Period
to 20 January 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for LESS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited LESS over the 6 months to 20 January 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

LESS (Dynamic Stylesheet Language, LessCSS)
UK
6 months to
20 Jan 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 482 434 402
Rank change year-on-year -48 -32 +39
Contract jobs citing LESS 428 522 555
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.44% 0.53% 0.57%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 1.28% 1.64% 1.82%
Number of daily rates quoted 300 380 410
UK median daily rate £425 £450 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -5.56% +12.50% +9.07%
10th Percentile £303 £313 £300
90th Percentile £575 £600 £538
UK excluding London median daily rate £388 £420 £365
% change year-on-year -7.74% +15.07% +4.29%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 1 0
UK median hourly rate £47.50 £40.00 -
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +18.75% - -
UK excluding London median hourly rate - £40.00 -

LESS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 33,535 31,905 30,445
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 34.21% 32.09% 31.44%
Number of daily rates quoted 23,585 22,760 20,950
UK median daily rate £478 £460 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.89% +8.24% +3.03%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £300
90th Percentile £638 £625 £594
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £395
% change year-on-year +6.25% +1.27% +5.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 289 330 345
UK median hourly rate £41.53 £40.00 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.83% - +6.67%
10th Percentile £18.30 £18.50 £15.25
90th Percentile £60.00 £52.63 £52.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.69 £40.00 £38.25
% change year-on-year +4.22% +4.58% +2.00%

LESS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing LESS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing LESS.

Contractor daily rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing LESS over the 6 months to 20 January 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS within the UK over the 6 months to 20 January 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -48 391 £435 -3.33% 211
UK excluding London +14 234 £388 -7.74% 150
London -95 189 £500 +5.26% 69
South East +9 82 £425 -5.56% 43
Midlands +27 49 £365 -3.43% 11
North of England -11 41 £375 -11.76% 51
West Midlands -4 33 £435 +12.26% 6
North West -4 22 £365 -13.10% 31
South West -32 19 £388 -3.13% 23
Scotland +6 18 £350 -6.67% 4
East Midlands +19 16 £340 - 5
Wales -10 15 £425 -22.73% 4
Yorkshire -8 14 £420 -6.67% 13
East of England -15 10 £361 -9.75% 14
North East +4 5 £425 - 7
Northern Ireland +22 1 - -

For the 6 months to 20 January 2019, IT contractor jobs citing LESS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for LESS.

1 402 (93.93%) CSS
2 371 (86.68%) JavaScript
3 367 (85.75%) HTML
4 343 (80.14%) Sass
5 251 (58.64%) HTML5
6 229 (53.50%) AngularJS
7 223 (52.10%) Agile Software Development
8 214 (50.00%) Git (software)
9 182 (42.52%) Front End Development
10 174 (40.65%) CSS3
11 166 (38.79%) Node.js
12 154 (35.98%) React
13 133 (31.07%) TDD
14 117 (27.34%) User Experience
15 99 (23.13%) gulp
16 98 (22.90%) jQuery
17 89 (20.79%) Grunt
18 84 (19.63%) Test Automation
19 80 (18.69%) Web Development
20 77 (17.99%) BDD
21 73 (17.06%) Scrum
22 72 (16.82%) REST
23 71 (16.59%) Twitter Bootstrap
24 68 (15.89%) DevOps
25 67 (15.65%) TypeScript
26 65 (15.19%) Jasmine
26 65 (15.19%) OO
27 64 (14.95%) Responsive Web Design
28 63 (14.72%) webpack
29 61 (14.25%) Jenkins

LESS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 48 (11.21%) Confluence
2 36 (8.41%) CMS
3 20 (4.67%) WordPress
4 14 (3.27%) Apache
5 11 (2.57%) nginx
5 11 (2.57%) Tomcat
6 9 (2.10%) WebSphere
7 8 (1.87%) Drupal
8 7 (1.64%) Sitecore CMS
9 5 (1.17%) Umbraco
9 5 (1.17%) WebSphere Application Server
10 4 (0.93%) EPiServer
11 3 (0.70%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 2 (0.47%) Joomla!
12 2 (0.47%) SharePoint
13 1 (0.23%) Apache Solr
13 1 (0.23%) concrete5
Applications
1 29 (6.78%) Photoshop
2 6 (1.40%) Adobe Illustrator
3 3 (0.70%) GIMP
4 2 (0.47%) Adobe Creative Suite
5 1 (0.23%) InDesign
5 1 (0.23%) InVision
Business Applications
1 24 (5.61%) Magento
2 4 (0.93%) Shopify
3 2 (0.47%) Eloqua
3 2 (0.47%) Oracle EBS
Cloud Services
1 56 (13.08%) Amazon AWS
2 42 (9.81%) npm
3 33 (7.71%) GitHub
4 22 (5.14%) Microsoft Azure
4 22 (5.14%) Serverless
5 21 (4.91%) AWS Lambda
6 19 (4.44%) Google Analytics
7 17 (3.97%) Amazon Kinesis
7 17 (3.97%) AWS CloudFormation
8 16 (3.74%) Google Cloud Platform
9 13 (3.04%) Slack
10 7 (1.64%) BrowserStack
11 6 (1.40%) Amazon EC2
11 6 (1.40%) Amazon S3
11 6 (1.40%) IaaS
11 6 (1.40%) PaaS
12 3 (0.70%) Adobe Analytics
13 2 (0.47%) Firebase
13 2 (0.47%) SaaS
14 1 (0.23%) Google Tag Manager
Communications & Networking
1 12 (2.80%) Skype
2 11 (2.57%) HTTP
3 6 (1.40%) Internet
4 3 (0.70%) Intranet
5 2 (0.47%) Extranet
5 2 (0.47%) MQTT
6 1 (0.23%) HbbTV
6 1 (0.23%) SSH
Database & Business Intelligence
1 35 (8.18%) MongoDB
2 27 (6.31%) MySQL
3 21 (4.91%) SQL Server
4 20 (4.67%) Amazon DynamoDB
5 12 (2.80%) NoSQL
5 12 (2.80%) PostgreSQL
6 6 (1.40%) Geospatial Data
6 6 (1.40%) GIS
6 6 (1.40%) Redis
7 5 (1.17%) Relational Database
8 3 (0.70%) Amazon Aurora
8 3 (0.70%) Amazon RDS
8 3 (0.70%) Data Warehouse
9 2 (0.47%) Big Data
9 2 (0.47%) Blockchain
9 2 (0.47%) RDBMS
9 2 (0.47%) RethinkDB
10 1 (0.23%) Cosmos DB
10 1 (0.23%) Couchbase
10 1 (0.23%) InfluxDB
Development Applications
1 214 (50.00%) Git (software)
2 99 (23.13%) gulp
3 89 (20.79%) Grunt
4 65 (15.19%) Jasmine
5 63 (14.72%) webpack
6 61 (14.25%) Jenkins
6 61 (14.25%) JIRA
7 51 (11.92%) Karma Test Runner
8 40 (9.35%) Cucumber
9 38 (8.88%) Selenium
10 33 (7.71%) WebDriver
11 29 (6.78%) Mercurial
11 29 (6.78%) Mocha
12 26 (6.07%) Subversion
13 20 (4.67%) Visual Studio Code
14 19 (4.44%) IntelliJ
14 19 (4.44%) Sublime Text
15 18 (4.21%) Artifactory
16 16 (3.74%) Gatling
17 11 (2.57%) Protractor
General
1 31 (7.24%) Finance
2 17 (3.97%) Marketing
3 12 (2.80%) Banking
4 9 (2.10%) Retail
5 5 (1.17%) Law
5 5 (1.17%) Telecoms
6 4 (0.93%) Front Office
7 3 (0.70%) Electronics
7 3 (0.70%) Publishing
8 2 (0.47%) Games
8 2 (0.47%) Investment Banking
9 1 (0.23%) Advertising
9 1 (0.23%) Automotive
9 1 (0.23%) Legal
9 1 (0.23%) Music Industry
Job Titles
1 394 (92.06%) Developer
2 168 (39.25%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 79 (18.46%) JavaScript Developer
4 49 (11.45%) HTML Developer
5 48 (11.21%) UI Developer
6 46 (10.75%) Full Stack Developer
6 46 (10.75%) React Developer
7 39 (9.11%) HTML CSS Developer
7 39 (9.11%) Senior Developer
8 38 (8.88%) Angular Developer
9 29 (6.78%) Web Developer
10 22 (5.14%) Scala Developer
11 19 (4.44%) Lead Developer
12 17 (3.97%) C# Developer
12 17 (3.97%) PHP Developer
13 14 (3.27%) Senior Front-End Developer
14 13 (3.04%) .NET Developer
15 11 (2.57%) Java Developer
16 10 (2.34%) Programmer
16 10 (2.34%) Software Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 402 (93.93%) CSS
2 367 (85.75%) HTML
3 343 (80.14%) Sass
4 251 (58.64%) HTML5
5 229 (53.50%) AngularJS
6 174 (40.65%) CSS3
7 166 (38.79%) Node.js
8 154 (35.98%) React
9 98 (22.90%) jQuery
10 72 (16.82%) REST
11 71 (16.59%) Twitter Bootstrap
12 46 (10.75%) .NET
13 45 (10.51%) Redux
14 43 (10.05%) JSON
15 42 (9.81%) RESTful
16 41 (9.58%) Ajax
17 38 (8.88%) Angular 2
18 37 (8.64%) Vue.js
19 27 (6.31%) Chai
19 27 (6.31%) Play Framework
Miscellaneous
1 117 (27.34%) User Experience
2 44 (10.28%) Greenfield Project
3 29 (6.78%) Fintech
4 23 (5.37%) Self-Motivation
5 12 (2.80%) Data Structures
6 11 (2.57%) W3C
7 8 (1.87%) Video\Live Streaming
8 6 (1.40%) e-Learning
8 6 (1.40%) Mobile App
9 5 (1.17%) iPad
9 5 (1.17%) Reinsurance
10 4 (0.93%) Derivative
10 4 (0.93%) Equity Derivative
10 4 (0.93%) Fixed Income
10 4 (0.93%) Vector Graphics
11 3 (0.70%) Digital Media
11 3 (0.70%) Enterprise Software
11 3 (0.70%) Internet of Things
12 2 (0.47%) New Media
12 2 (0.47%) Video on Demand
Operating Systems
1 27 (6.31%) Linux
2 12 (2.80%) Mac OS
3 5 (1.17%) Ubuntu
3 5 (1.17%) Windows
4 4 (0.93%) Mac OS X
5 3 (0.70%) Android
5 3 (0.70%) Apple iOS
6 1 (0.23%) CentOS
6 1 (0.23%) Debian
Processes & Methodologies
1 223 (52.10%) Agile Software Development
2 182 (42.52%) Front End Development
3 133 (31.07%) TDD
4 84 (19.63%) Test Automation
5 80 (18.69%) Web Development
6 77 (17.99%) BDD
7 73 (17.06%) Scrum
8 68 (15.89%) DevOps
9 65 (15.19%) OO
10 64 (14.95%) Responsive Web Design
11 60 (14.02%) Unit Testing
12 58 (13.55%) Continuous Integration
13 55 (12.85%) E-Commerce
14 54 (12.62%) MVC
15 41 (9.58%) Microservices
15 41 (9.58%) Pair Programming
16 39 (9.11%) OOP
17 36 (8.41%) Kanban
18 35 (8.18%) Software Engineering
19 31 (7.24%) Analytics
Programming Languages
1 371 (86.68%) JavaScript
2 67 (15.65%) TypeScript
3 59 (13.79%) ES6
4 56 (13.08%) Java
5 43 (10.05%) C#
6 38 (8.88%) PHP
7 28 (6.54%) Scala
8 27 (6.31%) Ruby
9 15 (3.50%) Groovy
10 14 (3.27%) Python
11 13 (3.04%) Bash Shell
12 12 (2.80%) SQL
13 9 (2.10%) ES7
14 6 (1.40%) Go
15 5 (1.17%) CoffeeScript
16 4 (0.93%) Kotlin
17 3 (0.70%) Apple Swift
17 3 (0.70%) Objective-C
17 3 (0.70%) Shell Script
18 2 (0.47%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 18 (4.21%) Degree
2 16 (3.74%) Security Cleared
3 12 (2.80%) SC Cleared
4 7 (1.64%) Computer Science Degree
5 3 (0.70%) BPSS Clearance
6 2 (0.47%) DBS Check
7 1 (0.23%) SAFe Agilist
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 30 (7.01%) QA
2 2 (0.47%) Disclosure Scotland
2 2 (0.47%) PMO
3 1 (0.23%) GDPR
3 1 (0.23%) ISO/IEC 27001
3 1 (0.23%) WAI
System Software
1 43 (10.05%) Docker
2 3 (0.70%) Shibboleth
3 1 (0.23%) Active Directory
3 1 (0.23%) Varnish
3 1 (0.23%) Virtual Machines
3 1 (0.23%) VirtualBox
Systems Management
1 18 (4.21%) Grafana
1 18 (4.21%) Graphite
1 18 (4.21%) Kibana
2 14 (3.27%) Kubernetes
3 5 (1.17%) Prometheus
4 2 (0.47%) Ansible
4 2 (0.47%) cPanel
4 2 (0.47%) Plesk
5 1 (0.23%) Capistrano
Vendors
1 41 (9.58%) Google
2 19 (4.44%) Adobe
3 18 (4.21%) Microsoft
4 16 (3.74%) Splunk
5 13 (3.04%) hybris
5 13 (3.04%) Oracle
6 7 (1.64%) Sitecore
7 6 (1.40%) Cypress Semiconductor
8 5 (1.17%) ATG
8 5 (1.17%) Demandware
9 4 (0.93%) IBM
9 4 (0.93%) Xerox
10 3 (0.70%) Twitter
10 3 (0.70%) WooCommerce
10 3 (0.70%) Zend
11 2 (0.47%) Facebook
11 2 (0.47%) Siebel
12 1 (0.23%) Marketo
12 1 (0.23%) Perforce