,498 (6.90%) Spring
12 1,416 (6.52%) .NET Framework
13 1,200 (5.53%) RESTful
14 1,057 (4.87%) Kafka
15 987 (4.55%) XML
16 854 (3.93%) ASP.NET Web API
17 852 (3.92%) Vue.js
18 835 (3.85%) jQuery
19 824 (3.80%) JSON
20 697 (3.21%) HTML5
Miscellaneous
1 931 (4.29%) Greenfield Project
2 890 (4.10%) User Experience
3 683 (3.15%) Algorithms
4 645 (2.97%) Self-Motivation
5 534 (2.46%) Data Structures
6 531 (2.45%) Management Information System
7 443 (2.04%) Mobile App
8 425 (1.96%) Enterprise Software
9 417 (1.92%) Hedge funds
10 370 (1.70%) Equities
11 285 (1.31%) Derivative
12 270 (1.24%) Public Cloud
13 262 (1.21%) Legacy Systems
14 258 (1.19%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 243 (1.12%) Data Centre
16 241 (1.11%) Virtual Team
17 237 (1.09%) Life Science
18 236 (1.09%) Cloud Native
19 233 (1.07%) Fixed Income
20 196 (0.90%) Clustering
Operating Systems
1 2,079 (9.58%) Linux
2 2,028 (9.34%) Windows
3 710 (3.27%) Windows Server
4 708 (3.26%) Unix
5 311 (1.43%) Android
6 282 (1.30%) Apple iOS
7 239 (1.10%) Windows 10
8 231 (1.06%) Windows Server 2012
9 199 (0.92%) Windows Server 2016
10 120 (0.55%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 115 (0.53%) Windows Server 2019
12 99 (0.46%) Windows 7
13 97 (0.45%) CentOS
13 97 (0.45%) Windows Server 2008
14 73 (0.34%) VMS
15 63 (0.29%) Ubuntu
16 57 (0.26%) Solaris
17 41 (0.19%) Windows 8
18 30 (0.14%) Windows Server 2003
19 29 (0.13%) Mac OS
Processes & Methodologies
1 7,448 (34.30%) Agile Software Development
2 4,106 (18.91%) Business Intelligence
3 3,797 (17.49%) Analytics
4 3,689 (16.99%) DevOps
5 3,469 (15.98%) Software Engineering
6 3,005 (13.84%) Problem-Solving
7 2,894 (13.33%) Microservices
8 2,534 (11.67%) Full Stack Development
9 2,367 (10.90%) ETL
10 2,331 (10.74%) Scrum
11 2,117 (9.75%) TDD
12 1,991 (9.17%) Test Automation
13 1,955 (9.00%) Computer Science
14 1,888 (8.70%) Data Modelling
15 1,873 (8.63%) MVC
16 1,748 (8.05%) Visualisation
17 1,684 (7.76%) Data Science
18 1,593 (7.34%) Mentoring
19 1,576 (7.26%) SDLC
20 1,483 (6.83%) Continuous Integration
Programming Languages
1 6,278 (28.91%) C#
2 5,387 (24.81%) Python
3 5,195 (23.93%) JavaScript
4 4,222 (19.45%) Java
5 2,077 (9.57%) T-SQL
6 1,627 (7.49%) TypeScript
7 1,343 (6.19%) PowerShell
8 977 (4.50%) PHP
9 792 (3.65%) PL/SQL
10 774 (3.56%) R
11 674 (3.10%) C++
12 614 (2.83%) Scala
13 498 (2.29%) Bash Shell
14 482 (2.22%) Go
15 455 (2.10%) C
16 400 (1.84%) VBA
17 381 (1.75%) Java 8
18 338 (1.56%) Ruby
19 298 (1.37%) VB
20 284 (1.31%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 2,804 (12.91%) Degree
2 880 (4.05%) Computer Science Degree
3 750 (3.45%) Security Cleared
4 619 (2.85%) SC Cleared
5 327 (1.51%) Microsoft Certification
6 230 (1.06%) Master's Degree
7 181 (0.83%) Numerate Degree
8 151 (0.70%) PhD
9 108 (0.50%) ISTQB
10 97 (0.45%) MCSE
11 94 (0.43%) ISEB
12 76 (0.35%) MCSA
13 68 (0.31%) Cisco Certification
14 64 (0.29%) CCNA
15 57 (0.26%) AWS Certification
16 56 (0.26%) ITIL Certification
16 56 (0.26%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
17 52 (0.24%) Citrix Certification
18 50 (0.23%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
19 44 (0.20%) DV Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,400 (6.45%) QA
2 858 (3.95%) Data Quality
3 281 (1.29%) SLA
4 278 (1.28%) GDPR
5 173 (0.80%) Accessibility
6 79 (0.36%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 61 (0.28%) GRC
8 59 (0.27%) PSD2
9 52 (0.24%) PCI DSS
10 31 (0.14%) Good Clinical Practice
10 31 (0.14%) GxP
11 29 (0.13%) CDISC
12 26 (0.12%) PMO
13 23 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
13 23 (0.11%) Solvency II
14 19 (0.088%) 21 CFR Part 11
14 19 (0.088%) HL7
14 19 (0.088%) WCAG
15 15 (0.069%) NCSC
16 13 (0.060%) NIST
System Software
1 2,742 (12.63%) Docker
2 868 (4.00%) Active Directory
3 432 (1.99%) VMware Infrastructure
4 281 (1.29%) Hyper-V
5 98 (0.45%) Virtual Machines
6 93 (0.43%) vSphere
7 68 (0.31%) XenApp
8 67 (0.31%) VirtualBox
9 62 (0.29%) VMware ESXi
10 53 (0.24%) XenDesktop
11 49 (0.23%) HDFS
12 31 (0.14%) Virtual Desktop
13 30 (0.14%) Virtual Servers
14 28 (0.13%) Apache ZooKeeper
15 21 (0.097%) Firmware
16 19 (0.088%) Oracle RAC
17 14 (0.064%) Ceph
17 14 (0.064%) Terminal Services
18 13 (0.060%) Citrix Hypervisor
19 12 (0.055%) VMware Server
Systems Management
1 2,177 (10.03%) Kubernetes
2 1,129 (5.20%) Terraform
3 609 (2.80%) Ansible
4 356 (1.64%) Grafana
5 291 (1.34%) Prometheus
6 279 (1.29%) Puppet
7 221 (1.02%) Opscode Chef
8 160 (0.74%) SCCM
9 149 (0.69%) Microsoft Intune
10 101 (0.47%) Docker Swarm
11 88 (0.41%) Single Sign-On
12 69 (0.32%) WSUS
13 60 (0.28%) Graphite
14 59 (0.27%) Packer
15 55 (0.25%) Kibana
16 52 (0.24%) SCOM
17 49 (0.23%) Active Directory Federation Services
18 47 (0.22%) Opsgenie
19 46 (0.21%) Hadoop YARN
19 46 (0.21%) Nagios
Vendors
1 4,605 (21.21%) Microsoft
2 2,341 (10.78%) Oracle
3 1,292 (5.95%) Google
4 669 (3.08%) VMware
5 611 (2.81%) SAP
6 591 (2.72%) Databricks
7 411 (1.89%) Salesforce.com
8 264 (1.22%) Citrix
9 262 (1.21%) IBM
10 260 (1.20%) Informatica
11 214 (0.99%) Adobe
12 205 (0.94%) Alteryx
13 197 (0.91%) Talend
14 196 (0.90%) Red Hat
15 166 (0.76%) Cisco
16 139 (0.64%) New Relic
17 134 (0.62%) Veeam
18 133 (0.61%) Samsung
19 132 (0.61%) Xamarin
20 127 (0.58%) ServiceNow