Period
to 21 March 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 21 March 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
21 Mar 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 125 119 147
Rank change year-on-year -6 +28 -14
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,946 2,179 1,668
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 2.01% 2.15% 1.80%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.31% 2.50% 2.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,309 1,520 1,101
UK median daily rate £463 £463 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +8.82% -
10th Percentile £346 £325 £300
90th Percentile £625 £619 £588
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £420 £388
% change year-on-year +1.19% +8.39% +3.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 39 16 22
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £42.50 £40.88
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +5.88% +3.98% -0.18%
10th Percentile £37.35 £36.00 £35.54
90th Percentile £56.50 £50.63 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £44.00 £42.50 £40.50
% change year-on-year +3.53% +4.94% +1.25%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 84,236 87,135 78,917
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 87.03% 86.16% 85.03%
Number of daily rates quoted 55,795 57,772 52,003
UK median daily rate £475 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.56% +5.88% -
10th Percentile £300 £288 £264
90th Percentile £650 £638 £619
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £415 £400
% change year-on-year +2.41% +3.75% +2.56%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,129 2,172 2,209
UK median hourly rate £23.84 £24.00 £25.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -0.69% -4.00% +5.56%
10th Percentile £11.54 £11.50 £11.47
90th Percentile £50.00 £50.00 £50.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.50 £24.75 £25.00
% change year-on-year -9.09% -1.00% -

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 21 March 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 21 March 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 21 March 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -24 1,706 £475 - 759
UK excluding London -19 1,006 £425 +1.19% 550
London -10 891 £500 -0.99% 266
South East -37 327 £455 -1.62% 139
North of England -11 217 £400 +6.67% 136
Midlands -12 124 £450 +18.42% 100
North West +13 122 £400 +8.11% 80
Scotland +24 117 £425 - 34
South West -45 97 £475 +18.75% 82
West Midlands -9 66 £450 +12.50% 49
Yorkshire -25 64 £389 -7.44% 41
East Midlands +2 58 £463 +27.59% 51
Wales -5 56 £400 -1.23% 13
East of England +15 49 £425 - 36
North East +15 31 £425 - 15
Northern Ireland +8 16 £400 -16.23% 10
Channel Islands - 7 - -

For the 6 months to 21 March 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 1,039 (53.39%) Agile Software Development
2 698 (35.87%) TDD
3 645 (33.14%) JavaScript
4 634 (32.58%) Java
5 598 (30.73%) Git (software)
6 515 (26.46%) C#
7 512 (26.31%) .NET
8 505 (25.95%) SQL
9 482 (24.77%) CSS
10 456 (23.43%) HTML
11 437 (22.46%) Scrum
12 434 (22.30%) AngularJS
13 391 (20.09%) Test Automation
14 381 (19.58%) Continuous Integration
15 367 (18.86%) Jenkins
16 348 (17.88%) REST
17 334 (17.16%) SQL Server
18 327 (16.80%) Web Services
19 314 (16.14%) Finance
20 311 (15.98%) BDD
21 304 (15.62%) Software Engineering
22 300 (15.42%) MVC
22 300 (15.42%) Node.js
23 279 (14.34%) React
24 267 (13.72%) HTML5
25 260 (13.36%) Microsoft Azure
26 255 (13.10%) Amazon AWS
27 254 (13.05%) JSON
28 246 (12.64%) Spring
28 246 (12.64%) Linux

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 125 (6.42%) Confluence
2 95 (4.88%) Apache
3 68 (3.49%) Elasticsearch
4 50 (2.57%) CMS
5 47 (2.42%) Apache Spark
6 38 (1.95%) Tomcat
7 36 (1.85%) WebSphere
8 32 (1.64%) IIS
9 30 (1.54%) JBoss
9 30 (1.54%) SharePoint
10 29 (1.49%) Drupal
11 21 (1.08%) Apache Solr
11 21 (1.08%) Oracle SOA Suite
12 17 (0.87%) Jetty
13 14 (0.72%) nginx
13 14 (0.72%) Umbraco
14 11 (0.57%) Cloud Foundry
14 11 (0.57%) WebSphere Application Server
15 10 (0.51%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 10 (0.51%) Mongrel
Applications
1 22 (1.13%) Microsoft Excel
2 11 (0.57%) Photoshop
3 6 (0.31%) Spreadsheet
4 4 (0.21%) Adobe Illustrator
5 3 (0.15%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 2 (0.10%) InVision
6 2 (0.10%) Microsoft Office
6 2 (0.10%) Microsoft Project
7 1 (0.051%) Chatbot
7 1 (0.051%) EngageOne
7 1 (0.051%) Fireworks
7 1 (0.051%) MS Visio
7 1 (0.051%) OmniGraffle
7 1 (0.051%) Simulink
7 1 (0.051%) Stateflow
Business Applications
1 37 (1.90%) Dynamics CRM
2 11 (0.57%) Workday HCM
3 9 (0.46%) SAP FI
4 8 (0.41%) Endur
4 8 (0.41%) NetSuite
4 8 (0.41%) Oracle Retail
4 8 (0.41%) SAP CO
4 8 (0.41%) SAP FI/CO
4 8 (0.41%) SAP S/4HANA
5 7 (0.36%) Magento
6 6 (0.31%) SAP PS
7 5 (0.26%) Distributed Ledger
7 5 (0.26%) Oracle EBS
7 5 (0.26%) R3 Corda
8 3 (0.15%) Dynamics AX
8 3 (0.15%) Oracle BPM
8 3 (0.15%) Oracle EBS R12
9 2 (0.10%) SAP CRM
9 2 (0.10%) SAP CS
9 2 (0.10%) SAP Oil and Gas
Cloud Services
1 260 (13.36%) Microsoft Azure
2 255 (13.10%) Amazon AWS
3 98 (5.04%) Serverless
4 81 (4.16%) GitHub
5 77 (3.96%) AWS Lambda
6 65 (3.34%) npm
7 53 (2.72%) AWS CloudFormation
8 51 (2.62%) Google Cloud Platform
9 43 (2.21%) Cloud Computing
10 37 (1.90%) Amazon EC2
11 35 (1.80%) SaaS
12 32 (1.64%) PaaS
13 31 (1.59%) Dynamics 365
14 24 (1.23%) Amazon Kinesis
15 22 (1.13%) Amazon S3
16 19 (0.98%) Azure Functions
17 18 (0.92%) Amazon SQS
18 17 (0.87%) Azure Data Factory
18 17 (0.87%) Google App Engine
19 16 (0.82%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 68 (3.49%) HTTP
2 44 (2.26%) TCP/IP
3 30 (1.54%) FTP
4 29 (1.49%) Internet
5 25 (1.28%) DNS
6 18 (0.92%) DHCP
6 18 (0.92%) IPsec
7 17 (0.87%) SSL
8 12 (0.62%) Bluetooth
9 7 (0.36%) Firewall
9 7 (0.36%) NFC
10 6 (0.31%) iSCSI
10 6 (0.31%) SAN
10 6 (0.31%) WAN
11 5 (0.26%) IPFS
11 5 (0.26%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
11 5 (0.26%) SSH
12 4 (0.21%) AMQP
12 4 (0.21%) HTTPS
13 3 (0.15%) DMARC
Database & Business Intelligence
1 334 (17.16%) SQL Server
2 90 (4.62%) Relational Database
3 88 (4.52%) NoSQL
4 83 (4.27%) Big Data
4 83 (4.27%) MySQL
5 65 (3.34%) MongoDB
6 58 (2.98%) Hadoop
7 57 (2.93%) Data Warehouse
8 56 (2.88%) PostgreSQL
9 50 (2.57%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 49 (2.52%) HBase
11 47 (2.42%) SQL Server Integration Services
12 40 (2.06%) RDBMS
13 36 (1.85%) Apache Cassandra
14 35 (1.80%) Oracle Database
15 34 (1.75%) SQL Server 2012
16 27 (1.39%) Parquet
17 23 (1.18%) Power BI
18 22 (1.13%) Amazon RDS
19 21 (1.08%) Couchbase
Development Applications
1 598 (30.73%) Git (software)
2 367 (18.86%) Jenkins
3 224 (11.51%) JIRA
4 180 (9.25%) JUnit
5 166 (8.53%) Maven
6 158 (8.12%) Visual Studio
7 152 (7.81%) Selenium
8 124 (6.37%) Team Foundation Server
9 118 (6.06%) TeamCity
10 105 (5.40%) Eclipse
11 99 (5.09%) Mocha
12 93 (4.78%) Subversion
13 89 (4.57%) Gradle
14 77 (3.96%) webpack
15 76 (3.91%) Cucumber
16 69 (3.55%) Mockito
17 65 (3.34%) Octopus Deploy
18 64 (3.29%) NUnit
19 61 (3.13%) Jasmine
20 51 (2.62%) gulp
General
1 314 (16.14%) Finance
2 178 (9.15%) Banking
3 74 (3.80%) Retail
4 65 (3.34%) Front Office
5 43 (2.21%) Investment Banking
6 33 (1.70%) Marketing
7 30 (1.54%) Manufacturing
8 24 (1.23%) Games
9 23 (1.18%) Telecoms
10 22 (1.13%) Legal
11 19 (0.98%) Advertising
12 14 (0.72%) Automotive
12 14 (0.72%) Back Office
12 14 (0.72%) Electronics
12 14 (0.72%) Financial Institution
13 10 (0.51%) Publishing
14 7 (0.36%) Law
15 6 (0.31%) Aerospace
16 5 (0.26%) Retail Banking
17 3 (0.15%) International Banking
Job Titles
1 1,461 (75.08%) Developer
2 251 (12.90%) .NET Developer
3 244 (12.54%) Java Developer
4 198 (10.17%) Senior Developer
5 174 (8.94%) C# Developer
6 137 (7.04%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 132 (6.78%) Full Stack Developer
8 120 (6.17%) React Developer
9 102 (5.24%) Software Engineer
10 86 (4.42%) C# .NET Developer
11 78 (4.01%) JavaScript Developer
12 74 (3.80%) iOS Developer
13 73 (3.75%) Angular Developer
14 67 (3.44%) Software Developer
15 66 (3.39%) Android Developer
16 53 (2.72%) Analyst
17 45 (2.31%) UI Developer
18 39 (2.00%) SQL Developer
19 38 (1.95%) Azure Developer
20 37 (1.90%) DevOps Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 512 (26.31%) .NET
2 482 (24.77%) CSS
3 456 (23.43%) HTML
4 434 (22.30%) AngularJS
5 348 (17.88%) REST
6 327 (16.80%) Web Services
7 300 (15.42%) Node.js
8 279 (14.34%) React
9 267 (13.72%) HTML5
10 254 (13.05%) JSON
11 246 (12.64%) Spring
12 241 (12.38%) RESTful
13 174 (8.94%) XML
14 173 (8.89%) ASP.NET
15 170 (8.74%) CSS3
16 156 (8.02%) ASP.NET Web API
17 151 (7.76%) .NET Framework
18 142 (7.30%) jQuery
19 138 (7.09%) Sass
20 132 (6.78%) SOAP
Miscellaneous
1 166 (8.53%) Analytical Skills
2 135 (6.94%) Greenfield Project
3 125 (6.42%) User Experience
4 80 (4.11%) Mobile App
5 59 (3.03%) Algorithms
6 57 (2.93%) Data Structures
7 52 (2.67%) Enterprise Software
8 49 (2.52%) Linux Command Line
8 49 (2.52%) Virtual Team
9 47 (2.42%) Derivative
10 46 (2.36%) Self-Motivation
11 38 (1.95%) Fintech
12 28 (1.44%) Mobile Banking
13 27 (1.39%) Fixed Income
14 23 (1.18%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
15 19 (0.98%) Management Information System
16 15 (0.77%) Mainframe
16 15 (0.77%) Smartphone
17 12 (0.62%) Equities
18 11 (0.57%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 246 (12.64%) Linux
2 152 (7.81%) Unix
3 117 (6.01%) Android
4 107 (5.50%) Apple iOS
5 95 (4.88%) Windows
6 8 (0.41%) Embedded Linux
7 7 (0.36%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 7 (0.36%) VMS
8 6 (0.31%) CentOS
9 5 (0.26%) Mac OS
9 5 (0.26%) MVS
9 5 (0.26%) OpenVMS
10 4 (0.21%) AIX
10 4 (0.21%) Windows Server
11 3 (0.15%) Windows 10
12 2 (0.10%) Debian
12 2 (0.10%) FreeRTOS
12 2 (0.10%) Windows Server 2012
13 1 (0.051%) Solaris
13 1 (0.051%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,039 (53.39%) Agile Software Development
2 698 (35.87%) TDD
3 437 (22.46%) Scrum
4 391 (20.09%) Test Automation
5 381 (19.58%) Continuous Integration
6 311 (15.98%) BDD
7 304 (15.62%) Software Engineering
8 300 (15.42%) MVC
9 235 (12.08%) Problem-Solving
10 226 (11.61%) Microservices
11 220 (11.31%) OO
12 205 (10.53%) DevOps
13 204 (10.48%) Front End Development
14 148 (7.61%) SDLC
15 133 (6.83%) Pair Programming
16 131 (6.73%) Kanban
17 128 (6.58%) Multithreading
18 116 (5.96%) OOP
19 106 (5.45%) Integration Testing
20 105 (5.40%) Web Development
Programming Languages
1 645 (33.14%) JavaScript
2 634 (32.58%) Java
3 515 (26.46%) C#
4 505 (25.95%) SQL
5 236 (12.13%) Python
6 136 (6.99%) C++
7 112 (5.76%) ES6
8 96 (4.93%) TypeScript
9 94 (4.83%) C
10 92 (4.73%) PHP
11 85 (4.37%) Apple Swift
12 80 (4.11%) Scala
13 73 (3.75%) T-SQL
14 71 (3.65%) Bash Shell
14 71 (3.65%) Java 8
15 70 (3.60%) Objective-C
16 65 (3.34%) Shell Script
17 39 (2.00%) PL/SQL
18 32 (1.64%) Go
19 30 (1.54%) Kotlin
Qualifications
1 129 (6.63%) Degree
2 108 (5.55%) Security Cleared
3 88 (4.52%) SC Cleared
4 32 (1.64%) BPSS Clearance
5 18 (0.92%) Computer Science Degree
5 18 (0.92%) DBS Check
6 10 (0.51%) DV Cleared
7 7 (0.36%) AWS Certification
8 4 (0.21%) ISTQB
9 3 (0.15%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
9 3 (0.15%) Microsoft Certification
9 3 (0.15%) Numerate Degree
9 3 (0.15%) PhD
10 2 (0.10%) CTC Cleared
10 2 (0.10%) HND
10 2 (0.10%) Master's Degree
10 2 (0.10%) PMI Certification
10 2 (0.10%) SAS Certification
11 1 (0.051%) BC Cleared
11 1 (0.051%) PRINCE2 Practitioner
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 155 (7.97%) QA
2 10 (0.51%) Data Quality
2 10 (0.51%) WCAG
3 7 (0.36%) Disclosure Scotland
4 6 (0.31%) HL7
4 6 (0.31%) PCI DSS
5 5 (0.26%) IFRS
6 4 (0.21%) PMO
6 4 (0.21%) Solvency II
7 3 (0.15%) GDPR
8 1 (0.051%) ISO 20022
8 1 (0.051%) MiFID
8 1 (0.051%) MISRA
System Software
1 209 (10.74%) Docker
2 36 (1.85%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 30 (1.54%) HDFS
4 11 (0.57%) VMware Infrastructure
4 11 (0.57%) Xen
5 7 (0.36%) Apache Flume
6 6 (0.31%) Samba
7 3 (0.15%) Active Directory
7 3 (0.15%) Microsoft App-V
8 2 (0.10%) VirtualBox
9 1 (0.051%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 86 (4.42%) Kubernetes
2 50 (2.57%) Ansible
3 43 (2.21%) Hadoop YARN
4 39 (2.00%) Terraform
5 36 (1.85%) Puppet
6 34 (1.75%) Opscode Chef
7 12 (0.62%) Kibana
8 11 (0.57%) logstash
8 11 (0.57%) Single Sign-On
9 10 (0.51%) Rundeck
10 8 (0.41%) Rancher
10 8 (0.41%) Salt
11 7 (0.36%) Control-M
12 4 (0.21%) Packer
13 3 (0.15%) CloudHub
14 2 (0.10%) SCCM
15 1 (0.051%) BladeLogic
15 1 (0.051%) Oracle Identity Management
15 1 (0.051%) Oracle Identity Manager
15 1 (0.051%) SCVMM
Vendors
1 208 (10.69%) Microsoft
2 159 (8.17%) Oracle
3 74 (3.80%) Google
4 61 (3.13%) SAP
5 40 (2.06%) IBM
6 34 (1.75%) Splunk
7 27 (1.39%) Atlassian
7 27 (1.39%) Sybase
8 17 (0.87%) Sitecore
9 15 (0.77%) RedGate
10 14 (0.72%) Adobe
10 14 (0.72%) Cypress Semiconductor
10 14 (0.72%) DevExpress
10 14 (0.72%) VMware
11 13 (0.67%) Apple
11 13 (0.67%) hybris
11 13 (0.67%) Perforce
11 13 (0.67%) Twitter
12 12 (0.62%) Workday
13 11 (0.57%) Dynatrace