Period
to 17 April 2021

The table below provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with an option to work from home (WFH) and a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 17 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
UK > Work from Home
6 months to
17 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 18 14 14
Rank change year-on-year -4 0 0
Permanent jobs citing CSS 1,821 875 983
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 11.31% 12.40% 12.39%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 24.34% 25.01% 27.28%
Number of salaries quoted 1,588 786 900
10th Percentile £31,425 £33,750 £30,500
25th Percentile £37,500 £37,500 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £50,000 £48,000 £47,500
Median % change year-on-year +4.17% +1.05% +5.56%
75th Percentile £62,500 £62,500 £62,500
90th Percentile £73,750 £73,125 £75,000
UK median annual salary £50,000 £50,000 £46,000
% change year-on-year - +8.70% +2.22%

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a WFH option and a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
Work from Home
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 7,480 3,498 3,604
As % of all permanent jobs with a WFH option 46.45% 49.57% 45.41%
Number of salaries quoted 6,471 3,095 3,197
10th Percentile £34,000 £35,000 £33,750
25th Percentile £42,500 £42,500 £42,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £55,000
75th Percentile £73,750 £73,750 £72,500
90th Percentile £88,750 £87,500 £85,000
UK median annual salary £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
% change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%

CSS
Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

Job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

CSS trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Trend for Jobs with a WFH Option

3-month moving average salary quoted in job vacancies with a work from home option citing CSS.

CSS salary trend for jobs with a WFH option

CSS
Salary Histogram for Jobs with a WFH Option

Salary distribution for jobs with a work from home option citing CSS over the 6 months to 17 April 2021.

CSS salary histogram for jobs with a WFH option

For the 6 months to 17 April 2021, CSS job roles required the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent jobs with a WFH option and a requirement for CSS.

1 1,674 (91.93%) HTML
2 1,619 (88.91%) JavaScript
3 713 (39.15%) Agile Software Development
4 680 (37.34%) React
5 548 (30.09%) C#
6 538 (29.54%) .NET
7 533 (29.27%) Git (software)
8 531 (29.16%) AngularJS
9 517 (28.39%) Front End Development
10 476 (26.14%) PHP
11 462 (25.37%) HTML5
12 444 (24.38%) SQL
13 405 (22.24%) MVC
14 376 (20.65%) TypeScript
15 373 (20.48%) Vue.js
16 368 (20.21%) Web Development
17 362 (19.88%) Azure
18 356 (19.55%) Node.js
19 354 (19.44%) SQL Server
20 350 (19.22%) CSS3
21 349 (19.17%) MySQL
22 339 (18.62%) User Experience
23 307 (16.86%) AWS
24 303 (16.64%) jQuery
25 289 (15.87%) ASP.NET
26 285 (15.65%) Sass
27 280 (15.38%) DevOps
28 278 (15.27%) Software Engineering
29 277 (15.21%) RESTful
30 246 (13.51%) Laravel

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills with a WFH Option by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 145 (7.96%) CMS
2 114 (6.26%) WordPress
3 71 (3.90%) Umbraco
4 44 (2.42%) Sitecore CMS
5 42 (2.31%) Elasticsearch
5 42 (2.31%) Kentico
6 41 (2.25%) IIS
7 39 (2.14%) Apache
7 39 (2.14%) SharePoint
8 35 (1.92%) EPiServer
9 33 (1.81%) Drupal
10 32 (1.76%) Confluence
11 24 (1.32%) nginx
12 15 (0.82%) Apache Solr
13 13 (0.71%) Tomcat
14 8 (0.44%) WebLogic
15 5 (0.27%) JBoss
15 5 (0.27%) SugarCRM
16 4 (0.22%) Jadu
16 4 (0.22%) Moodle
Applications
1 32 (1.76%) Sketch
2 24 (1.32%) InVision
3 17 (0.93%) Photoshop
4 13 (0.71%) Figma
5 11 (0.60%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 10 (0.55%) Adobe XD
7 6 (0.33%) Microsoft Office
8 5 (0.27%) Chatbot
9 4 (0.22%) Adobe Illustrator
9 4 (0.22%) Zeplin
10 3 (0.16%) GIMP
11 2 (0.11%) InDesign
11 2 (0.11%) Marvel
11 2 (0.11%) Microsoft Excel
12 1 (0.055%) Adobe After Effects
12 1 (0.055%) Adobe Premiere
12 1 (0.055%) Fireworks
12 1 (0.055%) Gephi
12 1 (0.055%) Inkscape
12 1 (0.055%) UXPin
Business Applications
1 48 (2.64%) Shopify
2 41 (2.25%) Magento
3 14 (0.77%) nopCommerce
4 12 (0.66%) Payment Gateway
5 10 (0.55%) Dynamics CRM
6 4 (0.22%) Remedy ITSM
7 3 (0.16%) Maximo
8 2 (0.11%) NetSuite
8 2 (0.11%) SAP CRM
8 2 (0.11%) SAP ERP
8 2 (0.11%) SAP Hybris
8 2 (0.11%) SAP S/4HANA
9 1 (0.055%) JDE OneWorld
Cloud Services
1 362 (19.88%) Azure
2 307 (16.86%) AWS
3 174 (9.56%) SaaS
4 88 (4.83%) Serverless
5 85 (4.67%) GitHub
6 71 (3.90%) GCP
7 69 (3.79%) npm
8 45 (2.47%) AWS Lambda
9 41 (2.25%) PaaS
10 37 (2.03%) Amazon S3
11 27 (1.48%) Amazon EC2
12 22 (1.21%) CloudFront
13 21 (1.15%) IaaS
14 20 (1.10%) Google Analytics
15 19 (1.04%) Power Platform
16 18 (0.99%) Amazon Cognito
17 17 (0.93%) Logic Apps
18 16 (0.88%) AWS CloudFormation
18 16 (0.88%) Cloud Computing
19 14 (0.77%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 64 (3.51%) HTTP
2 33 (1.81%) Internet
3 14 (0.77%) DNS
3 14 (0.77%) Network Security
4 13 (0.71%) SSH
5 10 (0.55%) VPN
6 6 (0.33%) SSL
7 5 (0.27%) TCP/IP
8 3 (0.16%) Ethernet
9 2 (0.11%) DHCP
9 2 (0.11%) Firewall
9 2 (0.11%) HTTPS
9 2 (0.11%) Skype
9 2 (0.11%) SMTP
10 1 (0.055%) BIG-IP
10 1 (0.055%) Cisco ASA
10 1 (0.055%) Cisco Firepower
10 1 (0.055%) SD-WAN
10 1 (0.055%) VLAN
10 1 (0.055%) Wireshark
Database & Business Intelligence
1 354 (19.44%) SQL Server
2 349 (19.17%) MySQL
3 111 (6.10%) NoSQL
4 85 (4.67%) MongoDB
5 73 (4.01%) PostgreSQL
6 62 (3.40%) Relational Database
7 34 (1.87%) Redis
8 31 (1.70%) Big Data
9 27 (1.48%) Amazon RDS
10 18 (0.99%) Cosmos DB
11 15 (0.82%) Azure SQL Database
12 12 (0.66%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 9 (0.49%) MariaDB
13 9 (0.49%) Power BI
13 9 (0.49%) SQL Server 2012
14 8 (0.44%) Data Warehouse
14 8 (0.44%) RDBMS
14 8 (0.44%) SQL Server Integration Services
15 6 (0.33%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 6 (0.33%) Apache Cassandra
Development Applications
1 533 (29.27%) Git (software)
2 88 (4.83%) webpack
3 85 (4.67%) JIRA
4 76 (4.17%) Jenkins
5 68 (3.73%) Visual Studio
6 50 (2.75%) gulp
7 45 (2.47%) Team Foundation Server
8 38 (2.09%) Cypress.io
8 38 (2.09%) Selenium
9 37 (2.03%) Bitbucket
10 32 (1.76%) Visual Studio Team System
11 26 (1.43%) GitLab
12 24 (1.32%) Subversion
13 21 (1.15%) Maven
14 19 (1.04%) Octopus Deploy
15 18 (0.99%) JUnit
15 18 (0.99%) Mocha
16 16 (0.88%) Cucumber
16 16 (0.88%) Jasmine
16 16 (0.88%) TeamCity
General
1 179 (9.83%) Finance
2 119 (6.53%) Marketing
3 117 (6.43%) Retail
4 57 (3.13%) Games
5 38 (2.09%) Law
6 34 (1.87%) Public Sector
7 32 (1.76%) Back Office
8 28 (1.54%) Telecoms
9 21 (1.15%) Banking
9 21 (1.15%) Manufacturing
10 18 (0.99%) Advertising
11 15 (0.82%) Pharmaceutical
12 14 (0.77%) Legal
13 12 (0.66%) Electronics
13 12 (0.66%) Front Office
14 11 (0.60%) Local Government
15 10 (0.55%) Financial Institution
16 6 (0.33%) Automotive
16 6 (0.33%) Publishing
17 2 (0.11%) Aerospace
Job Titles
1 1,467 (80.56%) Developer
2 336 (18.45%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 281 (15.43%) Senior Developer
4 269 (14.77%) PHP Developer
5 248 (13.62%) Full Stack Developer
6 224 (12.30%) React Developer
7 190 (10.43%) .NET Developer
8 148 (8.13%) Web Developer
9 141 (7.74%) Software Developer
10 132 (7.25%) C# Developer
11 96 (5.27%) C# .NET Developer
12 94 (5.16%) JavaScript Developer
13 84 (4.61%) Software Engineer
14 69 (3.79%) Angular Developer
15 66 (3.62%) PHP Laravel Developer
16 62 (3.40%) Junior
16 62 (3.40%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 58 (3.19%) Senior PHP Developer
18 57 (3.13%) Senior Full Stack Developer
19 56 (3.08%) Junior Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 1,674 (91.93%) HTML
2 680 (37.34%) React
3 538 (29.54%) .NET
4 531 (29.16%) AngularJS
5 462 (25.37%) HTML5
6 373 (20.48%) Vue.js
7 356 (19.55%) Node.js
8 350 (19.22%) CSS3
9 303 (16.64%) jQuery
10 289 (15.87%) ASP.NET
11 285 (15.65%) Sass
12 277 (15.21%) RESTful
13 246 (13.51%) Laravel
14 230 (12.63%) REST
15 187 (10.27%) .NET Core
16 176 (9.67%) Redux
17 173 (9.50%) .NET Framework
18 169 (9.28%) Twitter Bootstrap
19 159 (8.73%) Web Services
20 122 (6.70%) ASP.NET Web API
Miscellaneous
1 339 (18.62%) User Experience
2 162 (8.90%) Greenfield Project
3 115 (6.32%) Mobile App
4 84 (4.61%) Self-Motivation
5 69 (3.79%) Analytical Skills
6 59 (3.24%) Virtual Team
7 47 (2.58%) Enterprise Software
8 24 (1.32%) Cloud Native
9 22 (1.21%) NHS
10 20 (1.10%) N-Tier
11 19 (1.04%) Hedge funds
12 17 (0.93%) Linux Command Line
13 16 (0.88%) iPad
14 13 (0.71%) Life Science
14 13 (0.71%) Public Cloud
15 12 (0.66%) Social Media
16 11 (0.60%) Client/Server
17 10 (0.55%) Web 2.0
18 9 (0.49%) Blog
18 9 (0.49%) Online Games
Operating Systems
1 145 (7.96%) Linux
2 97 (5.33%) Windows
3 46 (2.53%) Android
4 40 (2.20%) Windows Server
5 37 (2.03%) Apple iOS
6 21 (1.15%) Unix
7 17 (0.93%) Ubuntu
8 12 (0.66%) Debian
9 6 (0.33%) Windows Server 2008
10 5 (0.27%) VMS
11 3 (0.16%) CentOS
11 3 (0.16%) Windows 10
12 2 (0.11%) Alpine Linux
12 2 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
13 1 (0.055%) Windows 7
13 1 (0.055%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 713 (39.15%) Agile Software Development
2 517 (28.39%) Front End Development
3 405 (22.24%) MVC
4 368 (20.21%) Web Development
5 280 (15.38%) DevOps
6 278 (15.27%) Software Engineering
7 246 (13.51%) E-Commerce
8 240 (13.18%) Scrum
9 206 (11.31%) Microservices
10 198 (10.87%) TDD
11 188 (10.32%) OO
12 156 (8.57%) Problem-Solving
13 144 (7.91%) Test Automation
14 118 (6.48%) OOP
15 115 (6.32%) SDLC
16 106 (5.82%) Mentoring
17 103 (5.66%) Unit Testing
18 90 (4.94%) BDD
18 90 (4.94%) Computer Science
18 90 (4.94%) Continuous Integration
Programming Languages
1 1,619 (88.91%) JavaScript
2 548 (30.09%) C#
3 476 (26.14%) PHP
4 444 (24.38%) SQL
5 376 (20.65%) TypeScript
6 213 (11.70%) Java
7 146 (8.02%) Python
8 102 (5.60%) ES6
9 96 (5.27%) T-SQL
10 40 (2.20%) Ruby
11 31 (1.70%) PHP 7
12 29 (1.59%) VB.NET
13 25 (1.37%) Bash Shell
13 25 (1.37%) Shell Script
14 19 (1.04%) C
15 17 (0.93%) Scala
16 15 (0.82%) Go
17 14 (0.77%) Java 8
18 13 (0.71%) Apex Code
18 13 (0.71%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 119 (6.53%) Degree
2 45 (2.47%) Computer Science Degree
3 21 (1.15%) Security Cleared
4 17 (0.93%) SC Cleared
5 12 (0.66%) Microsoft Certification
6 9 (0.49%) PMI Certification
7 8 (0.44%) PhD
8 7 (0.38%) AWS Certification
9 5 (0.27%) Six Sigma Black Belt
10 4 (0.22%) BPSS Clearance
10 4 (0.22%) PRINCE2 Certification
11 2 (0.11%) MCPD
11 2 (0.11%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.055%) CCNP
12 1 (0.055%) Cisco Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 60 (3.29%) QA
2 14 (0.77%) WAI
3 9 (0.49%) WCAG
4 7 (0.38%) Actionable Recommendations
5 5 (0.27%) PCI DSS
6 3 (0.16%) ISO/IEC 20000
6 3 (0.16%) SLA
7 2 (0.11%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 2 (0.11%) PMO
8 1 (0.055%) GDPR
System Software
1 221 (12.14%) Docker
2 11 (0.60%) Active Directory
3 2 (0.11%) Firmware
4 1 (0.055%) Hyper-V
4 1 (0.055%) Varnish
4 1 (0.055%) Virtual Machines
4 1 (0.055%) VMware ESXi
4 1 (0.055%) VMware Infrastructure
4 1 (0.055%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 91 (5.00%) Kubernetes
2 37 (2.03%) Ansible
3 30 (1.65%) Terraform
4 14 (0.77%) Puppet
5 12 (0.66%) Packer
6 10 (0.55%) Prometheus
7 6 (0.33%) HP Fortify
8 5 (0.27%) Docker Swarm
9 4 (0.22%) HP UCMDB
10 3 (0.16%) Opscode Chef
11 2 (0.11%) Istio
11 2 (0.11%) Single Sign-On
12 1 (0.055%) FortiGate
12 1 (0.055%) Grafana
12 1 (0.055%) Microsoft Clustering
12 1 (0.055%) MIIS
12 1 (0.055%) Rundeck
12 1 (0.055%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 212 (11.64%) Microsoft
2 62 (3.40%) Adobe
3 57 (3.13%) Google
4 46 (2.53%) Zend
5 44 (2.42%) Sitecore
6 30 (1.65%) Oracle
7 26 (1.43%) Salesforce.com
8 22 (1.21%) WooCommerce
9 16 (0.88%) SAP
10 12 (0.66%) Atlassian
10 12 (0.66%) Sage
11 11 (0.60%) Xamarin
12 10 (0.55%) FNZ
12 10 (0.55%) HP
12 10 (0.55%) Yahoo!
13 9 (0.49%) Remedy
13 9 (0.49%) Twitter
14 8 (0.44%) Blue Prism
14 8 (0.44%) Sencha
15 7 (0.38%) Databricks