Period
to 19 October 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for LESS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited LESS over the 6 months to 19 October 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

LESS (Dynamic Stylesheet Language, LessCSS)
UK
6 months to
19 Oct 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 457 406 390
Rank change year-on-year -51 -16 +98
Contract jobs citing LESS 500 589 649
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.49% 0.59% 0.61%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 1.39% 1.84% 2.01%
Number of daily rates quoted 369 471 507
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £400
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +6.25% +14.29%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £288
90th Percentile £600 £563 £538
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £375 £375
% change year-on-year +6.67% - +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 2 0
UK median hourly rate £47.50 £45.50 -
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +4.40% - -
UK excluding London median hourly rate - £40.00 -

LESS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 35,962 32,047 32,361
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 34.88% 32.23% 30.41%
Number of daily rates quoted 25,313 22,481 22,491
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% +6.25%
10th Percentile £325 £313 £295
90th Percentile £638 £625 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £388
% change year-on-year +6.25% +3.23% +3.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 322 366 382
UK median hourly rate £41.53 £40.00 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +3.83% +6.67% +0.13%
10th Percentile £15.30 £18.25 £13.50
90th Percentile £59.88 £52.50 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £41.00 £40.31 £36.00
% change year-on-year +1.72% +11.96% -3.94%

LESS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing LESS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing LESS.

Contractor daily rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing LESS over the 6 months to 19 October 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS within the UK over the 6 months to 19 October 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -49 477 £450 - 231
UK excluding London +6 252 £400 +6.67% 174
London -78 242 £500 +8.11% 64
South East +7 86 £400 -9.86% 55
Midlands +19 74 £400 +14.29% 26
West Midlands +9 58 £425 +21.43% 10
North of England -6 48 £383 +7.37% 49
North West +1 37 £375 +13.64% 35
South West -13 20 £425 +25.93% 21
East Midlands +1 16 £345 -18.82% 16
Scotland -54 12 £450 +20.00% 5
East of England -22 7 £460 +5.14% 16
Yorkshire -17 6 £425 -5.56% 13
North East +6 5 £395 - 1
Wales - 4 £425 -
Northern Ireland - 2 £275 - 2

For the 6 months to 19 October 2018, IT contractor jobs citing LESS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for LESS.

1 469 (93.80%) CSS
2 453 (90.60%) JavaScript
3 429 (85.80%) HTML
4 414 (82.80%) Sass
5 312 (62.40%) HTML5
6 276 (55.20%) AngularJS
7 275 (55.00%) Agile Software Development
8 229 (45.80%) CSS3
9 227 (45.40%) Front End Development
10 219 (43.80%) React
11 190 (38.00%) TDD
12 188 (37.60%) Git (software)
13 157 (31.40%) Node.js
14 155 (31.00%) User Experience
15 126 (25.20%) jQuery
16 110 (22.00%) gulp
17 105 (21.00%) ES6
18 97 (19.40%) REST
19 95 (19.00%) Web Development
20 93 (18.60%) TypeScript
21 91 (18.20%) BDD
21 91 (18.20%) Java
22 88 (17.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
23 82 (16.40%) Scrum
24 78 (15.60%) Redux
25 77 (15.40%) webpack
26 73 (14.60%) Test Automation
26 73 (14.60%) .NET
26 73 (14.60%) Grunt
27 71 (14.20%) E-Commerce

LESS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 28 (5.60%) Confluence
2 22 (4.40%) CMS
3 20 (4.00%) WordPress
4 12 (2.40%) SharePoint
5 7 (1.40%) Tomcat
6 6 (1.20%) Drupal
6 6 (1.20%) Elasticsearch
7 5 (1.00%) Sitecore CMS
7 5 (1.00%) WebSphere
7 5 (1.00%) WebSphere Application Server
8 4 (0.80%) Apache Solr
8 4 (0.80%) Liferay
8 4 (0.80%) Umbraco
9 3 (0.60%) Adobe Experience Manager
9 3 (0.60%) Apache Spark
10 2 (0.40%) IIS
10 2 (0.40%) SharePoint 2013
11 1 (0.20%) Apache
11 1 (0.20%) EPiServer
11 1 (0.20%) nginx
Applications
1 42 (8.40%) Photoshop
2 18 (3.60%) GIMP
3 10 (2.00%) Fireworks
4 9 (1.80%) Adobe Illustrator
5 2 (0.40%) Adobe Creative Suite
Business Applications
1 18 (3.60%) Magento
2 2 (0.40%) Oracle EBS
3 1 (0.20%) Adobe Campaign
3 1 (0.20%) Eloqua
3 1 (0.20%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 46 (9.20%) Amazon AWS
2 35 (7.00%) npm
3 25 (5.00%) Microsoft Azure
4 23 (4.60%) GitHub
5 19 (3.80%) Google Cloud Platform
6 16 (3.20%) Google Analytics
7 12 (2.40%) AWS Lambda
7 12 (2.40%) Serverless
8 11 (2.20%) Amazon Kinesis
8 11 (2.20%) AWS CloudFormation
9 9 (1.80%) Slack
10 7 (1.40%) BrowserStack
10 7 (1.40%) Office 365
11 5 (1.00%) Heroku
12 4 (0.80%) IaaS
12 4 (0.80%) PaaS
12 4 (0.80%) SaaS
12 4 (0.80%) Yarn
13 3 (0.60%) Adobe Analytics
14 2 (0.40%) Route 53
Communications & Networking
1 27 (5.40%) HTTP
2 17 (3.40%) Internet
3 9 (1.80%) Skype
4 7 (1.40%) RTMP
5 2 (0.40%) HTTPS
5 2 (0.40%) Intranet
5 2 (0.40%) SMS
5 2 (0.40%) SSH
6 1 (0.20%) HbbTV
6 1 (0.20%) SSL
Database & Business Intelligence
1 45 (9.00%) MongoDB
2 26 (5.20%) SQL Server
3 20 (4.00%) MySQL
3 20 (4.00%) NoSQL
4 19 (3.80%) PostgreSQL
5 14 (2.80%) Amazon DynamoDB
6 11 (2.20%) Big Data
7 9 (1.80%) Hadoop
8 7 (1.40%) Data Warehouse
8 7 (1.40%) HBase
8 7 (1.40%) Redis
8 7 (1.40%) SQL Server 2012
9 4 (0.80%) Data Mining
9 4 (0.80%) Relational Database
10 3 (0.60%) Apache Cassandra
10 3 (0.60%) Cosmos DB
10 3 (0.60%) Neo4j
11 2 (0.40%) SQL Server 2016
12 1 (0.20%) InfluxDB
12 1 (0.20%) QGIS
Development Applications
1 188 (37.60%) Git (software)
2 110 (22.00%) gulp
3 77 (15.40%) webpack
4 73 (14.60%) Grunt
5 68 (13.60%) Jenkins
6 62 (12.40%) Selenium
7 53 (10.60%) JIRA
8 50 (10.00%) Jasmine
9 49 (9.80%) WebDriver
10 41 (8.20%) Karma Test Runner
11 36 (7.20%) Cucumber
12 21 (4.20%) Mocha
13 18 (3.60%) Maven
13 18 (3.60%) Mercurial
14 16 (3.20%) IntelliJ
14 16 (3.20%) Sublime Text
14 16 (3.20%) Subversion
14 16 (3.20%) Visual Studio Code
15 15 (3.00%) Artifactory
15 15 (3.00%) Babel
General
1 69 (13.80%) Finance
2 30 (6.00%) Banking
3 15 (3.00%) Front Office
3 15 (3.00%) Retail
4 11 (2.20%) Investment Banking
5 9 (1.80%) Games
5 9 (1.80%) Marketing
6 4 (0.80%) Financial Institution
7 3 (0.60%) Electronics
7 3 (0.60%) Law
8 2 (0.40%) Telecoms
9 1 (0.20%) Automotive
9 1 (0.20%) Back Office
9 1 (0.20%) Manufacturing
9 1 (0.20%) Music Industry
9 1 (0.20%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 461 (92.20%) Developer
2 190 (38.00%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 119 (23.80%) JavaScript Developer
4 74 (14.80%) UI Developer
5 72 (14.40%) React Developer
6 66 (13.20%) HTML Developer
7 55 (11.00%) HTML CSS Developer
8 51 (10.20%) Angular Developer
9 49 (9.80%) Senior Developer
10 44 (8.80%) Full Stack Developer
11 35 (7.00%) Web Developer
12 32 (6.40%) Java Developer
13 30 (6.00%) C# Developer
14 23 (4.60%) Lead Developer
15 21 (4.20%) .NET Developer
16 19 (3.80%) Senior Front-End Developer
17 18 (3.60%) C# .NET Developer
17 18 (3.60%) Scala Developer
18 15 (3.00%) UX Developer
19 14 (2.80%) UI/UX Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 469 (93.80%) CSS
2 429 (85.80%) HTML
3 414 (82.80%) Sass
4 312 (62.40%) HTML5
5 276 (55.20%) AngularJS
6 229 (45.80%) CSS3
7 219 (43.80%) React
8 157 (31.40%) Node.js
9 126 (25.20%) jQuery
10 97 (19.40%) REST
11 88 (17.60%) Twitter Bootstrap
12 78 (15.60%) Redux
13 73 (14.60%) .NET
14 62 (12.40%) Angular 2
15 57 (11.40%) ASP.NET
16 56 (11.20%) KnockoutJS
17 55 (11.00%) Ajax
18 48 (9.60%) ASP.NET Web API
19 46 (9.20%) RESTful
20 44 (8.80%) JSON
Miscellaneous
1 155 (31.00%) User Experience
2 34 (6.80%) Greenfield Project
3 25 (5.00%) Fintech
3 25 (5.00%) Self-Motivation
4 20 (4.00%) Mobile App
5 19 (3.80%) Data Structures
6 15 (3.00%) Derivative
6 15 (3.00%) Equity Derivative
7 13 (2.60%) Computer Science
8 10 (2.00%) Fixed Income
9 8 (1.60%) NHS
10 7 (1.40%) Analytical Skills
10 7 (1.40%) Video\Live Streaming
11 5 (1.00%) iPad
11 5 (1.00%) Management Information System
12 3 (0.60%) Equities
12 3 (0.60%) Internet of Things
12 3 (0.60%) Video on Demand
12 3 (0.60%) Virtual Team
12 3 (0.60%) W3C
Operating Systems
1 21 (4.20%) Linux
2 17 (3.40%) Apple iOS
3 16 (3.20%) Android
4 12 (2.40%) Windows
5 9 (1.80%) Mac OS
6 7 (1.40%) Ubuntu
7 4 (0.80%) Mac OS X
Processes & Methodologies
1 275 (55.00%) Agile Software Development
2 227 (45.40%) Front End Development
3 190 (38.00%) TDD
4 95 (19.00%) Web Development
5 91 (18.20%) BDD
6 82 (16.40%) Scrum
7 73 (14.60%) Test Automation
8 71 (14.20%) E-Commerce
9 68 (13.60%) Continuous Integration
9 68 (13.60%) Responsive Web Design
10 62 (12.40%) DevOps
10 62 (12.40%) MVC
11 59 (11.80%) OO
12 49 (9.80%) Pair Programming
13 43 (8.60%) Unit Testing
14 42 (8.40%) OOP
15 40 (8.00%) Microservices
16 37 (7.40%) Kanban
17 36 (7.20%) Wireframes
18 34 (6.80%) Problem-Solving
Programming Languages
1 453 (90.60%) JavaScript
2 105 (21.00%) ES6
3 93 (18.60%) TypeScript
4 91 (18.20%) Java
5 63 (12.60%) C#
6 31 (6.20%) Ruby
7 28 (5.60%) PHP
7 28 (5.60%) SQL
8 25 (5.00%) Scala
9 22 (4.40%) ES7
10 16 (3.20%) Python
11 12 (2.40%) Groovy
12 9 (1.80%) Bash Shell
13 7 (1.40%) ES8
14 5 (1.00%) CoffeeScript
14 5 (1.00%) PureScript
15 4 (0.80%) Go
16 3 (0.60%) Apple Swift
17 2 (0.40%) Kotlin
17 2 (0.40%) VB.NET
Qualifications
1 24 (4.80%) Security Cleared
2 22 (4.40%) SC Cleared
3 20 (4.00%) Degree
4 9 (1.80%) Computer Science Degree
5 3 (0.60%) BPSS Clearance
6 2 (0.40%) DBS Check
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 28 (5.60%) QA
2 6 (1.20%) PMO
3 5 (1.00%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 3 (0.60%) WAI
5 2 (0.40%) Disclosure Scotland
5 2 (0.40%) WCAG
System Software
1 60 (12.00%) Docker
2 7 (1.40%) HDFS
3 6 (1.20%) Active Directory
Systems Management
1 18 (3.60%) Kubernetes
2 15 (3.00%) Grafana
2 15 (3.00%) Graphite
2 15 (3.00%) Kibana
3 4 (0.80%) Matomo
3 4 (0.80%) Systems Management Server (SMS)
4 3 (0.60%) Prometheus
5 2 (0.40%) Opscode Chef
5 2 (0.40%) Puppet
6 1 (0.20%) Ansible
Vendors
1 38 (7.60%) Google
2 34 (6.80%) Microsoft
3 20 (4.00%) Adobe
4 13 (2.60%) Oracle
5 12 (2.40%) Splunk
6 10 (2.00%) hybris
7 7 (1.40%) MapR
8 6 (1.20%) Cypress Semiconductor
9 5 (1.00%) ATG
9 5 (1.00%) Demandware
9 5 (1.00%) Sitecore
10 4 (0.80%) Twitter
11 3 (0.60%) Rackspace
12 2 (0.40%) Facebook
12 2 (0.40%) Siebel
12 2 (0.40%) Volusion
12 2 (0.40%) WooCommerce
13 1 (0.20%) Mapbox
13 1 (0.20%) Optimizely
13 1 (0.20%) Xerox