Period
to 25 July 2021

The table below provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with an option to work from home (WFH) and a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 25 July 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > Work from Home
6 months to
25 Jul 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 20 17 16
Rank change year-on-year -3 -1 -3
Permanent jobs citing CSS 2,383 689 972
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 10.52% 12.65% 12.04%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 22.61% 25.36% 27.06%
Number of salaries quoted 1,920 629 919
10th Percentile £32,500 £33,000 £31,250
25th Percentile £37,750 £38,750 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £50,000 £46,000
Median % change year-on-year - +8.70% +2.22%
75th Percentile £65,000 £65,000 £60,000
90th Percentile £75,000 £75,000 £71,500
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +5.56%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a WFH option and a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
Work from Home
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 10,541 2,717 3,592
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 46.52% 49.90% 44.49%
Number of salaries quoted 8,252 2,417 3,284
10th Percentile £36,250 £35,000 £33,750
25th Percentile £43,750 £42,500 £41,250
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £57,500 £55,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% - +10.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £72,500 £72,500
90th Percentile £92,500 £85,000 £85,000
UK median annual salary £57,500 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

Job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

CSS trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

3-month moving average salary quoted in job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS.

CSS salary trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Histogram for Jobs with a WFH Option

Salary distribution for jobs with a work from home option citing CSS over the 6 months to 25 July 2021.

CSS salary histogram for jobs with a WFH option

For the 6 months to 25 July 2021, CSS job roles required the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent jobs with a WFH option and a requirement for CSS.

1 2,186 (91.73%) HTML
2 1,973 (82.79%) JavaScript
3 1,115 (46.79%) React
4 942 (39.53%) Agile Software Development
5 669 (28.07%) Git (software)
6 664 (27.86%) Front End Development
7 649 (27.23%) .NET
8 630 (26.44%) AngularJS
9 628 (26.35%) C#
10 586 (24.59%) HTML5
11 578 (24.26%) PHP
12 535 (22.45%) User Experience
13 525 (22.03%) SQL
14 493 (20.69%) TypeScript
15 487 (20.44%) Node.js
16 471 (19.77%) Azure
17 462 (19.39%) MVC
18 460 (19.30%) jQuery
19 440 (18.46%) Vue.js
20 432 (18.13%) Web Development
21 429 (18.00%) CSS3
22 421 (17.67%) Social Skills
23 409 (17.16%) MySQL
24 403 (16.91%) AWS
25 393 (16.49%) SQL Server
26 387 (16.24%) Software Engineering
27 385 (16.16%) REST
28 378 (15.86%) Finance
29 362 (15.19%) ASP.NET
30 348 (14.60%) Sass

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills with a WFH Option by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 245 (10.28%) CMS
2 152 (6.38%) WordPress
3 82 (3.44%) Elasticsearch
4 71 (2.98%) Umbraco
5 67 (2.81%) IIS
6 58 (2.43%) nginx
7 46 (1.93%) Apache Solr
8 45 (1.89%) Headless CMS
8 45 (1.89%) Kentico
9 42 (1.76%) Apache
9 42 (1.76%) EPiServer
9 42 (1.76%) Sitecore CMS
10 40 (1.68%) Drupal
11 37 (1.55%) Confluence
12 35 (1.47%) SharePoint
13 13 (0.55%) Tomcat
14 11 (0.46%) MODX
15 9 (0.38%) Moodle
16 8 (0.34%) Apache Spark
17 6 (0.25%) WebLogic
Applications
1 59 (2.48%) Sketch
2 29 (1.22%) Figma
2 29 (1.22%) InVision
3 25 (1.05%) Photoshop
4 14 (0.59%) Adobe Creative Suite
4 14 (0.59%) Microsoft Office
5 13 (0.55%) Adobe XD
6 8 (0.34%) Adobe Illustrator
7 6 (0.25%) Chatbot
7 6 (0.25%) InDesign
7 6 (0.25%) MadCap Flare
8 5 (0.21%) Zeplin
9 4 (0.17%) Marvel
10 3 (0.13%) GIMP
10 3 (0.13%) Microsoft Excel
11 1 (0.042%) Adobe After Effects
11 1 (0.042%) Gephi
11 1 (0.042%) InfoPath
11 1 (0.042%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 67 (2.81%) Magento
2 58 (2.43%) Shopify
3 21 (0.88%) Payment Gateway
4 9 (0.38%) Dynamics CRM
4 9 (0.38%) Remedy ITSM
5 8 (0.34%) SAP S/4HANA
6 6 (0.25%) WebTrends
7 5 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
8 4 (0.17%) SDL Web 8
9 3 (0.13%) NetSuite
10 2 (0.084%) JDE OneWorld
11 1 (0.042%) Relativity
11 1 (0.042%) Sage 300 ERP
11 1 (0.042%) Sage CRM
11 1 (0.042%) SAP CRM
11 1 (0.042%) SAP ERP
11 1 (0.042%) SessionCam
11 1 (0.042%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 1 (0.042%) StreamServe
Cloud Services
1 471 (19.77%) Azure
2 403 (16.91%) AWS
3 230 (9.65%) SaaS
4 121 (5.08%) GitHub
5 106 (4.45%) npm
6 100 (4.20%) GCP
7 60 (2.52%) Serverless
8 39 (1.64%) Amazon S3
9 37 (1.55%) Google Analytics
10 33 (1.38%) PaaS
11 31 (1.30%) Amazon EC2
12 29 (1.22%) AWS Lambda
13 24 (1.01%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 23 (0.97%) Yarn
15 21 (0.88%) Heroku
16 19 (0.80%) CloudFront
17 16 (0.67%) Amazon SQS
17 16 (0.67%) Power Platform
18 15 (0.63%) Amazon Cognito
18 15 (0.63%) Cloud Computing
Communications & Networking
1 53 (2.22%) HTTP
2 48 (2.01%) Internet
3 26 (1.09%) DNS
4 20 (0.84%) Broadband
4 20 (0.84%) SSL
5 18 (0.76%) MQTT
5 18 (0.76%) TCP/IP
6 17 (0.71%) Wireless
7 16 (0.67%) Ethernet
8 13 (0.55%) Bluetooth
8 13 (0.55%) Wi-Fi
9 11 (0.46%) VPN
10 6 (0.25%) Intranet
11 4 (0.17%) DAB
11 4 (0.17%) Firewall
11 4 (0.17%) SSH
12 3 (0.13%) AMQP
13 2 (0.084%) HTTPS
13 2 (0.084%) Network Security
13 2 (0.084%) SMTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 409 (17.16%) MySQL
2 393 (16.49%) SQL Server
3 160 (6.71%) NoSQL
4 137 (5.75%) MongoDB
5 130 (5.46%) PostgreSQL
6 92 (3.86%) Redis
7 88 (3.69%) Relational Database
8 48 (2.01%) Big Data
9 29 (1.22%) MariaDB
10 27 (1.13%) SQL Server Reporting Services
11 26 (1.09%) Couchbase
12 24 (1.01%) Azure SQL Database
12 24 (1.01%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 16 (0.67%) Amazon RDS
14 14 (0.59%) RDBMS
15 13 (0.55%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 12 (0.50%) Amazon DynamoDB
16 12 (0.50%) Data Warehouse
16 12 (0.50%) Power BI
17 11 (0.46%) SQL Server 2012
Development Applications
1 669 (28.07%) Git (software)
2 179 (7.51%) webpack
3 133 (5.58%) JIRA
4 94 (3.94%) Jenkins
5 92 (3.86%) Visual Studio
6 78 (3.27%) gulp
7 49 (2.06%) Cypress.io
8 41 (1.72%) Babel
9 40 (1.68%) Selenium
10 39 (1.64%) Mocha
11 38 (1.59%) Bitbucket
12 34 (1.43%) GitLab
13 32 (1.34%) Jasmine
14 31 (1.30%) Team Foundation Server
15 27 (1.13%) PHPUnit
15 27 (1.13%) Storybook
16 26 (1.09%) Subversion
17 24 (1.01%) ReSharper
18 22 (0.92%) Grunt
18 22 (0.92%) Maven
General
1 421 (17.67%) Social Skills
2 378 (15.86%) Finance
3 159 (6.67%) Marketing
4 136 (5.71%) Retail
5 109 (4.57%) Analytical Skills
6 59 (2.48%) Games
7 48 (2.01%) Banking
8 47 (1.97%) Telecoms
9 46 (1.93%) Organisational Skills
10 41 (1.72%) Publishing
11 40 (1.68%) Public Sector
12 34 (1.43%) Law
13 27 (1.13%) Manufacturing
14 26 (1.09%) Legal
15 21 (0.88%) Financial Institution
16 18 (0.76%) Police
17 16 (0.67%) Automotive
18 15 (0.63%) Front Office
18 15 (0.63%) Inclusion and Diversity
19 14 (0.59%) Electronics
Job Titles
1 1,805 (75.74%) Developer
2 401 (16.83%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 333 (13.97%) Senior Developer
4 310 (13.01%) PHP Developer
5 301 (12.63%) Full Stack Developer
6 266 (11.16%) React Developer
7 264 (11.08%) .NET Developer
8 174 (7.30%) C# Developer
9 157 (6.59%) Software Developer
10 146 (6.13%) Web Developer
11 137 (5.75%) Software Engineer
12 128 (5.37%) JavaScript Developer
13 117 (4.91%) C# .NET Developer
14 84 (3.52%) Angular Developer
15 78 (3.27%) PHP Laravel Developer
16 68 (2.85%) Junior
17 66 (2.77%) Designer
17 66 (2.77%) Senior PHP Developer
18 65 (2.73%) E-Commerce Developer
18 65 (2.73%) Lead Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,186 (91.73%) HTML
2 1,115 (46.79%) React
3 649 (27.23%) .NET
4 630 (26.44%) AngularJS
5 586 (24.59%) HTML5
6 487 (20.44%) Node.js
7 460 (19.30%) jQuery
8 440 (18.46%) Vue.js
9 429 (18.00%) CSS3
10 385 (16.16%) REST
11 362 (15.19%) ASP.NET
12 348 (14.60%) Sass
13 343 (14.39%) RESTful
14 279 (11.71%) Laravel
15 248 (10.41%) Redux
16 230 (9.65%) .NET Core
17 217 (9.11%) Web Services
18 211 (8.85%) .NET Framework
19 181 (7.60%) JSON
19 181 (7.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
Miscellaneous
1 535 (22.45%) User Experience
2 174 (7.30%) Mobile App
3 124 (5.20%) Greenfield Project
4 113 (4.74%) Self-Motivation
5 65 (2.73%) Enterprise Software
6 63 (2.64%) Virtual Team
7 35 (1.47%) Legacy Code
8 34 (1.43%) Algorithms
8 34 (1.43%) Hedge funds
9 30 (1.26%) Blog
10 28 (1.17%) Management Information System
11 19 (0.80%) iPad
12 18 (0.76%) Data Structures
13 17 (0.71%) NHS
14 15 (0.63%) e-Learning
14 15 (0.63%) Legacy Systems
15 13 (0.55%) Analytical Mindset
15 13 (0.55%) Cloud Native
15 13 (0.55%) Device Driver
15 13 (0.55%) Embedded Systems
Operating Systems
1 179 (7.51%) Linux
2 96 (4.03%) Windows
3 63 (2.64%) Android
4 52 (2.18%) Apple iOS
5 43 (1.80%) Windows Server
6 19 (0.80%) Ubuntu
7 17 (0.71%) Unix
8 9 (0.38%) Windows 10
9 8 (0.34%) Windows 7
10 6 (0.25%) Windows 8
11 5 (0.21%) CentOS
12 3 (0.13%) Fedora
12 3 (0.13%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
12 3 (0.13%) Windows Server 2012
13 2 (0.084%) Debian
14 1 (0.042%) Mac OS X
14 1 (0.042%) Windows Server 2003
14 1 (0.042%) Windows Server 2016
Processes & Methodologies
1 942 (39.53%) Agile Software Development
2 664 (27.86%) Front End Development
3 462 (19.39%) MVC
4 432 (18.13%) Web Development
5 387 (16.24%) Software Engineering
6 343 (14.39%) E-Commerce
7 330 (13.85%) DevOps
8 322 (13.51%) Scrum
9 301 (12.63%) Problem-Solving
10 285 (11.96%) Microservices
11 268 (11.25%) TDD
12 238 (9.99%) OO
13 219 (9.19%) Unit Testing
14 184 (7.72%) Test Automation
15 171 (7.18%) SDLC
16 159 (6.67%) Clean Code
17 154 (6.46%) OOP
18 147 (6.17%) Computer Science
19 142 (5.96%) Continuous Integration
20 126 (5.29%) Wireframes
Programming Languages
1 1,973 (82.79%) JavaScript
2 628 (26.35%) C#
3 578 (24.26%) PHP
4 525 (22.03%) SQL
5 493 (20.69%) TypeScript
6 278 (11.67%) Java
7 209 (8.77%) Python
8 146 (6.13%) ES6
9 84 (3.52%) T-SQL
10 67 (2.81%) Ruby
11 63 (2.64%) PHP 7
12 52 (2.18%) C
13 40 (1.68%) C++
13 40 (1.68%) VB.NET
14 35 (1.47%) Shell Script
15 31 (1.30%) Bash Shell
16 24 (1.01%) PowerShell
17 22 (0.92%) Kotlin
18 20 (0.84%) ES7
18 20 (0.84%) Go
Qualifications
1 181 (7.60%) Degree
2 73 (3.06%) Computer Science Degree
3 29 (1.22%) Security Cleared
4 20 (0.84%) SC Cleared
5 19 (0.80%) PhD
6 17 (0.71%) Microsoft Certification
7 12 (0.50%) AWS Certification
8 7 (0.29%) BPSS Clearance
9 5 (0.21%) PMI Certification
10 4 (0.17%) PRINCE2 Certification
11 3 (0.13%) Master's Degree
12 1 (0.042%) CCNP
12 1 (0.042%) Cisco Certification
12 1 (0.042%) SAP Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 163 (6.84%) Accessibility
2 100 (4.20%) QA
3 28 (1.17%) WCAG
4 12 (0.50%) Actionable Recommendations
4 12 (0.50%) PCI DSS
5 2 (0.084%) SLA
6 1 (0.042%) GDPR
6 1 (0.042%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 1 (0.042%) PMO
System Software
1 300 (12.59%) Docker
2 13 (0.55%) Firmware
3 3 (0.13%) Active Directory
3 3 (0.13%) Virtual Machines
4 2 (0.084%) Hyper-V
4 2 (0.084%) Varnish
5 1 (0.042%) VMware Infrastructure
5 1 (0.042%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 126 (5.29%) Kubernetes
2 50 (2.10%) Ansible
3 47 (1.97%) Terraform
4 15 (0.63%) Packer
5 14 (0.59%) Puppet
6 9 (0.38%) HP UCMDB
6 9 (0.38%) Opscode Chef
7 8 (0.34%) Prometheus
8 5 (0.21%) Active Directory Federation Services
8 5 (0.21%) Docker Swarm
8 5 (0.21%) HP Fortify
9 4 (0.17%) Istio
10 3 (0.13%) Grafana
11 2 (0.084%) BMC PATROL
11 2 (0.084%) OpenNebula
11 2 (0.084%) ZABBIX
12 1 (0.042%) Consul
12 1 (0.042%) FortiGate
12 1 (0.042%) Microsoft Clustering
Vendors
1 290 (12.17%) Microsoft
2 119 (4.99%) Google
3 75 (3.15%) Adobe
4 51 (2.14%) Zend
5 44 (1.85%) Oracle
5 44 (1.85%) Sitecore
6 43 (1.80%) WooCommerce
7 39 (1.64%) Salesforce.com
8 25 (1.05%) Yahoo!
9 22 (0.92%) SAP
10 18 (0.76%) Sage
10 18 (0.76%) ServiceNow
11 16 (0.67%) Remedy
12 15 (0.63%) Atlassian
12 15 (0.63%) Xamarin
13 14 (0.59%) HP
13 14 (0.59%) Sencha
14 11 (0.46%) Apple
14 11 (0.46%) Databricks
14 11 (0.46%) Elastic Path