Period
to 19 October 2021

The table below provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with an option to work from home (WFH) and a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 19 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > Work from Home
6 months to
19 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 21 19 16
Rank change year-on-year -2 -3 -3
Permanent jobs citing CSS 2,698 743 927
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 9.79% 12.00% 12.15%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 21.53% 23.23% 26.89%
Number of salaries quoted 2,191 675 862
10th Percentile £32,500 £32,000 £32,500
25th Percentile £40,000 £37,750 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £51,000 £47,500 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year +7.37% - -
75th Percentile £65,000 £63,750 £60,000
90th Percentile £75,250 £72,500 £71,250
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £47,500
% change year-on-year - +5.26% +2.15%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a WFH option and a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
Work from Home
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 12,531 3,199 3,448
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 45.49% 51.66% 45.20%
Number of salaries quoted 9,798 2,888 3,128
10th Percentile £37,500 £36,000 £33,750
25th Percentile £45,000 £42,500 £41,750
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £60,000 £55,000 £55,000
Median % change year-on-year +9.09% - +10.00%
75th Percentile £76,250 £71,250 £72,500
90th Percentile £92,500 £85,000 £85,000
UK median annual salary £60,000 £57,500 £55,000
% change year-on-year +4.35% +4.55% +7.84%

CSS
Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

Job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

CSS trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

3-month moving average salary quoted in job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS.

CSS salary trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Histogram for Jobs with a WFH Option

Salary distribution for jobs with a work from home option citing CSS over the 6 months to 19 October 2021.

CSS salary histogram for jobs with a WFH option

For the 6 months to 19 October 2021, CSS job roles required the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent jobs with a WFH option and a requirement for CSS.

1 2,510 (93.03%) HTML
2 2,228 (82.58%) JavaScript
3 1,295 (48.00%) React
4 1,079 (39.99%) Agile Software Development
5 774 (28.69%) Front End Development
6 739 (27.39%) Git (software)
7 687 (25.46%) .NET
8 674 (24.98%) AngularJS
9 671 (24.87%) Full Stack Development
10 666 (24.68%) C#
11 634 (23.50%) HTML5
12 591 (21.91%) PHP
13 559 (20.72%) Node.js
14 539 (19.98%) jQuery
15 535 (19.83%) User Experience
16 533 (19.76%) MVC
17 521 (19.31%) TypeScript
18 520 (19.27%) Azure
19 515 (19.09%) Social Skills
20 501 (18.57%) SQL
21 497 (18.42%) Web Development
22 465 (17.23%) RESTful
23 462 (17.12%) Software Engineering
24 451 (16.72%) AWS
25 444 (16.46%) CSS3
26 429 (15.90%) Finance
27 428 (15.86%) REST
28 410 (15.20%) MySQL
29 401 (14.86%) E-Commerce
30 399 (14.79%) ASP.NET

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills with a WFH Option by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 269 (9.97%) CMS
2 159 (5.89%) WordPress
3 89 (3.30%) Umbraco
4 78 (2.89%) nginx
5 77 (2.85%) IIS
6 73 (2.71%) Elasticsearch
7 71 (2.63%) Headless CMS
8 66 (2.45%) Kentico
9 62 (2.30%) Apache Solr
10 61 (2.26%) EPiServer
11 58 (2.15%) Sitecore CMS
12 52 (1.93%) Drupal
13 51 (1.89%) SharePoint
14 44 (1.63%) Apache
15 42 (1.56%) Confluence
16 17 (0.63%) MODX
17 16 (0.59%) SharePoint 2010
18 14 (0.52%) Tomcat
19 8 (0.30%) Apache Spark
19 8 (0.30%) Moodle
Applications
1 66 (2.45%) Figma
2 62 (2.30%) Sketch
3 31 (1.15%) InVision
4 26 (0.96%) Photoshop
5 20 (0.74%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 15 (0.56%) Adobe XD
7 13 (0.48%) Adobe Illustrator
8 10 (0.37%) Microsoft Office
9 7 (0.26%) InDesign
10 6 (0.22%) MadCap Flare
11 4 (0.15%) Chatbot
11 4 (0.15%) InfoPath
11 4 (0.15%) Zeplin
12 3 (0.11%) Marvel
13 2 (0.074%) Microsoft Excel
14 1 (0.037%) Adobe After Effects
14 1 (0.037%) MS Visio
14 1 (0.037%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 57 (2.11%) Magento
2 36 (1.33%) Shopify
3 35 (1.30%) Dynamics CRM
4 21 (0.78%) NetSuite
5 16 (0.59%) SAP Business ByDesign
6 15 (0.56%) Payment Gateway
7 9 (0.33%) Summit
8 7 (0.26%) SAP S/4HANA
9 6 (0.22%) WebTrends
10 5 (0.19%) Dynamics NAV
10 5 (0.19%) Elite 3E
10 5 (0.19%) Remedy ITSM
10 5 (0.19%) SDL Web 8
11 4 (0.15%) Salesforce.com CRM
11 4 (0.15%) SAP Hybris
12 3 (0.11%) Maximo
12 3 (0.11%) nopCommerce
13 2 (0.074%) JDE OneWorld
14 1 (0.037%) Sage CRM
14 1 (0.037%) StreamServe
Cloud Services
1 520 (19.27%) Azure
2 451 (16.72%) AWS
3 340 (12.60%) SaaS
4 130 (4.82%) GitHub
5 103 (3.82%) npm
6 95 (3.52%) GCP
7 45 (1.67%) Serverless
8 30 (1.11%) Google Analytics
8 30 (1.11%) PaaS
9 29 (1.07%) Microsoft 365
10 28 (1.04%) Power Platform
10 28 (1.04%) Yarn
11 27 (1.00%) Dynamics 365
11 27 (1.00%) Heroku
12 24 (0.89%) AWS Lambda
13 23 (0.85%) Cloud Computing
14 22 (0.82%) Adobe Creative Cloud
14 22 (0.82%) Amazon EC2
14 22 (0.82%) PowerApps
15 20 (0.74%) Amazon S3
Communications & Networking
1 56 (2.08%) HTTP
2 42 (1.56%) Internet
3 35 (1.30%) Broadband
4 34 (1.26%) MQTT
5 29 (1.07%) Wireless
6 28 (1.04%) DNS
7 27 (1.00%) TCP/IP
8 25 (0.93%) Bluetooth
8 25 (0.93%) Ethernet
8 25 (0.93%) Wi-Fi
9 22 (0.82%) SSL
10 9 (0.33%) SSH
11 8 (0.30%) Intranet
11 8 (0.30%) VPN
12 5 (0.19%) DHCP
13 4 (0.15%) DAB
13 4 (0.15%) Firewall
14 3 (0.11%) AMQP
15 2 (0.074%) Network Security
15 2 (0.074%) PuTTY
Database & Business Intelligence
1 410 (15.20%) MySQL
2 359 (13.31%) SQL Server
3 148 (5.49%) NoSQL
4 132 (4.89%) Relational Database
5 129 (4.78%) MongoDB
6 119 (4.41%) PostgreSQL
7 101 (3.74%) Redis
8 45 (1.67%) Couchbase
9 42 (1.56%) Big Data
10 33 (1.22%) MariaDB
11 20 (0.74%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 20 (0.74%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 19 (0.70%) Azure SQL Database
12 19 (0.70%) SQL Server Integration Services
13 15 (0.56%) RDBMS
14 14 (0.52%) Power BI
15 13 (0.48%) Amazon RDS
15 13 (0.48%) Hadoop
15 13 (0.48%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 12 (0.44%) Blockchain
Development Applications
1 739 (27.39%) Git (software)
2 200 (7.41%) webpack
3 130 (4.82%) JIRA
4 109 (4.04%) Visual Studio
5 92 (3.41%) gulp
6 89 (3.30%) Jenkins
7 70 (2.59%) Cypress.io
8 58 (2.15%) Babel
9 49 (1.82%) Mocha
10 46 (1.70%) ReSharper
11 43 (1.59%) Bitbucket
12 42 (1.56%) GitLab
13 41 (1.52%) PHPUnit
14 39 (1.45%) Jasmine
14 39 (1.45%) Team Foundation Server
15 36 (1.33%) Grunt
16 34 (1.26%) Selenium
17 26 (0.96%) Storybook
18 25 (0.93%) TeamCity
19 21 (0.78%) git-flow
General
1 515 (19.09%) Social Skills
2 429 (15.90%) Finance
3 167 (6.19%) Marketing
4 125 (4.63%) Analytical Skills
5 110 (4.08%) Retail
6 69 (2.56%) Organisational Skills
7 65 (2.41%) Publishing
8 62 (2.30%) Games
9 50 (1.85%) Telecoms
10 42 (1.56%) Public Sector
11 39 (1.45%) Banking
12 34 (1.26%) Financial Institution
12 34 (1.26%) Legal
13 32 (1.19%) Law
14 28 (1.04%) Inclusion and Diversity
15 21 (0.78%) Billing
16 18 (0.67%) Police
17 17 (0.63%) Local Government
17 17 (0.63%) Manufacturing
18 16 (0.59%) Automotive
Job Titles
1 2,080 (77.09%) Developer
2 519 (19.24%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 403 (14.94%) Senior Developer
4 331 (12.27%) PHP Developer
5 312 (11.56%) .NET Developer
6 302 (11.19%) Full Stack Developer
7 269 (9.97%) React Developer
8 197 (7.30%) Software Developer
9 177 (6.56%) Software Engineer
10 165 (6.12%) JavaScript Developer
11 163 (6.04%) Web Developer
12 158 (5.86%) C# Developer
13 98 (3.63%) Lead Developer
14 96 (3.56%) Senior .NET Developer
15 87 (3.22%) Angular Developer
16 84 (3.11%) C# .NET Developer
17 77 (2.85%) Java Developer
18 74 (2.74%) Digital Developer
18 74 (2.74%) Senior Front-End Developer
19 71 (2.63%) Senior PHP Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 2,510 (93.03%) HTML
2 1,295 (48.00%) React
3 687 (25.46%) .NET
4 674 (24.98%) AngularJS
5 634 (23.50%) HTML5
6 559 (20.72%) Node.js
7 539 (19.98%) jQuery
8 465 (17.23%) RESTful
9 444 (16.46%) CSS3
10 428 (15.86%) REST
11 399 (14.79%) ASP.NET
12 371 (13.75%) Vue.js
13 342 (12.68%) Sass
14 295 (10.93%) Web Services
15 258 (9.56%) Redux
16 226 (8.38%) .NET Core
17 222 (8.23%) Laravel
18 205 (7.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
19 204 (7.56%) .NET Framework
20 198 (7.34%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 535 (19.83%) User Experience
2 208 (7.71%) Greenfield Project
3 146 (5.41%) Self-Motivation
4 144 (5.34%) Mobile App
5 84 (3.11%) Enterprise Software
6 77 (2.85%) e-Learning
7 67 (2.48%) Legacy Code
8 62 (2.30%) Virtual Team
9 44 (1.63%) Algorithms
9 44 (1.63%) Tandem
10 39 (1.45%) Management Information System
11 27 (1.00%) Blog
11 27 (1.00%) Data Structures
12 26 (0.96%) Device Driver
13 25 (0.93%) Embedded Systems
14 20 (0.74%) NHS
15 18 (0.67%) Hedge funds
16 14 (0.52%) Renewable Energy
17 12 (0.44%) iPad
17 12 (0.44%) N-Tier
Operating Systems
1 242 (8.97%) Linux
2 121 (4.48%) Windows
3 60 (2.22%) Windows Server
4 46 (1.70%) Android
5 40 (1.48%) Apple iOS
6 16 (0.59%) Unix
7 10 (0.37%) Ubuntu
8 7 (0.26%) Windows 10
8 7 (0.26%) Windows 7
9 6 (0.22%) CentOS
9 6 (0.22%) Windows 8
10 5 (0.19%) Fedora
10 5 (0.19%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10 5 (0.19%) Windows Server 2012
11 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2003
11 4 (0.15%) Windows Server 2016
12 3 (0.11%) Mac OS
12 3 (0.11%) Windows Server 2008
13 1 (0.037%) Mac OS X
13 1 (0.037%) VMS
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,079 (39.99%) Agile Software Development
2 774 (28.69%) Front End Development
3 671 (24.87%) Full Stack Development
4 533 (19.76%) MVC
5 497 (18.42%) Web Development
6 462 (17.12%) Software Engineering
7 401 (14.86%) E-Commerce
8 381 (14.12%) Problem-Solving
9 346 (12.82%) DevOps
10 342 (12.68%) Scrum
11 330 (12.23%) TDD
12 290 (10.75%) Microservices
13 285 (10.56%) OO
14 284 (10.53%) Unit Testing
15 207 (7.67%) Mentoring
16 198 (7.34%) Computer Science
16 198 (7.34%) Test Automation
17 185 (6.86%) OOP
18 174 (6.45%) SDLC
19 166 (6.15%) Clean Code
Programming Languages
1 2,228 (82.58%) JavaScript
2 666 (24.68%) C#
3 591 (21.91%) PHP
4 521 (19.31%) TypeScript
5 501 (18.57%) SQL
6 302 (11.19%) Java
7 263 (9.75%) Python
8 161 (5.97%) ES6
9 92 (3.41%) Ruby
10 86 (3.19%) PHP 7
11 67 (2.48%) C
12 58 (2.15%) T-SQL
13 50 (1.85%) C++
14 48 (1.78%) PowerShell
15 31 (1.15%) VB.NET
16 28 (1.04%) Go
16 28 (1.04%) Java 8
17 26 (0.96%) ES7
18 25 (0.93%) Kotlin
18 25 (0.93%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 245 (9.08%) Degree
2 119 (4.41%) Computer Science Degree
3 44 (1.63%) Security Cleared
4 27 (1.00%) SC Cleared
5 21 (0.78%) Microsoft Certification
6 11 (0.41%) PhD
7 8 (0.30%) ITIL Certification
8 6 (0.22%) AWS Certification
9 5 (0.19%) BPSS Clearance
9 5 (0.19%) Master's Degree
10 4 (0.15%) ISTQB
10 4 (0.15%) MCSE
11 3 (0.11%) ISEB
12 2 (0.074%) MCPD
13 1 (0.037%) CCNP
13 1 (0.037%) Cisco Certification
13 1 (0.037%) DBS Check
13 1 (0.037%) ISTQB Advanced Certification
13 1 (0.037%) ITIL Foundation Certificate
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 218 (8.08%) Accessibility
2 154 (5.71%) QA
3 34 (1.26%) WCAG
4 6 (0.22%) PCI DSS
5 5 (0.19%) Actionable Recommendations
5 5 (0.19%) SLA
6 1 (0.037%) Data Quality
6 1 (0.037%) Disclosure Scotland
6 1 (0.037%) GDPR
6 1 (0.037%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 1 (0.037%) NCSC
System Software
1 291 (10.79%) Docker
2 26 (0.96%) Firmware
3 7 (0.26%) Active Directory
4 3 (0.11%) Virtual Machines
5 2 (0.074%) Hyper-V
6 1 (0.037%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 96 (3.56%) Kubernetes
2 36 (1.33%) Terraform
3 29 (1.07%) Ansible
4 10 (0.37%) Grafana
5 8 (0.30%) Opscode Chef
5 8 (0.30%) Puppet
6 6 (0.22%) Kibana
6 6 (0.22%) logstash
7 5 (0.19%) Docker Swarm
7 5 (0.19%) Hadoop YARN
7 5 (0.19%) HP UCMDB
7 5 (0.19%) Packer
8 4 (0.15%) Single Sign-On
9 3 (0.11%) Istio
9 3 (0.11%) OpenNebula
10 2 (0.074%) BMC PATROL
10 2 (0.074%) Consul
10 2 (0.074%) Prometheus
11 1 (0.037%) Active Directory Federation Services
11 1 (0.037%) Nagios
Vendors
1 331 (12.27%) Microsoft
2 107 (3.97%) Google
3 92 (3.41%) Adobe
4 63 (2.34%) Sitecore
5 56 (2.08%) Oracle
6 47 (1.74%) WooCommerce
7 41 (1.52%) Zend
8 39 (1.45%) SAP
9 33 (1.22%) Salesforce.com
10 31 (1.15%) ServiceNow
11 21 (0.78%) Xamarin
12 16 (0.59%) Atlassian
13 15 (0.56%) Yahoo!
14 13 (0.48%) Telerik
15 12 (0.44%) HubSpot
16 11 (0.41%) Elastic Path
17 10 (0.37%) Bloomberg
17 10 (0.37%) HP
18 9 (0.33%) Apple
18 9 (0.33%) Remedy