Period
to 2 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for permanent job vacancies with a requirement for Artificial Intelligence skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the salaries offered in vacancies that have cited Artificial Intelligence over the 6 months to 2 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
UK
6 months to
2 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 87 110 136
Rank change year-on-year +23 +26 +60
Permanent jobs citing Artificial Intelligence 4,162 1,993 3,845
As % of all permanent jobs advertised in the UK 3.68% 2.94% 2.67%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 3.92% 3.16% 2.88%
Number of salaries quoted 2,260 1,723 2,958
10th Percentile £37,500 £38,950 £35,000
25th Percentile £47,500 £46,250 £45,000
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £65,000 £65,000 £62,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.00% +4.17%
75th Percentile £86,250 £85,000 £82,500
90th Percentile £102,500 £103,750 £102,500
UK excluding London median annual salary £55,000 £54,500 £52,500
% change year-on-year +0.92% +3.81% -4.55%

Artificial Intelligence is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all permanent job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Permanent vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 106,102 62,992 133,680
As % of all permanent IT jobs advertised in the UK 93.76% 92.77% 92.68%
Number of salaries quoted 72,296 50,993 106,655
10th Percentile £32,500 £32,500 £30,000
25th Percentile £42,222 £41,250 £37,500
Median annual salary (50th Percentile) £55,000 £55,000 £52,500
Median % change year-on-year - +4.76% +5.00%
75th Percentile £75,000 £73,750 £70,000
90th Percentile £92,500 £90,000 £86,250
UK excluding London median annual salary £50,000 £47,500 £45,000
% change year-on-year +5.26% +5.56% -

Artificial Intelligence
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Artificial Intelligence as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Salary Trend

3-month moving average salary quoted in jobs citing Artificial Intelligence.

Salary trend for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Salary Histogram

Salary distribution for jobs citing Artificial Intelligence over the 6 months to 2 August 2021.

Salary histogram for Artificial Intelligence in the UK

Artificial Intelligence
Top 17 Job Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median salaries quoted in IT jobs citing Artificial Intelligence within the UK over the 6 months to 2 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Permanent
IT Job Ads
Median Salary
Past 6 Months
Median Salary
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +23 3,807 £65,000 - 537
London +21 2,487 £75,000 - 265
UK excluding London +5 1,426 £55,000 +0.92% 308
Work from Home -4 857 £65,000 - 141
South East -26 465 £52,500 -4.55% 62
South West +7 219 £51,000 +2.00% 47
North of England -9 208 £55,000 +4.76% 71
East of England +21 193 £40,000 -27.27% 50
Midlands -17 158 £57,500 +4.55% 34
North West +13 149 £55,000 +10.00% 44
West Midlands -33 123 £57,500 +9.52% 27
Northern Ireland +22 89 £75,000 +36.36% 6
Scotland -58 82 £47,500 -7.73% 27
Yorkshire -42 53 £55,000 -2.22% 21
East Midlands -32 34 £53,750 +13.16% 7
Wales -23 16 £42,500 - 12
North East -34 6 £45,000 -16.28% 6

For the 6 months to 2 August 2021, IT jobs citing Artificial Intelligence also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all permanent job ads with a requirement for Artificial Intelligence.

1 1,877 (45.10%) Machine Learning
2 1,831 (43.99%) Python
3 1,604 (38.54%) Agile Software Development
4 1,443 (34.67%) AWS
5 1,342 (32.24%) Data Science
6 1,300 (31.23%) Software Engineering
7 1,256 (30.18%) Analytics
8 1,052 (25.28%) SQL
9 1,009 (24.24%) Docker
10 999 (24.00%) Azure
11 984 (23.64%) JavaScript
12 945 (22.71%) Big Data
13 866 (20.81%) Kubernetes
14 831 (19.97%) Finance
15 807 (19.39%) DevOps
16 793 (19.05%) Social Skills
17 784 (18.84%) GCP
18 780 (18.74%) Java
19 777 (18.67%) React
20 747 (17.95%) Degree
21 721 (17.32%) Microservices
22 670 (16.10%) Computer Science
23 552 (13.26%) Full Stack Development
24 507 (12.18%) User Experience
25 497 (11.94%) Node.js
26 483 (11.60%) C#
27 482 (11.58%) Scrum
28 458 (11.00%) Test Automation
29 452 (10.86%) Algorithms
30 444 (10.67%) Problem-Solving

Artificial Intelligence
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 303 (7.28%) Apache Spark
2 231 (5.55%) Elasticsearch
3 113 (2.72%) Confluence
4 88 (2.11%) Apache
5 85 (2.04%) Apache Airflow
6 54 (1.30%) SAS
7 46 (1.11%) CMS
8 32 (0.77%) SharePoint
9 19 (0.46%) IBM Domino
9 19 (0.46%) Tomcat
10 17 (0.41%) Gunicorn
10 17 (0.41%) nginx
11 13 (0.31%) WordPress
12 11 (0.26%) Drupal
13 9 (0.22%) Jupyter
14 8 (0.19%) Apache Solr
14 8 (0.19%) IIS
14 8 (0.19%) OpenStack
15 7 (0.17%) Sitecore CMS
15 7 (0.17%) Umbraco
Applications
1 77 (1.85%) Microsoft Excel
2 69 (1.66%) Chatbot
3 35 (0.84%) Microsoft Office
4 28 (0.67%) Campfire
5 25 (0.60%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 17 (0.41%) Figma
7 16 (0.38%) MS Visio
8 14 (0.34%) Photoshop
8 14 (0.34%) Simulink
9 12 (0.29%) Adobe Illustrator
9 12 (0.29%) SOLIDWORKS
10 11 (0.26%) Sketch
11 6 (0.14%) Adobe XD
12 5 (0.12%) Fireworks
12 5 (0.12%) Stateflow
13 4 (0.096%) GIMP
13 4 (0.096%) Inkscape
13 4 (0.096%) SPSS
14 3 (0.072%) InfoPath
14 3 (0.072%) Quicktime
Business Applications
1 10 (0.24%) Primavera
2 8 (0.19%) HFM
2 8 (0.19%) Hyperion Planning
3 5 (0.12%) Academy Revenues and Benefits
3 5 (0.12%) Dynamics CRM
4 4 (0.096%) Adobe Campaign
4 4 (0.096%) FINCAD Analytics
4 4 (0.096%) Magento
4 4 (0.096%) Maximo
4 4 (0.096%) Oracle BPM
4 4 (0.096%) Remedy ITSM
4 4 (0.096%) Salesforce.com CRM
4 4 (0.096%) Summit
5 3 (0.072%) Distributed Ledger
5 3 (0.072%) SAP Oil and Gas
6 2 (0.048%) NetSuite
6 2 (0.048%) Oracle EBS
6 2 (0.048%) Remedy AR System
6 2 (0.048%) Temenos T24
6 2 (0.048%) Workfront
Cloud Services
1 1,443 (34.67%) AWS
2 999 (24.00%) Azure
3 784 (18.84%) GCP
4 398 (9.56%) Serverless
5 309 (7.42%) SaaS
6 236 (5.67%) Power Platform
7 201 (4.83%) AWS Lambda
8 132 (3.17%) Amazon S3
9 129 (3.10%) Cloud Computing
10 109 (2.62%) Amazon ECS
11 108 (2.59%) Amazon EC2
12 105 (2.52%) Snowflake
13 93 (2.23%) PaaS
14 92 (2.21%) GitHub
15 80 (1.92%) Amazon EMR
16 73 (1.75%) IBM Cloud
17 70 (1.68%) AWS CloudFormation
18 52 (1.25%) CloudFront
19 49 (1.18%) Azure Data Factory
20 48 (1.15%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 105 (2.52%) Broadband
2 69 (1.66%) Internet
3 43 (1.03%) HTTP
4 35 (0.84%) 5G
4 35 (0.84%) Firewall
5 24 (0.58%) SSL
6 18 (0.43%) Network Security
7 15 (0.36%) TCP/IP
8 14 (0.34%) 4G
9 13 (0.31%) SSH
10 8 (0.19%) DNS
10 8 (0.19%) Wireshark
11 7 (0.17%) WAN
11 7 (0.17%) Wireless
12 6 (0.14%) LAN
12 6 (0.14%) MQTT
13 5 (0.12%) MPLS
13 5 (0.12%) RFID
13 5 (0.12%) VPN
14 4 (0.096%) DSL
Database & Business Intelligence
1 945 (22.71%) Big Data
2 432 (10.38%) NoSQL
3 323 (7.76%) PostgreSQL
4 234 (5.62%) MongoDB
5 225 (5.41%) Hadoop
6 214 (5.14%) Power BI
7 191 (4.59%) Relational Database
8 187 (4.49%) Data Warehouse
9 185 (4.44%) Tableau
10 164 (3.94%) SQL Server
11 158 (3.80%) MySQL
12 136 (3.27%) Data Lake
13 132 (3.17%) Amazon Athena
14 126 (3.03%) Amazon Redshift
15 123 (2.96%) Redis
16 117 (2.81%) Neo4j
17 97 (2.33%) GIS
18 93 (2.23%) Amazon DynamoDB
19 83 (1.99%) Blockchain
20 81 (1.95%) BigQuery
Development Applications
1 374 (8.99%) Git (software)
2 322 (7.74%) Jenkins
3 239 (5.74%) JIRA
4 96 (2.31%) Atlassian Bamboo
5 93 (2.23%) Vagrant
6 76 (1.83%) Cypress.io
7 59 (1.42%) webpack
8 49 (1.18%) Bitbucket
9 46 (1.11%) CircleCI
10 37 (0.89%) Visual Studio
11 35 (0.84%) GitLab
12 32 (0.77%) Team Foundation Server
13 31 (0.74%) Babel
13 31 (0.74%) Hudson
14 30 (0.72%) Jasmine
15 29 (0.70%) Gradle
15 29 (0.70%) gulp
16 26 (0.62%) Maven
16 26 (0.62%) Selenium
17 25 (0.60%) Cucumber
General
1 831 (19.97%) Finance
2 793 (19.05%) Social Skills
3 409 (9.83%) Analytical Skills
4 257 (6.17%) Banking
5 225 (5.41%) Marketing
6 222 (5.33%) Games
7 216 (5.19%) Retail
8 170 (4.08%) Legal
9 157 (3.77%) Presentation Skills
10 139 (3.34%) Telecoms
11 137 (3.29%) Law
12 115 (2.76%) Public Sector
13 105 (2.52%) Manufacturing
14 104 (2.50%) Pharmaceutical
15 89 (2.14%) Influencing Skills
16 60 (1.44%) Front Office
17 59 (1.42%) Investment Banking
18 55 (1.32%) Electronics
19 48 (1.15%) Financial Institution
20 44 (1.06%) Inclusion and Diversity
Job Titles
1 1,118 (26.86%) Developer
2 529 (12.71%) Software Engineer
3 347 (8.34%) Architect
4 321 (7.71%) Data Engineer
5 231 (5.55%) Senior Developer
6 228 (5.48%) Full Stack Developer
7 209 (5.02%) Consultant
8 168 (4.04%) Data Scientist
9 160 (3.84%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
10 144 (3.46%) Senior Software Engineer
11 143 (3.44%) Python Engineer
12 134 (3.22%) AWS Engineer
13 125 (3.00%) DevOps Engineer
14 116 (2.79%) Solutions Architect
15 115 (2.76%) Data Architect
16 113 (2.72%) Analyst
17 112 (2.69%) JavaScript Developer
18 108 (2.59%) Java Developer
19 106 (2.55%) Lead Developer
20 103 (2.47%) Python Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 777 (18.67%) React
2 497 (11.94%) Node.js
3 419 (10.07%) AngularJS
4 411 (9.88%) HTML
5 408 (9.80%) CSS
6 388 (9.32%) .NET
7 338 (8.12%) REST
8 292 (7.02%) Kafka
9 238 (5.72%) Web Services
10 237 (5.69%) Vue.js
11 215 (5.17%) TensorFlow
12 196 (4.71%) RESTful
13 180 (4.32%) HTML5
14 174 (4.18%) Redux
15 167 (4.01%) Django
16 164 (3.94%) GraphQL
17 157 (3.77%) PyTorch
18 143 (3.44%) .NET Core
19 126 (3.03%) NumPy
20 108 (2.59%) scikit-learn
Miscellaneous
1 507 (12.18%) User Experience
2 452 (10.86%) Algorithms
3 156 (3.75%) Hedge funds
4 151 (3.63%) Cloud Native
5 147 (3.53%) Robotics
6 129 (3.10%) Data Structures
7 125 (3.00%) Greenfield Project
8 121 (2.91%) Social Media
9 116 (2.79%) Hybrid Cloud
10 110 (2.64%) Self-Motivation
11 99 (2.38%) Cyberattack
12 92 (2.21%) Public Cloud
13 85 (2.04%) Mobile App
14 73 (1.75%) Virtual Team
15 72 (1.73%) Pricing Data
16 62 (1.49%) Life Science
17 58 (1.39%) NHS
18 56 (1.35%) Blog
19 54 (1.30%) Data Centre
19 54 (1.30%) Fixed Income
Operating Systems
1 402 (9.66%) Linux
2 99 (2.38%) Android
3 81 (1.95%) Apple iOS
4 76 (1.83%) Unix
5 72 (1.73%) Windows
6 50 (1.20%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 43 (1.03%) CentOS
8 26 (0.62%) Embedded Linux
9 12 (0.29%) Ubuntu
10 7 (0.17%) SUSE
11 6 (0.14%) Mesosphere
11 6 (0.14%) Windows 10
12 4 (0.096%) Windows Server
13 3 (0.072%) Debian
13 3 (0.072%) Windows 7
14 2 (0.048%) Mac OS
14 2 (0.048%) Solaris
15 1 (0.024%) Mac OS X
15 1 (0.024%) VMS
15 1 (0.024%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,877 (45.10%) Machine Learning
2 1,604 (38.54%) Agile Software Development
3 1,342 (32.24%) Data Science
4 1,300 (31.23%) Software Engineering
5 1,256 (30.18%) Analytics
6 807 (19.39%) DevOps
7 721 (17.32%) Microservices
8 670 (16.10%) Computer Science
9 552 (13.26%) Full Stack Development
10 482 (11.58%) Scrum
11 458 (11.00%) Test Automation
12 444 (10.67%) Problem-Solving
13 438 (10.52%) Visualisation
14 425 (10.21%) Continuous Integration
15 415 (9.97%) Mentoring
16 390 (9.37%) Business Intelligence
17 358 (8.60%) Mathematics
18 354 (8.51%) Data Engineering
19 352 (8.46%) Open Source
20 328 (7.88%) ETL
Programming Languages
1 1,831 (43.99%) Python
2 1,052 (25.28%) SQL
3 984 (23.64%) JavaScript
4 780 (18.74%) Java
5 483 (11.60%) C#
6 423 (10.16%) TypeScript
7 366 (8.79%) C++
8 262 (6.30%) Go
9 240 (5.77%) C
10 186 (4.47%) Scala
11 153 (3.68%) R
12 95 (2.28%) Bash Shell
13 91 (2.19%) ES6
14 78 (1.87%) Ruby
15 74 (1.78%) PHP
16 59 (1.42%) Kotlin
16 59 (1.42%) Shell Script
17 54 (1.30%) PowerShell
18 49 (1.18%) MATLAB
19 36 (0.86%) Perl
Qualifications
1 747 (17.95%) Degree
2 282 (6.78%) Computer Science Degree
3 203 (4.88%) PhD
4 156 (3.75%) Security Cleared
5 69 (1.66%) Master's Degree
6 68 (1.63%) SC Cleared
7 37 (0.89%) AWS Certification
8 33 (0.79%) DV Cleared
9 29 (0.70%) BPSS Clearance
10 26 (0.62%) Numerate Degree
11 14 (0.34%) DBS Check
12 13 (0.31%) MBA
12 13 (0.31%) Microsoft Certification
13 9 (0.22%) ACCA
13 9 (0.22%) CISSP
13 9 (0.22%) MCSA
13 9 (0.22%) Postgraduate
14 8 (0.19%) CIMA
15 7 (0.17%) HNC
15 7 (0.17%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 275 (6.61%) QA
2 101 (2.43%) GDPR
3 81 (1.95%) Data Quality
4 46 (1.11%) Accessibility
5 25 (0.60%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 24 (0.58%) CDISC
6 24 (0.58%) WCAG
7 20 (0.48%) GRC
8 14 (0.34%) PMO
8 14 (0.34%) SLA
9 12 (0.29%) GxP
10 9 (0.22%) Good Clinical Practice
11 8 (0.19%) ISO 13485
12 7 (0.17%) HIPAA
12 7 (0.17%) IEC 62304
12 7 (0.17%) ISO 9001
12 7 (0.17%) WAI
13 5 (0.12%) Dodd-Frank
13 5 (0.12%) EMIR
13 5 (0.12%) MiFID
System Software
1 1,009 (24.24%) Docker
2 74 (1.78%) VirtualBox
3 21 (0.50%) Firmware
4 16 (0.38%) Virtual Machines
5 15 (0.36%) VMware Infrastructure
6 8 (0.19%) Active Directory
7 7 (0.17%) Ceph
8 6 (0.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
9 3 (0.072%) Hyper-V
9 3 (0.072%) KVM
9 3 (0.072%) VMware ESXi
10 2 (0.048%) HDFS
10 2 (0.048%) iptables
10 2 (0.048%) Postfix
10 2 (0.048%) Sendmail
11 1 (0.024%) Oracle RAC
11 1 (0.024%) Slurm Workload Manager
11 1 (0.024%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 866 (20.81%) Kubernetes
2 346 (8.31%) Terraform
3 273 (6.56%) Ansible
4 103 (2.47%) Docker Swarm
5 82 (1.97%) Prometheus
6 73 (1.75%) Puppet
7 64 (1.54%) Grafana
8 60 (1.44%) Opscode Chef
9 26 (0.62%) Consul
9 26 (0.62%) Packer
10 19 (0.46%) Salt
11 18 (0.43%) Graphite
11 18 (0.43%) Nagios
11 18 (0.43%) Opsview
11 18 (0.43%) ZABBIX
12 16 (0.38%) Kubeflow
13 15 (0.36%) Kibana
14 12 (0.29%) Kustomize
15 11 (0.26%) Mesos
16 10 (0.24%) Istio
Vendors
1 405 (9.73%) Google
2 253 (6.08%) Microsoft
3 96 (2.31%) IBM
4 92 (2.21%) Cloudera
5 91 (2.19%) Oracle
6 86 (2.07%) Databricks
7 77 (1.85%) Hortonworks
8 73 (1.75%) Talend
9 69 (1.66%) Informatica
10 54 (1.30%) Red Hat
11 51 (1.23%) SAP
12 45 (1.08%) Instagram
13 43 (1.03%) Yahoo!
14 40 (0.96%) Salesforce.com
15 36 (0.86%) Facebook
16 29 (0.70%) Dell
17 26 (0.62%) YouTube
18 21 (0.50%) VMware
19 20 (0.48%) Adobe
19 20 (0.48%) Cognos