Period
to 12 December 2017

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for LESS skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited LESS over the 6 months to 12 December 2017 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

LESS (Dynamic Stylesheet Language, LessCSS)
UK
6 months to
12 Dec 2017
Same period 2016 Same period 2015
Rank 418 398 472
Rank change year-on-year -20 +74 +71
Contract jobs citing LESS 568 616 494
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 0.55% 0.60% 0.44%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 1.72% 1.95% 1.54%
Number of daily rates quoted 430 474 376
UK median daily rate £450 £400 £375
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +12.50% +6.81% -0.13%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £257
90th Percentile £600 £538 £544
UK excluding London median daily rate £405 £375 £350
% change year-on-year +8.00% +7.14% -3.45%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1 0 16
UK median hourly rate £40.00 - £23.75
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 - £20.75

LESS is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 33078 31563 32124
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 32.01% 30.54% 28.55%
Number of daily rates quoted 23378 21824 22146
UK median daily rate £450 £425 £413
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +3.03% +3.13%
10th Percentile £313 £300 £275
90th Percentile £625 £588 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £390 £375
% change year-on-year +2.56% +4.00% +7.14%
Number of hourly rates quoted 361 358 560
UK median hourly rate £40.00 £39.60 £37.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +1.01% +5.60% +7.14%
10th Percentile £17.75 £14.50 £14.25
90th Percentile £51.71 £52.00 £53.22
UK excluding London median hourly rate £40.00 £37.50 £37.50
% change year-on-year +6.67% - +8.70%

LESS
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing LESS as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing LESS.

Contractor daily rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing LESS over the 6 months to 12 December 2017.

Contractor daily rate histogram for LESS in the UK

LESS
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS.

Contractor hourly rate trend for LESS in the UK

LESS
Top 16 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing LESS within the UK over the 6 months to 12 December 2017. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -19 526 £450 +12.50% 106
London -26 342 £475 +12.43% 42
UK excluding London +2 219 £405 +8.00% 66
South East -12 80 £450 +18.42% 16
Midlands +12 34 £378 +0.67% 20
Scotland -7 33 £375 -6.13% 1
North of England +34 29 £425 +25.00% 20
West Midlands +21 27 £388 +6.90% 14
East of England +3 23 £450 +24.14% 5
South West +10 19 £400 +23.08% 3
North West +24 15 £420 +29.23% 9
Yorkshire +6 12 £450 +32.55% 10
East Midlands -21 7 £340 -10.53% 6
North East +62 2 - - 1
Wales +2 2 £550 +50.68% 1
Northern Ireland - 2 - -

For the 6 months to 12 December 2017, IT contractor jobs citing LESS also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the number co-occurrences and its proportion to all contract ads with a requirement for LESS.

1 537 (94.54%) CSS
2 501 (88.20%) JavaScript
3 472 (83.10%) HTML
4 469 (82.57%) Sass
5 313 (55.11%) Agile Software Development
6 312 (54.93%) HTML5
7 307 (54.05%) AngularJS
8 277 (48.77%) CSS3
9 269 (47.36%) Front End Development
10 252 (44.37%) React
11 195 (34.33%) Git (software)
12 191 (33.63%) TDD
13 162 (28.52%) Node.js
14 158 (27.82%) jQuery
15 145 (25.53%) User Experience
16 138 (24.30%) Web Development
17 124 (21.83%) gulp
18 112 (19.72%) ES6
19 107 (18.84%) Twitter Bootstrap
20 105 (18.49%) Responsive Web Design
21 98 (17.25%) Grunt
21 98 (17.25%) Scrum
22 89 (15.67%) Test Automation
23 88 (15.49%) Jasmine
24 86 (15.14%) Java
25 84 (14.79%) .NET
25 84 (14.79%) webpack
26 82 (14.44%) Finance
27 72 (12.68%) Continuous Integration
28 70 (12.32%) MVC

LESS
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 43 (7.57%) CMS
2 21 (3.70%) WordPress
3 20 (3.52%) Drupal
4 12 (2.11%) Apache
5 10 (1.76%) Elasticsearch
5 10 (1.76%) Oracle SOA Suite
6 9 (1.58%) Sitecore CMS
7 8 (1.41%) Confluence
7 8 (1.41%) Tomcat
8 7 (1.23%) EPiServer
8 7 (1.23%) nginx
9 6 (1.06%) WebSphere
10 5 (0.88%) Joomla!
11 4 (0.70%) Adobe Experience Manager
11 4 (0.70%) JBoss
11 4 (0.70%) Mongoose
11 4 (0.70%) Umbraco
11 4 (0.70%) WebLogic
12 3 (0.53%) Kentico
12 3 (0.53%) WebSphere Application Server
Applications
1 43 (7.57%) Photoshop
2 19 (3.35%) Adobe Illustrator
3 13 (2.29%) GIMP
4 4 (0.70%) MS Visio
5 3 (0.53%) Adobe Creative Suite
6 1 (0.18%) Chatbot
6 1 (0.18%) InDesign
6 1 (0.18%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 20 (3.52%) Magento
2 2 (0.35%) SAP Hybris
3 1 (0.18%) Salesforce.com CRM
Cloud Services
1 55 (9.68%) npm
2 48 (8.45%) Amazon AWS
3 40 (7.04%) Microsoft Azure
4 32 (5.63%) SaaS
5 22 (3.87%) PaaS
6 19 (3.35%) IaaS
7 11 (1.94%) GitHub
8 5 (0.88%) Azure Active Directory
8 5 (0.88%) Google Analytics
9 4 (0.70%) Office 365
9 4 (0.70%) Serverless
10 2 (0.35%) MailChimp
10 2 (0.35%) Trello
11 1 (0.18%) Adobe Creative Cloud
11 1 (0.18%) Cloud Computing
11 1 (0.18%) Google Tag Manager
11 1 (0.18%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 13 (2.29%) Internet
2 12 (2.11%) HTTP
3 2 (0.35%) Ethernet
3 2 (0.35%) Skype
3 2 (0.35%) SSH
3 2 (0.35%) Unified Communications
3 2 (0.35%) VPLS
3 2 (0.35%) Wi-Fi
4 1 (0.18%) DNS
4 1 (0.18%) Intranet
4 1 (0.18%) SMS
4 1 (0.18%) SSL
4 1 (0.18%) TCP/IP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 37 (6.51%) MySQL
2 33 (5.81%) SQL Server
3 27 (4.75%) NoSQL
4 19 (3.35%) MongoDB
5 14 (2.46%) PostgreSQL
6 13 (2.29%) Big Data
7 11 (1.94%) Relational Database
8 5 (0.88%) Hadoop
8 5 (0.88%) Redis
9 4 (0.70%) Azure SQL Database
9 4 (0.70%) Qlik Sense
9 4 (0.70%) QlikView
9 4 (0.70%) RDBMS
9 4 (0.70%) SQL Server Analysis Services
9 4 (0.70%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 3 (0.53%) Aerospike
10 3 (0.53%) Blockchain
10 3 (0.53%) Hazelcast
11 2 (0.35%) Data Warehouse
11 2 (0.35%) SAP Data Services
Development Applications
1 195 (34.33%) Git (software)
2 124 (21.83%) gulp
3 98 (17.25%) Grunt
4 88 (15.49%) Jasmine
5 84 (14.79%) webpack
6 51 (8.98%) Karma Test Runner
7 41 (7.22%) Jenkins
8 40 (7.04%) Mocha
9 37 (6.51%) Selenium
10 36 (6.34%) Subversion
11 30 (5.28%) JIRA
12 29 (5.11%) Cucumber
12 29 (5.11%) Protractor
13 23 (4.05%) Bower
14 20 (3.52%) Mercurial
14 20 (3.52%) TeamCity
15 19 (3.35%) Maven
16 17 (2.99%) Team Foundation Server
17 15 (2.64%) PhantomJS
17 15 (2.64%) WebDriver
General
1 82 (14.44%) Finance
2 45 (7.92%) Banking
3 23 (4.05%) Investment Banking
3 23 (4.05%) Marketing
4 17 (2.99%) Front Office
5 13 (2.29%) Retail
6 12 (2.11%) Telecoms
7 11 (1.94%) Games
8 10 (1.76%) Publishing
9 5 (0.88%) Financial Institution
10 4 (0.70%) Law
11 2 (0.35%) Advertising
11 2 (0.35%) Online Betting
12 1 (0.18%) Electronics
12 1 (0.18%) Manufacturing
12 1 (0.18%) Pharmaceutical
12 1 (0.18%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 526 (92.61%) Developer
2 231 (40.67%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
3 171 (30.11%) JavaScript Developer
4 94 (16.55%) HTML Developer
5 81 (14.26%) UI Developer
6 73 (12.85%) HTML CSS Developer
7 65 (11.44%) Angular Developer
8 52 (9.15%) Web Developer
9 37 (6.51%) Full Stack Developer
10 36 (6.34%) Senior Developer
11 26 (4.58%) Node.js Developer
12 25 (4.40%) Agile Developer
13 23 (4.05%) .NET Developer
14 21 (3.70%) C# Developer
15 20 (3.52%) CSS Developer
15 20 (3.52%) Senior Front-End Developer
15 20 (3.52%) UX Developer
16 19 (3.35%) Java Developer
17 18 (3.17%) Front End Web Developer (Client-Side Developer)
18 16 (2.82%) UI/UX Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 537 (94.54%) CSS
2 472 (83.10%) HTML
3 469 (82.57%) Sass
4 312 (54.93%) HTML5
5 307 (54.05%) AngularJS
6 277 (48.77%) CSS3
7 252 (44.37%) React
8 162 (28.52%) Node.js
9 158 (27.82%) jQuery
10 107 (18.84%) Twitter Bootstrap
11 84 (14.79%) .NET
12 67 (11.80%) Angular 2
12 67 (11.80%) KnockoutJS
12 67 (11.80%) Redux
13 66 (11.62%) Backbone.js
13 66 (11.62%) RESTful
14 56 (9.86%) Web Services
15 47 (8.27%) JSON
16 46 (8.10%) Ajax
16 46 (8.10%) Vue (Vue.js)
Miscellaneous
1 145 (25.53%) User Experience
2 43 (7.57%) Greenfield Project
3 26 (4.58%) Mobile App
4 22 (3.87%) Fintech
5 20 (3.52%) Derivative
5 20 (3.52%) Equity Derivative
6 15 (2.64%) W3C
7 11 (1.94%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
8 9 (1.58%) Virtual Team
9 8 (1.41%) Animation
9 8 (1.41%) Equities
9 8 (1.41%) Social Media
10 7 (1.23%) Algorithms
10 7 (1.23%) Data Structures
11 6 (1.06%) Linux Command Line
11 6 (1.06%) Smartphone
12 5 (0.88%) iPad
13 4 (0.70%) Analytical Skills
13 4 (0.70%) Computer Science
13 4 (0.70%) Enterprise Software
Operating Systems
1 17 (2.99%) Linux
2 11 (1.94%) Android
2 11 (1.94%) Apple iOS
3 7 (1.23%) Windows
4 4 (0.70%) Mac OS X
5 1 (0.18%) Unix
Processes & Methodologies
1 313 (55.11%) Agile Software Development
2 269 (47.36%) Front End Development
3 191 (33.63%) TDD
4 138 (24.30%) Web Development
5 105 (18.49%) Responsive Web Design
6 98 (17.25%) Scrum
7 89 (15.67%) Test Automation
8 72 (12.68%) Continuous Integration
9 70 (12.32%) MVC
10 60 (10.56%) OO
11 58 (10.21%) BDD
12 53 (9.33%) Pair Programming
13 48 (8.45%) SDLC
13 48 (8.45%) Unit Testing
14 45 (7.92%) Cross-Browser Compatibility
15 41 (7.22%) E-Commerce
15 41 (7.22%) Software Engineering
16 40 (7.04%) DevOps
16 40 (7.04%) Wireframes
17 33 (5.81%) Mentoring
Programming Languages
1 501 (88.20%) JavaScript
2 112 (19.72%) ES6
3 86 (15.14%) Java
4 65 (11.44%) TypeScript
5 56 (9.86%) C#
6 49 (8.63%) PHP
7 31 (5.46%) SQL
8 16 (2.82%) Python
9 11 (1.94%) C
10 8 (1.41%) ECMAScript
11 7 (1.23%) T-SQL
12 5 (0.88%) Bash Shell
12 5 (0.88%) CoffeeScript
12 5 (0.88%) Scala
13 4 (0.70%) Groovy
13 4 (0.70%) Ruby
14 3 (0.53%) GraphQL
14 3 (0.53%) PowerShell
14 3 (0.53%) Shell Script
15 2 (0.35%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 18 (3.17%) Degree
2 5 (0.88%) Security Cleared
3 4 (0.70%) BPSS Clearance
3 4 (0.70%) Computer Science Degree
4 3 (0.53%) Master's Degree
4 3 (0.53%) Microsoft Certification
4 3 (0.53%) SC Cleared
5 2 (0.35%) MCSD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 19 (3.35%) WCAG
2 11 (1.94%) QA
3 6 (1.06%) WAI
System Software
1 46 (8.10%) Docker
2 2 (0.35%) Active Directory
2 2 (0.35%) Varnish
Systems Management
1 29 (5.11%) Opscode Chef
2 17 (2.99%) Ansible
3 13 (2.29%) Terraform
4 3 (0.53%) Puppet
Vendors
1 29 (5.11%) Microsoft
2 19 (3.35%) Oracle
3 10 (1.76%) Adobe
4 9 (1.58%) Google
4 9 (1.58%) Sitecore
5 6 (1.06%) hybris
6 4 (0.70%) SAP
6 4 (0.70%) Twitter
7 3 (0.53%) ATG
7 3 (0.53%) Coveo
7 3 (0.53%) Demandware
7 3 (0.53%) Salesforce.com
8 2 (0.35%) Atlassian
8 2 (0.35%) IBM
8 2 (0.35%) Infor
8 2 (0.35%) ServiceNow
8 2 (0.35%) Sun
8 2 (0.35%) TOWER Software
8 2 (0.35%) Zend
9 1 (0.18%) Apple