Period
to 1 August 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 1 August 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
Central London > City of London
6 months to
1 Aug 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 51 40 29
Rank change year-on-year -11 -11 -7
Contract jobs citing CSS 148 120 443
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the City of London 4.33% 5.14% 6.78%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 12.76% 15.36% 18.63%
Number of daily rates quoted 113 95 373
10th Percentile £363 £333 £363
25th Percentile £414 £425 £425
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £473 £513 £500
Median % change year-on-year -7.80% +2.50% +5.26%
75th Percentile £550 £588 £563
90th Percentile £618 £831 £625
Central London median daily rate £475 £503 £500
% change year-on-year -5.47% +0.50% +5.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 3 1 0
Median hourly rate £36.50 £24.00 -
Median % change year-on-year +52.08% - -
Central London median hourly rate £36.50 £24.00 -
% change year-on-year +52.08% - -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
City of London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 1,160 781 2,378
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the City of London 33.95% 33.48% 36.38%
Number of daily rates quoted 887 606 1,928
10th Percentile £406 £375 £413
25th Percentile £463 £450 £465
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £585 £525 £525
Median % change year-on-year +11.43% - -
75th Percentile £650 £625 £602
90th Percentile £725 £688 £675
Central London median daily rate £575 £525 £525
% change year-on-year +9.52% - +0.48%
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 7 10
10th Percentile £15.88 £29.05 £20.15
25th Percentile £20.00 £34.75 £24.81
Median hourly rate £30.25 £39.00 £38.37
Median % change year-on-year -22.44% +1.64% +74.42%
75th Percentile £37.75 £52.63 £48.56
90th Percentile £47.43 £59.00 £56.50
Central London median hourly rate £35.00 £39.00 £41.75
% change year-on-year -10.26% -6.58% +89.75%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in the City of London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in the City of London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in the City of London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in the City of London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in the City of London over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in the City of London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in the City of London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in the City of London over the 6 months to 1 August 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in the City of London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the City of London region over the 6 months to 1 August 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London Bridge - 2 £625 -
CSS
Central London

For the 6 months to 1 August 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the City of London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 142 (95.95%) HTML
2 123 (83.11%) JavaScript
3 62 (41.89%) HTML5
4 55 (37.16%) AngularJS
5 50 (33.78%) React
6 46 (31.08%) Sass
7 45 (30.41%) CSS3
8 43 (29.05%) Agile Software Development
9 41 (27.70%) TDD
10 39 (26.35%) Git (software)
11 37 (25.00%) Front End Development
11 37 (25.00%) Full Stack Development
12 33 (22.30%) Azure
13 32 (21.62%) SQL
14 31 (20.95%) Node.js
14 31 (20.95%) DevOps
15 30 (20.27%) Web Services
16 29 (19.59%) AWS
16 29 (19.59%) User Experience
17 26 (17.57%) jQuery
17 26 (17.57%) Software Engineering
18 25 (16.89%) Java
18 25 (16.89%) LESS
19 24 (16.22%) MVC
19 24 (16.22%) TypeScript
19 24 (16.22%) Vue.js
20 23 (15.54%) Docker
20 23 (15.54%) Jenkins
21 22 (14.86%) C#
21 22 (14.86%) PHP

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in the City of London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 15 (10.14%) SharePoint
2 9 (6.08%) SharePoint 2010
3 5 (3.38%) Drupal
3 5 (3.38%) Oracle SOA Suite
4 4 (2.70%) CMS
5 3 (2.03%) Confluence
6 2 (1.35%) JBoss
7 1 (0.68%) Apache
7 1 (0.68%) Apache Solr
7 1 (0.68%) Appian
7 1 (0.68%) IIS
7 1 (0.68%) Moodle
7 1 (0.68%) nginx
7 1 (0.68%) WordPress
Applications
1 9 (6.08%) InfoPath
2 1 (0.68%) Adobe After Effects
2 1 (0.68%) Adobe Illustrator
2 1 (0.68%) Adobe Premiere
2 1 (0.68%) InDesign
2 1 (0.68%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.68%) Photoshop
2 1 (0.68%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 3 (2.03%) Magento
2 1 (0.68%) Payment Gateway
Cloud Services
1 33 (22.30%) Azure
2 29 (19.59%) AWS
3 15 (10.14%) Power Platform
4 14 (9.46%) Microsoft 365
5 9 (6.08%) Slack
5 9 (6.08%) Workato
6 5 (3.38%) Azure Logic Apps
6 5 (3.38%) Power Automate
6 5 (3.38%) PowerApps
7 4 (2.70%) npm
8 3 (2.03%) GitHub
8 3 (2.03%) SaaS
8 3 (2.03%) Serverless
9 2 (1.35%) Adobe Creative Cloud
9 2 (1.35%) AWS CloudFormation
9 2 (1.35%) AWS Lambda
10 1 (0.68%) Heroku
10 1 (0.68%) Salesforce Sales Cloud
10 1 (0.68%) Salesforce Service Cloud
10 1 (0.68%) Stripe
Communications & Networking
1 6 (4.05%) HTTP
2 4 (2.70%) Internet
3 2 (1.35%) HTTPS
Database & Business Intelligence
1 15 (10.14%) Power BI
2 14 (9.46%) MySQL
3 9 (6.08%) Metadata
3 9 (6.08%) Tableau
4 6 (4.05%) Amazon DynamoDB
4 6 (4.05%) SQL Server
5 5 (3.38%) MongoDB
5 5 (3.38%) NoSQL
5 5 (3.38%) Relational Database
6 3 (2.03%) Big Data
6 3 (2.03%) PostgreSQL
7 2 (1.35%) Apache Hive
8 1 (0.68%) Oracle Database
8 1 (0.68%) RDBMS
8 1 (0.68%) Redis
Development Applications
1 39 (26.35%) Git (software)
2 23 (15.54%) Jenkins
3 17 (11.49%) Jasmine
4 13 (8.78%) JIRA
4 13 (8.78%) Karma Test Runner
5 8 (5.41%) webpack
6 6 (4.05%) JSUnit
7 4 (2.70%) Grunt
7 4 (2.70%) Protractor
8 3 (2.03%) Cucumber
8 3 (2.03%) gulp
8 3 (2.03%) Maven
8 3 (2.03%) Mocha
8 3 (2.03%) Subversion
9 2 (1.35%) Bitbucket
9 2 (1.35%) Bower
9 2 (1.35%) Cypress.io
9 2 (1.35%) PhantomJS
9 2 (1.35%) Visual Studio
9 2 (1.35%) Visual Studio Code
General
1 20 (13.51%) Finance
2 15 (10.14%) Marketing
3 8 (5.41%) Public Sector
4 7 (4.73%) Analytical Skills
4 7 (4.73%) Retail
5 5 (3.38%) Legal
5 5 (3.38%) Social Skills
6 4 (2.70%) Advertising
6 4 (2.70%) Banking
6 4 (2.70%) Multimedia
7 3 (2.03%) Telecoms
8 2 (1.35%) Investment Banking
8 2 (1.35%) Law
9 1 (0.68%) Financial Institution
9 1 (0.68%) Front Office
9 1 (0.68%) Games
9 1 (0.68%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 111 (75.00%) Developer
2 23 (15.54%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 18 (12.16%) Senior Developer
4 16 (10.81%) Backend Developer
4 16 (10.81%) PHP Developer
5 15 (10.14%) React Developer
6 14 (9.46%) Designer
7 12 (8.11%) SharePoint Developer
8 10 (6.76%) Full Stack Developer
9 9 (6.08%) Senior Front-End Developer
10 7 (4.73%) .NET Developer
10 7 (4.73%) Angular Developer
10 7 (4.73%) Senior React Developer
10 7 (4.73%) UX Designer
11 6 (4.05%) C# .NET Developer
11 6 (4.05%) C# Developer
11 6 (4.05%) UI Designer
12 5 (3.38%) Drupal Developer
12 5 (3.38%) JavaScript Developer
12 5 (3.38%) UI Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 142 (95.95%) HTML
2 62 (41.89%) HTML5
3 55 (37.16%) AngularJS
4 50 (33.78%) React
5 46 (31.08%) Sass
6 45 (30.41%) CSS3
7 31 (20.95%) Node.js
8 30 (20.27%) Web Services
9 26 (17.57%) jQuery
10 25 (16.89%) LESS
11 24 (16.22%) Vue.js
12 21 (14.19%) Redux
13 19 (12.84%) Laravel
13 19 (12.84%) RESTful
14 18 (12.16%) Vuetify.js
15 14 (9.46%) .NET
16 13 (8.78%) Jest
17 11 (7.43%) Spring
18 10 (6.76%) REST
19 8 (5.41%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 29 (19.59%) User Experience
2 8 (5.41%) Data Structures
3 7 (4.73%) Greenfield Project
4 3 (2.03%) Management Information System
4 3 (2.03%) Mobile App
4 3 (2.03%) Social Media
5 2 (1.35%) Algorithms
5 2 (1.35%) Fixed Income
5 2 (1.35%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 2 (1.35%) Public Cloud
5 2 (1.35%) Video\Live Streaming
6 1 (0.68%) Digital Media
6 1 (0.68%) Enterprise Software
6 1 (0.68%) Learning Management System
6 1 (0.68%) N-Tier
6 1 (0.68%) RIA
Operating Systems
1 9 (6.08%) Linux
2 3 (2.03%) Unix
3 2 (1.35%) Mac OS
4 1 (0.68%) Windows
Processes & Methodologies
1 43 (29.05%) Agile Software Development
2 41 (27.70%) TDD
3 37 (25.00%) Front End Development
3 37 (25.00%) Full Stack Development
4 31 (20.95%) DevOps
5 26 (17.57%) Software Engineering
6 24 (16.22%) MVC
7 20 (13.51%) Web Development
8 17 (11.49%) Business Intelligence
8 17 (11.49%) Investment Management
9 15 (10.14%) BDD
10 12 (8.11%) Continuous Integration
10 12 (8.11%) Unit Testing
11 11 (7.43%) Computer Science
11 11 (7.43%) Continuous Deployment
11 11 (7.43%) Prototyping
11 11 (7.43%) Workflow
12 9 (6.08%) Metadata Management
12 9 (6.08%) Problem-Solving
13 8 (5.41%) Test Automation
Programming Languages
1 123 (83.11%) JavaScript
2 32 (21.62%) SQL
3 25 (16.89%) Java
4 24 (16.22%) TypeScript
5 22 (14.86%) C#
5 22 (14.86%) PHP
6 14 (9.46%) ES6
7 10 (6.76%) PowerShell
8 9 (6.08%) Python
9 5 (3.38%) PL/SQL
10 4 (2.70%) Kotlin
10 4 (2.70%) Ruby
11 2 (1.35%) Apex Code
11 2 (1.35%) C
11 2 (1.35%) Java 8
11 2 (1.35%) VB.NET
12 1 (0.68%) C++
12 1 (0.68%) JSX
12 1 (0.68%) SOQL
12 1 (0.68%) XPath
Qualifications
1 14 (9.46%) Degree
2 7 (4.73%) Security Cleared
3 5 (3.38%) SC Cleared
4 3 (2.03%) Computer Science Degree
5 2 (1.35%) AWS Certification
6 1 (0.68%) ITIL Certification
6 1 (0.68%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 9 (6.08%) Accessibility
2 4 (2.70%) QA
3 2 (1.35%) WCAG
4 1 (0.68%) SLA
System Software
1 23 (15.54%) Docker
Systems Management
1 2 (1.35%) Opscode Chef
2 1 (0.68%) Kubernetes
2 1 (0.68%) Puppet
Vendors
1 13 (8.78%) Oracle
2 12 (8.11%) Salesforce.com
3 9 (6.08%) Nintex
4 3 (2.03%) Workday
5 2 (1.35%) Adobe
5 2 (1.35%) Microsoft
6 1 (0.68%) Salesforce Marketing Cloud
6 1 (0.68%) ServiceNow
6 1 (0.68%) Tealium
6 1 (0.68%) WorldPay
6 1 (0.68%) Zend