Period
to 30 October 2020

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 30 October 2020 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
30 Oct 2020
Same period 2019 Same period 2018
Rank 151 128 125
Rank change year-on-year -23 -3 +1
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 591 1,707 2,250
As % of all contract jobs advertised in the UK 1.80% 2.01% 2.17%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.08% 2.32% 2.50%
Number of daily rates quoted 431 1,185 1,583
Median daily rate £450 £475 £463
Median daily rate % change year-on-year -5.26% +2.70% +5.71%
10th Percentile £313 £346 £338
90th Percentile £625 £650 £613
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £440 £400
% change year-on-year - +10.00% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 17 23 51
Median hourly rate £43.00 £43.00 £49.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year - -13.13% +16.47%
10th Percentile £35.00 £23.40 £40.00
90th Percentile £57.81 £54.50 £51.00
UK excluding London median hourly rate £44.00 £43.00 £49.50
% change year-on-year +2.33% -13.13% +15.45%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 28,363 73,425 90,156
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.41% 86.51% 87.07%
Number of daily rates quoted 17,871 48,212 59,573
Median daily rate £475 £475 £455
Median daily rate % change year-on-year - +4.40% +1.11%
10th Percentile £298 £300 £300
90th Percentile £663 £650 £638
UK excluding London median daily rate £435 £438 £425
% change year-on-year -0.57% +2.94% +6.25%
Number of hourly rates quoted 1,015 2,318 2,414
Median hourly rate £35.00 £23.75 £21.11
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +47.37% +12.51% -11.12%
10th Percentile £12.43 £11.85 £11.18
90th Percentile £55.00 £53.75 £50.00
Median hourly rate £26.96 £22.50 £20.50
% change year-on-year +19.82% +9.76% -14.58%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Daily Rate Histogram

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 30 October 2020.

Daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing Unit Testing.

Hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Hourly Rate Histogram

Hourly rate distribution of jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 30 October 2020.

Hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 30 October 2020. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -23 504 £453 -5.70% 327
UK excluding London +17 286 £440 - 228
London -32 245 £500 -6.98% 135
Work from Home -28 117 £441 -2.00% 57
North of England +50 99 £463 +6.32% 76
North West +43 70 £485 +11.49% 40
South East +12 48 £475 +11.76% 37
Midlands +27 42 £355 -25.26% 36
South West +23 36 £416 -3.76% 29
Scotland +18 30 £500 +11.11% 23
East Midlands +13 25 £350 -17.65% 12
Yorkshire +44 23 £438 - 25
East of England +48 20 £400 -11.11% 15
West Midlands +44 17 £400 -20.00% 24
Wales +38 8 £469 +29.31% 10
North East +26 6 £415 +18.57% 11
Northern Ireland -5 3 £431 -25.04% 3

For the 6 months to 30 October 2020, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 293 (49.58%) Agile Software Development
2 219 (37.06%) Git (software)
3 191 (32.32%) JavaScript
4 158 (26.73%) Java
5 155 (26.23%) SQL
6 149 (25.21%) Test Automation
7 145 (24.53%) Oracle
8 134 (22.67%) Scrum
9 131 (22.17%) HTML
10 130 (22.00%) DevOps
11 127 (21.49%) C#
12 126 (21.32%) Jenkins
13 119 (20.14%) Security Cleared
14 118 (19.97%) CSS
15 113 (19.12%) AWS
16 112 (18.95%) .NET
17 105 (17.77%) SC Cleared
18 104 (17.60%) Azure
19 103 (17.43%) Continuous Integration
20 101 (17.09%) Finance
20 101 (17.09%) Microservices
21 99 (16.75%) Relational Database
21 99 (16.75%) TDD
22 97 (16.41%) REST
23 92 (15.57%) Web Services
24 86 (14.55%) Software Engineering
24 86 (14.55%) AngularJS
25 85 (14.38%) JIRA
26 84 (14.21%) RESTful
27 80 (13.54%) Node.js

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 52 (8.80%) Apache
2 48 (8.12%) Confluence
3 26 (4.40%) WebSphere
4 17 (2.88%) CMS
4 17 (2.88%) NServiceBus
5 14 (2.37%) Cloud Foundry
5 14 (2.37%) Tomcat
6 13 (2.20%) Mule
7 10 (1.69%) Red Hat Fuse
8 9 (1.52%) Oracle Workflow
9 8 (1.35%) JBoss
9 8 (1.35%) Oracle SOA Suite
9 8 (1.35%) WebLogic
10 7 (1.18%) Apache Airflow
10 7 (1.18%) Apache ServiceMix
10 7 (1.18%) Appian
10 7 (1.18%) BizTalk Server
11 6 (1.02%) Apache Spark
12 5 (0.85%) Elasticsearch
12 5 (0.85%) Tuxedo
Applications
1 24 (4.06%) Spreadsheet
2 11 (1.86%) Microsoft Office
3 5 (0.85%) Microsoft Excel
3 5 (0.85%) MS Visio
3 5 (0.85%) Photoshop
4 4 (0.68%) Figma
5 3 (0.51%) Zeplin
6 2 (0.34%) Acrobat
6 2 (0.34%) InVision
6 2 (0.34%) Sketch
7 1 (0.17%) Adobe Illustrator
7 1 (0.17%) Microsoft PowerPoint
7 1 (0.17%) Simulink
7 1 (0.17%) SPSS
Business Applications
1 16 (2.71%) Oracle ERP
2 11 (1.86%) Oracle EBS
2 11 (1.86%) SunGard Martini
3 10 (1.69%) Oracle EBS R12
4 8 (1.35%) Oracle Assets
4 8 (1.35%) Oracle General Ledger
4 8 (1.35%) Oracle Payables
5 7 (1.18%) SAP S/4HANA
6 6 (1.02%) Magento
7 5 (0.85%) Oracle Procure-to-Pay
7 5 (0.85%) Visualfiles
8 4 (0.68%) Dynamics CRM
8 4 (0.68%) SAP Retail
9 3 (0.51%) assyst
9 3 (0.51%) Dynamics AX
9 3 (0.51%) SAP SD
10 2 (0.34%) Oracle Applications
10 2 (0.34%) SAP MM
10 2 (0.34%) Shopify
11 1 (0.17%) SAP EWM
Cloud Services
1 113 (19.12%) AWS
2 104 (17.60%) Azure
3 36 (6.09%) npm
4 35 (5.92%) Amazon S3
5 25 (4.23%) GitHub
6 22 (3.72%) Serverless
6 22 (3.72%) Slack
7 20 (3.38%) Apigee
8 19 (3.21%) GCP
9 18 (3.05%) AWS Lambda
10 14 (2.37%) OpenShift
10 14 (2.37%) Power Platform
11 13 (2.20%) PaaS
12 11 (1.86%) Yarn
13 10 (1.69%) Amazon ECS
13 10 (1.69%) Cloud Computing
13 10 (1.69%) Kong
13 10 (1.69%) SaaS
14 9 (1.52%) Boomi
15 8 (1.35%) Azure Stack
Communications & Networking
1 20 (3.38%) TCP/IP
2 18 (3.05%) DNS
3 17 (2.88%) Firewall
4 15 (2.54%) SSL
5 14 (2.37%) Reverse Proxy
6 13 (2.20%) HTTP
7 4 (0.68%) Internet
7 4 (0.68%) SSH
8 3 (0.51%) FTP
9 2 (0.34%) DLNA
9 2 (0.34%) Ethernet
9 2 (0.34%) Kerberos
9 2 (0.34%) SMS
9 2 (0.34%) Tactical Data Link
9 2 (0.34%) UPnP
9 2 (0.34%) WAN
9 2 (0.34%) Wi-Fi
10 1 (0.17%) DSL
10 1 (0.17%) Intranet
10 1 (0.17%) IPsec
Database & Business Intelligence
1 99 (16.75%) Relational Database
2 74 (12.52%) SQL Server
3 59 (9.98%) MySQL
4 47 (7.95%) Pentaho
5 36 (6.09%) Oracle Database
6 30 (5.08%) MongoDB
7 29 (4.91%) NoSQL
8 27 (4.57%) Apache Hive
8 27 (4.57%) Hadoop
8 27 (4.57%) Impala
9 25 (4.23%) SQL Server Integration Services
10 24 (4.06%) Oracle Reports
11 22 (3.72%) SQL Server Reporting Services
12 18 (3.05%) Data Warehouse
13 16 (2.71%) PostgreSQL
14 14 (2.37%) Apache Cassandra
14 14 (2.37%) Power BI
15 12 (2.03%) Oracle Database 12c
15 12 (2.03%) RDBMS
16 10 (1.69%) Oracle Discoverer
Development Applications
1 219 (37.06%) Git (software)
2 126 (21.32%) Jenkins
3 85 (14.38%) JIRA
4 74 (12.52%) Selenium
5 56 (9.48%) Team Foundation Server
6 50 (8.46%) JUnit
7 42 (7.11%) SpecFlow
8 38 (6.43%) NUnit
9 36 (6.09%) Cucumber
10 35 (5.92%) Visual Studio
11 34 (5.75%) Maven
12 33 (5.58%) Subversion
13 30 (5.08%) Mockito
14 25 (4.23%) Jasmine
14 25 (4.23%) webpack
15 22 (3.72%) MSTest
16 21 (3.55%) Cypress.io
16 21 (3.55%) Oracle APEX
16 21 (3.55%) Oracle Forms
17 19 (3.21%) Bitbucket
General
1 101 (17.09%) Finance
2 69 (11.68%) Public Sector
3 63 (10.66%) Banking
4 29 (4.91%) Investment Banking
5 15 (2.54%) Manufacturing
6 11 (1.86%) Law
7 10 (1.69%) Front Office
8 8 (1.35%) Marketing
9 7 (1.18%) Electronics
9 7 (1.18%) Retail
10 6 (1.02%) Back Office
11 5 (0.85%) Telecoms
12 4 (0.68%) Financial Institution
12 4 (0.68%) Games
12 4 (0.68%) International Banking
13 2 (0.34%) Advertising
13 2 (0.34%) Dutch Language
13 2 (0.34%) Military
13 2 (0.34%) Prime Brokerage
13 2 (0.34%) Publishing
Job Titles
1 411 (69.54%) Developer
2 65 (11.00%) .NET Developer
3 49 (8.29%) Java Developer
4 42 (7.11%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
5 40 (6.77%) Senior Developer
6 33 (5.58%) React Developer
7 31 (5.25%) Software Engineer
8 29 (4.91%) Pentaho Developer
9 26 (4.40%) Angular Developer
9 26 (4.40%) Full Stack Developer
10 22 (3.72%) Architect
10 22 (3.72%) JavaScript Developer
11 21 (3.55%) C# Developer
11 21 (3.55%) Consultant
12 18 (3.05%) Scala Developer
13 17 (2.88%) SQL Developer
14 14 (2.37%) C++ Developer
14 14 (2.37%) Oracle Developer
15 13 (2.20%) C# .NET Developer
15 13 (2.20%) Software Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 131 (22.17%) HTML
2 118 (19.97%) CSS
3 112 (18.95%) .NET
4 97 (16.41%) REST
5 92 (15.57%) Web Services
6 86 (14.55%) AngularJS
7 84 (14.21%) RESTful
8 80 (13.54%) Node.js
9 79 (13.37%) Spring
10 75 (12.69%) XML
11 71 (12.01%) React
12 70 (11.84%) ASP.NET
13 58 (9.81%) SOAP
14 52 (8.80%) HTML5
14 52 (8.80%) JSON
14 52 (8.80%) Redux
15 49 (8.29%) Spring Boot
16 48 (8.12%) .NET Framework
17 44 (7.45%) Jest
18 39 (6.60%) jQuery
Miscellaneous
1 62 (10.49%) User Experience
2 28 (4.74%) Analytical Skills
3 27 (4.57%) Mobile App
4 20 (3.38%) Public Cloud
5 18 (3.05%) Greenfield Project
6 13 (2.20%) Data Centre
6 13 (2.20%) Data Structures
7 12 (2.03%) Enterprise Software
8 11 (1.86%) DataPower
9 10 (1.69%) N-Tier
9 10 (1.69%) Private Cloud
9 10 (1.69%) Self-Motivation
10 9 (1.52%) Virtual Team
11 8 (1.35%) Algorithms
11 8 (1.35%) Hybrid Cloud
11 8 (1.35%) Management Information System
12 7 (1.18%) Fixed Income
13 5 (0.85%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
14 4 (0.68%) Clustering
14 4 (0.68%) Video Conferencing
Operating Systems
1 57 (9.64%) Linux
2 54 (9.14%) Windows
3 25 (4.23%) Unix
4 16 (2.71%) Apple iOS
5 15 (2.54%) Android
6 12 (2.03%) VMS
7 7 (1.18%) Windows Server
8 6 (1.02%) Windows Server 2012
8 6 (1.02%) Windows Server 2016
9 4 (0.68%) OpenVMS
10 3 (0.51%) AIX
10 3 (0.51%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
11 2 (0.34%) Embedded Linux
11 2 (0.34%) tvOS
11 2 (0.34%) Windows 10
12 1 (0.17%) CentOS
12 1 (0.17%) Mac OS X
12 1 (0.17%) Solaris
12 1 (0.17%) Ubuntu
Processes & Methodologies
1 293 (49.58%) Agile Software Development
2 149 (25.21%) Test Automation
3 134 (22.67%) Scrum
4 130 (22.00%) DevOps
5 103 (17.43%) Continuous Integration
6 101 (17.09%) Microservices
7 99 (16.75%) TDD
8 86 (14.55%) Software Engineering
9 67 (11.34%) Problem-Solving
10 66 (11.17%) Front End Development
11 64 (10.83%) BDD
12 56 (9.48%) ETL
13 47 (7.95%) SDLC
14 46 (7.78%) Kanban
15 45 (7.61%) Integration Testing
15 45 (7.61%) Web Development
16 44 (7.45%) Pair Programming
17 42 (7.11%) MVC
17 42 (7.11%) Release Management
18 38 (6.43%) Continuous Delivery
Programming Languages
1 191 (32.32%) JavaScript
2 158 (26.73%) Java
3 155 (26.23%) SQL
4 127 (21.49%) C#
5 58 (9.81%) Python
6 40 (6.77%) PowerShell
7 39 (6.60%) PL/SQL
7 39 (6.60%) TypeScript
8 30 (5.08%) C
9 29 (4.91%) C++
9 29 (4.91%) ES6
10 28 (4.74%) Java 8
11 25 (4.23%) PHP
12 21 (3.55%) Scala
13 18 (3.05%) T-SQL
14 14 (2.37%) Bash Shell
15 13 (2.20%) VB.NET
16 12 (2.03%) Apple Swift
16 12 (2.03%) Kotlin
17 10 (1.69%) Objective-C
Qualifications
1 119 (20.14%) Security Cleared
2 105 (17.77%) SC Cleared
3 30 (5.08%) Degree
4 15 (2.54%) DV Cleared
5 14 (2.37%) BPSS Clearance
6 9 (1.52%) Computer Science Degree
7 6 (1.02%) ISTQB
7 6 (1.02%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
8 2 (0.34%) PhD
9 1 (0.17%) AWS Certification
9 1 (0.17%) HNC
9 1 (0.17%) HND
9 1 (0.17%) Master's Degree
9 1 (0.17%) Numerate Degree
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 68 (11.51%) QA
2 10 (1.69%) Data Quality
3 5 (0.85%) SLA
4 3 (0.51%) MiFID
4 3 (0.51%) WCAG
5 1 (0.17%) DICOM
5 1 (0.17%) Disclosure Scotland
5 1 (0.17%) GDPR
5 1 (0.17%) Government Security Classifications
5 1 (0.17%) HL7
5 1 (0.17%) Solvency II
System Software
1 48 (8.12%) Docker
2 24 (4.06%) HDFS
3 8 (1.35%) Active Directory
4 3 (0.51%) Apache Flume
5 2 (0.34%) Microsoft App-V
5 2 (0.34%) Virtual Desktop
6 1 (0.17%) Samba
6 1 (0.17%) Virtual Machines
Systems Management
1 49 (8.29%) Ansible
2 39 (6.60%) Kubernetes
3 18 (3.05%) Terraform
4 10 (1.69%) HP Quality Center
5 9 (1.52%) Grafana
6 7 (1.18%) Opscode Chef
6 7 (1.18%) Puppet
7 6 (1.02%) SCCM
8 5 (0.85%) Rundeck
9 4 (0.68%) Prometheus
10 2 (0.34%) Kibana
10 2 (0.34%) Single Sign-On
10 2 (0.34%) WSUS
11 1 (0.17%) Control-M
11 1 (0.17%) Istio
11 1 (0.17%) Packer
11 1 (0.17%) SafeCom
11 1 (0.17%) SCOM
11 1 (0.17%) Tivoli
11 1 (0.17%) ZABBIX
Vendors
1 145 (24.53%) Oracle
2 74 (12.52%) Microsoft
3 28 (4.74%) Cloudera
4 25 (4.23%) IBM
5 22 (3.72%) Splunk
6 21 (3.55%) SAP
7 14 (2.37%) AppDynamics
7 14 (2.37%) F5
7 14 (2.37%) MuleSoft
7 14 (2.37%) Red Hat
8 13 (2.20%) Atlassian
9 11 (1.86%) FIS
9 11 (1.86%) SunGard
10 10 (1.69%) Google
10 10 (1.69%) TIBCO
11 9 (1.52%) Blue Coat
11 9 (1.52%) Curam
11 9 (1.52%) Dell
12 8 (1.35%) Talend
12 8 (1.35%) webMethods