Period
to 23 April 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 23 April 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
23 Apr 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 147 162 132
Rank change year-on-year +15 -30 -11
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 943 909 1,885
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.74% 1.62% 1.98%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.01% 1.90% 2.26%
Number of daily rates quoted 624 646 1,265
10th Percentile £363 £350 £350
25th Percentile £413 £413 £400
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £498 £475
Median % change year-on-year +0.50% +4.74% +0.53%
75th Percentile £600 £575 £556
90th Percentile £660 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £450 £448
% change year-on-year -2.78% +0.56% +7.83%
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 16 31
10th Percentile £42.25 £39.43 £37.50
25th Percentile £44.13 £41.25 £41.38
Median hourly rate £48.00 £43.75 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year +9.71% -2.78% +5.88%
75th Percentile £55.00 £46.69 £49.50
90th Percentile £59.25 £48.75 £56.50
UK excluding London median hourly rate £47.50 £44.50 £44.00
% change year-on-year +6.74% +1.14% +3.53%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 47,027 47,897 83,363
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.91% 85.25% 87.52%
Number of daily rates quoted 32,247 31,784 56,142
10th Percentile £306 £283 £300
25th Percentile £400 £375 £375
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £488 £475 £475
Median % change year-on-year +2.63% - +5.56%
75th Percentile £580 £575 £575
90th Percentile £675 £660 £650
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £446 £435
% change year-on-year -1.91% +2.53% +3.57%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,429 1,518 1,998
10th Percentile £12.25 £12.37 £11.50
25th Percentile £16.00 £15.93 £14.29
Median hourly rate £26.50 £21.57 £22.65
Median % change year-on-year +22.86% -4.77% +7.86%
75th Percentile £47.50 £46.00 £43.84
90th Percentile £58.75 £55.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £23.21 £20.11 £22.40
% change year-on-year +15.42% -10.22% +12.00%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 23 April 2021.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 23 April 2021.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 23 April 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +20 773 £511 +2.25% 465
London +30 488 £550 +2.80% 155
UK excluding London +18 310 £438 -2.78% 345
Work from Home -64 258 £500 +17.65% 84
South East +9 84 £490 +4.53% 76
North of England +29 59 £463 +15.63% 79
Scotland -13 52 £425 -5.56% 20
Midlands +50 48 £414 -8.06% 73
West Midlands +43 35 £420 -11.58% 44
North West +10 29 £413 -0.60% 42
East of England +5 29 £400 - 32
Yorkshire +34 23 £463 +21.31% 25
South West +19 19 £450 -5.26% 50
East Midlands +23 13 £413 -2.94% 29
Wales +10 13 £450 +12.50% 11
North East +26 7 £518 +33.55% 12
Northern Ireland +6 6 £431 +15.00% 5

For the 6 months to 23 April 2021, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 394 (41.78%) Agile Software Development
2 301 (31.92%) JavaScript
3 277 (29.37%) SQL
4 276 (29.27%) Java
5 248 (26.30%) TDD
6 232 (24.60%) Git (software)
7 207 (21.95%) DevOps
7 207 (21.95%) Microservices
8 204 (21.63%) .NET
9 190 (20.15%) Azure
10 184 (19.51%) CSS
11 183 (19.41%) C#
12 180 (19.09%) React
13 173 (18.35%) HTML
13 173 (18.35%) Scrum
14 170 (18.03%) Continuous Integration
15 166 (17.60%) AWS
16 161 (17.07%) Test Automation
17 155 (16.44%) Spring
18 150 (15.91%) Finance
19 148 (15.69%) Python
20 146 (15.48%) Oracle
21 142 (15.06%) Docker
22 140 (14.85%) Node.js
23 136 (14.42%) AngularJS
24 132 (14.00%) Jenkins
25 130 (13.79%) Software Engineering
26 128 (13.57%) TypeScript
27 118 (12.51%) RESTful
28 117 (12.41%) Banking

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 41 (4.35%) Apache
2 27 (2.86%) Elasticsearch
3 25 (2.65%) Tomcat
4 24 (2.55%) WebSphere
5 23 (2.44%) Confluence
6 22 (2.33%) Apache Spark
7 19 (2.01%) Oracle Workflow
8 16 (1.70%) Camunda
9 14 (1.48%) Mule
10 13 (1.38%) CMS
11 12 (1.27%) Ethereum
12 11 (1.17%) Jetty
12 11 (1.17%) NServiceBus
13 10 (1.06%) Cloud Foundry
14 9 (0.95%) JBoss
15 8 (0.85%) BizTalk Server
16 7 (0.74%) WebLogic
17 6 (0.64%) IBM Domino
17 6 (0.64%) IIS
17 6 (0.64%) SAS
Applications
1 21 (2.23%) Spreadsheet
2 9 (0.95%) Microsoft Excel
3 8 (0.85%) Figma
4 5 (0.53%) Microsoft Office
5 4 (0.42%) MS Visio
5 4 (0.42%) OrCAD
6 1 (0.11%) Chatbot
6 1 (0.11%) InfoPath
6 1 (0.11%) Microsoft PowerPoint
6 1 (0.11%) Photoshop
6 1 (0.11%) Simulink
6 1 (0.11%) Sketch
Business Applications
1 23 (2.44%) Oracle EBS
2 20 (2.12%) Oracle Assets
2 20 (2.12%) Oracle Payables
3 19 (2.01%) Oracle EBS R12
3 19 (2.01%) Oracle General Ledger
4 8 (0.85%) Distributed Ledger
4 8 (0.85%) SunGard Martini
5 7 (0.74%) Magento
5 7 (0.74%) SAP S/4HANA
6 6 (0.64%) Shopify
7 5 (0.53%) Adobe Campaign
8 4 (0.42%) Oracle Cash Management
8 4 (0.42%) Oracle Receivables
9 3 (0.32%) Aligne
9 3 (0.32%) Dynamics AX
9 3 (0.32%) Oracle Applications
9 3 (0.32%) SAP ERP
9 3 (0.32%) Unit4 Business World
10 2 (0.21%) Endur
10 2 (0.21%) Oracle HRMS
Cloud Services
1 190 (20.15%) Azure
2 166 (17.60%) AWS
3 86 (9.12%) Serverless
4 57 (6.04%) Amazon S3
5 53 (5.62%) AWS Lambda
6 43 (4.56%) GitHub
7 41 (4.35%) GCP
8 34 (3.61%) Azure Service Bus
9 32 (3.39%) OpenShift
10 31 (3.29%) Cloud Computing
11 28 (2.97%) SaaS
12 26 (2.76%) Power Platform
13 22 (2.33%) Azure Cosmos DB
13 22 (2.33%) PaaS
14 20 (2.12%) AWS CloudFormation
14 20 (2.12%) Azure Data Factory
14 20 (2.12%) Azure Functions
15 15 (1.59%) Apigee
15 15 (1.59%) npm
16 14 (1.48%) Azure Key Vault
Communications & Networking
1 14 (1.48%) HTTP
2 13 (1.38%) Internet
3 9 (0.95%) Kerberos
4 8 (0.85%) IPFS
5 7 (0.74%) FTP
6 6 (0.64%) DNS
6 6 (0.64%) Firewall
6 6 (0.64%) SMS
7 5 (0.53%) DMARC
7 5 (0.53%) SMTP
7 5 (0.53%) SSL
8 4 (0.42%) NAS
8 4 (0.42%) Unified Communications
9 3 (0.32%) TCP/IP
10 2 (0.21%) Broadband
10 2 (0.21%) Ethernet
10 2 (0.21%) UPnP
10 2 (0.21%) VPN
10 2 (0.21%) WAN
10 2 (0.21%) Wi-Fi
Database & Business Intelligence
1 113 (11.98%) SQL Server
2 81 (8.59%) Relational Database
3 69 (7.32%) NoSQL
4 68 (7.21%) PostgreSQL
5 46 (4.88%) MongoDB
6 44 (4.67%) MySQL
7 38 (4.03%) Azure SQL Database
8 34 (3.61%) Data Warehouse
9 33 (3.50%) Hadoop
10 28 (2.97%) Oracle Reports
11 27 (2.86%) Pentaho
12 26 (2.76%) Apache Hive
12 26 (2.76%) Big Data
12 26 (2.76%) Power BI
13 24 (2.55%) Oracle Database
14 22 (2.33%) Impala
15 20 (2.12%) Amazon Aurora
15 20 (2.12%) Amazon DynamoDB
15 20 (2.12%) Oracle BI Publisher
16 19 (2.01%) SQL Server Integration Services
Development Applications
1 232 (24.60%) Git (software)
2 132 (14.00%) Jenkins
3 65 (6.89%) JIRA
4 63 (6.68%) JUnit
4 63 (6.68%) Maven
5 58 (6.15%) Visual Studio
6 50 (5.30%) Cypress.io
7 48 (5.09%) Mockito
8 46 (4.88%) webpack
9 41 (4.35%) Team Foundation Server
10 40 (4.24%) Cucumber
11 31 (3.29%) Selenium
12 26 (2.76%) Jasmine
12 26 (2.76%) Mocha
13 25 (2.65%) Postman
14 23 (2.44%) Subversion
15 22 (2.33%) Bitbucket
16 21 (2.23%) MSTest
16 21 (2.23%) Oracle Forms
17 20 (2.12%) Eclipse
General
1 150 (15.91%) Finance
2 117 (12.41%) Banking
3 73 (7.74%) Public Sector
4 72 (7.64%) Investment Banking
5 49 (5.20%) Front Office
6 24 (2.55%) Retail
7 18 (1.91%) Marketing
8 13 (1.38%) Back Office
8 13 (1.38%) Games
8 13 (1.38%) Telecoms
9 12 (1.27%) Financial Institution
10 8 (0.85%) Aerospace
11 7 (0.74%) Prime Brokerage
12 6 (0.64%) Publishing
13 4 (0.42%) Avionics
13 4 (0.42%) Legal
13 4 (0.42%) Military
13 4 (0.42%) Pharmaceutical
14 3 (0.32%) General Ledger
14 3 (0.32%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 656 (69.57%) Developer
2 117 (12.41%) Java Developer
3 93 (9.86%) Senior Developer
4 78 (8.27%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
5 71 (7.53%) React Developer
6 66 (7.00%) Full Stack Developer
7 63 (6.68%) .NET Developer
8 61 (6.47%) Software Engineer
9 43 (4.56%) C++ Developer
10 39 (4.14%) C# Developer
11 35 (3.71%) Data Engineer
12 33 (3.50%) Architect
12 33 (3.50%) JavaScript Developer
13 29 (3.08%) Angular Developer
13 29 (3.08%) Software Developer
14 26 (2.76%) Consultant
14 26 (2.76%) Lead Developer
15 25 (2.65%) Scala Developer
16 24 (2.55%) Node.js Developer
16 24 (2.55%) SQL Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 204 (21.63%) .NET
2 184 (19.51%) CSS
3 180 (19.09%) React
4 173 (18.35%) HTML
5 155 (16.44%) Spring
6 140 (14.85%) Node.js
7 136 (14.42%) AngularJS
8 118 (12.51%) RESTful
9 112 (11.88%) REST
10 98 (10.39%) HTML5
11 88 (9.33%) Web Services
12 83 (8.80%) Redux
13 81 (8.59%) XML
14 76 (8.06%) .NET Core
14 76 (8.06%) Spring Boot
15 66 (7.00%) Jest
16 64 (6.79%) CSS3
17 63 (6.68%) JSON
18 54 (5.73%) .NET Framework
19 46 (4.88%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 96 (10.18%) User Experience
2 92 (9.76%) Analytical Skills
3 55 (5.83%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
4 38 (4.03%) Greenfield Project
5 31 (3.29%) Mobile App
6 25 (2.65%) Enterprise Software
7 22 (2.33%) N-Tier
8 20 (2.12%) Data Structures
9 19 (2.01%) Self-Motivation
10 17 (1.80%) Hedge funds
10 17 (1.80%) Management Information System
11 15 (1.59%) Derivative
12 14 (1.48%) Cloud Native
12 14 (1.48%) Fixed Income
13 13 (1.38%) Algorithms
13 13 (1.38%) Virtual Team
14 12 (1.27%) Grid Computing
15 11 (1.17%) Market Risk
16 9 (0.95%) Public Cloud
17 8 (0.85%) CMDB
Operating Systems
1 90 (9.54%) Linux
2 47 (4.98%) Windows
3 43 (4.56%) Unix
4 32 (3.39%) Android
5 31 (3.29%) Apple iOS
6 4 (0.42%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 2 (0.21%) Amazon Linux
7 2 (0.21%) Embedded Linux
7 2 (0.21%) Mac OS
7 2 (0.21%) Windows Server
7 2 (0.21%) Windows Server 2016
8 1 (0.11%) AIX
8 1 (0.11%) CentOS
8 1 (0.11%) Robot Operating System
8 1 (0.11%) Solaris
8 1 (0.11%) Ubuntu
8 1 (0.11%) VME
8 1 (0.11%) VMS
8 1 (0.11%) Windows Server 2012
Processes & Methodologies
1 394 (41.78%) Agile Software Development
2 248 (26.30%) TDD
3 207 (21.95%) DevOps
3 207 (21.95%) Microservices
4 173 (18.35%) Scrum
5 170 (18.03%) Continuous Integration
6 161 (17.07%) Test Automation
7 130 (13.79%) Software Engineering
8 116 (12.30%) BDD
9 102 (10.82%) Front End Development
9 102 (10.82%) Problem-Solving
10 78 (8.27%) Analytics
11 76 (8.06%) MVC
12 70 (7.42%) OO
13 67 (7.10%) ETL
14 63 (6.68%) Mentoring
15 61 (6.47%) SDLC
16 56 (5.94%) Business Intelligence
17 54 (5.73%) Pair Programming
18 52 (5.51%) Data Modelling
Programming Languages
1 301 (31.92%) JavaScript
2 277 (29.37%) SQL
3 276 (29.27%) Java
4 183 (19.41%) C#
5 148 (15.69%) Python
6 128 (13.57%) TypeScript
7 75 (7.95%) C++
8 66 (7.00%) Java 8
9 59 (6.26%) PL/SQL
10 52 (5.51%) ES6
11 41 (4.35%) C
12 37 (3.92%) Scala
13 34 (3.61%) PowerShell
14 29 (3.08%) T-SQL
15 27 (2.86%) Bash Shell
16 25 (2.65%) Kotlin
17 24 (2.55%) Go
17 24 (2.55%) PHP
18 21 (2.23%) Apple Swift
19 18 (1.91%) Apex Code
Qualifications
1 94 (9.97%) Security Cleared
2 81 (8.59%) SC Cleared
3 53 (5.62%) Degree
4 9 (0.95%) Computer Science Degree
5 8 (0.85%) CTC Cleared
6 6 (0.64%) BPSS Clearance
7 5 (0.53%) AWS Certification
7 5 (0.53%) CISA
7 5 (0.53%) CISM
7 5 (0.53%) CISSP
7 5 (0.53%) GIAC
7 5 (0.53%) HNC
8 3 (0.32%) DV Cleared
8 3 (0.32%) Master's Degree
8 3 (0.32%) Microsoft Certification
8 3 (0.32%) PhD
9 2 (0.21%) ISTQB
9 2 (0.21%) PMP
10 1 (0.11%) CFA
10 1 (0.11%) HND
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 58 (6.15%) QA
2 14 (1.48%) Data Quality
3 9 (0.95%) WCAG
4 6 (0.64%) GDPR
5 5 (0.53%) MiFID
5 5 (0.53%) NIST
6 4 (0.42%) ECSS
7 3 (0.32%) Disclosure Scotland
8 2 (0.21%) Dodd-Frank
8 2 (0.21%) SLA
9 1 (0.11%) Sarbanes-Oxley
9 1 (0.11%) WAI
System Software
1 142 (15.06%) Docker
2 20 (2.12%) HDFS
3 8 (0.85%) Active Directory
4 5 (0.53%) Time Sharing Option
5 1 (0.11%) OpenAM
5 1 (0.11%) Virtual Machines
5 1 (0.11%) Virtual Servers
5 1 (0.11%) VMware Infrastructure
Systems Management
1 85 (9.01%) Kubernetes
2 50 (5.30%) Ansible
3 40 (4.24%) Terraform
4 35 (3.71%) Grafana
5 17 (1.80%) Puppet
6 14 (1.48%) HP Quality Center
6 14 (1.48%) Prometheus
7 7 (0.74%) Opscode Chef
8 6 (0.64%) CloudHub
8 6 (0.64%) Istio
9 3 (0.32%) Control-M
9 3 (0.32%) Docker Swarm
9 3 (0.32%) Galera Cluster
9 3 (0.32%) Kibana
9 3 (0.32%) Marathon
9 3 (0.32%) Mesos
10 2 (0.21%) HP ALM
10 2 (0.21%) ITRS Geneos
11 1 (0.11%) QRadar
11 1 (0.11%) Single Sign-On
Vendors
1 146 (15.48%) Oracle
2 97 (10.29%) Microsoft
3 39 (4.14%) Google
4 27 (2.86%) Cloudera
5 26 (2.76%) Salesforce.com
6 22 (2.33%) MuleSoft
7 18 (1.91%) Databricks
7 18 (1.91%) SAP
8 14 (1.48%) Apple
8 14 (1.48%) IBM
9 11 (1.17%) Splunk
10 10 (1.06%) Red Hat
11 9 (0.95%) Informatica
12 8 (0.85%) Adobe
12 8 (0.85%) Atlassian
12 8 (0.85%) FIS
12 8 (0.85%) HP
12 8 (0.85%) SunGard
13 7 (0.74%) Pega
13 7 (0.74%) Talend