Period
to 13 December 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 December 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
13 Dec 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 121 134 142
Rank change year-on-year +13 +8 -18
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 2,292 2,032 1,914
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 2.17% 1.97% 1.86%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.51% 2.29% 2.18%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,550 1,463 1,299
UK median daily rate £455 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +1.11% +5.88% -
10th Percentile £340 £325 £303
90th Percentile £625 £613 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £413 £400 £390
% change year-on-year +3.13% +2.56% +4.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 56 22 13
UK median hourly rate £49.50 £43.75 £40.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +13.14% +9.38% -
10th Percentile £38.25 £22.80 £30.35
90th Percentile £51.00 £50.25 £48.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.50 £45.00 £40.25
% change year-on-year +10.00% +11.80% +7.33%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 91,392 88,694 87,632
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.72% 85.90% 85.35%
Number of daily rates quoted 60,516 59,163 57,746
UK median daily rate £463 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.78% +5.88% +2.41%
10th Percentile £300 £278 £263
90th Percentile £638 £638 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +6.25% - +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,345 2,083 2,479
UK median hourly rate £22.00 £24.00 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -8.33% +6.67% +2.27%
10th Percentile £11.18 £11.25 £11.05
90th Percentile £50.19 £49.24 £48.38
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.62 £24.00 £22.50
% change year-on-year -14.07% +6.67% -1.45%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 December 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 December 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 13 December 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +9 2,066 £470 +4.44% 735
London +18 1,124 £525 +5.00% 256
UK excluding London +7 1,119 £413 +3.13% 536
South East -7 366 £431 -4.17% 125
North of England -13 239 £388 +3.33% 140
South West -12 142 £400 +14.29% 80
North West -25 132 £388 +3.33% 77
Midlands -28 128 £400 +12.68% 77
Scotland +30 98 £425 +9.68% 34
Yorkshire +9 88 £400 -1.54% 41
East Midlands -5 76 £375 +7.14% 38
Wales +3 75 £420 +12.00% 17
East of England +25 67 £440 +10.00% 57
West Midlands -34 52 £443 +18.00% 39
North East -11 19 £383 +2.00% 22
Channel Islands -2 6 - -
Northern Ireland +21 2 - - 6

For the 6 months to 13 December 2018, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 1,282 (55.93%) Agile Software Development
2 829 (36.17%) TDD
2 829 (36.17%) JavaScript
3 728 (31.76%) Java
4 650 (28.36%) Git (software)
5 631 (27.53%) .NET
6 623 (27.18%) HTML
7 622 (27.14%) C#
8 613 (26.75%) SQL
9 594 (25.92%) CSS
10 516 (22.51%) Scrum
11 503 (21.95%) Test Automation
12 466 (20.33%) AngularJS
13 461 (20.11%) BDD
14 460 (20.07%) Continuous Integration
15 441 (19.24%) SQL Server
16 416 (18.15%) MVC
17 391 (17.06%) Jenkins
18 390 (17.02%) Web Services
19 385 (16.80%) Finance
20 380 (16.58%) REST
21 378 (16.49%) Software Engineering
22 370 (16.14%) Node.js
23 344 (15.01%) RESTful
24 333 (14.53%) HTML5
25 312 (13.61%) Spring
25 312 (13.61%) React
26 299 (13.05%) OO
27 297 (12.96%) Amazon AWS
28 273 (11.91%) Microservices

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 158 (6.89%) Confluence
2 123 (5.37%) Apache
3 86 (3.75%) Elasticsearch
4 63 (2.75%) CMS
5 53 (2.31%) Apache Spark
6 47 (2.05%) NServiceBus
7 40 (1.75%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 38 (1.66%) Tomcat
9 36 (1.57%) SharePoint
10 33 (1.44%) WebSphere
11 32 (1.40%) IIS
12 30 (1.31%) JBoss
13 29 (1.27%) WebLogic
14 26 (1.13%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 22 (0.96%) Apache Solr
16 17 (0.74%) Umbraco
17 16 (0.70%) Drupal
18 14 (0.61%) Oracle Service Bus
19 13 (0.57%) Jetty
20 12 (0.52%) Cloud Foundry
Applications
1 21 (0.92%) Photoshop
2 20 (0.87%) Microsoft Excel
3 6 (0.26%) Adobe Illustrator
4 4 (0.17%) Microsoft Office
5 3 (0.13%) Acrobat
5 3 (0.13%) InVision
5 3 (0.13%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.13%) MS Visio
6 2 (0.087%) Fireworks
6 2 (0.087%) GIMP
6 2 (0.087%) Microsoft Project
6 2 (0.087%) Spreadsheet
7 1 (0.044%) Adobe Creative Suite
Business Applications
1 23 (1.00%) Dynamics CRM
2 16 (0.70%) Endur
3 9 (0.39%) Oracle EBS
4 6 (0.26%) Oracle EBS R12
5 5 (0.22%) Maximo
5 5 (0.22%) Oracle Payables
5 5 (0.22%) Oracle Receivables
5 5 (0.22%) SAP CO
5 5 (0.22%) SAP FI
5 5 (0.22%) SAP FI/CO
6 4 (0.17%) Dynamics AX
6 4 (0.17%) Magento
6 4 (0.17%) Oracle General Ledger
6 4 (0.17%) Oracle Payroll
6 4 (0.17%) Oracle Retail
6 4 (0.17%) SAP PS
7 3 (0.13%) BusinessWorks
7 3 (0.13%) SAP ERP
7 3 (0.13%) SAP S/4HANA
8 2 (0.087%) Workday HCM
Cloud Services
1 297 (12.96%) Amazon AWS
2 257 (11.21%) Microsoft Azure
3 110 (4.80%) Serverless
4 88 (3.84%) AWS Lambda
5 82 (3.58%) npm
6 76 (3.32%) GitHub
7 59 (2.57%) Cloud Computing
8 50 (2.18%) Amazon EC2
9 36 (1.57%) Google Cloud Platform
10 31 (1.35%) AWS CloudFormation
11 25 (1.09%) Amazon S3
12 23 (1.00%) Dynamics 365
13 21 (0.92%) SaaS
14 19 (0.83%) Amazon Kinesis
15 18 (0.79%) PaaS
16 17 (0.74%) Yarn
17 16 (0.70%) Amazon SQS
17 16 (0.70%) Azure Functions
17 16 (0.70%) Google App Engine
18 15 (0.65%) Amazon CloudWatch
Communications & Networking
1 114 (4.97%) HTTP
2 52 (2.27%) TCP/IP
3 38 (1.66%) Internet
4 34 (1.48%) SSL
5 31 (1.35%) DNS
5 31 (1.35%) FTP
6 17 (0.74%) DHCP
7 16 (0.70%) IPsec
8 13 (0.57%) Intranet
9 7 (0.31%) BIG-IP
9 7 (0.31%) Bluetooth
9 7 (0.31%) Kerberos
10 6 (0.26%) iSCSI
10 6 (0.26%) SAN
10 6 (0.26%) WAN
11 5 (0.22%) AMQP
11 5 (0.22%) HTTPS
11 5 (0.22%) Wi-Fi
12 4 (0.17%) DLNA
12 4 (0.17%) UPnP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 441 (19.24%) SQL Server
2 137 (5.98%) Relational Database
3 126 (5.50%) MySQL
4 86 (3.75%) Big Data
5 84 (3.66%) NoSQL
6 83 (3.62%) PostgreSQL
7 77 (3.36%) MongoDB
8 75 (3.27%) Data Warehouse
9 67 (2.92%) Hadoop
10 55 (2.40%) SQL Server Integration Services
11 53 (2.31%) RDBMS
12 43 (1.88%) SQL Server 2012
13 41 (1.79%) Amazon DynamoDB
13 41 (1.79%) Oracle Database
14 38 (1.66%) HBase
15 35 (1.53%) Couchbase
16 28 (1.22%) SQL Server Reporting Services
17 27 (1.18%) SQL Server 2008
17 27 (1.18%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 26 (1.13%) DB2
Development Applications
1 650 (28.36%) Git (software)
2 391 (17.06%) Jenkins
3 248 (10.82%) JIRA
4 202 (8.81%) Selenium
5 198 (8.64%) JUnit
6 186 (8.12%) Maven
7 144 (6.28%) TeamCity
8 120 (5.24%) Mocha
9 113 (4.93%) Visual Studio
10 111 (4.84%) Gradle
11 110 (4.80%) NUnit
12 108 (4.71%) Subversion
13 101 (4.41%) webpack
14 98 (4.28%) Team Foundation Server
15 88 (3.84%) Jasmine
16 80 (3.49%) Mockito
17 79 (3.45%) Octopus Deploy
18 77 (3.36%) Eclipse
19 70 (3.05%) Cucumber
19 70 (3.05%) SpecFlow
General
1 385 (16.80%) Finance
2 236 (10.30%) Banking
3 108 (4.71%) Retail
4 102 (4.45%) Front Office
5 60 (2.62%) Investment Banking
6 37 (1.61%) Back Office
7 26 (1.13%) Games
7 26 (1.13%) Marketing
8 23 (1.00%) Financial Institution
9 20 (0.87%) Manufacturing
10 19 (0.83%) Automotive
11 15 (0.65%) Advertising
12 14 (0.61%) Publishing
13 12 (0.52%) Legal
14 10 (0.44%) Electronics
14 10 (0.44%) Telecoms
15 9 (0.39%) Law
16 8 (0.35%) Retail Banking
17 7 (0.31%) Aerospace
18 5 (0.22%) Billing
Job Titles
1 1,785 (77.88%) Developer
2 307 (13.39%) Java Developer
3 301 (13.13%) .NET Developer
4 225 (9.82%) Senior Developer
5 223 (9.73%) C# Developer
6 174 (7.59%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 156 (6.81%) React Developer
8 138 (6.02%) Software Engineer
9 113 (4.93%) Full Stack Developer
10 103 (4.49%) JavaScript Developer
11 89 (3.88%) C# .NET Developer
12 88 (3.84%) Angular Developer
13 80 (3.49%) Android Developer
14 74 (3.23%) Software Developer
14 74 (3.23%) SQL Developer
15 73 (3.18%) iOS Developer
16 65 (2.84%) Analyst
17 59 (2.57%) PHP Developer
18 51 (2.23%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
19 46 (2.01%) Senior Java Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 631 (27.53%) .NET
2 623 (27.18%) HTML
3 594 (25.92%) CSS
4 466 (20.33%) AngularJS
5 390 (17.02%) Web Services
6 380 (16.58%) REST
7 370 (16.14%) Node.js
8 344 (15.01%) RESTful
9 333 (14.53%) HTML5
10 312 (13.61%) React
10 312 (13.61%) Spring
11 258 (11.26%) ASP.NET
12 247 (10.78%) .NET Framework
13 239 (10.43%) CSS3
14 227 (9.90%) JSON
15 217 (9.47%) XML
16 194 (8.46%) jQuery
17 185 (8.07%) ASP.NET Web API
18 157 (6.85%) ASP.NET MVC
18 157 (6.85%) Sass
Miscellaneous
1 158 (6.89%) User Experience
2 137 (5.98%) Analytical Skills
3 125 (5.45%) Greenfield Project
4 95 (4.14%) Mobile App
5 68 (2.97%) Enterprise Software
6 67 (2.92%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 57 (2.49%) Linux Command Line
8 56 (2.44%) Derivative
8 56 (2.44%) Fintech
9 51 (2.23%) Data Structures
10 42 (1.83%) Self-Motivation
10 42 (1.83%) Virtual Team
11 40 (1.75%) Equities
12 37 (1.61%) Algorithms
13 31 (1.35%) Fixed Income
14 27 (1.18%) Hedge funds
15 23 (1.00%) N-Tier
16 22 (0.96%) Management Information System
17 18 (0.79%) Mobile Banking
18 15 (0.65%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 258 (11.26%) Linux
2 193 (8.42%) Unix
3 137 (5.98%) Android
4 123 (5.37%) Apple iOS
5 104 (4.54%) Windows
6 27 (1.18%) Embedded Linux
7 21 (0.92%) VMS
8 16 (0.70%) Solaris
9 11 (0.48%) Windows Server
10 9 (0.39%) AIX
11 8 (0.35%) SUSE
11 8 (0.35%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
12 7 (0.31%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 4 (0.17%) OpenVMS
14 3 (0.13%) CentOS
15 2 (0.087%) MVS
15 2 (0.087%) Windows 10
16 1 (0.044%) Android TV
16 1 (0.044%) watchOS
16 1 (0.044%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,282 (55.93%) Agile Software Development
2 829 (36.17%) TDD
3 516 (22.51%) Scrum
4 503 (21.95%) Test Automation
5 461 (20.11%) BDD
6 460 (20.07%) Continuous Integration
7 416 (18.15%) MVC
8 378 (16.49%) Software Engineering
9 299 (13.05%) OO
10 273 (11.91%) Microservices
11 246 (10.73%) Front End Development
12 234 (10.21%) DevOps
13 233 (10.17%) Problem-Solving
14 211 (9.21%) SDLC
15 188 (8.20%) SOA
16 165 (7.20%) Pair Programming
17 154 (6.72%) Web Development
18 150 (6.54%) Multithreading
19 148 (6.46%) Kanban
20 145 (6.33%) Computer Science
Programming Languages
1 829 (36.17%) JavaScript
2 728 (31.76%) Java
3 622 (27.14%) C#
4 613 (26.75%) SQL
5 248 (10.82%) Python
6 185 (8.07%) C++
7 157 (6.85%) ES6
8 131 (5.72%) C
9 130 (5.67%) T-SQL
10 129 (5.63%) PHP
11 104 (4.54%) TypeScript
12 101 (4.41%) Java 8
13 96 (4.19%) Shell Script
14 82 (3.58%) Apple Swift
15 72 (3.14%) Scala
16 67 (2.92%) Objective-C
17 57 (2.49%) Go
18 51 (2.23%) Bash Shell
19 50 (2.18%) Perl
19 50 (2.18%) PL/SQL
Qualifications
1 196 (8.55%) Degree
2 109 (4.76%) Security Cleared
3 90 (3.93%) SC Cleared
4 55 (2.40%) Computer Science Degree
5 38 (1.66%) BPSS Clearance
6 17 (0.74%) Master's Degree
7 10 (0.44%) Microsoft Certification
8 9 (0.39%) DBS Check
9 7 (0.31%) BC Cleared
10 4 (0.17%) DV Cleared
10 4 (0.17%) HND
10 4 (0.17%) ISEB
11 3 (0.13%) AWS Certification
11 3 (0.13%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 3 (0.13%) SAS Certification
12 2 (0.087%) ISTQB
12 2 (0.087%) Numerate Degree
12 2 (0.087%) PhD
13 1 (0.044%) MCTS
13 1 (0.044%) PMI Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 207 (9.03%) QA
2 7 (0.31%) Data Quality
2 7 (0.31%) Disclosure Scotland
3 6 (0.26%) ISO 20022
3 6 (0.26%) WCAG
4 5 (0.22%) IFRS
5 4 (0.17%) HL7
5 4 (0.17%) PCI DSS
5 4 (0.17%) PMO
6 3 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
7 1 (0.044%) ARP4754
7 1 (0.044%) GDPR
7 1 (0.044%) IFRS 9
7 1 (0.044%) Solvency II
7 1 (0.044%) WAI
System Software
1 247 (10.78%) Docker
2 44 (1.92%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 30 (1.31%) HDFS
4 13 (0.57%) VMware Infrastructure
5 11 (0.48%) Xen
6 10 (0.44%) Active Directory
7 6 (0.26%) Samba
8 5 (0.22%) Apache Flume
8 5 (0.22%) Microsoft App-V
9 2 (0.087%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
10 1 (0.044%) Virtual Machines
10 1 (0.044%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 90 (3.93%) Kubernetes
2 68 (2.97%) Ansible
3 46 (2.01%) Puppet
4 45 (1.96%) Hadoop YARN
5 42 (1.83%) Opscode Chef
6 26 (1.13%) Terraform
7 15 (0.65%) Oracle Identity Management
7 15 (0.65%) Oracle Identity Manager
8 10 (0.44%) Single Sign-On
9 9 (0.39%) Kibana
10 7 (0.31%) CFEngine
10 7 (0.31%) logstash
11 6 (0.26%) Oozie
11 6 (0.26%) Salt
12 5 (0.22%) Control-M
13 4 (0.17%) Rancher
14 3 (0.13%) CloudHub
14 3 (0.13%) Grafana
14 3 (0.13%) Prometheus
15 2 (0.087%) Docker Swarm
Vendors
1 269 (11.74%) Microsoft
2 225 (9.82%) Oracle
3 65 (2.84%) Google
4 49 (2.14%) IBM
5 38 (1.66%) Adobe
6 36 (1.57%) Splunk
7 34 (1.48%) Atlassian
8 31 (1.35%) SAP
9 29 (1.27%) TIBCO
10 25 (1.09%) Sybase
11 18 (0.79%) VMware
11 18 (0.79%) Zend
12 17 (0.74%) Informatica
12 17 (0.74%) Tableau
12 17 (0.74%) Xamarin
13 15 (0.65%) Okta
13 15 (0.65%) Sitecore
14 14 (0.61%) CA
14 14 (0.61%) MuleSoft
15 13 (0.57%) Salesforce.com