Period
to 21 June 2021

The following table provides summary statistics for contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for JPA skills. Included is a benchmarking guide to the contractor rates offered in vacancies that have cited JPA over the 6 months to 21 June 2021 with a comparison to the same period in the previous 2 years.

Note that daily and hourly rates are treated separately in these statistics. When calculating contractor rate percentiles, daily rates are never derived from quoted hourly rates or vice versa.

Java Persistence API (JPA)
UK > England
6 months to
21 Jun 2021
Same period 2020 Same period 2019
Rank 519 509 627
Rank change year-on-year -10 +118 -70
Contract jobs citing JPA 118 64 183
As % of all contract jobs advertised in England 0.24% 0.17% 0.22%
As % of the Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards category 0.78% 0.55% 0.68%
Number of daily rates quoted 79 46 127
10th Percentile £388 £425 £352
25th Percentile £409 £488 £416
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £525 £475
Median % change year-on-year -4.76% +10.53% -
75th Percentile £550 £600 £538
90th Percentile £588 £644 £575
UK median daily rate £500 £525 £475
% change year-on-year -4.76% +10.53% -

JPA is in the Software Libraries and Frameworks category. The following table is for comparison with the above and provides summary statistics for all contract job vacancies advertised in England with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills.

All Software Libraries and Frameworks
England
Contract vacancies with a requirement for technical specification, industry standards, software libraries and framework skills 15,164 11,685 27,026
As % of all contract IT jobs advertised in England 30.43% 31.07% 32.57%
Number of daily rates quoted 10,904 8,395 19,293
10th Percentile £350 £338 £340
25th Percentile £413 £413 £409
Median daily rate (50th Percentile) £500 £500 £500
Median % change year-on-year +0.05% - +5.26%
75th Percentile £605 £600 £575
90th Percentile £700 £675 £650
UK median daily rate £500 £500 £490
% change year-on-year - +2.04% +4.26%
Number of hourly rates quoted 151 100 244
10th Percentile £18.50 £20.50 £17.30
25th Percentile £27.21 £31.25 £27.69
Median hourly rate £45.00 £46.21 £45.00
Median % change year-on-year -2.61% +2.68% +7.14%
75th Percentile £56.50 £57.63 £52.81
90th Percentile £65.54 £66.28 £60.00
UK median hourly rate £45.00 £46.00 £44.50
% change year-on-year -2.17% +3.37% +6.75%

JPA
Job Vacancy Trend in England

Job postings citing JPA as a proportion of all IT jobs advertised in England.

Job vacancy trend for JPA in England

JPA
Contractor Daily Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average daily rate quoted in jobs citing JPA in England.

Daily rate trend for JPA in England

JPA
Daily Rate Histogram in England

Daily rate distribution for jobs citing JPA in England over the 6 months to 21 June 2021.

Daily rate histogram for JPA in England

JPA
Contractor Hourly Rate Trend in England

3-month moving average hourly rates quoted in jobs citing JPA in England.

Hourly rate trend for JPA in England

JPA
Contract Job Locations in England

The table below looks at the demand and provides a guide to the median contractor rates quoted in IT jobs citing JPA within the England region over the 6 months to 21 June 2021. The 'Rank Change' column provides an indication of the change in demand within each location based on the same 6 month period last year.

Location Rank Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Matching
Contract
IT Job Ads
Median
Daily Rate
Past 6 Months
Median Daily Rate
% Change
on Same Period
Last Year
Live
Job
Vacancies
London -28 83 £500 -9.09% 14
South East +8 16 £475 -13.64% 4
Midlands -21 7 £413 -8.33% 2
North East +10 6 £550 +20.55% 1
North of England +3 6 £550 +18.92% 3
West Midlands -23 4 £413 -8.33% 1
East of England - 3 £575 -
East Midlands - 3 £413 - 1
South West +12 1 £576 +9.62% 3
JPA
UK

For the 6 months to 21 June 2021, IT contractor jobs citing JPA also mentioned the following skills in order of popularity. The figures indicate the absolute number co-occurrences and as a proportion of all contract job ads across the England region with a requirement for JPA.

1 113 (95.76%) Java
2 91 (77.12%) Spring
3 74 (62.71%) Hibernate
3 74 (62.71%) Microservices
4 56 (47.46%) Agile Software Development
4 56 (47.46%) Java 8
5 52 (44.07%) Web Services
6 50 (42.37%) Spring Boot
7 49 (41.53%) Git (software)
8 46 (38.98%) SQL
8 46 (38.98%) Maven
9 43 (36.44%) Jenkins
10 41 (34.75%) Oracle
11 40 (33.90%) RESTful
12 39 (33.05%) Scrum
13 37 (31.36%) JUnit
14 36 (30.51%) MVC
14 36 (30.51%) Finance
14 36 (30.51%) React
15 35 (29.66%) TDD
16 34 (28.81%) Docker
17 33 (27.97%) Continuous Integration
18 32 (27.12%) BDD
19 31 (26.27%) REST
20 29 (24.58%) AWS
20 29 (24.58%) JavaScript
21 27 (22.88%) Kubernetes
22 26 (22.03%) Mockito
23 25 (21.19%) PostgreSQL
23 25 (21.19%) DevOps

JPA
Co-occurring IT Skills in England by Category

The follow tables expand on the table above by listing co-occurrences grouped by category. The same job type, locality and period is covered with up to 20 co-occurrences shown in each of the following categories:

Application Platforms
1 17 (14.41%) Tomcat
2 14 (11.86%) Confluence
3 13 (11.02%) JBoss
4 5 (4.24%) Apache
4 5 (4.24%) Oracle SOA Suite
4 5 (4.24%) WebLogic
4 5 (4.24%) WebSphere
5 4 (3.39%) AquaLogic
5 4 (3.39%) Camunda
5 4 (3.39%) Cloud Foundry
5 4 (3.39%) Oracle Service Bus
6 3 (2.54%) Jetty
7 2 (1.69%) IIS
7 2 (1.69%) nginx
8 1 (0.85%) Apache ServiceMix
8 1 (0.85%) Oracle Workflow
8 1 (0.85%) Red Hat Fuse
8 1 (0.85%) WebSphere Application Server
Business Applications
1 4 (3.39%) Oracle BPM
Cloud Services
1 29 (24.58%) AWS
2 12 (10.17%) Amazon S3
3 9 (7.63%) Azure
3 9 (7.63%) OpenShift
4 7 (5.93%) PaaS
4 7 (5.93%) SaaS
4 7 (5.93%) Virtual Private Cloud
5 5 (4.24%) GitHub
5 5 (4.24%) npm
6 4 (3.39%) Amazon EKS
6 4 (3.39%) AWS Lambda
6 4 (3.39%) Serverless
7 3 (2.54%) Amazon EC2
7 3 (2.54%) GCP
8 2 (1.69%) Azure Stack
8 2 (1.69%) Cloud Computing
9 1 (0.85%) Amazon ECS
9 1 (0.85%) Apigee
9 1 (0.85%) AWS CloudFormation
9 1 (0.85%) IaaS
Communications & Networking
1 1 (0.85%) FTP
Database & Business Intelligence
1 25 (21.19%) PostgreSQL
2 24 (20.34%) NoSQL
3 17 (14.41%) Apache Cassandra
4 15 (12.71%) Redis
5 14 (11.86%) MongoDB
6 12 (10.17%) Relational Database
7 10 (8.47%) SQL Server
8 8 (6.78%) Oracle Database
9 6 (5.08%) Amazon DynamoDB
10 5 (4.24%) HBase
10 5 (4.24%) MySQL
11 4 (3.39%) Amazon Athena
11 4 (3.39%) Big Data
11 4 (3.39%) Oracle Database 10g
11 4 (3.39%) Oracle Database 11g
11 4 (3.39%) Oracle Database 12c
11 4 (3.39%) RDBMS
12 3 (2.54%) Amazon RDS
12 3 (2.54%) Geospatial Data
12 3 (2.54%) Riak
Development Applications
1 49 (41.53%) Git (software)
2 46 (38.98%) Maven
3 43 (36.44%) Jenkins
4 37 (31.36%) JUnit
5 26 (22.03%) Mockito
6 21 (17.80%) Cucumber
7 17 (14.41%) JIRA
8 12 (10.17%) Gatling
9 11 (9.32%) Gradle
9 11 (9.32%) IntelliJ
10 10 (8.47%) SonarQube
10 10 (8.47%) Subversion
11 8 (6.78%) Eclipse
12 7 (5.93%) Postman
12 7 (5.93%) REST Assured
13 6 (5.08%) Ant
13 6 (5.08%) Selenium
14 5 (4.24%) Artifactory
14 5 (4.24%) Bitbucket
14 5 (4.24%) Mocha
General
1 36 (30.51%) Finance
2 22 (18.64%) Social Skills
3 17 (14.41%) Banking
4 10 (8.47%) Marketing
5 9 (7.63%) Analytical Skills
6 6 (5.08%) Public Sector
7 4 (3.39%) Investment Banking
7 4 (3.39%) Retail
8 3 (2.54%) Retail Banking
9 2 (1.69%) Corporate Banking
9 2 (1.69%) Private Banking
9 2 (1.69%) Publishing
10 1 (0.85%) Front Office
10 1 (0.85%) Games
Job Titles
1 95 (80.51%) Developer
2 71 (60.17%) Java Developer
3 17 (14.41%) Senior Developer
4 16 (13.56%) Senior Java Developer
5 15 (12.71%) Full Stack Developer
6 12 (10.17%) Scala Developer
7 7 (5.93%) Architect
7 7 (5.93%) Java Engineer
7 7 (5.93%) SC Cleared Java Developer
8 5 (4.24%) Java Architect
9 4 (3.39%) Backend Developer
9 4 (3.39%) React Developer
9 4 (3.39%) Senior Software Developer
9 4 (3.39%) Software Developer
9 4 (3.39%) Technical Architect
10 3 (2.54%) Java Software Developer
10 3 (2.54%) Java Technical Architect
10 3 (2.54%) PostgreSQL Developer
10 3 (2.54%) Support Engineer
10 3 (2.54%) Test Engineer
Libraries, Frameworks & Software Standards
1 91 (77.12%) Spring
2 74 (62.71%) Hibernate
3 52 (44.07%) Web Services
4 50 (42.37%) Spring Boot
5 40 (33.90%) RESTful
6 36 (30.51%) React
7 31 (26.27%) REST
8 22 (18.64%) Java EE
8 22 (18.64%) Spring MVC
9 20 (16.95%) HTML
10 18 (15.25%) AngularJS
10 18 (15.25%) CSS
11 17 (14.41%) Node.js
12 16 (13.56%) JMS
12 16 (13.56%) JSON
12 16 (13.56%) SOAP
13 15 (12.71%) EJB
14 14 (11.86%) JDBC
15 13 (11.02%) Play Framework
15 13 (11.02%) XML
Miscellaneous
1 15 (12.71%) Management Information System
2 10 (8.47%) Public Cloud
3 8 (6.78%) Enterprise Software
4 5 (4.24%) Clustering
5 4 (3.39%) Mainframe
5 4 (3.39%) N-Tier
5 4 (3.39%) Private Cloud
6 3 (2.54%) Cloud Native
6 3 (2.54%) User Experience
7 2 (1.69%) Algorithms
7 2 (1.69%) Data Structures
7 2 (1.69%) Mobile App
7 2 (1.69%) Mobile Banking
7 2 (1.69%) NHS
7 2 (1.69%) Online Banking
7 2 (1.69%) Self-Motivation
7 2 (1.69%) Wiki
8 1 (0.85%) Social Media
Operating Systems
1 19 (16.10%) Linux
2 14 (11.86%) Unix
3 1 (0.85%) Android
3 1 (0.85%) Apple iOS
Processes & Methodologies
1 74 (62.71%) Microservices
2 56 (47.46%) Agile Software Development
3 39 (33.05%) Scrum
4 36 (30.51%) MVC
5 35 (29.66%) TDD
6 33 (27.97%) Continuous Integration
7 32 (27.12%) BDD
8 25 (21.19%) DevOps
9 24 (20.34%) Unit Testing
10 18 (15.25%) Non-Functional Testing
11 16 (13.56%) Kanban
11 16 (13.56%) Pair Programming
11 16 (13.56%) Test Automation
12 14 (11.86%) Acceptance Criteria
13 13 (11.02%) Multithreading
14 12 (10.17%) Architectural Design
14 12 (10.17%) Extreme Programming
14 12 (10.17%) High Availability
14 12 (10.17%) Release Management
14 12 (10.17%) Software Delivery
Programming Languages
1 113 (95.76%) Java
2 56 (47.46%) Java 8
3 46 (38.98%) SQL
4 29 (24.58%) JavaScript
5 12 (10.17%) Scala
6 9 (7.63%) PL/SQL
7 3 (2.54%) ANSI SQL
7 3 (2.54%) C
7 3 (2.54%) TypeScript
8 2 (1.69%) Bash Shell
8 2 (1.69%) ES6
8 2 (1.69%) Groovy
8 2 (1.69%) Ruby
9 1 (0.85%) Python
9 1 (0.85%) Shell Script
Qualifications
1 18 (15.25%) SC Cleared
1 18 (15.25%) Security Cleared
2 4 (3.39%) Computer Science Degree
2 4 (3.39%) Degree
Quality Assurance & Compliance
1 1 (0.85%) Data Quality
1 1 (0.85%) QA
1 1 (0.85%) Sarbanes-Oxley
System Software
1 34 (28.81%) Docker
2 2 (1.69%) Apache ZooKeeper
Systems Management
1 27 (22.88%) Kubernetes
2 16 (13.56%) Grafana
2 16 (13.56%) Prometheus
3 15 (12.71%) Ansible
4 5 (4.24%) Kibana
5 4 (3.39%) Terraform
6 2 (1.69%) Opscode Chef
6 2 (1.69%) Puppet
7 1 (0.85%) logstash
Vendors
1 41 (34.75%) Oracle
2 4 (3.39%) BEA
3 3 (2.54%) Google
4 2 (1.69%) Red Hat
4 2 (1.69%) Teradata
5 1 (0.85%) IBM
5 1 (0.85%) New Relic