Period
to 26 November 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for CSS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited CSS over the 6 months to 26 November 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
Central London > City of London
6 months to
26 Nov 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 46 51 30
Rank change year-on-year +5 -21 -1
Contract jobs citing CSS 187 87 368
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the City of London 4.66% 4.44% 6.35%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 14.45% 14.60% 18.04%
Number of daily rates quoted 136 74 304
10th Percentile £378 £309 £358
25th Percentile £438 £413 £417
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £523 £500
Median % change year-on-year -4.31% +4.50% -
75th Percentile £600 £550 £584
90th Percentile £719 £696 £643
Central London median daily rate £500 £523 £500
% change year-on-year -4.31% +4.50% +2.04%
Number of hourly rates quoted 3 0 0
Median hourly rate £36.50 - -
Central London median hourly rate £36.50 - -

CSS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in the City of London with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
City of London
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 1,294 596 2,040
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the City of London 32.25% 30.39% 35.19%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,006 474 1,689
10th Percentile £413 £363 £400
25th Percentile £481 £425 £463
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £575 £550 £538
Median % change year-on-year +4.55% +2.33% +2.38%
75th Percentile £675 £625 £613
90th Percentile £750 £688 £688
Central London median daily rate £575 £550 £525
% change year-on-year +4.55% +4.76% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 8 2 3
10th Percentile £18.78 £36.88 £26.70
25th Percentile £24.25 £37.06 £34.88
Median hourly rate £35.75 £38.25 £52.00
Median % change year-on-year -6.54% -26.44% +251.35%
75th Percentile £45.25 £39.56 £60.25
90th Percentile £68.43 £39.83 £63.10
Central London median hourly rate £35.00 £38.25 £52.00
% change year-on-year -8.50% -26.44% +251.35%

CSS
Job Vacancy Trend in the City of London

Job postings citing CSS as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in the City of London.

Job vacancy trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing CSS in the City of London.

Daily rate trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Daily Rate Histogram in the City of London

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing CSS in the City of London over the 6 months to 26 November 2021.

Daily rate histogram for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in the City of London

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing CSS in the City of London.

Hourly rate trend for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Hourly Rate Histogram in the City of London

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing CSS in the City of London over the 6 months to 26 November 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for CSS in the City of London

CSS
Contract Job Locations in the City of London

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing CSS within the City of London region over the 6 months to 26 November 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London Bridge - 6 £738 - 1
CSS
Central London

For the 6 months to 26 November 2021, IT contractor jobs citing CSS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the City of London region with a requirement for CSS.

1 167 (89.30%) HTML
2 166 (88.77%) JavaScript
3 80 (42.78%) AngularJS
4 76 (40.64%) Agile Software Development
5 69 (36.90%) React
6 62 (33.16%) Full Stack Development
7 58 (31.02%) TDD
8 57 (30.48%) HTML5
9 54 (28.88%) Front End Development
9 54 (28.88%) Sass
10 53 (28.34%) Git (software)
11 47 (25.13%) AWS
11 47 (25.13%) CSS3
12 46 (24.60%) DevOps
13 45 (24.06%) Vue.js
14 43 (22.99%) Azure
15 40 (21.39%) Software Engineering
15 40 (21.39%) Web Services
16 38 (20.32%) MVC
17 36 (19.25%) Finance
18 35 (18.72%) Docker
19 34 (18.18%) Node.js
20 33 (17.65%) Jenkins
20 33 (17.65%) PHP
21 31 (16.58%) .NET
22 30 (16.04%) SQL
22 30 (16.04%) Web Development
23 27 (14.44%) TypeScript
23 27 (14.44%) User Experience
24 26 (13.90%) Java

CSS
Co-occurring IT Skills in the City of London by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 13 (6.95%) CMS
2 6 (3.21%) Moodle
2 6 (3.21%) SharePoint
3 4 (2.14%) Confluence
4 3 (1.60%) Apache
4 3 (1.60%) Appian
4 3 (1.60%) IIS
4 3 (1.60%) JBoss
4 3 (1.60%) Oracle SOA Suite
4 3 (1.60%) SharePoint 2013
5 2 (1.07%) EPiServer
5 2 (1.07%) WordPress
6 1 (0.53%) Drupal
6 1 (0.53%) Liferay
6 1 (0.53%) Magnolia
6 1 (0.53%) nginx
6 1 (0.53%) Sitecore CMS
6 1 (0.53%) Umbraco
Applications
1 2 (1.07%) InVision
2 1 (0.53%) Adobe Illustrator
2 1 (0.53%) Adobe XD
2 1 (0.53%) Chatbot
2 1 (0.53%) Figma
2 1 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
2 1 (0.53%) Microsoft Project
2 1 (0.53%) MS Visio
2 1 (0.53%) Photoshop
2 1 (0.53%) Sketch
2 1 (0.53%) Spreadsheet
2 1 (0.53%) Zeplin
Business Applications
1 1 (0.53%) Dynamics CRM
1 1 (0.53%) Magento
1 1 (0.53%) Payment Gateway
Cloud Services
1 47 (25.13%) AWS
2 43 (22.99%) Azure
3 7 (3.74%) npm
4 6 (3.21%) GitHub
5 5 (2.67%) Power Automate
5 5 (2.67%) Power Platform
5 5 (2.67%) PowerApps
5 5 (2.67%) SaaS
6 4 (2.14%) AWS CloudFormation
6 4 (2.14%) AWS Lambda
6 4 (2.14%) Serverless
7 3 (1.60%) Amazon EC2
7 3 (1.60%) PaaS
8 2 (1.07%) Amplience
8 2 (1.07%) Azure Logic Apps
8 2 (1.07%) Azure Service Bus
8 2 (1.07%) Cloud Computing
8 2 (1.07%) Heroku
8 2 (1.07%) Microsoft 365
9 1 (0.53%) Stripe
Communications & Networking
1 6 (3.21%) HTTP
2 4 (2.14%) Internet
3 1 (0.53%) Intranet
Database & Business Intelligence
1 16 (8.56%) MySQL
2 10 (5.35%) SQL Server
3 7 (3.74%) Big Data
4 5 (2.67%) MongoDB
4 5 (2.67%) NoSQL
4 5 (2.67%) SQL Server Integration Services
5 4 (2.14%) Relational Database
6 3 (1.60%) Amazon RDS
6 3 (1.60%) Oracle Database
7 2 (1.07%) Amazon DynamoDB
7 2 (1.07%) Apache Hive
7 2 (1.07%) Power BI
7 2 (1.07%) RDBMS
7 2 (1.07%) SQL Server Reporting Services
8 1 (0.53%) Data Warehouse
8 1 (0.53%) PostgreSQL
8 1 (0.53%) SQL Server 2008
8 1 (0.53%) SQL Server 2016
Development Applications
1 53 (28.34%) Git (software)
2 33 (17.65%) Jenkins
3 20 (10.70%) webpack
4 13 (6.95%) Jasmine
5 11 (5.88%) Grunt
6 9 (4.81%) gulp
7 7 (3.74%) JIRA
7 7 (3.74%) PhantomJS
8 6 (3.21%) Karma Test Runner
9 5 (2.67%) Visual Studio
10 4 (2.14%) Bitbucket
10 4 (2.14%) Bower
10 4 (2.14%) Cypress.io
10 4 (2.14%) Selenium
10 4 (2.14%) Sourcetree
11 3 (1.60%) Postman
11 3 (1.60%) Team Foundation Server
12 2 (1.07%) Cucumber
12 2 (1.07%) JSUnit
12 2 (1.07%) Mocha
General
1 36 (19.25%) Finance
2 17 (9.09%) Social Skills
3 11 (5.88%) Analytical Skills
3 11 (5.88%) Banking
4 8 (4.28%) Marketing
4 8 (4.28%) Public Sector
5 6 (3.21%) Advertising
6 5 (2.67%) Retail
7 3 (1.60%) Investment Banking
7 3 (1.60%) Legal
8 2 (1.07%) Automotive
8 2 (1.07%) Financial Institution
8 2 (1.07%) Games
8 2 (1.07%) International Banking
8 2 (1.07%) Multimedia
8 2 (1.07%) Organisational Skills
8 2 (1.07%) Telecoms
9 1 (0.53%) Law
9 1 (0.53%) Military
9 1 (0.53%) Police
Job Titles
1 150 (80.21%) Developer
2 30 (16.04%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 25 (13.37%) PHP Developer
4 22 (11.76%) Senior Developer
5 18 (9.63%) Angular Developer
6 17 (9.09%) Full Stack Developer
7 15 (8.02%) Backend Developer
8 13 (6.95%) React Developer
8 13 (6.95%) UI Developer
9 10 (5.35%) .NET Developer
10 9 (4.81%) Designer
11 8 (4.28%) Java Developer
11 8 (4.28%) Senior Front-End Developer
12 7 (3.74%) C# .NET Developer
12 7 (3.74%) C# Developer
12 7 (3.74%) Senior React Developer
13 6 (3.21%) JavaScript Developer
13 6 (3.21%) Salesforce Developer
13 6 (3.21%) Software Engineer
14 5 (2.67%) Moodle Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 167 (89.30%) HTML
2 80 (42.78%) AngularJS
3 69 (36.90%) React
4 57 (30.48%) HTML5
5 54 (28.88%) Sass
6 47 (25.13%) CSS3
7 45 (24.06%) Vue.js
8 40 (21.39%) Web Services
9 34 (18.18%) Node.js
10 31 (16.58%) .NET
11 23 (12.30%) jQuery
11 23 (12.30%) Laravel
12 22 (11.76%) LESS
12 22 (11.76%) Vuetify.js
13 21 (11.23%) REST
14 19 (10.16%) RESTful
15 18 (9.63%) JSON
16 17 (9.09%) Redux
17 14 (7.49%) Spring
18 13 (6.95%) Jest
Miscellaneous
1 27 (14.44%) User Experience
2 14 (7.49%) Data Structures
3 9 (4.81%) Algorithms
4 6 (3.21%) e-Learning
4 6 (3.21%) Enterprise Software
5 5 (2.67%) Mobile App
5 5 (2.67%) N-Tier
5 5 (2.67%) SCORM
6 4 (2.14%) Greenfield Project
6 4 (2.14%) Public Cloud
7 3 (1.60%) Learning Management System
7 3 (1.60%) Social Media
8 2 (1.07%) Cloud Native
8 2 (1.07%) Fixed Income
8 2 (1.07%) Hedge funds
8 2 (1.07%) Management Information System
9 1 (0.53%) Blog
9 1 (0.53%) Digital Media
9 1 (0.53%) Graphic Design
9 1 (0.53%) Robotics
Operating Systems
1 8 (4.28%) Linux
2 5 (2.67%) Unix
2 5 (2.67%) Windows
3 1 (0.53%) Apple iOS
3 1 (0.53%) Windows Server
Processes & Methodologies
1 76 (40.64%) Agile Software Development
2 62 (33.16%) Full Stack Development
3 58 (31.02%) TDD
4 54 (28.88%) Front End Development
5 46 (24.60%) DevOps
6 40 (21.39%) Software Engineering
7 38 (20.32%) MVC
8 30 (16.04%) Web Development
9 24 (12.83%) Continuous Integration
10 23 (12.30%) Scrum
11 22 (11.76%) BDD
12 18 (9.63%) Computer Science
13 16 (8.56%) Microservices
14 15 (8.02%) Continuous Deployment
14 15 (8.02%) Test Automation
15 14 (7.49%) User Stories
16 13 (6.95%) OO
16 13 (6.95%) Problem-Solving
16 13 (6.95%) SDLC
17 12 (6.42%) SOLID
Programming Languages
1 166 (88.77%) JavaScript
2 33 (17.65%) PHP
3 30 (16.04%) SQL
4 27 (14.44%) TypeScript
5 26 (13.90%) C#
5 26 (13.90%) Java
6 22 (11.76%) Python
7 19 (10.16%) ES6
8 8 (4.28%) Ruby
9 5 (2.67%) Kotlin
10 3 (1.60%) PowerShell
10 3 (1.60%) Scala
10 3 (1.60%) T-SQL
11 2 (1.07%) Bash Shell
11 2 (1.07%) C
11 2 (1.07%) VBA
12 1 (0.53%) Go
12 1 (0.53%) R
12 1 (0.53%) SOQL
12 1 (0.53%) SOSL
Qualifications
1 17 (9.09%) Degree
2 9 (4.81%) Security Cleared
3 7 (3.74%) Computer Science Degree
3 7 (3.74%) SC Cleared
4 4 (2.14%) AWS Certification
5 1 (0.53%) ISEB
5 1 (0.53%) ITIL Certification
5 1 (0.53%) Master's Degree
5 1 (0.53%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 17 (9.09%) Accessibility
2 12 (6.42%) QA
3 4 (2.14%) WCAG
4 2 (1.07%) GDPR
4 2 (1.07%) SLA
System Software
1 35 (18.72%) Docker
2 1 (0.53%) Active Directory
Systems Management
1 7 (3.74%) Opscode Chef
2 3 (1.60%) Ansible
2 3 (1.60%) Terraform
3 2 (1.07%) Kubernetes
3 2 (1.07%) Puppet
4 1 (0.53%) Grafana
4 1 (0.53%) Kibana
4 1 (0.53%) Netcool
Vendors
1 13 (6.95%) Oracle
2 7 (3.74%) Microsoft
3 6 (3.21%) Salesforce.com
4 4 (2.14%) Nintex
5 3 (1.60%) Adobe
5 3 (1.60%) OutSystems
5 3 (1.60%) Splunk
6 2 (1.07%) Google
7 1 (0.53%) AppDynamics
7 1 (0.53%) Apple
7 1 (0.53%) Aveksa
7 1 (0.53%) Cognos
7 1 (0.53%) PagerDuty
7 1 (0.53%) SAP
7 1 (0.53%) ServiceNow
7 1 (0.53%) Sitecore
7 1 (0.53%) Telerik
7 1 (0.53%) WooCommerce
7 1 (0.53%) WorldPay
7 1 (0.53%) Zend