Period
to 24 July 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 24 July 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
24 Jul 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 126 116 129
Rank change year-on-year -10 +13 +10
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,869 2,303 1,855
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 2.03% 2.23% 1.95%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.34% 2.57% 2.28%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,249 1,618 1,269
UK median daily rate £475 £464 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.43% +9.12% +3.03%
10th Percentile £350 £325 £310
90th Percentile £625 £600 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £415 £375
% change year-on-year +5.42% +10.67% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 27 30 40
UK median hourly rate £43.00 £49.50 £42.25
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -13.13% +17.16% +0.60%
10th Percentile £38.75 £35.44 £31.25
90th Percentile £51.10 £51.99 £59.95
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.00 £49.50 £42.25
% change year-on-year -13.13% +17.16% -1.74%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 79,891 89,483 81,526
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.91% 86.63% 85.70%
Number of daily rates quoted 52,588 59,007 53,385
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £447
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +0.67% +5.18%
10th Percentile £300 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,280 2,450 2,125
UK median hourly rate £24.68 £21.50 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +14.78% -14.00% +4.17%
10th Percentile £11.80 £11.17 £11.50
90th Percentile £52.55 £50.00 £52.37
UK excluding London median hourly rate £24.00 £20.45 £25.00
% change year-on-year +17.36% -18.20% -

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 24 July 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 24 July 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 24 July 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -17 1,665 £480 +1.05% 711
UK excluding London -5 966 £438 +5.42% 562
London -25 870 £525 +4.48% 206
South East -8 291 £439 -2.50% 143
North of England +4 174 £425 +9.68% 147
Midlands +18 143 £475 +26.67% 101
South West -51 115 £450 +20.00% 67
Scotland +34 103 £425 +3.03% 41
West Midlands +56 83 £475 +18.75% 40
North West -19 75 £388 +3.33% 78
Yorkshire +1 71 £425 +6.92% 28
East of England +12 67 £475 +5.56% 48
East Midlands -3 58 £500 +33.33% 59
Wales -6 34 £400 -6.98% 12
Northern Ireland +20 29 £510 +2.00% 4
North East +37 28 £450 +28.57% 41
Channel Islands +3 14 - -

For the 6 months to 24 July 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 970 (51.90%) Agile Software Development
2 607 (32.48%) C#
3 588 (31.46%) TDD
4 585 (31.30%) Java
5 578 (30.93%) JavaScript
6 566 (30.28%) .NET
7 512 (27.39%) Git (software)
8 505 (27.02%) SQL
9 436 (23.33%) CSS
10 433 (23.17%) HTML
11 385 (20.60%) AngularJS
12 372 (19.90%) Test Automation
13 345 (18.46%) Finance
14 343 (18.35%) SQL Server
15 340 (18.19%) Scrum
16 321 (17.17%) Continuous Integration
17 320 (17.12%) Microsoft Azure
18 304 (16.27%) REST
19 302 (16.16%) React
20 297 (15.89%) Web Services
21 269 (14.39%) MVC
22 256 (13.70%) Software Engineering
22 256 (13.70%) Node.js
23 248 (13.27%) DevOps
24 244 (13.06%) Microservices
25 237 (12.68%) Python
26 223 (11.93%) Problem-Solving
27 214 (11.45%) Jenkins
28 210 (11.24%) BDD
29 207 (11.08%) Amazon AWS

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 72 (3.85%) Confluence
2 50 (2.68%) WebSphere
3 48 (2.57%) Apache
4 47 (2.51%) CMS
5 39 (2.09%) IIS
6 38 (2.03%) Apache Spark
7 30 (1.61%) Elasticsearch
8 29 (1.55%) JBoss
9 20 (1.07%) SharePoint
10 18 (0.96%) Tomcat
10 18 (0.96%) Umbraco
11 16 (0.86%) BizTalk Server
11 16 (0.86%) Drupal
11 16 (0.86%) Sitecore CMS
12 14 (0.75%) ArcGIS
12 14 (0.75%) Oracle SOA Suite
13 13 (0.70%) Apache Solr
13 13 (0.70%) Ethereum
13 13 (0.70%) Hyperledger
13 13 (0.70%) Jetty
Applications
1 20 (1.07%) Microsoft Excel
2 12 (0.64%) Photoshop
3 10 (0.54%) Microsoft PowerPoint
4 7 (0.37%) MS Visio
5 6 (0.32%) Simulink
5 6 (0.32%) Sketch
6 3 (0.16%) Adobe Illustrator
6 3 (0.16%) Adobe XD
6 3 (0.16%) Stateflow
7 2 (0.11%) Chatbot
7 2 (0.11%) Microsoft Office
7 2 (0.11%) Microsoft Project
7 2 (0.11%) Spreadsheet
8 1 (0.054%) Fireworks
8 1 (0.054%) GIMP
8 1 (0.054%) OmniGraffle
Business Applications
1 42 (2.25%) Dynamics CRM
2 28 (1.50%) Magento
3 20 (1.07%) Endur
4 19 (1.02%) SAP MM
5 16 (0.86%) SAP FI
6 15 (0.80%) Distributed Ledger
7 14 (0.75%) SAP CO
8 13 (0.70%) R3 Corda
8 13 (0.70%) SAP FI/CO
9 10 (0.54%) SAP PS
10 9 (0.48%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
11 8 (0.43%) Oracle BPM
11 8 (0.43%) SAP QM
12 7 (0.37%) Payment Gateway
12 7 (0.37%) SAP PP
13 6 (0.32%) NetSuite
13 6 (0.32%) SAP Hybris
14 5 (0.27%) Fredhopper
14 5 (0.27%) SAP S/4HANA
14 5 (0.27%) Shopify
Cloud Services
1 320 (17.12%) Microsoft Azure
2 207 (11.08%) Amazon AWS
3 88 (4.71%) npm
4 71 (3.80%) GitHub
5 59 (3.16%) Google Cloud Platform
6 58 (3.10%) Serverless
7 44 (2.35%) Cloud Computing
8 42 (2.25%) AWS Lambda
9 30 (1.61%) SaaS
10 29 (1.55%) Dynamics 365
11 25 (1.34%) Power Platform
12 24 (1.28%) AWS CloudFormation
13 23 (1.23%) PaaS
14 20 (1.07%) OpenShift
15 17 (0.91%) Azure Data Factory
16 15 (0.80%) Azure Functions
16 15 (0.80%) Sauce Labs
17 14 (0.75%) IaaS
17 14 (0.75%) Yarn
18 12 (0.64%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 54 (2.89%) HTTP
2 27 (1.44%) TCP/IP
3 17 (0.91%) Internet
4 14 (0.75%) Bluetooth
4 14 (0.75%) NFC
5 13 (0.70%) FTP
6 12 (0.64%) DNS
6 12 (0.64%) IPFS
6 12 (0.64%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
7 8 (0.43%) Network Security
7 8 (0.43%) SNMP
8 7 (0.37%) TETRA
9 5 (0.27%) Reverse Proxy
10 4 (0.21%) DHCP
10 4 (0.21%) Firewall
10 4 (0.21%) IPsec
11 3 (0.16%) AMQP
11 3 (0.16%) Skype
11 3 (0.16%) VoIP
12 2 (0.11%) Tactical Data Link
Database & Business Intelligence
1 343 (18.35%) SQL Server
2 115 (6.15%) Relational Database
3 103 (5.51%) NoSQL
4 77 (4.12%) Big Data
5 67 (3.58%) SQL Server Integration Services
6 60 (3.21%) Data Warehouse
6 60 (3.21%) MongoDB
7 59 (3.16%) MySQL
7 59 (3.16%) PostgreSQL
8 54 (2.89%) Oracle Database
9 50 (2.68%) RDBMS
10 42 (2.25%) Azure SQL Database
11 41 (2.19%) Hadoop
12 30 (1.61%) Apache Cassandra
13 29 (1.55%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 29 (1.55%) HBase
14 28 (1.50%) Cosmos DB
15 26 (1.39%) SQL Server 2012
16 25 (1.34%) Power BI
16 25 (1.34%) SQL Server Reporting Services
Development Applications
1 512 (27.39%) Git (software)
2 214 (11.45%) Jenkins
3 158 (8.45%) JIRA
4 152 (8.13%) Visual Studio
5 144 (7.70%) JUnit
6 134 (7.17%) Selenium
7 130 (6.96%) Maven
8 115 (6.15%) TeamCity
9 109 (5.83%) Team Foundation Server
10 78 (4.17%) Subversion
11 76 (4.07%) Eclipse
12 75 (4.01%) Jasmine
13 74 (3.96%) NUnit
14 69 (3.69%) webpack
15 67 (3.58%) Cucumber
16 66 (3.53%) Mockito
17 58 (3.10%) Mocha
18 56 (3.00%) Karma Test Runner
19 52 (2.78%) Octopus Deploy
20 49 (2.62%) MSTest
General
1 345 (18.46%) Finance
2 173 (9.26%) Banking
3 87 (4.65%) Retail
4 70 (3.75%) Front Office
5 40 (2.14%) Investment Banking
6 37 (1.98%) Telecoms
7 36 (1.93%) Manufacturing
8 28 (1.50%) Games
9 27 (1.44%) Legal
9 27 (1.44%) Marketing
10 14 (0.75%) Advertising
11 13 (0.70%) Back Office
11 13 (0.70%) Financial Institution
12 11 (0.59%) Publishing
13 9 (0.48%) Electronics
14 8 (0.43%) Billing
14 8 (0.43%) Law
14 8 (0.43%) Retail Banking
15 6 (0.32%) Local Government
16 5 (0.27%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 1,376 (73.62%) Developer
2 266 (14.23%) .NET Developer
3 208 (11.13%) Java Developer
4 181 (9.68%) C# Developer
5 149 (7.97%) Senior Developer
6 126 (6.74%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 125 (6.69%) Full Stack Developer
8 98 (5.24%) React Developer
9 96 (5.14%) C# .NET Developer
10 86 (4.60%) Software Engineer
11 81 (4.33%) Angular Developer
12 71 (3.80%) JavaScript Developer
13 69 (3.69%) Software Developer
14 55 (2.94%) Consultant
14 55 (2.94%) Lead Developer
15 53 (2.84%) Scala Developer
16 49 (2.62%) Python Developer
17 48 (2.57%) SQL Developer
18 45 (2.41%) Android Developer
19 44 (2.35%) DevOps Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 566 (30.28%) .NET
2 436 (23.33%) CSS
3 433 (23.17%) HTML
4 385 (20.60%) AngularJS
5 304 (16.27%) REST
6 302 (16.16%) React
7 297 (15.89%) Web Services
8 256 (13.70%) Node.js
9 207 (11.08%) JSON
10 203 (10.86%) ASP.NET Web API
11 202 (10.81%) HTML5
12 195 (10.43%) Spring
13 184 (9.84%) RESTful
14 179 (9.58%) .NET Framework
15 171 (9.15%) XML
16 152 (8.13%) ASP.NET
17 151 (8.08%) .NET Core
18 143 (7.65%) CSS3
18 143 (7.65%) Sass
19 129 (6.90%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 136 (7.28%) Greenfield Project
2 122 (6.53%) User Experience
3 104 (5.56%) Analytical Skills
4 73 (3.91%) Mobile App
5 65 (3.48%) Enterprise Software
6 64 (3.42%) Self-Motivation
7 62 (3.32%) Derivative
8 48 (2.57%) Algorithms
9 38 (2.03%) Data Structures
10 35 (1.87%) Linux Command Line
11 31 (1.66%) Equities
11 31 (1.66%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
12 30 (1.61%) Hedge funds
13 24 (1.28%) Mainframe
14 22 (1.18%) W3C
15 20 (1.07%) Smartphone
16 19 (1.02%) Fixed Income
17 18 (0.96%) Virtual Team
18 16 (0.86%) N-Tier
18 16 (0.86%) Vector Graphics
Operating Systems
1 202 (10.81%) Linux
2 131 (7.01%) Windows
3 102 (5.46%) Unix
4 82 (4.39%) Android
5 63 (3.37%) Apple iOS
6 16 (0.86%) OpenVMS
7 12 (0.64%) Mac OS
8 10 (0.54%) MVS
8 10 (0.54%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
8 10 (0.54%) Windows Server
9 6 (0.32%) CentOS
9 6 (0.32%) Windows 8
10 4 (0.21%) Ubuntu
11 3 (0.16%) VMS
12 2 (0.11%) Solaris
12 2 (0.11%) Windows 10
13 1 (0.054%) AIX
13 1 (0.054%) tvOS
13 1 (0.054%) Windows 7
13 1 (0.054%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 970 (51.90%) Agile Software Development
2 588 (31.46%) TDD
3 372 (19.90%) Test Automation
4 340 (18.19%) Scrum
5 321 (17.17%) Continuous Integration
6 269 (14.39%) MVC
7 256 (13.70%) Software Engineering
8 248 (13.27%) DevOps
9 244 (13.06%) Microservices
10 223 (11.93%) Problem-Solving
11 210 (11.24%) BDD
12 201 (10.75%) Front End Development
13 154 (8.24%) SDLC
14 147 (7.87%) OO
15 139 (7.44%) Integration Testing
16 120 (6.42%) Pair Programming
17 105 (5.62%) Analytics
18 104 (5.56%) Migration
19 99 (5.30%) SOLID
19 99 (5.30%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 607 (32.48%) C#
2 585 (31.30%) Java
3 578 (30.93%) JavaScript
4 505 (27.02%) SQL
5 237 (12.68%) Python
6 142 (7.60%) TypeScript
7 106 (5.67%) C++
8 97 (5.19%) ES6
9 89 (4.76%) Scala
10 85 (4.55%) PHP
11 73 (3.91%) Java 8
12 69 (3.69%) C
13 65 (3.48%) T-SQL
14 55 (2.94%) PowerShell
14 55 (2.94%) VB.NET
15 51 (2.73%) PL/SQL
16 46 (2.46%) Bash Shell
17 42 (2.25%) Apple Swift
18 39 (2.09%) Ruby
19 36 (1.93%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 137 (7.33%) Security Cleared
2 112 (5.99%) SC Cleared
3 110 (5.89%) Degree
4 22 (1.18%) Computer Science Degree
5 16 (0.86%) BPSS Clearance
6 15 (0.80%) ISTQB
7 14 (0.75%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 13 (0.70%) DV Cleared
9 12 (0.64%) DBS Check
10 9 (0.48%) Master's Degree
11 4 (0.21%) CTC Cleared
12 3 (0.16%) AWS Certification
12 3 (0.16%) BC Cleared
13 2 (0.11%) Microsoft Certification
14 1 (0.054%) CFA
14 1 (0.054%) HND
14 1 (0.054%) ISEB
14 1 (0.054%) Postgraduate
14 1 (0.054%) SAS Certification
14 1 (0.054%) Sun Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 143 (7.65%) QA
2 8 (0.43%) Data Quality
3 7 (0.37%) Disclosure Scotland
4 5 (0.27%) IFRS
4 5 (0.27%) PCI DSS
5 3 (0.16%) MISRA
5 3 (0.16%) WCAG
6 2 (0.11%) HL7
6 2 (0.11%) PMO
7 1 (0.054%) Dublin Core
7 1 (0.054%) GAAP
7 1 (0.054%) GDPR
7 1 (0.054%) ISO 9001
7 1 (0.054%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.054%) PSD2
7 1 (0.054%) Solvency II
System Software
1 203 (10.86%) Docker
2 10 (0.54%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 9 (0.48%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.48%) Virtual Machines
4 7 (0.37%) HDFS
5 6 (0.32%) Apache Flume
5 6 (0.32%) LXC
6 4 (0.21%) RACF
6 4 (0.21%) VirtualBox
7 2 (0.11%) Microsoft App-V
8 1 (0.054%) Terminal Server
8 1 (0.054%) VMware Infrastructure
8 1 (0.054%) vSphere
8 1 (0.054%) zsh
Systems Management
1 75 (4.01%) Kubernetes
2 41 (2.19%) Terraform
3 29 (1.55%) Ansible
4 24 (1.28%) Puppet
5 19 (1.02%) Hadoop YARN
6 16 (0.86%) Opscode Chef
7 8 (0.43%) Single Sign-On
8 7 (0.37%) Kibana
8 7 (0.37%) Oozie
8 7 (0.37%) Packer
9 6 (0.32%) Rundeck
10 5 (0.27%) HP ALM
10 5 (0.27%) Tivoli
11 4 (0.21%) CA Endevor
11 4 (0.21%) Graphite
11 4 (0.21%) logstash
11 4 (0.21%) Nagios
11 4 (0.21%) Salt
11 4 (0.21%) StatsD
11 4 (0.21%) zSecure
Vendors
1 199 (10.65%) Microsoft
2 165 (8.83%) Oracle
3 88 (4.71%) SAP
4 70 (3.75%) Google
5 66 (3.53%) IBM
6 34 (1.82%) hybris
7 32 (1.71%) Sitecore
8 20 (1.07%) Cypress Semiconductor
8 20 (1.07%) OpenLink
8 20 (1.07%) Splunk
9 19 (1.02%) Atlassian
10 15 (0.80%) Adobe
11 13 (0.70%) ESRI
11 13 (0.70%) Salesforce.com
11 13 (0.70%) Xamarin
12 12 (0.64%) Pega
12 12 (0.64%) Samsung
12 12 (0.64%) Twitter
13 11 (0.59%) Perforce
13 11 (0.59%) Sencha