Period
to 18 October 2018

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 18 October 2018 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
18 Oct 2018
Same period 2017 Same period 2016
Rank 119 127 137
Rank change year-on-year +8 +10 -14
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 2,273 2,002 2,032
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 2.20% 2.01% 1.91%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.56% 2.35% 2.24%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,577 1,461 1,397
UK median daily rate £463 £438 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +5.71% +2.94% +3.03%
10th Percentile £330 £319 £305
90th Percentile £613 £600 £575
UK excluding London median daily rate £400 £398 £380
% change year-on-year +0.63% +4.61% +1.33%
Number of hourly rates quoted 50 37 14
UK median hourly rate £49.50 £42.50 £41.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +16.47% +2.41% +10.67%
10th Percentile £40.56 £31.25 £36.63
90th Percentile £51.00 £65.80 £47.85
UK excluding London median hourly rate £49.50 £43.25 £42.00
% change year-on-year +14.45% +2.98% +12.00%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 88,860 85,218 90,687
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.19% 85.73% 85.11%
Number of daily rates quoted 58,647 56,432 59,904
UK median daily rate £450 £450 £425
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +5.88% +3.66%
10th Percentile £300 £280 £263
90th Percentile £638 £625 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £425 £400 £400
% change year-on-year +6.25% - +6.67%
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,410 2,058 2,457
UK median hourly rate £21.00 £24.93 £22.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -15.75% +10.78% +3.45%
10th Percentile £11.18 £11.25 £11.25
90th Percentile £50.00 £50.00 £48.38
UK excluding London median hourly rate £20.00 £25.00 £23.00
% change year-on-year -20.00% +8.70% +4.55%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 18 October 2018.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 18 October 2018.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 18 October 2018. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England +7 2,083 £475 +5.56% 782
London +25 1,173 £525 +5.00% 279
UK excluding London -4 1,068 £400 +0.63% 562
South East -13 304 £425 -5.56% 137
North of England -6 248 £388 +3.40% 131
South West +10 150 £400 +14.29% 79
Midlands -25 142 £400 +14.29% 85
North West -25 128 £375 - 79
Yorkshire +15 103 £400 +6.67% 40
Scotland +23 94 £400 +8.11% 34
East Midlands +13 94 £375 +7.14% 45
East of England +14 66 £450 +12.50% 71
Wales -17 58 £425 +13.71% 19
West Midlands -42 48 £400 +15.94% 40
North East -11 17 £383 +7.37% 12
Northern Ireland +7 4 £525 +16.67% 6
Channel Islands -5 4 - -

For the 6 months to 18 October 2018, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 1,230 (54.11%) Agile Software Development
2 887 (39.02%) JavaScript
3 809 (35.59%) TDD
4 712 (31.32%) Java
5 688 (30.27%) C#
6 668 (29.39%) .NET
7 663 (29.17%) HTML
8 615 (27.06%) Git (software)
9 605 (26.62%) CSS
10 588 (25.87%) SQL
11 519 (22.83%) Scrum
12 507 (22.31%) Test Automation
13 467 (20.55%) SQL Server
14 464 (20.41%) Continuous Integration
15 457 (20.11%) AngularJS
16 450 (19.80%) BDD
17 428 (18.83%) Finance
18 419 (18.43%) MVC
19 392 (17.25%) Web Services
20 380 (16.72%) Node.js
21 368 (16.19%) Software Engineering
22 352 (15.49%) HTML5
23 343 (15.09%) RESTful
24 341 (15.00%) Jenkins
25 336 (14.78%) REST
26 333 (14.65%) React
27 310 (13.64%) Spring
28 305 (13.42%) OO
29 281 (12.36%) Amazon AWS
30 280 (12.32%) CSS3

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 151 (6.64%) Confluence
2 112 (4.93%) Apache
3 82 (3.61%) Elasticsearch
4 72 (3.17%) CMS
5 71 (3.12%) NServiceBus
6 55 (2.42%) Apache Spark
7 44 (1.94%) Oracle SOA Suite
8 37 (1.63%) IIS
9 32 (1.41%) SharePoint
10 31 (1.36%) Tomcat
11 30 (1.32%) WebLogic
12 29 (1.28%) Adobe Experience Manager
12 29 (1.28%) JBoss
13 23 (1.01%) WebSphere
14 18 (0.79%) Apache Solr
15 14 (0.62%) Umbraco
16 13 (0.57%) Oracle Service Bus
16 13 (0.57%) Sitecore CMS
17 12 (0.53%) Mule
18 9 (0.40%) WildFly
Applications
1 31 (1.36%) Photoshop
2 12 (0.53%) Microsoft Excel
3 8 (0.35%) Microsoft Office
4 6 (0.26%) Adobe Illustrator
5 5 (0.22%) Acrobat
5 5 (0.22%) GIMP
6 4 (0.18%) Fireworks
6 4 (0.18%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 3 (0.13%) MS Visio
7 3 (0.13%) Spreadsheet
8 2 (0.088%) Microsoft Project
8 2 (0.088%) SOLIDWORKS
9 1 (0.044%) Adobe Creative Suite
9 1 (0.044%) InVision
Business Applications
1 25 (1.10%) Dynamics CRM
2 11 (0.48%) Endur
3 7 (0.31%) SAP CO
3 7 (0.31%) SAP FI
3 7 (0.31%) SAP FI/CO
3 7 (0.31%) SAP PS
4 6 (0.26%) Oracle EBS
4 6 (0.26%) Oracle Payables
4 6 (0.26%) Oracle Receivables
5 5 (0.22%) Dynamics AX
5 5 (0.22%) Magento
5 5 (0.22%) Oracle EBS R12
5 5 (0.22%) Payment Gateway
6 4 (0.18%) Maximo
7 3 (0.13%) BusinessWorks
7 3 (0.13%) NetSuite
7 3 (0.13%) Oracle BPM
7 3 (0.13%) Oracle General Ledger
7 3 (0.13%) Oracle Payroll
7 3 (0.13%) Summit
Cloud Services
1 281 (12.36%) Amazon AWS
2 275 (12.10%) Microsoft Azure
3 93 (4.09%) Serverless
4 85 (3.74%) npm
5 67 (2.95%) AWS Lambda
6 53 (2.33%) GitHub
7 50 (2.20%) Cloud Computing
8 33 (1.45%) Amazon EC2
9 26 (1.14%) Dynamics 365
10 24 (1.06%) NuGet
11 22 (0.97%) Azure Functions
11 22 (0.97%) Google Cloud Platform
11 22 (0.97%) SaaS
12 21 (0.92%) Yarn
13 20 (0.88%) AWS CloudFormation
14 18 (0.79%) Amazon S3
15 17 (0.75%) OpenShift
16 16 (0.70%) PaaS
17 14 (0.62%) Amazon Kinesis
18 9 (0.40%) Amazon SQS
Communications & Networking
1 141 (6.20%) HTTP
2 55 (2.42%) TCP/IP
3 38 (1.67%) Internet
4 32 (1.41%) SSL
5 21 (0.92%) DNS
6 16 (0.70%) FTP
6 16 (0.70%) Intranet
7 10 (0.44%) BIG-IP
8 7 (0.31%) Kerberos
9 5 (0.22%) DHCP
9 5 (0.22%) HTTPS
9 5 (0.22%) iSCSI
9 5 (0.22%) SAN
9 5 (0.22%) SMS
9 5 (0.22%) WAN
10 4 (0.18%) AMQP
10 4 (0.18%) FIX Connectivity
10 4 (0.18%) IPsec
10 4 (0.18%) Wi-Fi
11 3 (0.13%) Wireless
Database & Business Intelligence
1 467 (20.55%) SQL Server
2 131 (5.76%) Relational Database
3 124 (5.46%) MySQL
4 89 (3.92%) NoSQL
5 87 (3.83%) MongoDB
6 74 (3.26%) PostgreSQL
7 64 (2.82%) Data Warehouse
8 63 (2.77%) Big Data
9 55 (2.42%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 44 (1.94%) Hadoop
11 43 (1.89%) Oracle Database
12 42 (1.85%) RDBMS
13 36 (1.58%) SQL Server 2012
14 32 (1.41%) Couchbase
15 28 (1.23%) SQL Server Reporting Services
16 27 (1.19%) Apache Cassandra
17 25 (1.10%) DB2
17 25 (1.10%) SQL Server 2008
17 25 (1.10%) SQL Server Analysis Services
18 22 (0.97%) Amazon DynamoDB
Development Applications
1 615 (27.06%) Git (software)
2 341 (15.00%) Jenkins
3 233 (10.25%) JIRA
4 203 (8.93%) JUnit
5 195 (8.58%) Selenium
6 172 (7.57%) Maven
7 142 (6.25%) TeamCity
8 106 (4.66%) Mockito
9 105 (4.62%) Visual Studio
10 101 (4.44%) webpack
11 100 (4.40%) NUnit
12 99 (4.36%) Mocha
13 97 (4.27%) Gradle
14 96 (4.22%) Jasmine
15 93 (4.09%) Team Foundation Server
16 92 (4.05%) Subversion
17 82 (3.61%) gulp
18 80 (3.52%) SpecFlow
19 77 (3.39%) Octopus Deploy
20 63 (2.77%) Moq
General
1 428 (18.83%) Finance
2 245 (10.78%) Banking
3 112 (4.93%) Retail
4 108 (4.75%) Front Office
5 58 (2.55%) Investment Banking
6 34 (1.50%) Back Office
7 33 (1.45%) Financial Institution
8 23 (1.01%) Marketing
9 22 (0.97%) Games
9 22 (0.97%) Publishing
10 18 (0.79%) Telecoms
11 14 (0.62%) Legal
11 14 (0.62%) Manufacturing
12 12 (0.53%) Automotive
13 10 (0.44%) Advertising
13 10 (0.44%) Aerospace
13 10 (0.44%) Law
14 8 (0.35%) Electronics
15 7 (0.31%) Billing
16 6 (0.26%) Retail Banking
Job Titles
1 1,773 (78.00%) Developer
2 316 (13.90%) Java Developer
3 311 (13.68%) .NET Developer
4 260 (11.44%) C# Developer
5 191 (8.40%) Senior Developer
6 166 (7.30%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 163 (7.17%) React Developer
8 128 (5.63%) Full Stack Developer
8 128 (5.63%) Software Engineer
9 112 (4.93%) JavaScript Developer
10 108 (4.75%) C# .NET Developer
11 82 (3.61%) Angular Developer
12 77 (3.39%) SQL Developer
13 76 (3.34%) Software Developer
14 67 (2.95%) Android Developer
15 61 (2.68%) UI Developer
16 60 (2.64%) iOS Developer
17 59 (2.60%) PHP Developer
18 58 (2.55%) ASP.NET MVC Developer
19 57 (2.51%) Analyst
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 668 (29.39%) .NET
2 663 (29.17%) HTML
3 605 (26.62%) CSS
4 457 (20.11%) AngularJS
5 392 (17.25%) Web Services
6 380 (16.72%) Node.js
7 352 (15.49%) HTML5
8 343 (15.09%) RESTful
9 336 (14.78%) REST
10 333 (14.65%) React
11 310 (13.64%) Spring
12 280 (12.32%) CSS3
13 277 (12.19%) ASP.NET
14 236 (10.38%) jQuery
15 234 (10.29%) .NET Framework
16 225 (9.90%) XML
17 205 (9.02%) ASP.NET Web API
18 183 (8.05%) JSON
19 176 (7.74%) Sass
20 170 (7.48%) Redux
Miscellaneous
1 170 (7.48%) User Experience
2 143 (6.29%) Computer Science
3 122 (5.37%) Analytical Skills
4 115 (5.06%) Greenfield Project
5 96 (4.22%) Mobile App
6 75 (3.30%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
7 73 (3.21%) Fintech
8 71 (3.12%) Enterprise Software
9 49 (2.16%) Equities
10 48 (2.11%) Derivative
11 46 (2.02%) Data Structures
12 44 (1.94%) Self-Motivation
13 41 (1.80%) Linux Command Line
14 40 (1.76%) Fixed Income
15 35 (1.54%) Algorithms
16 34 (1.50%) Hedge funds
17 27 (1.19%) N-Tier
18 19 (0.84%) iPhone
18 19 (0.84%) Management Information System
19 18 (0.79%) iPad
Operating Systems
1 194 (8.53%) Linux
2 173 (7.61%) Unix
3 118 (5.19%) Android
4 117 (5.15%) Windows
5 104 (4.58%) Apple iOS
6 23 (1.01%) Embedded Linux
6 23 (1.01%) VMS
7 20 (0.88%) Solaris
8 17 (0.75%) Windows Server
9 11 (0.48%) SUSE
9 11 (0.48%) SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
10 7 (0.31%) OpenVMS
11 6 (0.26%) AIX
12 5 (0.22%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
13 4 (0.18%) CentOS
14 3 (0.13%) Windows Embedded Compact
15 2 (0.088%) Mac OS X
15 2 (0.088%) MVS
16 1 (0.044%) watchOS
16 1 (0.044%) Windows Phone
Processes & Methodologies
1 1,230 (54.11%) Agile Software Development
2 809 (35.59%) TDD
3 519 (22.83%) Scrum
4 507 (22.31%) Test Automation
5 464 (20.41%) Continuous Integration
6 450 (19.80%) BDD
7 419 (18.43%) MVC
8 368 (16.19%) Software Engineering
9 305 (13.42%) OO
10 249 (10.95%) Front End Development
11 248 (10.91%) Microservices
12 242 (10.65%) DevOps
13 231 (10.16%) Problem-Solving
14 203 (8.93%) SOA
15 201 (8.84%) SDLC
16 159 (7.00%) Web Development
17 156 (6.86%) Multithreading
17 156 (6.86%) Pair Programming
18 141 (6.20%) Kanban
19 138 (6.07%) OOP
Programming Languages
1 887 (39.02%) JavaScript
2 712 (31.32%) Java
3 688 (30.27%) C#
4 588 (25.87%) SQL
5 224 (9.85%) Python
6 171 (7.52%) C++
7 165 (7.26%) ES6
8 124 (5.46%) T-SQL
9 123 (5.41%) TypeScript
10 121 (5.32%) PHP
11 104 (4.58%) C
11 104 (4.58%) Java 8
12 79 (3.48%) Scala
13 74 (3.26%) Shell Script
14 66 (2.90%) Apple Swift
15 65 (2.86%) Groovy
16 56 (2.46%) Go
17 55 (2.42%) Objective-C
17 55 (2.42%) Perl
18 42 (1.85%) Ruby
Qualifications
1 183 (8.05%) Degree
2 79 (3.48%) Security Cleared
3 62 (2.73%) SC Cleared
4 61 (2.68%) Computer Science Degree
5 25 (1.10%) BPSS Clearance
6 19 (0.84%) Master's Degree
7 12 (0.53%) Microsoft Certification
8 7 (0.31%) HND
9 6 (0.26%) BC Cleared
10 5 (0.22%) ISEB
11 4 (0.18%) DBS Check
11 4 (0.18%) ISTQB
11 4 (0.18%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
11 4 (0.18%) Siebel Certification
12 2 (0.088%) CTC Cleared
12 2 (0.088%) DV Cleared
12 2 (0.088%) Numerate Degree
12 2 (0.088%) SAS Certification
13 1 (0.044%) MCTS
13 1 (0.044%) PhD
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 200 (8.80%) QA
2 6 (0.26%) ISO 20022
3 5 (0.22%) Disclosure Scotland
3 5 (0.22%) IFRS
3 5 (0.22%) PCI DSS
4 3 (0.13%) ISO/IEC 27001
4 3 (0.13%) WCAG
5 2 (0.088%) 21 CFR Part 11
5 2 (0.088%) Data Quality
5 2 (0.088%) GCP
5 2 (0.088%) GLP
5 2 (0.088%) GMP
5 2 (0.088%) GxP
5 2 (0.088%) HL7
5 2 (0.088%) PMO
5 2 (0.088%) Solvency II
6 1 (0.044%) Dodd-Frank
6 1 (0.044%) EMIR
6 1 (0.044%) GDPR
6 1 (0.044%) IFRS 9
System Software
1 233 (10.25%) Docker
2 26 (1.14%) Apache ZooKeeper
3 9 (0.40%) Active Directory
3 9 (0.40%) HDFS
4 5 (0.22%) Samba
5 4 (0.18%) Apache Flume
6 3 (0.13%) VMware Infrastructure
7 2 (0.088%) Microsoft App-V
7 2 (0.088%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
8 1 (0.044%) Squid
8 1 (0.044%) Virtual Machines
8 1 (0.044%) vSphere
Systems Management
1 93 (4.09%) Kubernetes
2 66 (2.90%) Ansible
3 40 (1.76%) Puppet
4 37 (1.63%) Opscode Chef
5 28 (1.23%) Hadoop YARN
6 18 (0.79%) Oracle Identity Management
6 18 (0.79%) Oracle Identity Manager
7 16 (0.70%) Terraform
8 13 (0.57%) Prometheus
9 10 (0.44%) CFEngine
10 7 (0.31%) Salt
10 7 (0.31%) Single Sign-On
11 6 (0.26%) Docker Swarm
11 6 (0.26%) Oozie
12 3 (0.13%) Grafana
12 3 (0.13%) Kibana
13 2 (0.088%) HP ALM
13 2 (0.088%) HP Quality Center
13 2 (0.088%) logstash
13 2 (0.088%) Tivoli
Vendors
1 253 (11.13%) Microsoft
2 210 (9.24%) Oracle
3 47 (2.07%) Adobe
4 45 (1.98%) Google
5 44 (1.94%) IBM
6 36 (1.58%) Splunk
7 33 (1.45%) TIBCO
8 31 (1.36%) Atlassian
9 30 (1.32%) SAP
10 22 (0.97%) Zend
11 21 (0.92%) Perforce
12 20 (0.88%) Sybase
13 19 (0.84%) MuleSoft
13 19 (0.84%) Xamarin
14 18 (0.79%) Okta
15 17 (0.75%) Tableau
16 16 (0.70%) Sitecore
17 13 (0.57%) Informatica
17 13 (0.57%) Salesforce.com
18 12 (0.53%) Red Hat