Period
to 19 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for SQL skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited SQL over the 6 months to 19 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

SQL (Structured Query Language)
UK
6 months to
19 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 7 5 4
Rank change year-on-year -2 -1 +1
Permanent jobs citing SQL 18,594 15,063 28,124
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 18.08% 18.40% 19.57%
As % of the Programming Languages category 32.80% 33.20% 36.21%
Number of salaries quoted 14,100 12,555 23,757
10th Percentile £32,500 £31,250 £29,750
25th Percentile £40,000 £38,750 £36,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £52,500 £50,000 £50,000
Median % change year-on-year +5.00% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £67,500 £67,500 £64,500
90th Percentile £85,000 £82,500 £80,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £45,000 £45,000 £42,500
% change year-on-year - +5.88% -

SQL is in the Programming Languages category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for coding skills.

All Programming Languages
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for coding skills 56,692 45,364 77,679
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 55.12% 55.41% 54.05%
Number of salaries quoted 40,520 37,631 64,148
10th Percentile £33,750 £32,500 £31,250
25th Percentile £42,500 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £92,500 £90,000 £85,000
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

SQL
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing SQL as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing SQL.

Salary trend for SQL in the UK

SQL
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing SQL over the 6 months to 19 June 2021.

Salary histogram for SQL in the UK

SQL
Top 18 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing SQL within the UK over the 6 months to 19 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -2 16,652 £52,500 +5.00% 2,889
UK excluding London -1 10,292 £45,000 - 1,971
London -3 7,148 £65,000 - 1,076
Work from Home +5 3,975 £50,000 - 656
South East -1 2,784 £49,500 +4.21% 430
North of England -1 2,725 £47,500 +5.56% 579
Midlands 0 1,764 £43,000 -0.58% 392
North West -3 1,275 £47,500 -5.00% 292
South West -1 1,245 £45,000 - 198
Yorkshire 0 1,184 £46,500 +9.41% 220
West Midlands 0 1,114 £45,000 - 252
East of England 0 709 £50,000 +11.11% 203
Scotland -3 663 £47,500 +5.56% 106
East Midlands +2 647 £41,250 +3.13% 139
North East +6 268 £45,000 +19.21% 67
Wales -2 242 £42,500 - 44
Northern Ireland +8 147 £35,000 -12.50% 20
Isle of Man +4 50 £37,500 -21.05%

For the 6 months to 19 June 2021, IT jobs citing SQL also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for SQL.

1 5,826 (31.33%) Agile Software Development
2 5,560 (29.90%) Azure
3 5,532 (29.75%) C#
4 5,056 (27.19%) .NET
5 4,834 (26.00%) JavaScript
6 4,430 (23.82%) Python
7 4,251 (22.86%) Microsoft
8 4,203 (22.60%) SQL Server
9 3,873 (20.83%) Finance
10 3,802 (20.45%) Social Skills
11 3,751 (20.17%) Java
12 3,536 (19.02%) AWS
13 3,255 (17.51%) Business Intelligence
14 3,097 (16.66%) DevOps
15 3,017 (16.23%) HTML
16 2,897 (15.58%) CSS
17 2,881 (15.49%) Analytics
18 2,762 (14.85%) Software Engineering
19 2,400 (12.91%) Docker
20 2,377 (12.78%) Power Platform
21 2,359 (12.69%) Degree
22 2,291 (12.32%) Problem-Solving
23 2,254 (12.12%) Microservices
24 2,250 (12.10%) Power BI
25 2,190 (11.78%) Git (software)
26 2,184 (11.75%) Oracle
27 2,082 (11.20%) AngularJS
28 2,059 (11.07%) NoSQL
29 1,987 (10.69%) Data Warehouse
29 1,987 (10.69%) Analytical Skills

SQL
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 710 (3.82%) Apache Spark
2 638 (3.43%) SharePoint
3 387 (2.08%) Apache
4 356 (1.91%) IIS
5 340 (1.83%) Elasticsearch
6 300 (1.61%) CMS
7 287 (1.54%) Apache Airflow
8 280 (1.51%) SAS
9 248 (1.33%) Confluence
10 142 (0.76%) Tomcat
11 137 (0.74%) nginx
12 108 (0.58%) MS Exchange
13 95 (0.51%) EPiServer
14 88 (0.47%) WordPress
15 86 (0.46%) Umbraco
16 70 (0.38%) Luigi
17 69 (0.37%) BizTalk Server
18 68 (0.37%) WebLogic
19 57 (0.31%) WebSphere
20 51 (0.27%) JBoss
Applications
1 1,039 (5.59%) Microsoft Excel
2 512 (2.75%) Microsoft Office
3 131 (0.70%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 99 (0.53%) MS Visio
5 78 (0.42%) Spreadsheet
6 36 (0.19%) SPSS
7 32 (0.17%) Photoshop
8 18 (0.097%) Adobe Illustrator
8 18 (0.097%) Microsoft Project
9 13 (0.070%) Figma
9 13 (0.070%) InfoPath
10 12 (0.065%) Stata
11 11 (0.059%) GIMP
11 11 (0.059%) Sketch
12 10 (0.054%) Chatbot
13 9 (0.048%) AutoCAD
13 9 (0.048%) SOLIDWORKS
14 6 (0.032%) InDesign
14 6 (0.032%) Siemens NX
14 6 (0.032%) Solid Edge
Business Applications
1 295 (1.59%) Dynamics CRM
2 100 (0.54%) Dynamics AX
3 95 (0.51%) NetSuite
4 73 (0.39%) Dynamics NAV
5 63 (0.34%) Oracle EBS
6 44 (0.24%) Oracle ERP
7 39 (0.21%) Magento
7 39 (0.21%) SAP Business One
8 38 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
9 29 (0.16%) Oracle Applications
10 28 (0.15%) Shopify
11 25 (0.13%) Payment Gateway
12 24 (0.13%) Oracle EBS R12
13 23 (0.12%) Oracle Payables
13 23 (0.12%) Oracle Receivables
14 22 (0.12%) SAP ERP
15 21 (0.11%) Oracle Financials
15 21 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
16 20 (0.11%) Oracle Assets
16 20 (0.11%) Sentinel
Cloud Services
1 5,560 (29.90%) Azure
2 3,536 (19.02%) AWS
3 2,377 (12.78%) Power Platform
4 1,146 (6.16%) GCP
5 931 (5.01%) SaaS
6 880 (4.73%) Serverless
7 720 (3.87%) Microsoft 365
8 526 (2.83%) PaaS
9 520 (2.80%) Azure Data Factory
10 440 (2.37%) GitHub
11 400 (2.15%) Amazon S3
12 399 (2.15%) AWS Lambda
13 378 (2.03%) Amazon EC2
14 354 (1.90%) Snowflake
15 337 (1.81%) IaaS
16 328 (1.76%) Azure Active Directory
17 322 (1.73%) Dynamics 365
18 315 (1.69%) Azure Cosmos DB
19 306 (1.65%) Azure Service Bus
20 249 (1.34%) Azure Functions
Communications & Networking
1 370 (1.99%) Firewall
2 315 (1.69%) HTTP
3 261 (1.40%) DNS
4 158 (0.85%) TCP/IP
5 155 (0.83%) Internet
6 154 (0.83%) DHCP
7 137 (0.74%) VPN
8 124 (0.67%) SAN
9 122 (0.66%) WAN
10 100 (0.54%) LAN
11 89 (0.48%) FTP
12 79 (0.42%) VoIP
13 63 (0.34%) SSH
13 63 (0.34%) Wireless
14 62 (0.33%) Network Security
15 55 (0.30%) Skype
15 55 (0.30%) SMTP
16 49 (0.26%) VLAN
17 46 (0.25%) Remote Desktop
17 46 (0.25%) SSL
Database & Business Intelligence
1 4,203 (22.60%) SQL Server
2 2,250 (12.10%) Power BI
3 2,059 (11.07%) NoSQL
4 1,987 (10.69%) Data Warehouse
5 1,505 (8.09%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 1,406 (7.56%) SQL Server Reporting Services
7 1,363 (7.33%) Relational Database
8 1,264 (6.80%) PostgreSQL
9 1,191 (6.41%) MySQL
10 1,157 (6.22%) Tableau
11 1,019 (5.48%) Big Data
12 953 (5.13%) MongoDB
13 813 (4.37%) Azure SQL Database
14 741 (3.99%) SQL Server Analysis Services
15 565 (3.04%) Data Lake
16 561 (3.02%) Hadoop
17 487 (2.62%) Redis
18 425 (2.29%) Amazon Redshift
19 409 (2.20%) Oracle Database
20 368 (1.98%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 2,190 (11.78%) Git (software)
2 1,084 (5.83%) Jenkins
3 885 (4.76%) JIRA
4 658 (3.54%) Visual Studio
5 566 (3.04%) Selenium
6 451 (2.43%) Team Foundation Server
7 330 (1.77%) TeamCity
8 328 (1.76%) Maven
9 323 (1.74%) JUnit
10 283 (1.52%) Subversion
11 273 (1.47%) Octopus Deploy
12 246 (1.32%) Cucumber
13 199 (1.07%) Atlassian Bamboo
14 185 (0.99%) Visual Studio Team System
15 172 (0.93%) webpack
16 164 (0.88%) NUnit
17 163 (0.88%) SpecFlow
18 160 (0.86%) Bitbucket
19 144 (0.77%) Oracle APEX
19 144 (0.77%) WebDriver
General
1 3,873 (20.83%) Finance
2 3,802 (20.45%) Social Skills
3 1,987 (10.69%) Analytical Skills
4 867 (4.66%) Marketing
5 848 (4.56%) Banking
6 611 (3.29%) Retail
7 440 (2.37%) Law
8 432 (2.32%) Public Sector
9 392 (2.11%) Manufacturing
10 360 (1.94%) Games
11 322 (1.73%) Legal
12 305 (1.64%) Front Office
13 301 (1.62%) Presentation Skills
14 280 (1.51%) Back Office
15 256 (1.38%) Advertising
16 227 (1.22%) Organisational Skills
16 227 (1.22%) Telecoms
17 166 (0.89%) Investment Banking
18 144 (0.77%) Influencing Skills
19 130 (0.70%) Pharmaceutical
Job Titles
1 7,992 (42.98%) Developer
2 2,478 (13.33%) Analyst
3 1,610 (8.66%) Senior Developer
4 1,598 (8.59%) .NET Developer
5 1,410 (7.58%) Software Engineer
6 1,352 (7.27%) Software Developer
7 1,346 (7.24%) C# Developer
8 1,165 (6.27%) Data Engineer
9 1,073 (5.77%) Full Stack Developer
10 928 (4.99%) SQL Developer
11 763 (4.10%) Java Developer
12 745 (4.01%) C# .NET Developer
12 745 (4.01%) Data Analyst
13 621 (3.34%) Applications Support
14 604 (3.25%) Web Developer
15 591 (3.18%) Architect
16 565 (3.04%) Azure Engineer
17 553 (2.97%) Business Intelligence Developer
18 454 (2.44%) Support Analyst
19 447 (2.40%) Consultant
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 5,056 (27.19%) .NET
2 3,017 (16.23%) HTML
3 2,897 (15.58%) CSS
4 2,082 (11.20%) AngularJS
5 1,962 (10.55%) .NET Core
6 1,882 (10.12%) React
7 1,637 (8.80%) REST
8 1,579 (8.49%) ASP.NET
9 1,419 (7.63%) Web Services
10 1,158 (6.23%) .NET Framework
11 1,102 (5.93%) Node.js
12 1,090 (5.86%) HTML5
13 1,049 (5.64%) Spring
14 999 (5.37%) RESTful
15 845 (4.54%) XML
16 814 (4.38%) Vue.js
17 809 (4.35%) jQuery
18 783 (4.21%) Kafka
19 742 (3.99%) ASP.NET Web API
20 720 (3.87%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 759 (4.08%) Greenfield Project
2 665 (3.58%) User Experience
3 534 (2.87%) Self-Motivation
4 491 (2.64%) Algorithms
5 433 (2.33%) Data Structures
6 427 (2.30%) Mobile App
7 416 (2.24%) Management Information System
8 350 (1.88%) Hedge funds
9 287 (1.54%) Enterprise Software
10 260 (1.40%) Equities
11 255 (1.37%) Data Centre
12 230 (1.24%) Derivative
13 198 (1.06%) Public Cloud
14 195 (1.05%) Virtual Team
15 174 (0.94%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
16 163 (0.88%) Fixed Income
17 159 (0.86%) Linux Command Line
18 140 (0.75%) Life Science
19 135 (0.73%) Clustering
20 134 (0.72%) N-Tier
Operating Systems
1 1,897 (10.20%) Linux
2 1,872 (10.07%) Windows
3 660 (3.55%) Windows Server
4 613 (3.30%) Unix
5 270 (1.45%) Android
6 234 (1.26%) Apple iOS
7 205 (1.10%) Windows 10
8 175 (0.94%) Windows Server 2016
9 168 (0.90%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9 168 (0.90%) Windows Server 2012
10 104 (0.56%) Ubuntu
10 104 (0.56%) Windows 7
11 94 (0.51%) Windows Server 2008
12 91 (0.49%) CentOS
13 89 (0.48%) Windows Server 2019
14 57 (0.31%) Solaris
15 35 (0.19%) VMS
16 34 (0.18%) Windows 8
17 30 (0.16%) Windows Server 2003
18 23 (0.12%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 5,826 (31.33%) Agile Software Development
2 3,255 (17.51%) Business Intelligence
3 3,097 (16.66%) DevOps
4 2,881 (15.49%) Analytics
5 2,762 (14.85%) Software Engineering
6 2,291 (12.32%) Problem-Solving
7 2,254 (12.12%) Microservices
8 1,908 (10.26%) ETL
9 1,757 (9.45%) MVC
10 1,740 (9.36%) Scrum
11 1,650 (8.87%) TDD
12 1,571 (8.45%) Test Automation
13 1,528 (8.22%) Computer Science
14 1,364 (7.34%) Data Modelling
15 1,334 (7.17%) Visualisation
16 1,293 (6.95%) Mentoring
17 1,275 (6.86%) Web Development
18 1,249 (6.72%) Data Science
19 1,221 (6.57%) Continuous Integration
20 1,165 (6.27%) OO
Programming Languages
1 5,532 (29.75%) C#
2 4,834 (26.00%) JavaScript
3 4,430 (23.82%) Python
4 3,751 (20.17%) Java
5 1,908 (10.26%) T-SQL
6 1,183 (6.36%) TypeScript
7 1,152 (6.20%) PowerShell
8 972 (5.23%) PHP
9 684 (3.68%) PL/SQL
10 639 (3.44%) C++
11 616 (3.31%) R
12 561 (3.02%) Java 8
13 451 (2.43%) Scala
14 445 (2.39%) Bash Shell
15 420 (2.26%) C
16 385 (2.07%) Go
17 338 (1.82%) Ruby
18 311 (1.67%) VBA
19 299 (1.61%) VB.NET
20 266 (1.43%) VB
Qualifications
1 2,359 (12.69%) Degree
2 720 (3.87%) Computer Science Degree
3 601 (3.23%) Security Cleared
4 472 (2.54%) SC Cleared
5 318 (1.71%) Oracle Certification
6 280 (1.51%) Microsoft Certification
7 276 (1.48%) OCA
8 272 (1.46%) CIW
8 272 (1.46%) OCAJ
9 195 (1.05%) Numerate Degree
10 122 (0.66%) PhD
11 118 (0.63%) Master's Degree
12 101 (0.54%) ISTQB
13 85 (0.46%) MCSE
14 78 (0.42%) ISEB
15 59 (0.32%) DV Cleared
16 55 (0.30%) ITIL Certification
17 53 (0.29%) Cisco Certification
17 53 (0.29%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
18 52 (0.28%) CCNA
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1,011 (5.44%) QA
2 584 (3.14%) Data Quality
3 226 (1.22%) SLA
4 181 (0.97%) GDPR
5 99 (0.53%) Accessibility
6 76 (0.41%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 52 (0.28%) GRC
8 49 (0.26%) PCI DSS
9 42 (0.23%) PSD2
10 27 (0.15%) CDISC
11 21 (0.11%) Good Clinical Practice
12 19 (0.10%) Solvency II
13 16 (0.086%) NIST
13 16 (0.086%) PMO
14 11 (0.059%) ISO 9001
15 9 (0.048%) Basel II
15 9 (0.048%) COBIT
15 9 (0.048%) CRD IV
15 9 (0.048%) MiFID
15 9 (0.048%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 2,400 (12.91%) Docker
2 823 (4.43%) Active Directory
3 406 (2.18%) VMware Infrastructure
4 238 (1.28%) Hyper-V
5 88 (0.47%) Virtual Machines
6 80 (0.43%) VirtualBox
7 78 (0.42%) vSphere
8 62 (0.33%) XenApp
9 51 (0.27%) XenDesktop
10 50 (0.27%) HDFS
11 43 (0.23%) VMware ESXi
12 36 (0.19%) Virtual Desktop
13 28 (0.15%) Oracle RAC
14 22 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
15 21 (0.11%) Terminal Services
16 19 (0.10%) Firmware
17 15 (0.081%) Virtual Servers
18 11 (0.059%) VMware Server
19 10 (0.054%) Forefront TMG
19 10 (0.054%) NFS
Systems Management
1 1,880 (10.11%) Kubernetes
2 938 (5.04%) Terraform
3 563 (3.03%) Ansible
4 262 (1.41%) Puppet
5 254 (1.37%) Opscode Chef
6 236 (1.27%) Grafana
7 225 (1.21%) Prometheus
8 176 (0.95%) SCCM
9 117 (0.63%) Docker Swarm
10 106 (0.57%) Microsoft Intune
11 69 (0.37%) Packer
12 53 (0.29%) Active Directory Federation Services
13 49 (0.26%) SCOM
14 45 (0.24%) Single Sign-On
15 41 (0.22%) Graphite
16 37 (0.20%) WSUS
17 34 (0.18%) Failover Clustering
17 34 (0.18%) Nagios
18 31 (0.17%) Hadoop YARN
19 30 (0.16%) Consul
Vendors
1 4,251 (22.86%) Microsoft
2 2,184 (11.75%) Oracle
3 957 (5.15%) Google
4 602 (3.24%) VMware
5 464 (2.50%) SAP
6 438 (2.36%) Databricks
7 320 (1.72%) Salesforce.com
8 258 (1.39%) IBM
9 212 (1.14%) Informatica
10 208 (1.12%) Citrix
11 181 (0.97%) Red Hat
12 176 (0.95%) Cisco
13 170 (0.91%) Talend
14 152 (0.82%) Alteryx
15 142 (0.76%) Adobe
16 132 (0.71%) Sybase
17 121 (0.65%) Cloudera
17 121 (0.65%) Xamarin
18 102 (0.55%) Atlassian
19 99 (0.53%) Veeam