Period
to 13 November 2019

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies with a requirement for Unit Testing skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 November 2019 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Unit Testing
UK
6 months to
13 Nov 2019
Same period 2018 Same period 2017
Rank 126 124 133
Rank change year-on-year -2 +9 +8
Contract jobs citing Unit Testing 1,704 2,253 2,030
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 2.02% 2.17% 1.99%
As % of the Processes & Methodologies category 2.34% 2.50% 2.31%
Number of daily rates quoted 1,164 1,559 1,476
UK median daily rate £475 £463 £440
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +2.70% +5.11% +3.53%
10th Percentile £350 £340 £323
90th Percentile £650 £625 £600
UK excluding London median daily rate £440 £413 £400
% change year-on-year +6.67% +3.13% +3.23%
Number of hourly rates quoted 26 54 27
UK median hourly rate £43.25 £49.50 £42.50
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year -12.63% +16.47% +1.19%
10th Percentile £27.75 £37.95 £27.50
90th Percentile £53.13 £51.00 £50.25
UK excluding London median hourly rate £43.00 £49.50 £44.13
% change year-on-year -13.13% +12.18% +4.44%

Unit Testing is in the Processes and Methodologies category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills.

All Process and Methodology Skills
UK
Contract vacancies with a requirement for process or methodology skills 72,736 90,125 88,062
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in the UK 86.12% 86.88% 86.19%
Number of daily rates quoted 47,672 59,619 58,484
UK median daily rate £475 £460 £450
Median daily rate % change year-on-year +3.26% +2.22% +5.88%
10th Percentile £298 £300 £275
90th Percentile £650 £638 £625
UK excluding London median daily rate £438 £425 £400
% change year-on-year +2.94% +6.25% -
Number of hourly rates quoted 2,313 2,352 2,123
UK median hourly rate £23.50 £22.00 £23.00
Median hourly rate % change year-on-year +6.82% -4.35% +2.22%
10th Percentile £12.00 £11.25 £11.25
90th Percentile £53.66 £50.48 £49.15
UK excluding London median hourly rate £22.50 £21.19 £23.50
% change year-on-year +6.18% -9.83% +4.44%

Unit Testing
Job Vacancy Trend

Job postings citing Unit Testing as a percentage of all IT jobs advertised.

Job vacancy trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for daily rates quoted in contract jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor daily rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Daily Rate Histogram

The daily rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 November 2019.

Contractor daily rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend

This chart provides the 3-month moving average for contractor hourly rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing.

Contractor hourly rate trend for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Contractor Hourly Rate Histogram

The hourly rate distribution of IT jobs citing Unit Testing over the 6 months to 13 November 2019.

Contractor hourly rate histogram for Unit Testing in the UK

Unit Testing
Top 17 Contract Locations

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing Unit Testing within the UK over the 6 months to 13 November 2019. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
England -9 1,536 £480 +1.05% 597
UK excluding London +7 891 £440 +6.67% 453
London -19 783 £538 +2.38% 203
South East 0 260 £435 -0.57% 112
North of England -6 195 £425 +9.68% 97
South West -11 129 £433 +8.13% 64
North West -2 120 £435 +14.10% 43
Scotland +38 102 £450 +9.09% 39
Midlands +14 101 £475 +22.58% 69
East of England +19 65 £450 - 52
East Midlands +10 64 £425 +13.33% 48
Yorkshire -15 59 £425 +6.25% 40
West Midlands +22 34 £513 +20.94% 21
Northern Ireland +26 24 £575 -4.17% 3
North East +16 16 £350 -10.26% 14
Channel Islands -1 8 - -
Wales -18 8 £350 -17.65% 17

For the 6 months to 13 November 2019, IT contractor jobs citing Unit Testing also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads with a requirement for Unit Testing.

1 887 (52.05%) Agile Software Development
2 596 (34.98%) Java
3 522 (30.63%) JavaScript
4 497 (29.17%) C#
5 477 (27.99%) TDD
6 441 (25.88%) SQL
7 440 (25.82%) .NET
8 409 (24.00%) Git (software)
9 366 (21.48%) Test Automation
10 337 (19.78%) AngularJS
11 334 (19.60%) HTML
12 320 (18.78%) CSS
13 307 (18.02%) Continuous Integration
14 306 (17.96%) Finance
15 299 (17.55%) Scrum
16 283 (16.61%) Azure
17 253 (14.85%) React
18 245 (14.38%) Python
19 239 (14.03%) DevOps
20 237 (13.91%) Microservices
20 237 (13.91%) MVC
21 230 (13.50%) REST
22 225 (13.20%) SQL Server
23 222 (13.03%) Web Services
24 216 (12.68%) Software Engineering
25 200 (11.74%) Jenkins
26 192 (11.27%) Node.js
27 189 (11.09%) RESTful
28 187 (10.97%) AWS
28 187 (10.97%) Problem-Solving

Unit Testing
Co-occurring IT Skills by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 56 (3.29%) Confluence
2 44 (2.58%) CMS
3 42 (2.46%) WebSphere
4 41 (2.41%) Apache
5 28 (1.64%) Apache Spark
6 27 (1.58%) IIS
7 19 (1.12%) ArcGIS
8 18 (1.06%) Sitecore CMS
8 18 (1.06%) Tomcat
9 16 (0.94%) Elasticsearch
10 14 (0.82%) GeoServer
10 14 (0.82%) Oracle SOA Suite
11 13 (0.76%) JBoss
12 12 (0.70%) Jetty
12 12 (0.70%) NServiceBus
13 11 (0.65%) nginx
13 11 (0.65%) SAS
13 11 (0.65%) SharePoint
14 10 (0.59%) Adobe Experience Manager
15 9 (0.53%) CICS
Applications
1 30 (1.76%) MS Visio
2 14 (0.82%) Microsoft Excel
2 14 (0.82%) Photoshop
3 11 (0.65%) Sketch
4 8 (0.47%) Microsoft PowerPoint
5 3 (0.18%) Microsoft Office
6 2 (0.12%) Simulink
7 1 (0.059%) Microsoft Project
7 1 (0.059%) Spreadsheet
Business Applications
1 33 (1.94%) Magento
2 25 (1.47%) Oracle EBS
3 22 (1.29%) Siebel CRM
4 18 (1.06%) Endur
5 16 (0.94%) SAP FI
6 14 (0.82%) SAP CO
6 14 (0.82%) SAP MM
7 13 (0.76%) SAP FI/CO
8 11 (0.65%) Shopify
8 11 (0.65%) Sparx Enterprise Architect
9 10 (0.59%) SAP QM
10 8 (0.47%) Remedy ITSM
11 7 (0.41%) Oracle BPM
11 7 (0.41%) SAP IBP
11 7 (0.41%) SAP PP
11 7 (0.41%) SAP S/4HANA
12 6 (0.35%) Distributed Ledger
12 6 (0.35%) SAP PS
13 5 (0.29%) Dynamics CRM
13 5 (0.29%) R3 Corda
Cloud Services
1 283 (16.61%) Azure
2 187 (10.97%) AWS
3 57 (3.35%) GitHub
4 54 (3.17%) GCP
5 47 (2.76%) npm
6 43 (2.52%) Cloud Computing
7 41 (2.41%) OpenShift
8 36 (2.11%) Serverless
9 28 (1.64%) SaaS
10 25 (1.47%) AWS Lambda
11 24 (1.41%) PaaS
12 22 (1.29%) Power Platform
13 20 (1.17%) Amazon S3
13 20 (1.17%) IaaS
14 17 (1.00%) AWS CloudFormation
15 13 (0.76%) Azure Data Factory
16 12 (0.70%) Dynamics 365
16 12 (0.70%) Office 365
17 10 (0.59%) Amazon EKS
17 10 (0.59%) Yarn
Communications & Networking
1 44 (2.58%) HTTP
2 34 (2.00%) TCP/IP
3 13 (0.76%) Internet
4 12 (0.70%) TETRA
5 10 (0.59%) DNS
6 9 (0.53%) FTP
7 8 (0.47%) Bluetooth
7 8 (0.47%) NFC
7 8 (0.47%) SNMP
8 7 (0.41%) Network Security
9 6 (0.35%) Firewall
9 6 (0.35%) Reverse Proxy
10 4 (0.23%) Ethernet
10 4 (0.23%) IPFS
10 4 (0.23%) Peer-to-Peer Networking
11 3 (0.18%) DHCP
11 3 (0.18%) IPsec
11 3 (0.18%) SSL
11 3 (0.18%) VoIP
12 2 (0.12%) Tactical Data Link
Database & Business Intelligence
1 225 (13.20%) SQL Server
2 113 (6.63%) NoSQL
3 87 (5.11%) Relational Database
4 79 (4.64%) PostgreSQL
5 75 (4.40%) MongoDB
6 62 (3.64%) MySQL
7 58 (3.40%) Oracle Database
8 40 (2.35%) SQL Server Integration Services
9 39 (2.29%) Big Data
10 36 (2.11%) Data Warehouse
10 36 (2.11%) Oracle BI EE
11 31 (1.82%) KDB
12 30 (1.76%) Hadoop
13 29 (1.70%) Azure SQL Database
14 27 (1.58%) Kdb+
15 25 (1.47%) SQL Server Reporting Services
16 22 (1.29%) Power BI
17 21 (1.23%) Oracle8/8i Database
17 21 (1.23%) Oracle9i Database
17 21 (1.23%) RDBMS
Development Applications
1 409 (24.00%) Git (software)
2 200 (11.74%) Jenkins
3 117 (6.87%) JIRA
3 117 (6.87%) Maven
4 104 (6.10%) TeamCity
5 95 (5.58%) Visual Studio
6 93 (5.46%) JUnit
7 88 (5.16%) Selenium
8 78 (4.58%) Jasmine
9 72 (4.23%) Subversion
10 70 (4.11%) Cucumber
11 68 (3.99%) NUnit
12 57 (3.35%) webpack
13 51 (2.99%) Team Foundation Server
14 50 (2.93%) Karma Test Runner
14 50 (2.93%) Mockito
15 44 (2.58%) Atlassian Bamboo
16 41 (2.41%) Grunt
17 40 (2.35%) Eclipse
17 40 (2.35%) Mocha
General
1 306 (17.96%) Finance
2 168 (9.86%) Banking
3 81 (4.75%) Front Office
4 59 (3.46%) Public Sector
5 58 (3.40%) Retail
6 41 (2.41%) Manufacturing
7 39 (2.29%) Investment Banking
8 32 (1.88%) Games
9 31 (1.82%) Telecoms
10 23 (1.35%) Law
11 21 (1.23%) Publishing
12 19 (1.12%) Marketing
13 14 (0.82%) Legal
14 12 (0.70%) Back Office
15 10 (0.59%) Billing
16 7 (0.41%) Retail Banking
17 6 (0.35%) Advertising
17 6 (0.35%) Electronics
17 6 (0.35%) Military
18 5 (0.29%) General Ledger
Job Titles
1 1,204 (70.66%) Developer
2 197 (11.56%) .NET Developer
3 196 (11.50%) Java Developer
4 165 (9.68%) C# Developer
5 155 (9.10%) Senior Developer
6 93 (5.46%) Front End Developer (Client-Side Developer)
7 86 (5.05%) Full Stack Developer
8 84 (4.93%) React Developer
9 82 (4.81%) Angular Developer
10 81 (4.75%) Software Engineer
11 73 (4.28%) Consultant
12 72 (4.23%) C# .NET Developer
13 66 (3.87%) JavaScript Developer
14 54 (3.17%) Android Developer
15 51 (2.99%) Architect
16 46 (2.70%) DevOps Engineer
17 45 (2.64%) Agile Developer
17 45 (2.64%) Lead Developer
18 44 (2.58%) SAP Consultant
18 44 (2.58%) Scala Developer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 440 (25.82%) .NET
2 337 (19.78%) AngularJS
3 334 (19.60%) HTML
4 320 (18.78%) CSS
5 253 (14.85%) React
6 230 (13.50%) REST
7 222 (13.03%) Web Services
8 192 (11.27%) Node.js
9 189 (11.09%) RESTful
10 178 (10.45%) Spring
11 143 (8.39%) XML
12 142 (8.33%) HTML5
13 138 (8.10%) .NET Core
13 138 (8.10%) JSON
14 137 (8.04%) ASP.NET Web API
15 134 (7.86%) .NET Framework
16 108 (6.34%) Sass
17 102 (5.99%) SOAP
18 98 (5.75%) ASP.NET
19 94 (5.52%) CSS3
Miscellaneous
1 132 (7.75%) User Experience
2 113 (6.63%) Greenfield Project
3 98 (5.75%) Analytical Skills
4 56 (3.29%) Enterprise Software
4 56 (3.29%) Self-Motivation
5 55 (3.23%) Foreign Exchange (FX)
6 53 (3.11%) Derivative
6 53 (3.11%) Mobile App
7 39 (2.29%) Algorithms
8 38 (2.23%) Data Structures
9 31 (1.82%) Hedge funds
10 29 (1.70%) Equities
11 28 (1.64%) W3C
12 24 (1.41%) Mobile Banking
13 22 (1.29%) Fixed Income
14 20 (1.17%) Linux Command Line
15 18 (1.06%) Vector Graphics
16 16 (0.94%) Management Information System
17 15 (0.88%) Cloud Native
18 11 (0.65%) Client/Server
Operating Systems
1 168 (9.86%) Linux
2 108 (6.34%) Windows
3 94 (5.52%) Android
4 81 (4.75%) Unix
5 65 (3.81%) Apple iOS
6 18 (1.06%) Red Hat Enterprise Linux
7 13 (0.76%) CentOS
8 9 (0.53%) OpenVMS
8 9 (0.53%) Windows Server
9 7 (0.41%) Windows 8
10 5 (0.29%) MVS
11 4 (0.23%) Mac OS
11 4 (0.23%) Mac OS X
11 4 (0.23%) Mac OS X Server
11 4 (0.23%) Windows 10
12 3 (0.18%) tvOS
12 3 (0.18%) VMS
13 2 (0.12%) Windows 7
14 1 (0.059%) Ubuntu
14 1 (0.059%) Windows XP
Processes & Methodologies
1 887 (52.05%) Agile Software Development
2 477 (27.99%) TDD
3 366 (21.48%) Test Automation
4 307 (18.02%) Continuous Integration
5 299 (17.55%) Scrum
6 239 (14.03%) DevOps
7 237 (13.91%) Microservices
7 237 (13.91%) MVC
8 216 (12.68%) Software Engineering
9 187 (10.97%) Problem-Solving
10 183 (10.74%) OO
11 179 (10.50%) BDD
12 168 (9.86%) SDLC
13 153 (8.98%) Front End Development
14 150 (8.80%) Integration Testing
15 114 (6.69%) Analytics
16 106 (6.22%) Pair Programming
17 101 (5.93%) OOP
18 98 (5.75%) E-Commerce
19 94 (5.52%) Business Intelligence
Programming Languages
1 596 (34.98%) Java
2 522 (30.63%) JavaScript
3 497 (29.17%) C#
4 441 (25.88%) SQL
5 245 (14.38%) Python
6 140 (8.22%) TypeScript
7 130 (7.63%) C++
8 98 (5.75%) PHP
9 90 (5.28%) Scala
10 80 (4.69%) Java 8
11 76 (4.46%) ES6
12 70 (4.11%) C
13 58 (3.40%) T-SQL
14 47 (2.76%) Kotlin
15 43 (2.52%) Bash Shell
16 42 (2.46%) PL/SQL
17 41 (2.41%) PowerShell
18 40 (2.35%) Shell Script
19 34 (2.00%) Apple Swift
20 31 (1.82%) VBA
Qualifications
1 173 (10.15%) Security Cleared
2 149 (8.74%) SC Cleared
3 85 (4.99%) Degree
4 22 (1.29%) Computer Science Degree
5 19 (1.12%) ISTQB
6 16 (0.94%) ISTQB Foundation Certification
7 15 (0.88%) BPSS Clearance
8 11 (0.65%) Master's Degree
9 5 (0.29%) PhD
10 4 (0.23%) Sun Certification
11 3 (0.18%) DBS Check
11 3 (0.18%) DV Cleared
12 2 (0.12%) BC Cleared
13 1 (0.059%) AWS Certification
13 1 (0.059%) CTC Cleared
13 1 (0.059%) ISEB
13 1 (0.059%) MCP
13 1 (0.059%) Microsoft Certification
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 130 (7.63%) QA
2 10 (0.59%) PCI DSS
3 8 (0.47%) PSD2
4 7 (0.41%) Data Quality
5 4 (0.23%) ISO/IEC 27001
6 3 (0.18%) GxP
6 3 (0.18%) HL7
6 3 (0.18%) MISRA
7 2 (0.12%) Disclosure Scotland
7 2 (0.12%) PMO
7 2 (0.12%) Sarbanes-Oxley
7 2 (0.12%) SLA
8 1 (0.059%) DICOM
8 1 (0.059%) GAAP
8 1 (0.059%) MISRA C
8 1 (0.059%) WCAG
System Software
1 182 (10.68%) Docker
2 12 (0.70%) Virtual Machines
3 10 (0.59%) VirtualBox
4 7 (0.41%) LXC
4 7 (0.41%) VMware Infrastructure
5 6 (0.35%) Active Directory
6 4 (0.23%) Microsoft App-V
6 4 (0.23%) RACF
7 2 (0.12%) Apache ZooKeeper
8 1 (0.059%) Firmware
8 1 (0.059%) HDFS
8 1 (0.059%) Terminal Server
8 1 (0.059%) Tivoli Workload Scheduler
8 1 (0.059%) Virtual Desktop
8 1 (0.059%) VMware ESXi
8 1 (0.059%) vSphere
8 1 (0.059%) Xen
Systems Management
1 75 (4.40%) Kubernetes
2 50 (2.93%) Terraform
3 41 (2.41%) Ansible
4 18 (1.06%) Puppet
5 11 (0.65%) Docker Swarm
6 8 (0.47%) Amdocs OSS
6 8 (0.47%) Netcool
6 8 (0.47%) Netcool/OMNIbus
6 8 (0.47%) Oozie
7 7 (0.41%) HP ALM
8 6 (0.35%) Tivoli
9 5 (0.29%) Opscode Chef
10 4 (0.23%) CA Endevor
10 4 (0.23%) Hadoop YARN
10 4 (0.23%) Jamf Pro
10 4 (0.23%) zSecure
11 3 (0.18%) Consul
11 3 (0.18%) Kibana
11 3 (0.18%) Single Sign-On
12 2 (0.12%) logstash
Vendors
1 179 (10.50%) Microsoft
2 155 (9.10%) Oracle
3 93 (5.46%) SAP
4 88 (5.16%) IBM
5 49 (2.88%) Google
6 35 (2.05%) Sitecore
7 33 (1.94%) Informatica
8 31 (1.82%) Siebel
9 29 (1.70%) Citrix
10 25 (1.47%) MuleSoft
11 24 (1.41%) Cypress Semiconductor
12 23 (1.35%) hybris
13 22 (1.29%) Atlassian
13 22 (1.29%) OpenText
14 19 (1.12%) ESRI
15 18 (1.06%) OpenLink
16 17 (1.00%) Salesforce.com
17 16 (0.94%) Xamarin
18 15 (0.88%) Red Hat
18 15 (0.88%) Zend