Period
to 27 October 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 27 October 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
27 Oct 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 142 152 133
Rank change year-on-year +10 -19 -7
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,612 586 1,688
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.89% 1.81% 2.00%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.12% 2.08% 2.30%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,136 409 1,156
10th Percentile £363 £315 £350
25th Percentile £425 £400 £413
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £525 £473 £475
Median % change year-on-year +11.11% -0.53% +2.70%
75th Percentile £638 £575 £575
90th Percentile £716 £625 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £450 £440 £440
% change year-on-year +2.27% - +10.00%
Number of hourly rates quoted 21 10 17
10th Percentile £39.75 £41.48 £30.85
25th Percentile £42.75 £41.88 £41.25
Median hourly rate £46.36 £48.50 £43.00
Median % change year-on-year -4.41% +12.79% -13.13%
75th Percentile £51.63 £55.00 £46.00
90th Percentile £55.00 £62.03 £46.60
UK excluding London median hourly rate £46.00 £52.50 £43.00
% change year-on-year -12.38% +22.09% -13.13%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 75,931 28,184 73,486
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 89.07% 87.06% 87.14%
Number of daily rates quoted 52,858 19,135 49,289
10th Percentile £320 £300 £300
25th Percentile £413 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £513 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +7.89% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £613 £575 £575
90th Percentile £700 £663 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £463 £440 £438
% change year-on-year +5.11% +0.57% +2.94%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,703 820 2,172
10th Percentile £12.25 £11.64 £11.80
25th Percentile £14.68 £15.48 £14.90
Median hourly rate £24.79 £25.00 £22.50
Median % change year-on-year -0.84% +11.11% +12.50%
75th Percentile £49.50 £45.00 £45.00
90th Percentile £64.00 £57.17 £52.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.50 £22.50 £21.50
% change year-on-year -8.89% +4.65% +10.91%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 27 October 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 27 October 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 27 October 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +9 1,288 £543 +14.31% 564
London +32 780 £600 +14.29% 235
UK excluding London -25 549 £450 +2.27% 359
Work from Home -22 446 £500 +11.11% 119
North of England -36 140 £438 -9.79% 93
South East -17 115 £450 -5.26% 85
Scotland -28 89 £475 +5.56% 16
Midlands -45 75 £413 +14.58% 65
East of England -7 64 £486 +21.56% 30
North West -58 64 £425 -12.82% 46
Yorkshire -16 61 £425 -15.00% 35
West Midlands -32 50 £428 +0.71% 32
South West -39 45 £500 +21.58% 52
East Midlands -33 23 £375 +7.14% 33
North East +2 15 £538 +29.52% 12
Wales -22 14 £375 -18.92% 13
Northern Ireland +3 10 £475 +10.21% 5

For the 6 months to 27 October 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 869 (53.91%) Agile Software Development
2 523 (32.44%) Git (software)
3 473 (29.34%) JavaScript
4 467 (28.97%) Java
5 433 (26.86%) C#
6 431 (26.74%) DevOps
7 418 (25.93%) .NET
8 417 (25.87%) TDD
9 407 (25.25%) SQL
10 360 (22.33%) Azure
11 359 (22.27%) Social Skills
12 328 (20.35%) React
13 323 (20.04%) Test Automation
14 309 (19.17%) Scrum
15 302 (18.73%) Continuous Integration
16 298 (18.49%) HTML
17 293 (18.18%) Microservices
18 283 (17.56%) Software Engineering
19 282 (17.49%) Docker
20 281 (17.43%) CSS
21 269 (16.69%) AWS
22 261 (16.19%) Jenkins
23 256 (15.88%) AngularJS
23 256 (15.88%) Finance
24 248 (15.38%) Python
25 233 (14.45%) REST
26 223 (13.83%) RESTful
27 222 (13.77%) TypeScript
28 208 (12.90%) Web Services
29 205 (12.72%) Problem-Solving

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 52 (3.23%) Apache
2 49 (3.04%) Elasticsearch
3 43 (2.67%) Confluence
4 36 (2.23%) Adobe Experience Manager
5 35 (2.17%) Apache Spark
6 34 (2.11%) CMS
7 32 (1.99%) Tomcat
8 19 (1.18%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 18 (1.12%) BizTalk Server
10 17 (1.05%) IIS
11 15 (0.93%) Jetty
12 13 (0.81%) IBM Domino
12 13 (0.81%) JBoss
13 11 (0.68%) Apache Airflow
14 9 (0.56%) SharePoint
15 8 (0.50%) Mule
15 8 (0.50%) nginx
15 8 (0.50%) Traefik
15 8 (0.50%) WebLogic
15 8 (0.50%) WebSphere
Applications
1 14 (0.87%) Spreadsheet
2 11 (0.68%) Microsoft Office
3 7 (0.43%) Microsoft Excel
4 5 (0.31%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.19%) Chatbot
5 3 (0.19%) Figma
6 2 (0.12%) Zeplin
7 1 (0.062%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.062%) Photoshop
7 1 (0.062%) PrintSoft PReS
7 1 (0.062%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 34 (2.11%) SunGard Martini
2 20 (1.24%) Oracle ERP
3 14 (0.87%) Magento
4 12 (0.74%) Dynamics CRM
5 9 (0.56%) Payment Gateway
5 9 (0.56%) Shopify
6 7 (0.43%) Oracle Payables
6 7 (0.43%) Oracle Receivables
7 6 (0.37%) SAP S/4HANA
8 5 (0.31%) Salesforce.com CRM
8 5 (0.31%) SAP QM
8 5 (0.31%) SAP SD
8 5 (0.31%) Temenos T24
9 4 (0.25%) Oracle EBS
9 4 (0.25%) Workday HCM
10 3 (0.19%) Oracle Assets
10 3 (0.19%) Oracle Cash Management
10 3 (0.19%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
10 3 (0.19%) SAP APO
10 3 (0.19%) Unit4 Business World
Cloud Services
1 360 (22.33%) Azure
2 269 (16.69%) AWS
3 158 (9.80%) Serverless
4 72 (4.47%) GitHub
4 72 (4.47%) SaaS
5 67 (4.16%) Amazon S3
6 64 (3.97%) AWS CloudFormation
7 59 (3.66%) AWS Lambda
7 59 (3.66%) Azure Service Bus
8 58 (3.60%) PaaS
9 57 (3.54%) Azure Functions
10 55 (3.41%) GCP
11 52 (3.23%) OpenShift
12 49 (3.04%) Power Platform
13 47 (2.92%) Azure Logic Apps
14 40 (2.48%) Amazon EC2
15 37 (2.30%) npm
16 33 (2.05%) Azure Cosmos DB
17 32 (1.99%) Cloud Computing
18 30 (1.86%) Azure Event Grid
Communications & Networking
1 41 (2.54%) TCP/IP
2 36 (2.23%) HTTP
3 24 (1.49%) DNS
4 10 (0.62%) Firewall
5 9 (0.56%) Internet
6 8 (0.50%) VPN
7 6 (0.37%) DHCP
8 5 (0.31%) SAN
8 5 (0.31%) SSL
8 5 (0.31%) Wi-Fi
9 4 (0.25%) Intranet
9 4 (0.25%) SSH
10 3 (0.19%) Bluetooth
10 3 (0.19%) Wireshark
11 2 (0.12%) DLNA
11 2 (0.12%) FTP
11 2 (0.12%) IPsec
11 2 (0.12%) Kerberos
11 2 (0.12%) MQTT
11 2 (0.12%) UPnP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 204 (12.66%) SQL Server
2 101 (6.27%) NoSQL
3 98 (6.08%) Relational Database
4 79 (4.90%) MongoDB
5 73 (4.53%) Oracle Database
6 54 (3.35%) PostgreSQL
7 44 (2.73%) SQL Server Integration Services
8 43 (2.67%) MySQL
9 39 (2.42%) Oracle Database 12c
9 39 (2.42%) Power BI
10 38 (2.36%) Data Warehouse
11 32 (1.99%) Amazon Aurora
12 28 (1.74%) SQL Server 2016
12 28 (1.74%) SQL Server Reporting Services
13 24 (1.49%) Redis
14 23 (1.43%) Pentaho
15 21 (1.30%) SQL Server Analysis Services
16 19 (1.18%) Apache Cassandra
16 19 (1.18%) Metadata
17 18 (1.12%) Big Data
Development Applications
1 523 (32.44%) Git (software)
2 261 (16.19%) Jenkins
3 166 (10.30%) JUnit
4 163 (10.11%) JIRA
5 126 (7.82%) Mockito
6 106 (6.58%) TeamCity
7 94 (5.83%) Maven
7 94 (5.83%) Visual Studio
8 84 (5.21%) Subversion
9 80 (4.96%) Jasmine
10 66 (4.09%) Selenium
11 65 (4.03%) Bitbucket
12 60 (3.72%) Team Foundation Server
13 59 (3.66%) Cypress.io
14 56 (3.47%) Mocha
15 51 (3.16%) NUnit
15 51 (3.16%) Postman
16 49 (3.04%) Cucumber
17 46 (2.85%) GitLab
17 46 (2.85%) SonarQube
General
1 359 (22.27%) Social Skills
2 256 (15.88%) Finance
3 194 (12.03%) Banking
4 132 (8.19%) Public Sector
5 114 (7.07%) Analytical Skills
6 97 (6.02%) Investment Banking
7 68 (4.22%) Front Office
8 53 (3.29%) Presentation Skills
9 49 (3.04%) Retail
10 45 (2.79%) Marketing
11 25 (1.55%) Legal
12 24 (1.49%) Financial Institution
13 15 (0.93%) Back Office
13 15 (0.93%) Games
14 14 (0.87%) Law
15 13 (0.81%) Influencing Skills
16 11 (0.68%) Manufacturing
17 9 (0.56%) Publishing
17 9 (0.56%) Telecoms
18 8 (0.50%) Military
Job Titles
1 1,068 (66.25%) Developer
2 177 (10.98%) Java Developer
3 161 (9.99%) .NET Developer
4 152 (9.43%) C# Developer
4 152 (9.43%) Senior Developer
5 127 (7.88%) React Developer
6 97 (6.02%) Full Stack Developer
7 96 (5.96%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
8 85 (5.27%) Software Engineer
9 74 (4.59%) Software Developer
10 69 (4.28%) Architect
10 69 (4.28%) JavaScript Developer
11 65 (4.03%) Angular Developer
12 64 (3.97%) Scala Developer
13 56 (3.47%) C# .NET Developer
13 56 (3.47%) Data Engineer
14 49 (3.04%) Azure Developer
15 46 (2.85%) SQL Developer
16 45 (2.79%) C# Software Developer
17 40 (2.48%) C++ Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 418 (25.93%) .NET
2 328 (20.35%) React
3 298 (18.49%) HTML
4 281 (17.43%) CSS
5 256 (15.88%) AngularJS
6 233 (14.45%) REST
7 223 (13.83%) RESTful
8 208 (12.90%) Web Services
9 192 (11.91%) Spring
10 170 (10.55%) Node.js
11 161 (9.99%) .NET Core
12 141 (8.75%) .NET Framework
13 130 (8.06%) Spring Boot
14 117 (7.26%) ASP.NET
14 117 (7.26%) JSON
15 112 (6.95%) Jest
15 112 (6.95%) XML
16 106 (6.58%) HTML5
17 100 (6.20%) ASP.NET Web API
18 96 (5.96%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 126 (7.82%) User Experience
2 58 (3.60%) Mobile App
3 52 (3.23%) Greenfield Project
4 49 (3.04%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
5 43 (2.67%) Self-Motivation
6 38 (2.36%) Legacy Systems
7 36 (2.23%) Data Protection Act
8 33 (2.05%) Enterprise Software
9 29 (1.80%) Cloud Native
9 29 (1.80%) Data Structures
9 29 (1.80%) Hedge funds
10 26 (1.61%) Public Cloud
11 21 (1.30%) Management Information System
12 20 (1.24%) Algorithms
13 18 (1.12%) Social Media
14 17 (1.05%) Fixed Income
15 14 (0.87%) Derivative
16 13 (0.81%) Virtual Team
17 12 (0.74%) Equities
18 11 (0.68%) SCADA
Operating Systems
1 139 (8.62%) Linux
2 112 (6.95%) Windows
3 67 (4.16%) Android
4 65 (4.03%) Unix
5 56 (3.47%) Apple iOS
6 14 (0.87%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 10 (0.62%) Windows Server
8 8 (0.50%) CentOS
9 5 (0.31%) Windows Server 2012
9 5 (0.31%) Windows Server 2016
10 4 (0.25%) Embedded Linux
11 2 (0.12%) Ubuntu
11 2 (0.12%) VMS
12 1 (0.062%) Debian
12 1 (0.062%) Mac OS
12 1 (0.062%) Mac OS X
12 1 (0.062%) Windows NT
12 1 (0.062%) Windows Server 2019
Processes & Methodologies
1 869 (53.91%) Agile Software Development
2 431 (26.74%) DevOps
3 417 (25.87%) TDD
4 323 (20.04%) Test Automation
5 309 (19.17%) Scrum
6 302 (18.73%) Continuous Integration
7 293 (18.18%) Microservices
8 283 (17.56%) Software Engineering
9 205 (12.72%) Problem-Solving
10 190 (11.79%) Full Stack Development
11 175 (10.86%) BDD
12 160 (9.93%) Integration Testing
13 150 (9.31%) MVC
14 140 (8.68%) Front End Development
15 117 (7.26%) Continuous Delivery
16 107 (6.64%) OO
16 107 (6.64%) SDLC
17 101 (6.27%) Pair Programming
18 98 (6.08%) Analytics
19 90 (5.58%) E-Commerce
Programming Languages
1 473 (29.34%) JavaScript
2 467 (28.97%) Java
3 433 (26.86%) C#
4 407 (25.25%) SQL
5 248 (15.38%) Python
6 222 (13.77%) TypeScript
7 124 (7.69%) C++
8 113 (7.01%) Scala
9 88 (5.46%) Java 8
10 79 (4.90%) PL/SQL
11 69 (4.28%) T-SQL
12 66 (4.09%) Java 11
13 53 (3.29%) ES6
13 53 (3.29%) Kotlin
14 42 (2.61%) Apple Swift
15 39 (2.42%) C
16 38 (2.36%) Go
17 35 (2.17%) Ruby
18 34 (2.11%) PowerShell
19 27 (1.67%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 145 (9.00%) Security Cleared
2 130 (8.06%) SC Cleared
3 76 (4.71%) Degree
4 17 (1.05%) Computer Science Degree
5 12 (0.74%) DV Cleared
6 11 (0.68%) BPSS Clearance
7 9 (0.56%) ISTQB
8 7 (0.43%) Microsoft Certification
9 4 (0.25%) MCITP
9 4 (0.25%) MCSA
9 4 (0.25%) MCSE
10 3 (0.19%) AWS Certification
10 3 (0.19%) ISEB
11 2 (0.12%) CTC Cleared
11 2 (0.12%) HND
11 2 (0.12%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 2 (0.12%) Master's Degree
11 2 (0.12%) PhD
11 2 (0.12%) SAP Certification
12 1 (0.062%) Novell Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 133 (8.25%) QA
2 110 (6.82%) Accessibility
3 19 (1.18%) GDPR
4 17 (1.05%) WCAG
5 8 (0.50%) NCSC
6 7 (0.43%) Data Quality
7 4 (0.25%) GxP
8 3 (0.19%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 2 (0.12%) HIPAA
9 2 (0.12%) IFRS
9 2 (0.12%) PMO
9 2 (0.12%) SLA
10 1 (0.062%) DICOM
10 1 (0.062%) Disclosure Scotland
10 1 (0.062%) HMG Security Policy Framework
10 1 (0.062%) ISO/IEC 27001
10 1 (0.062%) MiFID
10 1 (0.062%) MISRA
10 1 (0.062%) MISRA C
10 1 (0.062%) WAI
System Software
1 282 (17.49%) Docker
2 25 (1.55%) Virtual Machines
3 22 (1.36%) VMware Infrastructure
4 13 (0.81%) Active Directory
5 9 (0.56%) HDFS
6 6 (0.37%) LXC
7 3 (0.19%) Varnish
8 2 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 2 (0.12%) Firmware
Systems Management
1 169 (10.48%) Kubernetes
2 68 (4.22%) Grafana
3 62 (3.85%) Ansible
4 50 (3.10%) Prometheus
5 42 (2.61%) Terraform
6 27 (1.67%) BladeLogic
7 21 (1.30%) Kibana
7 21 (1.30%) Puppet
8 15 (0.93%) Opscode Chef
9 13 (0.81%) Istio
10 10 (0.62%) Graphite
11 9 (0.56%) Consul
11 9 (0.56%) Packer
11 9 (0.56%) ZABBIX
12 8 (0.50%) Docker Swarm
12 8 (0.50%) HAProxy
12 8 (0.50%) linkerd
13 7 (0.43%) Nessus
14 5 (0.31%) HP Fortify
15 4 (0.25%) HP ALM
Vendors
1 202 (12.53%) Oracle
2 188 (11.66%) Microsoft
3 46 (2.85%) Splunk
4 44 (2.73%) Salesforce.com
4 44 (2.73%) SAP
5 36 (2.23%) Adobe
6 34 (2.11%) FIS
6 34 (2.11%) SunGard
7 22 (1.36%) VMware
8 21 (1.30%) Google
9 19 (1.18%) MuleSoft
9 19 (1.18%) Pega
10 18 (1.12%) CA Agile Central
11 17 (1.05%) Atlassian
12 15 (0.93%) Ab Initio
13 14 (0.87%) Cloudera
14 13 (0.81%) hybris
14 13 (0.81%) IBM
14 13 (0.81%) Xerox
15 12 (0.74%) Informatica