Period
to 21 August 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for LESS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited LESS over the 6 months to 21 August 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

LESS (Dynamic Stylesheet Language, LessCSS)
UK
6 months to
21 Aug 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 427 401 423
Rank change year-on-year -26 +22 +104
Contract jobs citing LESS 562 577 620
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.55% 0.60% 0.57%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 1.59% 1.85% 1.96%
Number of daily rates quoted 419 461 487
UK median daily rate £463 £413 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +12.12% +3.13% +11.11%
10th Percentile £325 £275 £263
90th Percentile £600 £538 £544
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £375
% change year-on-year +6.67% - +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 1 0
UK median hourly rate £47.50 £51.00 -
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -6.86% - -
UK excluding London median hourly rate - - -

LESS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 35,333 31,109 31,636
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 34.60% 32.46% 29.17%
Number of daily rates quoted 24,938 21,448 22,119
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £320 £306 £294
90th Percentile £625 £625 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £385
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.90% +2.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 344 380 379
UK median hourly rate £41.50 £40.00 £36.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.75% +9.59% -1.46%
10th Percentile £15.24 £15.91 £12.25
90th Percentile £57.50 £53.08 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.75 £40.00 £36.00
% change year-on-year +1.88% +11.11% -2.70%

LESS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing LESS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing LESS.

Contractor daily rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing LESS over the 6 months to 21 August 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS within the UK over the 6 months to 21 August 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 532 £475 +11.76% 255
London -6 316 £506 +12.50% 99
UK excluding London -49 242 £400 +6.67% 164
South East -29 73 £400 -5.88% 41
Midlands -3 56 £425 +36.00% 31
West Midlands -1 52 £425 +36.00% 16
North of England -15 52 £395 +20.61% 57
North West -3 43 £390 +25.30% 37
South West -5 20 £425 +44.07% 15
Scotland -52 20 £450 +20.00% 8
East of England -34 17 £400 +3.23% 12
North East +5 6 £398 - 4
East Midlands -22 4 £360 -15.35% 15
Wales - 4 £425 -
Yorkshire -30 3 £313 -10.71% 16
Northern Ireland - 1 £275 -

For the 6 months to 21 August 2018, IT contractor jobs citing LESS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for LESS.

1 539 (95.91%) CSS
2 503 (89.50%) JavaScript
3 461 (82.03%) HTML
4 426 (75.80%) Sass
5 341 (60.68%) HTML5
6 299 (53.20%) Agile Software Development
7 292 (51.96%) CSS3
8 287 (51.07%) AngularJS
9 268 (47.69%) Front End Development
10 253 (45.02%) React
11 221 (39.32%) TDD
12 189 (33.63%) Node.js
13 183 (32.56%) Git (software)
14 180 (32.03%) User Experience
15 161 (28.65%) jQuery
16 137 (24.38%) ES6
17 132 (23.49%) webpack
18 129 (22.95%) Twitter Bootstrap
18 129 (22.95%) Redux
19 122 (21.71%) gulp
20 105 (18.68%) Java
21 104 (18.51%) Web Development
22 96 (17.08%) .NET
22 96 (17.08%) MVC
22 96 (17.08%) REST
23 94 (16.73%) BDD
23 94 (16.73%) Responsive Web Design
24 93 (16.55%) Grunt
25 90 (16.01%) TypeScript
26 83 (14.77%) Finance

LESS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 19 (3.38%) CMS
2 13 (2.31%) SharePoint
2 13 (2.31%) WordPress
3 11 (1.96%) Confluence
4 8 (1.42%) Sitecore CMS
5 6 (1.07%) Elasticsearch
5 6 (1.07%) Predix
6 5 (0.89%) Tomcat
7 4 (0.71%) Adobe Experience Manager
7 4 (0.71%) Drupal
7 4 (0.71%) Liferay
7 4 (0.71%) Umbraco
7 4 (0.71%) WebSphere
7 4 (0.71%) WebSphere Application Server
8 3 (0.53%) Apache Solr
8 3 (0.53%) Apache Spark
9 2 (0.36%) Apache
9 2 (0.36%) EPiServer
9 2 (0.36%) IIS
9 2 (0.36%) nginx
Applications
1 46 (8.19%) Photoshop
2 22 (3.91%) GIMP
3 20 (3.56%) Adobe Illustrator
4 10 (1.78%) Fireworks
5 4 (0.71%) Adobe Creative Suite
Business Applications
1 18 (3.20%) Magento
2 2 (0.36%) Oracle EBS
3 1 (0.18%) Adobe Campaign
Cloud Services
1 53 (9.43%) Amazon AWS
2 46 (8.19%) npm
3 29 (5.16%) Microsoft Azure
4 16 (2.85%) Google Cloud Platform
5 9 (1.60%) GitHub
6 8 (1.42%) SaaS
7 7 (1.25%) Amazon Kinesis
7 7 (1.25%) AWS CloudFormation
7 7 (1.25%) AWS Lambda
7 7 (1.25%) Office 365
7 7 (1.25%) Serverless
8 6 (1.07%) IaaS
8 6 (1.07%) PaaS
9 5 (0.89%) Adobe Analytics
9 5 (0.89%) Heroku
10 4 (0.71%) BrowserStack
10 4 (0.71%) Yarn
11 3 (0.53%) Google Analytics
12 2 (0.36%) Amazon EC2
12 2 (0.36%) Route 53
Communications & Networking
1 30 (5.34%) HTTP
2 15 (2.67%) Internet
3 8 (1.42%) RTMP
4 3 (0.53%) Intranet
5 2 (0.36%) HTTPS
5 2 (0.36%) SMS
5 2 (0.36%) SSH
6 1 (0.18%) HbbTV
6 1 (0.18%) SSL
Database & Business Intelligence
1 32 (5.69%) MongoDB
1 32 (5.69%) SQL Server
2 21 (3.74%) MySQL
3 19 (3.38%) NoSQL
4 17 (3.02%) PostgreSQL
5 11 (1.96%) SQL Server 2012
6 10 (1.78%) Big Data
7 8 (1.42%) Amazon DynamoDB
7 8 (1.42%) Hadoop
8 7 (1.25%) HBase
8 7 (1.25%) Redis
9 6 (1.07%) Data Warehouse
9 6 (1.07%) SQL Server 2016
10 4 (0.71%) Cosmos DB
10 4 (0.71%) Data Mining
10 4 (0.71%) Relational Database
11 3 (0.53%) Apache Cassandra
11 3 (0.53%) Blockchain
11 3 (0.53%) Neo4j
12 1 (0.18%) Azure SQL Database
Development Applications
1 183 (32.56%) Git (software)
2 132 (23.49%) webpack
3 122 (21.71%) gulp
4 93 (16.55%) Grunt
5 60 (10.68%) Jenkins
6 57 (10.14%) Jasmine
7 50 (8.90%) Selenium
8 35 (6.23%) WebDriver
9 33 (5.87%) Karma Test Runner
10 30 (5.34%) JIRA
11 27 (4.80%) Babel
12 21 (3.74%) Axure RP
13 20 (3.56%) Cucumber
14 17 (3.02%) Mocha
15 16 (2.85%) Maven
15 16 (2.85%) Subversion
16 15 (2.67%) Protractor
17 14 (2.49%) Bower
18 13 (2.31%) Mercurial
18 13 (2.31%) PhantomJS
General
1 83 (14.77%) Finance
2 51 (9.07%) Banking
3 35 (6.23%) Retail
4 23 (4.09%) Games
5 22 (3.91%) Investment Banking
6 20 (3.56%) Front Office
7 8 (1.42%) Financial Institution
7 8 (1.42%) Marketing
8 7 (1.25%) Telecoms
9 5 (0.89%) Pharmaceutical
10 4 (0.71%) Automotive
11 3 (0.53%) Persian Language
12 2 (0.36%) iGaming
13 1 (0.18%) Back Office
13 1 (0.18%) Law
13 1 (0.18%) Manufacturing
13 1 (0.18%) Music Industry
13 1 (0.18%) Publishing
13 1 (0.18%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 509 (90.57%) Developer
2 236 (41.99%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 130 (23.13%) JavaScript Developer
4 102 (18.15%) React Developer
5 84 (14.95%) UI Developer
6 77 (13.70%) HTML Developer
7 66 (11.74%) Angular Developer
8 65 (11.57%) Senior Developer
9 63 (11.21%) HTML CSS Developer
10 54 (9.61%) Web Developer
11 47 (8.36%) Full Stack Developer
12 32 (5.69%) C# Developer
13 30 (5.34%) Java Developer
14 28 (4.98%) .NET Developer
15 25 (4.45%) Senior Front-End Developer
16 23 (4.09%) C# .NET Developer
17 21 (3.74%) Front End Web Developer (Client-Side Developer)
18 19 (3.38%) Lead Developer
18 19 (3.38%) UX Developer
19 18 (3.20%) UI/UX Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 539 (95.91%) CSS
2 461 (82.03%) HTML
3 426 (75.80%) Sass
4 341 (60.68%) HTML5
5 292 (51.96%) CSS3
6 287 (51.07%) AngularJS
7 253 (45.02%) React
8 189 (33.63%) Node.js
9 161 (28.65%) jQuery
10 129 (22.95%) Redux
10 129 (22.95%) Twitter Bootstrap
11 96 (17.08%) .NET
11 96 (17.08%) REST
12 76 (13.52%) ASP.NET
13 75 (13.35%) Angular 2
14 71 (12.63%) RESTful
15 69 (12.28%) KnockoutJS
16 66 (11.74%) Ajax
17 51 (9.07%) JSON
18 50 (8.90%) Web Services
Miscellaneous
1 180 (32.03%) User Experience
2 38 (6.76%) Greenfield Project
3 33 (5.87%) Mobile App
4 20 (3.56%) Derivative
4 20 (3.56%) Equity Derivative
4 20 (3.56%) Self-Motivation
5 18 (3.20%) Fixed Income
6 17 (3.02%) Data Structures
6 17 (3.02%) Fintech
7 10 (1.78%) Management Information System
8 8 (1.42%) Computer Science
9 7 (1.25%) Analytical Skills
9 7 (1.25%) NHS
10 6 (1.07%) Algorithms
10 6 (1.07%) Equities
11 4 (0.71%) iPad
12 3 (0.53%) Linux Command Line
12 3 (0.53%) N-Tier
12 3 (0.53%) Video\Live Streaming
12 3 (0.53%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 33 (5.87%) Linux
2 28 (4.98%) Apple iOS
3 27 (4.80%) Android
4 25 (4.45%) Windows
5 6 (1.07%) Ubuntu
6 3 (0.53%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 299 (53.20%) Agile Software Development
2 268 (47.69%) Front End Development
3 221 (39.32%) TDD
4 104 (18.51%) Web Development
5 96 (17.08%) MVC
6 94 (16.73%) BDD
6 94 (16.73%) Responsive Web Design
7 82 (14.59%) E-Commerce
8 81 (14.41%) Scrum
9 73 (12.99%) Test Automation
10 64 (11.39%) Unit Testing
11 60 (10.68%) Continuous Integration
12 58 (10.32%) DevOps
13 50 (8.90%) OO
14 45 (8.01%) Pair Programming
15 43 (7.65%) Problem-Solving
16 37 (6.58%) BEM - Block Element Modifier
17 36 (6.41%) Mentoring
17 36 (6.41%) Wireframes
18 35 (6.23%) Open Source
Programming Languages
1 503 (89.50%) JavaScript
2 137 (24.38%) ES6
3 105 (18.68%) Java
4 90 (16.01%) TypeScript
5 71 (12.63%) C#
6 36 (6.41%) ES7
7 32 (5.69%) SQL
8 27 (4.80%) PHP
9 19 (3.38%) Ruby
10 18 (3.20%) Python
11 17 (3.02%) Scala
12 9 (1.60%) ES8
13 4 (0.71%) Clojure
13 4 (0.71%) CoffeeScript
13 4 (0.71%) Java 8
13 4 (0.71%) PureScript
14 3 (0.53%) Bash Shell
14 3 (0.53%) Go
15 1 (0.18%) Apex Code
15 1 (0.18%) XQuery
Qualifications
1 28 (4.98%) Security Cleared
2 26 (4.63%) SC Cleared
3 14 (2.49%) Degree
4 7 (1.25%) Computer Science Degree
5 2 (0.36%) BPSS Clearance
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 21 (3.74%) QA
2 5 (0.89%) ISO/IEC 27001
2 5 (0.89%) PMO
3 4 (0.71%) WCAG
4 3 (0.53%) WAI
System Software
1 56 (9.96%) Docker
2 7 (1.25%) HDFS
3 6 (1.07%) Active Directory
Systems Management
1 16 (2.85%) Kubernetes
2 14 (2.49%) Puppet
3 10 (1.78%) Opscode Chef
4 5 (0.89%) Ansible
5 4 (0.71%) Matomo
5 4 (0.71%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
6 3 (0.53%) Grafana
6 3 (0.53%) Graphite
6 3 (0.53%) Kibana
7 2 (0.36%) Prometheus
8 1 (0.18%) HAProxy
Vendors
1 33 (5.87%) Microsoft
2 23 (4.09%) Adobe
3 20 (3.56%) Google
4 13 (2.31%) Capita
5 12 (2.14%) Oracle
6 8 (1.42%) hybris
6 8 (1.42%) Sitecore
7 7 (1.25%) Mapbox
7 7 (1.25%) MapR
8 4 (0.71%) ATG
8 4 (0.71%) Demandware
8 4 (0.71%) Zend
9 3 (0.53%) Atlassian
9 3 (0.53%) Cypress Semiconductor
9 3 (0.53%) Rackspace
9 3 (0.53%) Twitter
10 2 (0.36%) SAP
10 2 (0.36%) Siebel
10 2 (0.36%) Volusion
10 2 (0.36%) WooCommerce