Period
to 28 September 2021

The median contractor rate for a Developer was £500 per day in advertised job vacancies during the 6 months to 28 September 2021.

The first table below provides contractor rate benchmarking and summary statistics including a comparison to same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Developer
UK
6 months to
28 Sep 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 2 2 2
Rank change year-on-year 0 0 -1
Contract jobs requiring a Developer 16,938 7,019 20,975
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 20.90% 23.84% 24.11%
As % of the Job Titles category 22.44% 25.83% 25.58%
Number of daily rates quoted 12,483 5,057 15,244
10th Percentile £353 £313 £325
25th Percentile £413 £400 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £490 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.04% +3.16% +4.93%
75th Percentile £619 £600 £569
90th Percentile £700 £700 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £425 £425
% change year-on-year +5.88% - +3.03%
Number of hourly rates quoted 136 41 122
10th Percentile £21.70 £20.13 £21.50
25th Percentile £29.50 £23.50 £37.81
Median hourly rate £52.53 £39.00 £46.25
Median % change year-on-year +34.69% -15.68% +8.82%
75th Percentile £64.56 £52.50 £55.00
90th Percentile £69.50 £55.63 £61.48
UK excluding London median hourly rate £52.50 £42.50 £45.00
% change year-on-year +23.53% -5.56% +5.88%

The following table is for comparison with the above and includes summary statistics for all contract IT job vacancies. Most job vacancies include a discernible job title that can be normalized. As such, the figures in the second row provide an indication of the number of contract jobs in our overall sample.

All Contract IT Job Vacancies
UK
Contract vacancies in the UK with a recognized job title 75,468 27,173 82,013
% of contract IT jobs with a recognized job title 93.13% 92.28% 94.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 52,212 18,216 54,848
10th Percentile £300 £263 £263
25th Percentile £406 £363 £363
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £475 £463
Median % change year-on-year +5.26% +2.70% +2.78%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £570
90th Percentile £694 £668 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £430 £425
% change year-on-year +4.65% +1.18% +2.41%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,080 884 2,713
10th Percentile £11.62 £11.17 £11.17
25th Percentile £13.63 £14.04 £13.50
Median hourly rate £20.00 £22.00 £19.00
Median % change year-on-year -9.09% +15.79% +8.57%
75th Percentile £45.00 £43.75 £43.49
90th Percentile £62.00 £53.75 £52.46
UK excluding London median hourly rate £17.58 £20.00 £17.50
% change year-on-year -12.10% +14.29% -

Developer
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings that featured Developer in the job title as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Developer in the UK

Developer
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Developer.

Daily rate trend for Developer in the UK

Developer
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Developer over the 6 months to 28 September 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Developer in the UK

Developer
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Developer.

Hourly rate trend for Developer in the UK

Developer
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Developer over the 6 months to 28 September 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Developer in the UK

Developer
Top 18 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Developer within the UK over the 6 months to 28 September 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England 0 13,574 £525 +5.00% 6,048
London -2 8,546 £563 +7.14% 2,612
Work from Home -1 5,133 £495 +10.00% 1,591
UK excluding London 0 4,882 £450 +5.88% 3,742
North of England 0 1,315 £450 +8.43% 1,258
South East -3 1,022 £450 - 676
North West -1 752 £425 +4.62% 750
Scotland -2 697 £450 +5.88% 234
Midlands -1 689 £425 +13.33% 754
South West -1 634 £450 - 365
West Midlands +1 460 £450 +12.50% 466
Yorkshire 0 455 £475 +11.76% 348
East of England -4 298 £450 - 347
East Midlands -5 210 £400 +11.11% 285
Wales -1 144 £450 -5.26% 83
North East +1 108 £475 +18.75% 160
Northern Ireland +1 88 £475 +5.56% 29
Isle of Man - 1 £400 - 1

Developer Skill Set
Top 30 Co-occurring IT Skills

For the 6 months to 28 September 2021, Developer contract jobs required the following IT skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads featuring Developer in the job title.

1 6,083 (35.91%) Agile Software Development
2 5,076 (29.97%) JavaScript
3 4,978 (29.39%) Java
4 3,889 (22.96%) SQL
5 3,442 (20.32%) React
6 3,218 (19.00%) Finance
7 3,162 (18.67%) Azure
8 3,091 (18.25%) .NET
9 3,026 (17.87%) C#
10 2,703 (15.96%) HTML
11 2,657 (15.69%) AWS
12 2,626 (15.50%) TDD
13 2,622 (15.48%) Microservices
14 2,486 (14.68%) CSS
15 2,449 (14.46%) Python
16 2,429 (14.34%) DevOps
17 2,410 (14.23%) Git (software)
18 2,391 (14.12%) Full Stack Development
19 2,383 (14.07%) Social Skills
20 2,122 (12.53%) AngularJS
21 2,089 (12.33%) Node.js
22 2,041 (12.05%) Spring
23 2,023 (11.94%) TypeScript
24 2,003 (11.83%) Docker
25 1,868 (11.03%) Software Engineering
26 1,852 (10.93%) Banking
27 1,840 (10.86%) SQL Server
28 1,698 (10.02%) REST
29 1,669 (9.85%) Scrum
30 1,628 (9.61%) Kubernetes

Developer Skill Set
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 469 (2.77%) Confluence
2 381 (2.25%) SharePoint
3 300 (1.77%) CMS
4 250 (1.48%) Apache Spark
5 231 (1.36%) Apache
6 226 (1.33%) Elasticsearch
7 138 (0.81%) WebLogic
8 109 (0.64%) Tomcat
9 106 (0.63%) BizTalk Server
10 105 (0.62%) WordPress
11 103 (0.61%) Mule
12 96 (0.57%) JBoss
13 93 (0.55%) Drupal
14 77 (0.45%) IIS
15 73 (0.43%) WebSphere
16 70 (0.41%) nginx
16 70 (0.41%) SAS
17 65 (0.38%) Adobe Experience Manager
18 62 (0.37%) Oracle SOA Suite
18 62 (0.37%) Umbraco
Applications
1 256 (1.51%) Microsoft Excel
2 88 (0.52%) Microsoft Office
3 39 (0.23%) Photoshop
4 31 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 28 (0.17%) Chatbot
6 26 (0.15%) Spreadsheet
7 23 (0.14%) Figma
8 20 (0.12%) Adobe Illustrator
8 20 (0.12%) Sketch
9 17 (0.10%) Adobe XD
10 16 (0.094%) Adobe Creative Suite
11 14 (0.083%) InVision
11 14 (0.083%) MS Visio
12 13 (0.077%) InfoPath
13 12 (0.071%) Adobe Captivate
13 12 (0.071%) Zeplin
14 9 (0.053%) Blender
15 8 (0.047%) Microsoft Project
16 7 (0.041%) InDesign
16 7 (0.041%) Oracle Smart View
Business Applications
1 158 (0.93%) Dynamics CRM
2 102 (0.60%) Magento
3 54 (0.32%) Dynamics AX
4 46 (0.27%) Shopify
5 44 (0.26%) ION MarketView
6 40 (0.24%) SunGard Martini
7 36 (0.21%) SAP Hybris
8 34 (0.20%) SAP S/4HANA
9 27 (0.16%) Payment Gateway
10 24 (0.14%) Oracle EBS
11 20 (0.12%) Dynamics NAV
11 20 (0.12%) NetSuite
12 15 (0.089%) Remedy ITSM
13 13 (0.077%) Salesforce.com CRM
14 12 (0.071%) Hyperion Planning
14 12 (0.071%) Oracle ERP
14 12 (0.071%) Orchestrade
14 12 (0.071%) SAP Oil and Gas
14 12 (0.071%) Social Studio
15 11 (0.065%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 3,162 (18.67%) Azure
2 2,657 (15.69%) AWS
3 1,167 (6.89%) Serverless
4 811 (4.79%) Power Platform
5 736 (4.35%) AWS Lambda
6 705 (4.16%) GCP
7 571 (3.37%) GitHub
8 394 (2.33%) Amazon S3
9 287 (1.69%) Amazon SQS
10 280 (1.65%) SaaS
11 231 (1.36%) Azure Functions
12 223 (1.32%) PaaS
13 220 (1.30%) Dynamics 365
14 215 (1.27%) OpenShift
15 212 (1.25%) npm
16 211 (1.25%) PowerApps
17 207 (1.22%) AWS CloudFormation
18 189 (1.12%) Azure Service Bus
19 186 (1.10%) Microsoft 365
20 172 (1.02%) AWS Step Functions
Communications & Networking
1 256 (1.51%) HTTP
2 116 (0.68%) Internet
3 99 (0.58%) TCP/IP
4 52 (0.31%) SSL
5 34 (0.20%) FTP
5 34 (0.20%) Intranet
6 32 (0.19%) HTTPS
7 30 (0.18%) RTMP
8 23 (0.14%) MQTT
9 21 (0.12%) VoIP
10 19 (0.11%) AMQP
11 17 (0.10%) DNS
11 17 (0.10%) SNMP
12 16 (0.094%) Ethernet
12 16 (0.094%) VPN
13 15 (0.089%) Skype
14 14 (0.083%) Bluetooth
14 14 (0.083%) FIX Connectivity
15 12 (0.071%) Broadband
15 12 (0.071%) Firewall
Database & Business Intelligence
1 1,840 (10.86%) SQL Server
2 781 (4.61%) Relational Database
3 699 (4.13%) NoSQL
4 685 (4.04%) Power BI
5 652 (3.85%) PostgreSQL
6 637 (3.76%) MySQL
7 622 (3.67%) MongoDB
8 518 (3.06%) Data Warehouse
9 475 (2.80%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 419 (2.47%) Amazon DynamoDB
11 355 (2.10%) Oracle Database
12 345 (2.04%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 327 (1.93%) Big Data
14 250 (1.48%) Redis
15 235 (1.39%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 226 (1.33%) Azure SQL Database
16 226 (1.33%) Hadoop
17 203 (1.20%) Tableau
18 198 (1.17%) Amazon RDS
19 190 (1.12%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 2,410 (14.23%) Git (software)
2 1,444 (8.53%) Jenkins
3 1,022 (6.03%) JIRA
4 673 (3.97%) Maven
5 480 (2.83%) JUnit
6 405 (2.39%) Visual Studio
7 382 (2.26%) Bitbucket
8 348 (2.05%) TeamCity
9 321 (1.90%) Cucumber
10 310 (1.83%) GitLab
11 291 (1.72%) Subversion
12 261 (1.54%) webpack
13 259 (1.53%) Selenium
14 245 (1.45%) Mockito
15 211 (1.25%) Gradle
16 209 (1.23%) Jasmine
17 208 (1.23%) Cypress.io
18 154 (0.91%) Team Foundation Server
19 152 (0.90%) CircleCI
20 132 (0.78%) Artifactory
General
1 3,218 (19.00%) Finance
2 2,383 (14.07%) Social Skills
3 1,852 (10.93%) Banking
4 1,144 (6.75%) Front Office
5 816 (4.82%) Investment Banking
6 731 (4.32%) Public Sector
7 722 (4.26%) Analytical Skills
8 348 (2.05%) Retail
9 310 (1.83%) Marketing
10 201 (1.19%) Telecoms
11 178 (1.05%) Games
12 176 (1.04%) Manufacturing
13 167 (0.99%) Presentation Skills
14 118 (0.70%) Law
15 100 (0.59%) Documentation Skills
16 99 (0.58%) Electronics
17 96 (0.57%) Financial Institution
18 91 (0.54%) Back Office
19 71 (0.42%) Publishing
20 70 (0.41%) Automotive
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 3,442 (20.32%) React
2 3,091 (18.25%) .NET
3 2,703 (15.96%) HTML
4 2,486 (14.68%) CSS
5 2,122 (12.53%) AngularJS
6 2,089 (12.33%) Node.js
7 2,041 (12.05%) Spring
8 1,698 (10.02%) REST
9 1,333 (7.87%) Spring Boot
10 1,298 (7.66%) Web Services
11 1,217 (7.19%) RESTful
12 944 (5.57%) .NET Core
13 931 (5.50%) HTML5
14 749 (4.42%) .NET Framework
15 740 (4.37%) JSON
16 732 (4.32%) ASP.NET
17 723 (4.27%) Kafka
18 690 (4.07%) Redux
19 682 (4.03%) XML
20 615 (3.63%) Vue.js
Miscellaneous
1 868 (5.12%) User Experience
2 662 (3.91%) Greenfield Project
3 543 (3.21%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 513 (3.03%) Mobile App
5 509 (3.01%) Fixed Income
6 430 (2.54%) Derivative
7 412 (2.43%) Data Protection Act
8 377 (2.23%) Data Structures
9 295 (1.74%) Algorithms
10 282 (1.66%) Equities
11 207 (1.22%) Enterprise Software
12 201 (1.19%) Legacy Systems
13 190 (1.12%) Self-Motivation
14 188 (1.11%) Cloud Native
15 157 (0.93%) Hedge funds
16 147 (0.87%) Virtual Team
17 130 (0.77%) Management Information System
18 123 (0.73%) Credit Risk
19 113 (0.67%) NHS
20 105 (0.62%) Market Risk
Operating Systems
1 1,029 (6.08%) Linux
2 585 (3.45%) Unix
3 565 (3.34%) Windows
4 534 (3.15%) Android
5 462 (2.73%) Apple iOS
6 47 (0.28%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 40 (0.24%) Mac OS X
8 36 (0.21%) Windows Server
9 29 (0.17%) Mac OS
10 15 (0.089%) VMS
11 11 (0.065%) Windows 10
12 10 (0.059%) Android TV
12 10 (0.059%) CentOS
12 10 (0.059%) Debian
12 10 (0.059%) Ubuntu
12 10 (0.059%) Windows Server 2016
13 9 (0.053%) tvOS
14 8 (0.047%) Embedded Linux
15 6 (0.035%) Solaris
15 6 (0.035%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 6,083 (35.91%) Agile Software Development
2 2,626 (15.50%) TDD
3 2,622 (15.48%) Microservices
4 2,429 (14.34%) DevOps
5 2,391 (14.12%) Full Stack Development
6 1,868 (11.03%) Software Engineering
7 1,669 (9.85%) Scrum
8 1,564 (9.23%) Test Automation
9 1,447 (8.54%) Front End Development
10 1,199 (7.08%) Continuous Integration
11 1,123 (6.63%) Business Intelligence
12 1,113 (6.57%) Problem-Solving
13 1,056 (6.23%) Unit Testing
14 1,039 (6.13%) BDD
15 961 (5.67%) MVC
16 891 (5.26%) OO
17 868 (5.12%) Analytics
18 861 (5.08%) SDLC
19 742 (4.38%) Web Development
20 739 (4.36%) ETL
Programming Languages
1 5,076 (29.97%) JavaScript
2 4,978 (29.39%) Java
3 3,889 (22.96%) SQL
4 3,026 (17.87%) C#
5 2,449 (14.46%) Python
6 2,023 (11.94%) TypeScript
7 872 (5.15%) Java 8
8 795 (4.69%) C++
9 727 (4.29%) Scala
10 609 (3.60%) PHP
11 593 (3.50%) Kotlin
12 456 (2.69%) PL/SQL
13 426 (2.52%) T-SQL
14 374 (2.21%) Java 11
15 352 (2.08%) Go
16 341 (2.01%) ES6
17 303 (1.79%) PowerShell
18 278 (1.64%) Ruby
19 273 (1.61%) Apple Swift
20 267 (1.58%) C
Qualifications
1 899 (5.31%) Security Cleared
2 756 (4.46%) SC Cleared
3 616 (3.64%) Degree
4 197 (1.16%) Computer Science Degree
5 146 (0.86%) BPSS Clearance
6 70 (0.41%) DV Cleared
7 44 (0.26%) Sun Certification
8 42 (0.25%) Master's Degree
9 38 (0.22%) PhD
10 37 (0.22%) Numerate Degree
11 36 (0.21%) OCPJP
12 31 (0.18%) ISTQB
13 28 (0.17%) AWS Certification
14 27 (0.16%) Microsoft Certification
15 21 (0.12%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
16 20 (0.12%) DBS Check
17 17 (0.10%) ITIL Certification
18 8 (0.047%) Six Sigma Green Belt
19 6 (0.035%) BC Cleared
20 4 (0.024%) CTC Cleared
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 428 (2.53%) QA
2 383 (2.26%) Accessibility
3 128 (0.76%) Data Quality
4 72 (0.43%) WCAG
5 55 (0.32%) GDPR
6 44 (0.26%) PMO
7 24 (0.14%) MiFID
8 22 (0.13%) SLA
9 12 (0.071%) Disclosure Scotland
10 11 (0.065%) GRC
10 11 (0.065%) Sarbanes-Oxley
11 9 (0.053%) COREP
12 8 (0.047%) EMIR
12 8 (0.047%) FINREP
13 7 (0.041%) JTAG
14 5 (0.030%) ISO/IEC 27001
14 5 (0.030%) PCI DSS
15 4 (0.024%) Dublin Core
16 3 (0.018%) Basel III
16 3 (0.018%) HL7
System Software
1 2,003 (11.83%) Docker
2 164 (0.97%) Active Directory
3 40 (0.24%) HDFS
3 40 (0.24%) Virtual Machines
4 24 (0.14%) VMware Infrastructure
5 14 (0.083%) NFS
6 13 (0.077%) Platform Symphony
7 10 (0.059%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 8 (0.047%) VMware ESXi
9 7 (0.041%) vSphere
10 6 (0.035%) KVM
11 5 (0.030%) Firmware
11 5 (0.030%) Varnish
12 4 (0.024%) Microsoft App-V
12 4 (0.024%) NDS
12 4 (0.024%) NetIQ eDirectory
12 4 (0.024%) Xen
13 3 (0.018%) iptables
13 3 (0.018%) OpenAM
13 3 (0.018%) Postfix
Systems Management
1 1,628 (9.61%) Kubernetes
2 637 (3.76%) Terraform
3 345 (2.04%) Ansible
4 196 (1.16%) Grafana
5 101 (0.60%) Prometheus
6 95 (0.56%) Kibana
7 72 (0.43%) Puppet
8 47 (0.28%) Opscode Chef
9 44 (0.26%) Control-M
10 25 (0.15%) logstash
11 23 (0.14%) BladeLogic
12 21 (0.12%) Graphite
12 21 (0.12%) Single Sign-On
13 18 (0.11%) Rancher
14 16 (0.094%) Microsoft Intune
14 16 (0.094%) Packer
15 15 (0.089%) ZABBIX
16 14 (0.083%) Hadoop YARN
17 13 (0.077%) Istio
18 11 (0.065%) vRealize Orchestrator
Vendors
1 1,489 (8.79%) Oracle
2 1,233 (7.28%) Microsoft
3 482 (2.85%) Salesforce.com
4 407 (2.40%) SAP
5 322 (1.90%) Google
6 183 (1.08%) Adobe
7 151 (0.89%) MuleSoft
8 146 (0.86%) IBM
8 146 (0.86%) ServiceNow
9 143 (0.84%) Informatica
10 121 (0.71%) ION Trading
11 99 (0.58%) webMethods
12 97 (0.57%) Atlassian
13 96 (0.57%) Splunk
14 94 (0.55%) Databricks
14 94 (0.55%) TIBCO
15 92 (0.54%) Sybase
16 77 (0.45%) BEA
17 73 (0.43%) hybris
18 72 (0.43%) Xamarin